Science.gov

Sample records for applying participatory design

  1. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a "Data Profiling" Tool for Electronic Health Data.

    PubMed

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a "data profiling" tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool's functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  2. Queering Participatory Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  3. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    PubMed

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement.

  4. Applying a Participatory Design Approach to Define Objectives and Properties of a “Data Profiling” Tool for Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Estiri, Hossein; Lovins, Terri; Afzalan, Nader; Stephens, Kari A.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a participatory design approach to define the objectives, characteristics, and features of a “data profiling” tool for primary care Electronic Health Data (EHD). Through three participatory design workshops, we collected input from potential tool users who had experience working with EHD. We present 15 recommended features and characteristics for the data profiling tool. From these recommendations we derived three overarching objectives and five properties for the tool. A data profiling tool, in Biomedical Informatics, is a visual, clear, usable, interactive, and smart tool that is designed to inform clinical and biomedical researchers of data utility and let them explore the data, while conveniently orienting the users to the tool’s functionalities. We suggest that developing scalable data profiling tools will provide new capacities to disseminate knowledge about clinical data that will foster translational research and accelerate new discoveries. PMID:27570651

  5. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  6. Using Participatory Design to Improve Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author, a doctoral candidate from the School of Information at the University of Texas-Austin, describes the experience gathered from her attempt to redesign her existing Web sites in order to supply online resources for Slavic and Byzantine studies. The use of participatory design, which involves the users in creating the…

  7. A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, George, Jr.

    Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

  8. Applying community-based participatory research methods to improve maternal and child health in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Hirani, Saima; Shehzad, Shireen; Zaidi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    To achieve health for all, the development of partnerships between community residents and researchers is essential. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) engages community members, uses local knowledge in the understanding of health problems and the design of interventions, and invests community members in the processes and products of research. CBPR pivots on an iterative process of open communication, mutual respect, and power sharing to build community capacity to sustain effective health interventions. This article describes how the tenets of CBPR were applied by a multidisciplinary, international research team of maternal-child health specialists toward better health for women and children in multilingual, multiethnic, low socioeconomic communities in Karachi, Pakistan.

  9. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  10. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.

  11. Making Games after School: Participatory Game Design in Non-Formal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kevin; Brandt, Jami; Hopkins, Rhonda; Wilhelm, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Participatory design principles were used with primarily African-American and Latino children in the Washington, DC area in the development of sports-themed digital game prototypes in an after-school program. The three stages in participatory design are the discovery stage, the evaluative stage, and prototyping. Within the participatory design…

  12. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.

  13. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system. PMID:25991099

  14. Participatory Design Activities and Agile Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    This paper contributes to the studies of design activities in information systems development. It provides a case study of a large agile development project and focusses on how customers and users participated in agile development and design activities in practice. The investigated project utilized the agile method eXtreme Programming. Planning games, user stories and story cards, working software, and acceptance tests structured the customer and user involvement. We found genuine customer and user involvement in the design activities in the form of both direct and indirect participation in the agile development project. The involved customer representatives played informative, consultative, and participative roles in the project. This led to their functional empowerment— the users were enabled to carry out their work to their own satisfaction and in an effective, efficient, and economical manner.

  15. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances. PMID:26562492

  16. Teachers as Participatory Designers: Two Case Studies with Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…

  17. Participatory Design in Academic Libraries: New Reports and Findings. CLIR Publication No. 161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Nancy Fried, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This report is based on a series of presentations at the second CLIR Seminar on "Participatory Design of Academic Libraries," held at the University of Rochester's River Campus June 5-7, 2013. Participatory design is a relatively recent approach to understanding library user behavior. It is based on techniques used in anthropological and…

  18. Using Participatory Design in a Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Leonor; Saavedra, Vasco; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the experience of developing an interactive Health Information System (iHIS) currently under test in a hospital, which benefited from the practices of the User-Centred Design (UCD), in a Participatory Design (PD) approach. Techniques from the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and/or Usability Engineering (UE), combined with traditional Software Engineering (SE), allowed an effective and usable solution from the user's point of view. The good results usually achieved with this approach were confirmed. Despite these good results, we deem that if there is not some control of the procedure by the project manager, it may be difficult to end the requirement analysis, since requirement reformulation is fostered.

  19. Participatory design with children in the development of a support system for patient-centered care in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Ruland, Cornelia M; Starren, Justin; Vatne, Torun M

    2008-08-01

    Developing software for children with severe illness poses a number of design challenges. In this paper we describe participatory design methods used in the development of SISOM, a support system for children with cancer age 7-12 to help children elicit and report their symptoms/problems in a child-friendly, age-adjusted manner, and to assist clinicians at the point of care in addressing and integrating children's reported symptoms and problems in patient care. The particular design challenges in the development of a clinical support tool for seriously ill children are described, followed by the participatory design techniques we used to meet these challenges. Healthy children and children with cancer participated actively in different stages of the design process. We describe how children contributed to the graphical design of the system's interface; selection of understandable, child-friendly terms used in the system; iconic and graphical representations; and its usability. The methods applied helped us to significantly improve and adapt SISOM to children's cognitive and emotional developmental stage. Working with children as partners in the design also provided important insights into the role children can play in participatory design that may be helpful for other system developers who wish to design support applications for ill children. Children had very creative design ideas that considerably improved the software. However, system development for seriously ill children also requires psychological and pedagogical insights and design and usability expertise. This limits the role children can play as full design partners.

  20. What if Undergraduate Students Designed Their Own Web Learning Environment? Exploring Students' Web 2.0 Mentality through Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaigeorgiou, G.; Triantafyllakos, G.; Tsinakos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing calls for a more skeptical analysis of web 2.0 and the empowerment of learners' voices in formulating upcoming technologies, this paper elaborates on the participatory design of a web learning environment. A total of 117 undergraduate students from two Greek Informatics Departments participated in 25 participatory design…

  1. Participatory design in the project of virtual learning environment of histology.

    PubMed

    Santa-Rosa, José Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    This present article describes a research on the development, under the approach of participatory design, a virtual teaching-learning of Histology in which students and teachers participated actively in all stages of development of the educational environment. We postulates that the development of virtual learning environment of Histology, through the Participatory Design approach, contributes to greater acceptance and use by students and that the adoption of virtual environment for teaching and learning by teachers is a determining factor of use by students.

  2. Using Participatory Design in the Development of a Language Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Constantinou, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how participatory design methodologies can be used for the design of interactive learning tools for children. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the methodology employed for the design of a multimedia tool for teaching Greek to young children aged 6 to 12. The preliminary data collection…

  3. Applying a participatory approach to the promotion of a culture of respect during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P

    2016-01-01

    Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed. PMID:27424514

  4. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  5. Applying the Participatory Action Research Model to the Study of Social Inclusion at Worksites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…

  6. Design Considerations of Help Options in Computer-Based L2 Listening Materials Informed by Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cárdenas-Claros, Mónica Stella

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of two qualitative exploratory studies that sought to investigate design features of help options in computer-based L2 listening materials. Informed by principles of participatory design, language learners, software designers, language teachers, and a computer programmer worked collaboratively in a series of…

  7. The Participatory Design of a (Today and) Future Digital Entomology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2011-01-01

    This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…

  8. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  9. Texting as a Channel for Personalized Youth Support: Participatory Design Research by City Youth and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica; Amaechi, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most school districts are out to regulate and restrict student texting and fear student-teacher texting as particularly inappropriate. But might this youth-dominated channel in fact be a twenty-first century portal to personalized support for youth struggling in school? This article shares first findings from participatory design research on…

  10. Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784

  11. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  12. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  13. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  14. Participatory Pattern Workshops: A Methodology for Open Learning Design Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven; Winters, Niall

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their…

  15. Evaluating goals in worker health protection using a participatory design and an evaluation checklist.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers.

  16. Participatory Design in Grand Rapids: Second Generation Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Aase

    1979-01-01

    The Central Park Project, in Grand Rapids, Michigan, illustrates the importance of participation in the design process and the impact of school sites on children as well as on the surrounding neighborhood. (Author/MLF)

  17. Impact of Participatory Design for Drug-Drug Interaction Alerts. A Comparison Study Between Two Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Risk, Marcelo; Stanziola, Enrique; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2016-01-01

    Decision support systems for alert drug-drug interactions have been shown as valid strategy to reduce medical error. Even so the use of these systems has not been as expected, probably due to the lack of a suitable design. This study compares two interfaces, one of them developed using participatory design techniques (based on user centered design processes). This work showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction with the system.

  18. Middle School Program and Participatory Planning Drive School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Uses the example of award-winning Black Hawk Middle School in Minnesota to examine: (1) developing a middle school architecture; (2) benefits of the house concept; (3) the need for staff involvement in school design; (4) assembling houses into schools; (5) reduced discipline problems; (6) fostering teacher collaboration; and (7) measuring success.…

  19. Identifying Consumer’s Needs of Health Information Technology through an Innovative Participatory Design Approach among English- and Spanish-speaking Urban Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, B.; Yen, P.; Velez, O.; Nobile-Hernandez, D.; Tiase, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. Methods We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant’s needs related to information technology. Results The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant’s needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. Conclusions The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer’s technology needs while taking into account core public health functions. PMID:25589909

  20. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. Aim To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Design and setting Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. Method A multiprofessional ‘expert’ group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. Results A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Conclusion Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. PMID:25918338

  1. Participatory Design of Human-Centered Cyberinfrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gates, A. Q.

    2010-12-01

    collaborative research design process and illustrate their application in designing and developing useful end-to-end data solutions for scientists. Lastly, we will outline areas of future investigation within CyberShARE that we believe have the potential for high impact.

  2. Participatory Research as One Piece of the Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Consumer Involvement in Design of Technology-Based Youth Mental Health and Well-Being Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable

  3. User-centric incentive design for participatory mobile phone sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.

  4. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    PubMed

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention.

  5. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    PubMed

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities".

  6. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  7. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  8. Is participatory design associated with the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion? A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents ac...

  9. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    balancing power dynamics between participants; and the provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Participatory processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, learning, and flexible solutions. However, in these processes, decisions were more acceptable to and likely to be implemented by governments and by those who had to apply them on the ground. These findings provide a solid empirical basis for best practice in the design of participatory processes in SLM in a number of contexts internationally, which if followed, increase the likelihood of providing beneficial environmental and social outcomes for those involved.

  10. Evaluating goals in worker health protection using a participatory design and an evaluation checklist.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Zanoni, Joseph; Forst, Linda; Ochsner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Ringholm, Elisa; Rodríguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking immigrant workers in construction are considered hard to reach and at high risk for work-related injury and fatality. This evaluation study describes the use of participatory methods and an evaluation checklist to consider a health and safety (H&S) training program for these workers. A previously developed training manual and model were disseminated to eight worker centers (WCs) through participatory research collaboration. It incorporated H&S training for workers while strengthening the role of WCs as sources for leadership development and worker empowerment. Design, delivery, reaction, application, and extension were assessed through individual interviews with participants, trained trainers, and center staff and through observation of training sessions and partner debriefs; pre- and post-training tests assessed participant learning. Results indicate moderate learning and application by participants and strong evidence for structural gains in and among WCs. We conclude that such partnerships and models are valuable tools for collaborating with hard-to-reach workers. PMID:24704811

  11. Appreciating the Persona paradox: lessons from participatory design sessions with HIV+ gay men.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed.

  12. Appreciating the Persona paradox: lessons from participatory design sessions with HIV+ gay men.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed. PMID:24943535

  13. Design in mind: eliciting service user and frontline staff perspectives on psychiatric ward design through participatory methods

    PubMed Central

    Csipke, Emese; Papoulias, Constantina; Vitoratou, Silia; Williams, Paul; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Psychiatric ward design may make an important contribution to patient outcomes and well-being. However, research is hampered by an inability to assess its effects robustly. This paper reports on a study which deployed innovative methods to capture service user and staff perceptions of ward design. Method: User generated measures of the impact of ward design were developed and tested on four acute adult wards using participatory methodology. Additionally, inpatients took photographs to illustrate their experience of the space in two wards. Data were compared across wards. Results: Satisfactory reliability indices emerged based on both service user and staff responses. Black and minority ethnic (BME) service users and those with a psychosis spectrum diagnosis have more positive views of the ward layout and fixtures. Staff members have more positive views than service users, while priorities of staff and service users differ. Inpatient photographs prioritise hygiene, privacy and control and address symbolic aspects of the ward environment. Conclusions: Participatory and visual methodologies can provide robust tools for an evaluation of the impact of psychiatric ward design on users. PMID:26886239

  14. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    PubMed

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities". PMID:22317130

  15. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  16. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  17. Apply Design Patterns to Refactor Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggs, Rhoda; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    Refactoring software design is a method of changing software design while explicitly preserving its unique design functionalities. Presented approach is to utilize design patterns as the basis for refactoring software design. Comparison of a design solution will be made through C++ programming language examples to exploit this approach. Developing reusable component will be discussed, the paper presents that the construction of such components can diminish the added burden of both refactoring and the use of design patterns.

  18. Existential Design Applied in Universal Design Settings.

    PubMed

    Torkildsby, Anne Britt

    2016-01-01

    The critical design method aims to discuss ways of opening up the (design) brief when planning, designing, building, operating and maintaining the future of the built environment - public as well as private, indoor as well as outdoor. Focusing on "designials" (fundamental forms of design being), the methodology intends to illustrate the fact that objects; including buildings, parks, transportation systems, etc. may directly encroach upon certain "existentials" (fundamental forms of human being) - thus shed light on how a design process is normally conducted, and furthermore, how that affects people's existential well-being. PMID:27534284

  19. Existential Design Applied in Universal Design Settings.

    PubMed

    Torkildsby, Anne Britt

    2016-01-01

    The critical design method aims to discuss ways of opening up the (design) brief when planning, designing, building, operating and maintaining the future of the built environment - public as well as private, indoor as well as outdoor. Focusing on "designials" (fundamental forms of design being), the methodology intends to illustrate the fact that objects; including buildings, parks, transportation systems, etc. may directly encroach upon certain "existentials" (fundamental forms of human being) - thus shed light on how a design process is normally conducted, and furthermore, how that affects people's existential well-being.

  20. Participatory Design of Mass Health Communication in Three Languages for Seniors and People With Disabilities on Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Beccah; Graham, Carrie; Ivey, Susan L.; Konishi, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used participatory design methods to develop and test guidebooks about health care choices intended for 600 000 English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-speaking seniors and people with disabilities receiving Medicaid in California. Methods. Design and testing processes were conducted with consumers and professionals; they included 24 advisory group interviews, 36 usability tests, 18 focus groups (105 participants), 51 key informant interviews, guidebook readability and suitability testing, linguistic adaptation, and iterative revisions of 4 prototypes. Results. Participatory design processes identified preferences of intended audiences for guidebook content, linguistic adaptation, and format; guidebook readability was scored at the sixth- to eighth-grade level and suitability at 95%. These findings informed the design of a separate efficacy study that showed high guidebook usage and satisfaction, and better gains in knowledge, confidence, and intended behaviors among intervention participants than among control participants. Conclusions. Participatory design can be used effectively in mass communication to inform vulnerable audiences of health care choices. The techniques described can be adapted for a broad range of health communication interventions. PMID:19833990

  1. Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498

  2. Applying Software Design Methodology to Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, J. Philip

    2004-01-01

    The premise of this paper is that computer science has much to offer the endeavor of instructional improvement. Software design processes employed in computer science for developing software can be used for planning instruction and should improve instruction in much the same manner that design processes appear to have improved software. Techniques…

  3. A Participatory Approach to Designing and Enhancing Integrated Health Information Technology Systems for Veterans: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Kim M; Chavez, Margeaux; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole; Gosline, Robert M; Martin, Tracey L

    2015-01-01

    Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed health information technologies (HIT) and resources to improve veteran access to health care programs and services, and to support a patient-centered approach to health care delivery. To improve VA HIT access and meaningful use by veterans, it is necessary to understand their preferences for interacting with various HIT resources to accomplish health management related tasks and to exchange information. Objective The objective of this paper was to describe a novel protocol for: (1) developing a HIT Digital Health Matrix Model; (2) conducting an Analytic Hierarchy Process called pairwise comparison to understand how and why veterans want to use electronic health resources to complete tasks related to health management; and (3) developing visual modeling simulations that depict veterans’ preferences for using VA HIT to manage their health conditions and exchange health information. Methods The study uses participatory research methods to understand how veterans prefer to use VA HIT to accomplish health management tasks within a given context, and how they would like to interact with HIT interfaces (eg, look, feel, and function) in the future. This study includes two rounds of veteran focus groups with self-administered surveys and visual modeling simulation techniques. This study will also convene an expert panel to assist in the development of a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model, so that both expert panel members and veteran participants can complete an Analytic Hierarchy Process, pairwise comparisons to evaluate and rank the applicability of electronic health resources for a series of health management tasks. Results This protocol describes the iterative, participatory, and patient-centered process for: (1) developing a VA HIT Digital Health Matrix Model that outlines current VA patient-facing platforms available to veterans, describing their features and relevant contexts for use; and (2

  4. Participatory Design of an Integrated Information System Design to Support Public Health Nurses and Nurse Managers

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Blaine; Hills, Rebecca A.; Turner, Anne M.; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to use persona-driven and scenario-based design methods to create a conceptual information system design to support public health nursing. Design and Sample We enrolled 19 participants from two local health departments to conduct an information needs assessment, create a conceptual design, and conduct a preliminary design validation. Measures Interviews and thematic analysis were used to characterize information needs and solicit design recommendations from participants. Personas were constructed from participant background information, and scenario-based design was used to create a conceptual information system design. Two focus groups were conducted as a first iteration validation of information needs, personas, and scenarios. Results Eighty-nine information needs were identified. Two personas and 89 scenarios were created. Public health nurses and nurse managers confirmed the accuracy of information needs, personas, scenarios, and the perceived usefulness of proposed features of the conceptual design. Design artifacts were modified based on focus group results. Conclusion Persona-driven design and scenario-based design are feasible methods to design for common work activities in different local health departments. Public health nurses and nurse managers should be engaged in the design of systems that support their work. PMID:24117760

  5. Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair-Early, Adream

    2010-01-01

    University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

  6. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care: Identifying Parental Needs Through Participatory Design

    PubMed Central

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Clemensen, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. Objective To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. Methods The study used participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care with telemedicine support. A total of 9 parents with preterm infants assigned to a neonatal home care program and 10 parents with preterm infants admitted to a neonatal unit participated in individual interviews and focus group interviews, respectively. Results Three overall themes were identified: being a family, parent self-efficacy, and nurse-provided security. Parents expressed desire for the following: (1) a telemedicine device to serve as a “bell cord” to the neonatal unit, giving 24-hour access to nurses, (2) video-conferencing to provide security at home, (3) timely written email communication with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when combined with nursing guidance. Parents did not request hands-on support for infant care, but instead expressed a need for communication and guidance, which could be met using

  7. A Community-Based Participatory Planning Process and Multilevel Intervention Design: Toward Eliminating Cardiovascular Health Inequities

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Coombe, Chris M.; Gaines, Causandra; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon; Strong, Larkin L.; Weir, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of persistent health inequities requires the engagement of multiple perspectives, resources and skills. Community-based participatory research is one approach to developing action strategies that promote health equity by addressing contextual as well as individual level factors, and that can contribute to addressing more fundamental factors linked to health inequity. Yet many questions remain about how to implement participatory processes that engage local insights and expertise, are informed by the existing public health knowledge base, and build support across multiple sectors to implement solutions. We describe a CBPR approach used to conduct a community assessment and action planning process, culminating in development of a multilevel intervention to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. We consider implications for future efforts to engage communities in developing strategies toward eliminating health inequities. PMID:21873580

  8. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  9. Is Participatory Design Associated with the Effectiveness of Serious Digital Games for Healthy Lifestyle Promotion? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Palmeira, Antonio; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    Background Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents active user involvement as informant (ie, users are asked for input and feedback) or codesigner (ie, users as equal partners in the design) early on and throughout the game development, may be associated with higher game effectiveness, as opposed to no user involvement or limited user involvement. Objective This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis examining the moderating role of PD in the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Methods Four databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers in English that were published or in press before October 2014, using a (group-) randomized controlled trial design. Effectiveness data were derived from another meta-analysis assessing the role of behavior change techniques and game features in serious game effectiveness. Results A total of 58 games evaluated in 61 studies were included. As previously reported, serious digital games had positive effects on healthy lifestyles and their determinants. Unexpectedly, PD (g=0.075, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.133) throughout game development was related to lower game effectiveness on behavior (Q=6.74, P<.05) than when users were only involved as testers (g=0.520, 95% CI 0.150 to 0.890, P<.01). Games developed with PD (g=0.171, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.281, P<.01) were also related to lower game effectiveness on self-efficacy (Q=7.83, P<.05) than when users were not involved in game design (g=0.384, 95% CI 0.283 to 0.485, P<.001). Some differences were noted depending on age group, publication year of the study, and on the specific role in PD (ie, informant or codesigner), and depending on the game design element. Games developed with PD were more effective in

  10. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  11. The Development of SCORM-Conformant Learning Content Based on the Learning Cycle Using Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Wang, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    This study incorporates the 5E learning cycle strategy to design and develop Sharable Content Object Reference Model-conformant materials for elementary science education. The 5E learning cycle that supports the constructivist approach has been widely applied in science education. The strategy consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,…

  12. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  13. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  14. Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane

    2012-01-01

    The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality

  15. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  16. Developing In-Service Science Teachers' Ownership of the Profiles Pedagogical Framework through a Technology-Supported Participatory Design Approach to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyza, E. A.; Georgiou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher ownership is crucial for the sustainability of science education reform efforts. This paper discusses participatory design as a bottom-up approach for promoting teachers' sense of ownership of inquiry-based learning and teaching approach as put forward by the PROFILES project. According to the prevalent argument in favor of…

  17. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  18. Applying vision feedback to crane controller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lun-Hui; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Pan, Shing-Tai; Wijaya Lie, Handra; Chiang, Tung-Chien; Chang, Cheng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Encoders are generally used to track the motion of industrial mechanisms. However, the information obtained by encoders may have errors due to encoder aging or mechanism-design problem. Therefore, information by visual feedback is a better way to track the movement of industrial mechanisms. However, image information costs lots of computing effort so it is not easy to be used in real-time control applications. This manuscript derives a simple but effective visual feedback method to follow the target and the image information is obtained only by a general handy camcorder. Besides, the proposed method can track multi-locations in a meantime. Fast image pattern recognition and localisation of the colour histogram by using a moving tracking block is applied to increase the calculation speed. Finally, the obtained locations information by the proposed visual feedback method is applied in an industrial crane control system to verify the effectiveness.

  19. Participatory telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  20. Student design projects in applied acoustics.

    PubMed

    Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques.

  1. Student design projects in applied acoustics.

    PubMed

    Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques. PMID:22423803

  2. Participatory Design in Open Education: A Workshop Model for Developing a Pattern Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Winters, Niall

    2008-01-01

    Technologically enhanced learning environments raise complex challenges for their designers, developers and users. Design patterns and pattern languages have recently emerged as a potential framework for addressing some of these challenges. However, the uptake of design patterns has been slow outside of the computer science community. We argue…

  3. Learner-Generated Designs in Participatory Culture: What They Are and How They Are Shaping Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Beaumie; Tan, Lynde; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue, the authors purport to interrogate and further their understanding of the commonly cited term, "design," specifically "learner-generated designs." This issue brings together scholars from multiple disciplines, including learning sciences, literacy studies, science education, digital media, and pedagogy,…

  4. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs.

  5. IDR: A Participatory Methodology for Interdisciplinary Design in Technology Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Niall; Mor, Yishay

    2008-01-01

    One of the important themes that emerged from the CAL'07 conference was the failure of technology to bring about the expected disruptive effect to learning and teaching. We identify one of the causes as an inherent weakness in prevalent development methodologies. While the problem of designing technology for learning is irreducibly…

  6. Living Action Research in Course Design: Centering Participatory and Social Justice Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Morgan; Hammett, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Action research (AR) courses provide openings in higher education to engage students, schools and communities in democratic and socially just ways within the contexts of research, classroom learning and broader social interactions. Such opportunities are strengthened when instructors design AR courses with the goal of enabling students to…

  7. Applying community-based participatory research to better understand and improve kinship care practices: insights from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina; OʼKane, Claire; Pina, Silvia; Skovdal, Morten; Smith, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented. This article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned and highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care.

  8. From Human Factors to Human Actors to Human Crafters: A Meta-Design Inspired Participatory Framework for Designing in Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceli, Monica Grace

    2012-01-01

    Meta-design theory emphasizes that system designers can never anticipate all future uses of their system at design time, when systems are being developed. Rather, end users shape their environments in response to emerging needs at use time. Meta-design theory suggests that systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the…

  9. The participatory design of a performance oriented monitoring and evaluation system in an international development environment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-López, Ingrid; Hicks, Karen

    2015-02-01

    This article illustrates the application of the impact monitoring and evaluation process for the design and development of a performance monitoring and evaluation framework in the context of human and institutional capacity development. This participative process facilitated stakeholder ownership in several areas including the design, development, and use of a new monitoring and evaluation system, as well their targeted results and accomplishments through the use of timely performance data gathered through ongoing monitoring and evaluation. The process produced a performance indicator map, a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework, and data collection templates to promote the development, implementation, and sustainability of the monitoring and evaluation system of a farmer's trade union in an African country.

  10. Applying Knowledge of Quantitative Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted two quantitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing quantitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…

  11. Applying Knowledge of Qualitative Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared and contrasted two qualitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing qualitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…

  12. Learning through Dignity: Participatory Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Dennis

    This paper describes an alternative approach to traditional instructional design models by suggesting that participatory communication theory (PCT) creates a process that values the learner's voice. As a student develops a critical awareness of his or her environment, participatory media becomes a catalyst for cognition. Learners use media tools…

  13. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  14. Participatory Design and Development of a Patient-centered Toolkit to Engage Hospitalized Patients and Care Partners in their Plan of Care.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Patricia C; Stade, Diana; Chang, Frank; Dalal, Anuj; Getty, George; Kandala, Ravali; Lee, Jaeho; Lehman, Lisa; Leone, Kathleen; Massaro, Anthony F; Milone, Marsha; McNally, Kelly; Ohashi, Kumiko; Robbins, Katherine; Bates, David W; Collins, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Patient engagement has been identified as a key strategy for improving patient outcomes. In this paper, we describe the development and pilot testing of a web-based patient centered toolkit (PCTK) prototype to improve access to health information and to engage hospitalized patients and caregivers in the plan of care. Individual and group interviews were used to identify plan of care functional and workflow requirements and user interface design enhancements. Qualitative methods within a participatory design approach supported the development of a PCTK prototype that will be implemented on intensive care and oncology units to engage patients and professional care team members developing their plan of care during an acute hospitalization.

  15. Computational Methods Applied to Rational Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, David

    2016-01-01

    Due to the synergic relationship between medical chemistry, bioinformatics and molecular simulation, the development of new accurate computational tools for small molecules drug design has been rising over the last years. The main result is the increased number of publications where computational techniques such as molecular docking, de novo design as well as virtual screening have been used to estimate the binding mode, site and energy of novel small molecules. In this work I review some tools, which enable the study of biological systems at the atomistic level, providing relevant information and thereby, enhancing the process of rational drug design. PMID:27708723

  16. Design Lessons about Participatory Self-Directed Online Learning in a Graduate-Level Instructional Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.; Do, Jaewoo; Skutnik, Anne L.; Thompson, Duren J.; Stephens, Adam F.; Tays, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a case of participatory self-directed online learning within the context of a graduate-level instructional technology course. The course was about online learning environments and relied on both asynchronous and synchronous technologies. In this case, the instructor and students engaged in collaborative course design…

  17. Applying Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to the Development of a Smoking-Cessation Program for American Indian Teens: "Telling Our Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Kimberly; McCracken, Lyn; Dino, Geri; Brayboy, Missy

    2008-01-01

    Community-based participatory research provides communities and researchers with opportunities to develop interventions that are effective as well as acceptable and culturally competent. The present project responds to the voices of the North Carolina American Indian (AI) community and the desire for their youth to recognize tobacco addiction and…

  18. Applying colour science in colour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming Ronnier

    2006-06-01

    Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

  19. Applying Cognitive Theories to Multimedia Instructional Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Michael E.

    Noting that cognitive science has developed a number of theories relevant to learning and the development of thinking skills, this paper contains an attempt to broaden the limited application of cognitive science by developing four distinct categories of applicable cognitive theories for multimedia instructional design. The paper summarizes the…

  20. Applied virtual reality in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, VR must be validated for that class of applications. For that reason, specific validation studies for selected classes of applications have been proposed and are currently underway. These include macro-ergonomic 'control room class' design analysis, Spacelab stowage reconfiguration training, a full-body microgravity functional reach simulator, a gross anatomy teaching simulator, and micro-ergonomic design analysis. This paper describes the MSFC VR Applications Program and the validation studies.

  1. Bioinspiration: applying mechanical design to experimental biology.

    PubMed

    Flammang, Brooke E; Porter, Marianne E

    2011-07-01

    The production of bioinspired and biomimetic constructs has fostered much collaboration between biologists and engineers, although the extent of biological accuracy employed in the designs produced has not always been a priority. Even the exact definitions of "bioinspired" and "biomimetic" differ among biologists, engineers, and industrial designers, leading to confusion regarding the level of integration and replication of biological principles and physiology. By any name, biologically-inspired mechanical constructs have become an increasingly important research tool in experimental biology, offering the opportunity to focus research by creating model organisms that can be easily manipulated to fill a desired parameter space of structural and functional repertoires. Innovative researchers with both biological and engineering backgrounds have found ways to use bioinspired models to explore the biomechanics of organisms from all kingdoms to answer a variety of different questions. Bringing together these biologists and engineers will hopefully result in an open discourse of techniques and fruitful collaborations for experimental and industrial endeavors.

  2. A “Community Fit” Community-Based Participatory Research Program for Family Health, Happiness, and Harmony: Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Cissy SS; Wang, Man Ping; Mui, Moses; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia SC

    2015-01-01

    Background A principal factor in maintaining positive family functioning and well-being, family communication time is decreasing in modern societies such as Hong Kong, where long working hours and indulgent use of information technology are typical. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol, “Happy Family Kitchen,” under the project, “FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society,” aimed at improving family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) through enhancement of family communication. Methods This study employed the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and adopted 5 principles of positive psychology and the traditional Chinese concepts of cooking and dining, as a means to connect family members to promote family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs). Results In-depth collaboration took place between an academic institution and a large nongovernmental community organization association (NGO association) with 400 social service agency members. Both groups were deeply involved in the project design, implementation, and evaluation of 23 community-based interventions. From 612 families with 1419 individuals’ findings, significant increases in mean communication time per week (from 153.44 to 170.31 minutes, P=.002) at 6 weeks after the intervention and mean communication scores (from 67.18 to 69.56 out of 100, P<.001) at 12 weeks after the intervention were shown. Significant enhancements were also found for mean happiness scores 12 weeks after the intervention (from 7.80 to 7.82 out of 10, P<.001), and mean health scores (from 7.70 to 7.73 out of 10, P<.001) and mean harmony scores (from 7.70 to 8.07 out of 10, P<.001) 6 weeks after the intervention. Conclusions This was the first CBPR study in a Hong Kong Chinese community. The results should be useful in informing collaborative intervention programs and engaging public health researchers and community social service providers, major

  3. Applying the miniaturization technologies for biosensor design.

    PubMed

    Derkus, Burak

    2016-05-15

    Microengineering technologies give us some opportunities in developing high-tech sensing systems that operate with low volumes of samples, integrates one or more laboratory functions on a single substrate, and enables automation. These millimetric sized devices can be produced for only a few dollars, which makes them promising candidates for mass-production. Besides electron beam lithography, stencil lithography, nano-imprint lithography or dip pen lithography, basic photolithography is the technique which is extensively used for the design of microengineered sensing systems. This technique has some advantages such as easy-to-manufacture, do not require expensive instrumentation, and allow creation of lower micron-sized patterns. In this review, it has been focused on three different type of microengineered sensing devices which are developed using micro/nano-patterning techniques, microfluidic technology, and microelectromechanics system based technology. PMID:26800206

  4. Designing Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartiainen, Henriikka

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the twenty-first century has been described as a time of development for social innovations through which people use, share, and create knowledge in ways that differ fundamentally from those of previous eras. The topical and widely accepted focus of education should be toward twenty-first-century skills. However, there is no…

  5. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I…

  6. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  7. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.

  8. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process

    PubMed Central

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services. PMID:26346580

  9. Design and Testing of Novel Lethal Ovitrap to Reduce Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes: Community-Based Participatory Research between Industry, Academia and Communities in Peru and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yukich, Josh; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Giron, Maziel; Apperson, Charles S.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Morrison, Amy C.; Keating, Joseph; Wesson, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap. Methods This study was conducted in 2010 in Iquitos, Peru and Lopburi Province, Thailand and used an iterative community-based participatory approach to adjust design specifications of the trap, based on community members’ perceptions and feedback, entomological findings in the lab, and design and research team observations. Multiple focus group discussions (FGD) were held over a 6 month period, stratified by age, sex and motherhood status, to inform the design process. Trap testing transitioned from the lab to within households. Results Through an iterative process of working with specifications from the research team, findings from the laboratory testing, and feedback from FGD, the design team narrowed trap design options from 22 to 6. Comments from the FGD centered on safety for children and pets interacting with traps, durability, maintenance issues, and aesthetics. Testing in the laboratory involved releasing groups of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti in walk-in rooms and assessing what percentage were caught in traps of different colors, with different trap cover sizes, and placed under lighter or darker locations. Two final trap models were mocked up and tested in homes for a week; one model was the top choice in both Iquitos and Lopburi. Discussion The community-based participatory process was essential for the development of novel traps that provided effective vector control, but also met the needs and concerns of community

  10. Multi-level participatory design of land use policies in African drylands: a method to embed adaptability skills of drylands societies in a policy framework.

    PubMed

    d'Aquino, Patrick; Bah, Alassane

    2014-01-01

    The participatory modelling method described here focuses on how to enable stakeholders to incorporate their own perception of environmental uncertainty and how to deal with it to design innovative environmental policies. This "self-design" approach uses role playing games and agent based modelling to let participants design their own conceptual framework, and so modelling supports, of issues. The method has a multi-scale focus I order to enable the whole multi-scale Sahelian logic to be expressed and on the other hand to encourage the players to deal with possible region-wide changes implied by their "local" policy objectives. This multi-level participatory design of land use policies has been under experimentation in Senegal since 2008 in different local and national arenas. The process has resulted in the "self-design" of a qualitative and relatively simple model of Sahelian uncertainty, which can be played like a role playing game as well a computerized model. Results are shown in perceptible autonomous organisational learning at the local level. Participants were also able to incorporate their own ideas for new rules for access to resources. They designed innovative collective rules, organised follow up and monitoring of these new land uses. Moreover, meaningful ideas for environmental policies are beginning to take shape. This work raises the epistemological question of what is meant by the term "indigenous knowledge" in environmental management, ranging from knowledge based on practical experience being included in the scholar's framing of knowledge, to a legitimate local ability to contextualize and re-arrange scientific expertise, to profoundly different worldviews which do not match ours. PMID:24316752

  11. Multi-level participatory design of land use policies in African drylands: a method to embed adaptability skills of drylands societies in a policy framework.

    PubMed

    d'Aquino, Patrick; Bah, Alassane

    2014-01-01

    The participatory modelling method described here focuses on how to enable stakeholders to incorporate their own perception of environmental uncertainty and how to deal with it to design innovative environmental policies. This "self-design" approach uses role playing games and agent based modelling to let participants design their own conceptual framework, and so modelling supports, of issues. The method has a multi-scale focus I order to enable the whole multi-scale Sahelian logic to be expressed and on the other hand to encourage the players to deal with possible region-wide changes implied by their "local" policy objectives. This multi-level participatory design of land use policies has been under experimentation in Senegal since 2008 in different local and national arenas. The process has resulted in the "self-design" of a qualitative and relatively simple model of Sahelian uncertainty, which can be played like a role playing game as well a computerized model. Results are shown in perceptible autonomous organisational learning at the local level. Participants were also able to incorporate their own ideas for new rules for access to resources. They designed innovative collective rules, organised follow up and monitoring of these new land uses. Moreover, meaningful ideas for environmental policies are beginning to take shape. This work raises the epistemological question of what is meant by the term "indigenous knowledge" in environmental management, ranging from knowledge based on practical experience being included in the scholar's framing of knowledge, to a legitimate local ability to contextualize and re-arrange scientific expertise, to profoundly different worldviews which do not match ours.

  12. Participatory Design With Seniors: Design of Future Services and Iterative Refinements of Interactive eHealth Services for Old Citizens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing social isolation among the elderly today. This will be an even larger issue in the future with growing numbers of elderly and less resources, for example, in terms of economy and staff. Loneliness and social isolation can, however, be addressed in several ways using different interactive eHealth services. Objective This case study investigated novel eHealth services for the elderly, and their usage of a social interactive device designed especially for them. Methods In this work, we used an innovative mobile communication device connected to the television (TV), which worked as a remotely controlled large interactive screen. The device was tested by 8 volunteers who visited a senior center. They were between 65 and 80 years of age and lived in their own homes. Throughout the 1.5 year-long project, 7 design workshops were held with the seniors and the staff at the center. During these workshops, demands and preferences regarding existing and new services were gathered. At the end of the project the participants’ experience of the device and of the services was elaborated in 3 workshops to get ideas for improved or new meaningful services. During the data analyses and development process, what seniors thought would be useful in relation to what was feasible was prioritized by the development company. Results Regarding daily usage, the seniors reported that they mainly used the service for receiving information from the senior center and for communication with other participants in the group or with younger relatives. They also read information about events at the senior center and they liked to perform a weekly sent out workout exercise. Further, they played games such as Memory and Sudoku using the device. The service development focused on three categories of services: cognitive activities, social activities, and physical activities. A cognitive activity service that would be meaningful to develop was a game for practicing

  13. Applying AVIP to high voltage power supply designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, William; Rugama, Jose A.

    Several avionic integrity program (AVIP) requirements are described and applied to high-voltage power supply (HVPS) designs. The requirements are: environment, materials characterization, design criteria, durability, manufacturing/process controls, and testing. Related integrity design topics dealing with HVPS failures, insulating material properties, packaging, and fatigue life predictions are also discussed.

  14. Applying Learning Design to Work-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Heinz Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Learning design is currently slanted to reflect a course-based approach to learning. This article explores whether the concept of learning design could be applied to support the informal aspects of work-based learning (WBL). It also discusses the characteristics of WBL and presents a WBL-specific learning design that highlights the key features…

  15. Universal Design for Online Courses: Applying Principles to Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Kavita; Edelen-Smith, Patricia; Wailehua, Cat-Uyen

    2015-01-01

    Universal design (UD) educational frameworks provide useful guidelines for designing accessible learning environments with the intention of supporting students with and without disabilities. This article describes how one university instructor defined and applied the principles of Universal Instructional Design (UID) to pedagogy, while designing…

  16. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  17. Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.

  18. HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...

  19. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  20. Applying the ID Process to the Guided Design Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coscarelli, William C.; White, Gregory P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the application of the instructional development process to a teaching technique called Guided Design in a Production-Operations Management course. In Guided Design, students are self-instructed in course content and use class time to apply this knowledge to self-instruction; in-class problem-solving is stressed. (JJD)

  1. Babinet Principle Applied to the Design of Metasurfaces and Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, F.; Lopetegi, T.; Laso, M. A.; Baena, J. D.; Bonache, J.; Beruete, M.; Marqués, R.; Martín, F.; Sorolla, M.

    2004-11-01

    The electromagnetic theory of diffraction and the Babinet principle are applied to the design of artificial metasurfaces and metamaterials. A new particle, the complementary split rings resonator, is proposed for the design of metasurfaces with high frequency selectivity and planar metamaterials with a negative dielectric permittivity. Applications in the fields of frequency selective surfaces and polarizers, as well as in microwave antennas and filter design, can be envisaged. The tunability of all these devices by an applied dc voltage is also achievable if these particles are etched on the appropriate substrate.

  2. [The "Participatory" Movement].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the trajectory of the Participatory Movement (MP), which was created in opposition to the policies carried out by the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). This article, written by the first president elected of the "participatory" movement, presents the principles of the movement, its organization, the struggle for leadership, and the work developed in the first administration.

  3. Evaluation of power costs in applying TMR to FPGA designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, Nathaniel; Wirthlin, M. J.; Graham, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Triple modular redundancy (TMR) is a technique commonly used to mitigate against design failures caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The SEU immunity that TMR provides comes at the cost of increased design area and decreased speed. Additionally, the cost of increased power due to TMR must be considered. This paper evaluates the power costs of TMR and validates the evaluations with actual measurements. Sensitivity to design placement is another important part of this study. Power consumption costs due to TMR are also evaluated in different FPGA architectures. This study shows that power consumption rises in the range of 3x to 7x when TMR is applied to a design.

  4. Applying complexity theory: a review to inform evaluation design.

    PubMed

    Walton, Mat

    2014-08-01

    Complexity theory has increasingly been discussed and applied within evaluation literature over the past decade. This article reviews the discussion and use of complexity theory within academic journal literature. The aim is to identify the issues to be considered when applying complexity theory to evaluation. Reviewing 46 articles, two groups of themes are identified. The first group considers implications of applying complexity theory concepts for defining evaluation purpose, scope and units of analysis. The second group of themes consider methodology and method. Results provide a starting point for a configuration of an evaluation approach consistent with complexity theory, whilst also identifying a number of design considerations to be resolved within evaluation planning.

  5. PLAYful Practices: Students at Creekview High School Discuss Participatory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature about participatory learning in schools and libraries is dominated by adult voices. What do sites of participatory learning look like from the student perspective? What does it mean to student learners to develop and apply the four practices of participation--create, circulate, collaborate, and connect? How does…

  6. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth

    1998-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  7. Applying value sensitive design (VSD) to wind turbines and wind parks: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Oosterlaken, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Community acceptance still remains a challenge for wind energy projects. The most popular explanation for local opposition, the Not in My Backyard effect, has received fierce criticism in the past decade. Critics argue that opposition is not merely a matter of selfishness or ignorance, but that moral, ecological and aesthetic values play an important role. In order to better take such values into account, a more bottom-up, participatory decision process is usually proposed. Research on this topic focusses on either stakeholder motivations/attitudes, or their behavior during project implementation. This paper proposes a third research focus, namely the 'objects' which elicit certain behavioral responses and attitudes-the wind turbine and parks. More concretely, this paper explores Value Sensitive Design (VSD) as way to arrive at wind turbines and parks that better embed or reflect key values. After a critical discussion of the notion of acceptance versus acceptability and support, the paper discusses existing literature on ecology and aesthetics in relation to wind turbine/park design, which could serve as 'building blocks' of a more integral VSD approach of the topic. It also discusses the challenge of demarcating wind park projects as VSD projects. A further challenge is that VSD has been applied mainly at the level of technical artifacts, whereas wind parks can best be conceptualized as socio-technical system. This new application would therefore expand the current practice of VSD, and may as a consequence also lead to interesting new insights for the VSD community. The paper concludes that such an outcome-oriented approach of wind turbines and park is worth exploring further, as a supplement to rather than a replacement of the process-oriented approach that is promoted by the current literature on community acceptance of wind parks.

  8. Applying value sensitive design (VSD) to wind turbines and wind parks: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Oosterlaken, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Community acceptance still remains a challenge for wind energy projects. The most popular explanation for local opposition, the Not in My Backyard effect, has received fierce criticism in the past decade. Critics argue that opposition is not merely a matter of selfishness or ignorance, but that moral, ecological and aesthetic values play an important role. In order to better take such values into account, a more bottom-up, participatory decision process is usually proposed. Research on this topic focusses on either stakeholder motivations/attitudes, or their behavior during project implementation. This paper proposes a third research focus, namely the 'objects' which elicit certain behavioral responses and attitudes-the wind turbine and parks. More concretely, this paper explores Value Sensitive Design (VSD) as way to arrive at wind turbines and parks that better embed or reflect key values. After a critical discussion of the notion of acceptance versus acceptability and support, the paper discusses existing literature on ecology and aesthetics in relation to wind turbine/park design, which could serve as 'building blocks' of a more integral VSD approach of the topic. It also discusses the challenge of demarcating wind park projects as VSD projects. A further challenge is that VSD has been applied mainly at the level of technical artifacts, whereas wind parks can best be conceptualized as socio-technical system. This new application would therefore expand the current practice of VSD, and may as a consequence also lead to interesting new insights for the VSD community. The paper concludes that such an outcome-oriented approach of wind turbines and park is worth exploring further, as a supplement to rather than a replacement of the process-oriented approach that is promoted by the current literature on community acceptance of wind parks. PMID:24744115

  9. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle. PMID:26154206

  10. Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee

    2015-11-01

    Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle.

  11. Probabilistic Methods for Uncertainty Propagation Applied to Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Lin, Hong-Zong; Khalessi, Mohammad R.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods of probabilistic uncertainty propagation and quantification (the method of moments, Monte Carlo simulation, and a nongradient simulation search method) are applied to an aircraft analysis and conceptual design program to demonstrate design under uncertainty. The chosen example problems appear to have discontinuous design spaces and thus these examples pose difficulties for many popular methods of uncertainty propagation and quantification. However, specific implementation features of the first and third methods chosen for use in this study enable successful propagation of small uncertainties through the program. Input uncertainties in two configuration design variables are considered. Uncertainties in aircraft weight are computed. The effects of specifying required levels of constraint satisfaction with specified levels of input uncertainty are also demonstrated. The results show, as expected, that the designs under uncertainty are typically heavier and more conservative than those in which no input uncertainties exist.

  12. Design considerations of HUD projection systems applied to automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Gómez, Gilberto Osorio

    2012-06-01

    Currently, the topics about HUD systems are strongly going inside on the automobile industries; consequently, there have been proposed new ways to understand and apply this technology in an economically viable way. To contribute to this situation, this paper presents a case study which sets out key parameters that should be considered on the design of an HUD, how can be configured these parameters, and how they are related. Finally, it is presented an optical design alternative that meets the main requirements of an HUD system applied to mid-range automobiles. There are several ways to cover the development and construction of HUD systems, the method here proposed is raised to provide and to understand the factors involved in this technology and the popularization of it on the automobile industry.

  13. Participatory Action Research in the Implementing Process of Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Project Design of the “Healthy Future” Study

    PubMed Central

    Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context. PMID:23956843

  14. Design of the optocoupler applied to medical lighting systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xibin; Lit, Rui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Xiong, Daxi

    2012-12-01

    A new type of optocoupler applied to medical lighting system is proposed, and the principle, Etendue and design process is introduced. With the help of Tracrpro, modeling and simulation of the optocoupler is conducted and the parameters are optimized. Analysis of factors affecting the energy coupling efficiency is done. With a view towards the development of Ultra High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes (UHB-LEDs), which play an important role a new sources of lighting in various biomedical devices, including those used in diagnosis and treatment, a series of simulations are executed and a variety of solutions are achieved. According to simulation results, the design target of coupling efficiency is achieved and the optical uniformity is also significantly improved. According to the result of theoretical analysis, verification experiments are designed and simulation results are verified. The optocoupler, which has simple structure, compact size and low cost, is suitable for applications in the field of low-cost medical domain.

  15. Mobile Phone Based Participatory Sensing in Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.

  16. Computer Based Testing Using "Digital Ink": Participatory Design of a Tablet PC Based Assessment Application for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siozos, Panagiotis; Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Despotakis, Theofanis

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify key challenges faced by computer-based assessment (CBA) in secondary education and we put forward a framework of design considerations: design with the students and teachers, select the most appropriate media platform and plan an evolution rather than a revolution of prior practices. We present the CBA application…

  17. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    PubMed

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.

  18. Design of SPARC V8 superscalar pipeline applied Tomasulo's algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Yu, Lixin; Feng, Yunkai

    2014-04-01

    A superscalar pipeline applied Tomasulo's algorithm is presented in this paper. The design begins with a dual-issue superscalar processor based on LEON2. Tomasulo's algorithm is adopted to implement out-of-order execution. Instructions are separated into three different parts and executed by three different function units so as to reduce area and promote execution speed. Results wrote back into registers are still in program order, for the aim of ensure the function veracity. Mechanisms of the reservation station, common data bus, and reorder buffer are presented in detail. The structure can sends and executes three instructions at most at a time. Branch prediction can also be realized by reorder buffer. Performance of the scalar pipeline applied Tomasulo's algorithm is promoted by 41.31% compared to singleissue pipeline..

  19. Flight control system design factors for applying automated testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.

    1990-01-01

    Automated validation of flight-critical embedded systems is being done at ARC Dryden Flight Research Facility. The automated testing techniques are being used to perform closed-loop validation of man-rated flight control systems. The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. Operationally applying automated testing techniques has accentuated flight control system features that either help or hinder the application of these techniques. The paper also discusses flight control system features which foster the use of automated testing techniques.

  20. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm. BACKGROUND Contact-based interventions, such as follow-up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self-harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low-cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text-based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. METHOD We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. RESULTS Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, 'one size fits all' approach and that of 'audience segmentation', maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self-efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design.

  1. Sliding Mode Control Applied to Reconfigurable Flight Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Wells, S. R.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sliding mode control is applied to the design of a flight control system capable of operating with limited bandwidth actuators and in the presence of significant damage to the airframe and/or control effector actuators. Although inherently robust, sliding mode control algorithms have been hampered by their sensitivity to the effects of parasitic unmodeled dynamics, such as those associated with actuators and structural modes. It is known that asymptotic observers can alleviate this sensitivity while still allowing the system to exhibit significant robustness. This approach is demonstrated. The selection of the sliding manifold as well as the interpretation of the linear design that results after introduction of a boundary layer is accomplished in the frequency domain. The design technique is exercised on a pitch-axis controller for a simple short-period model of the High Angle of Attack F-18 vehicle via computer simulation. Stability and performance is compared to that of a system incorporating a controller designed by classical loop-shaping techniques.

  2. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  3. The Participatory Process: Producing Photo-Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, B. J.; Comings, John P.

    On the assumption that client-centered participatory education is pedagogically superior to other methods designed for adults of low reading ability, this manual outlines classroom-tested techniques for developing "fotonovelas"--printed media in which photos are arranged in the sequence of a dramatic story and the plot is conveyed through dialogue…

  4. ‘Much clearer with pictures’: using community-based participatory research to design and test a Picture Option Grid for underserved patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Alam, Shama; Grande, Stuart W; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Women of low socioeconomic status (SES) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer experience decision-making, treatment and outcome disparities. Evidence suggests that decision aids can benefit underserved patients, when tailored to their needs. Our aim was to develop and test the usability, acceptability and accessibility of a pictorial encounter decision aid targeted at women of low SES diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Design Community-based participatory research (CBPR) using think-aloud protocols (phases 1 and 2) and semistructured interviews (phase 3). Setting Underserved community settings (eg, knitting groups, bingo halls, senior centres) and breast clinics. Participants In phase 1, we recruited a convenience sample of clinicians and academics. In phase 2, we targeted women over 40 years of age, of low SES, regardless of breast cancer history, and in phase 3, women of low SES, recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Intervention The pictorial encounter decision aid was derived from an evidence-based table comparing treatment options for breast cancer (http://www.optiongrid.org). Outcome measures We assessed the usability, acceptability and accessibility of the pictorial decision aid prototypes using the think-aloud protocol and semistructured interviews. Results After initial testing of the first prototype with 18 academics and health professionals, new versions were developed and tested with 53 lay individuals in community settings. Usability was high. In response to feedback indicating that the use of cartoon characters was considered insensitive, a picture-only version was developed and tested with 23 lay people in phase 2, and 10 target users in phase 3. Conclusions and relevance Using CBPR methods and iterative user testing cycles improved usability and accessibility, and led to the development of the Picture Option Grid, entirely guided by multiple stakeholder feedback. All women of low SES recently diagnosed with early stage breast

  5. An introduction to quantum chemical methods applied to drug design.

    PubMed

    Stenta, Marco; Dal Peraro, Matteo

    2011-06-01

    The advent of molecular medicine allowed identifying the malfunctioning of subcellular processes as the source of many diseases. Since then, drugs are not only discovered, but actually designed to fulfill a precise task. Modern computational techniques, based on molecular modeling, play a relevant role both in target identification and drug lead development. By flanking and integrating standard experimental techniques, modeling has proven itself as a powerful tool across the drug design process. The success of computational methods depends on a balance between cost (computation time) and accuracy. Thus, the integration of innovative theories and more powerful hardware architectures allows molecular modeling to be used as a reliable tool for rationalizing the results of experiments and accelerating the development of new drug design strategies. We present an overview of the most common quantum chemistry computational approaches, providing for each one a general theoretical introduction to highlight limitations and strong points. We then discuss recent developments in software and hardware resources, which have allowed state-of-the-art of computational quantum chemistry to be applied to drug development.

  6. Wavelet Domain Radiofrequency Pulse Design Applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Huettner, Andrew M; Mickevicius, Nikolai J; Ersoz, Ali; Koch, Kevin M; Muftuler, L Tugan; Nencka, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    A new method for designing radiofrequency (RF) pulses with numerical optimization in the wavelet domain is presented. Numerical optimization may yield solutions that might otherwise have not been discovered with analytic techniques alone. Further, processing in the wavelet domain reduces the number of unknowns through compression properties inherent in wavelet transforms, providing a more tractable optimization problem. This algorithm is demonstrated with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) spin echo refocusing pulses because reduced peak RF power is necessary for SMS diffusion imaging with high acceleration factors. An iterative, nonlinear, constrained numerical minimization algorithm was developed to generate an optimized RF pulse waveform. Wavelet domain coefficients were modulated while iteratively running a Bloch equation simulator to generate the intermediate slice profile of the net magnetization. The algorithm minimizes the L2-norm of the slice profile with additional terms to penalize rejection band ripple and maximize the net transverse magnetization across each slice. Simulations and human brain imaging were used to demonstrate a new RF pulse design that yields an optimized slice profile and reduced peak energy deposition when applied to a multiband single-shot echo planar diffusion acquisition. This method may be used to optimize factors such as magnitude and phase spectral profiles and peak RF pulse power for multiband simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisitions. Wavelet-based RF pulse optimization provides a useful design method to achieve a pulse waveform with beneficial amplitude reduction while preserving appropriate magnetization response for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26517262

  7. Wavelet Domain Radiofrequency Pulse Design Applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huettner, Andrew M.; Mickevicius, Nikolai J.; Ersoz, Ali; Koch, Kevin M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Nencka, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for designing radiofrequency (RF) pulses with numerical optimization in the wavelet domain is presented. Numerical optimization may yield solutions that might otherwise have not been discovered with analytic techniques alone. Further, processing in the wavelet domain reduces the number of unknowns through compression properties inherent in wavelet transforms, providing a more tractable optimization problem. This algorithm is demonstrated with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) spin echo refocusing pulses because reduced peak RF power is necessary for SMS diffusion imaging with high acceleration factors. An iterative, nonlinear, constrained numerical minimization algorithm was developed to generate an optimized RF pulse waveform. Wavelet domain coefficients were modulated while iteratively running a Bloch equation simulator to generate the intermediate slice profile of the net magnetization. The algorithm minimizes the L2-norm of the slice profile with additional terms to penalize rejection band ripple and maximize the net transverse magnetization across each slice. Simulations and human brain imaging were used to demonstrate a new RF pulse design that yields an optimized slice profile and reduced peak energy deposition when applied to a multiband single-shot echo planar diffusion acquisition. This method may be used to optimize factors such as magnitude and phase spectral profiles and peak RF pulse power for multiband simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisitions. Wavelet-based RF pulse optimization provides a useful design method to achieve a pulse waveform with beneficial amplitude reduction while preserving appropriate magnetization response for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26517262

  8. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  9. Simulation Assisted Risk Assessment Applied to Launch Vehicle Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Go, Susie; Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2008-01-01

    A simulation-based risk assessment approach is presented and is applied to the analysis of abort during the ascent phase of a space exploration mission. The approach utilizes groupings of launch vehicle failures, referred to as failure bins, which are mapped to corresponding failure environments. Physical models are used to characterize the failure environments in terms of the risk due to blast overpressure, resulting debris field, and the thermal radiation due to a fireball. The resulting risk to the crew is dynamically modeled by combining the likelihood of each failure, the severity of the failure environments as a function of initiator and time of the failure, the robustness of the crew module, and the warning time available due to early detection. The approach is shown to support the launch vehicle design process by characterizing the risk drivers and identifying regions where failure detection would significantly reduce the risk to the crew.

  10. Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Alarcon, Rafael

    This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the

  11. Object Design: Twelve Concepts to Know, Understand and Apply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschalek, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Some art teachers say that art is all around us when they actually mean that "design" is all around us. The everyday objects we view, purchase, and use are designed. Some are well designed, others are poorly designed, and many are in-between. Teachers need to develop learning strategies that enable their students to understand how design is part…

  12. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance

  13. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  14. Applying community engagement to disaster planning: developing the vision and design for the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience initiative.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kenneth B; Tang, Jennifer; Lizaola, Elizabeth; Jones, Felica; Brown, Arleen; Stayton, Alix; Williams, Malcolm; Chandra, Anita; Eisenman, David; Fogleman, Stella; Plough, Alonzo

    2013-07-01

    Community resilience (CR) is a priority for preparedness, but few models exist. A steering council used community-partnered participatory research to support workgroups in developing CR action plans and hosted forums for input to design a pilot demonstration of implementing CR versus enhanced individual preparedness toolkits. Qualitative data describe how stakeholders viewed CR, how toolkits were developed, and demonstration design evolution. Stakeholders viewed community engagement as facilitating partnerships to implement CR programs when appropriately supported by policy and CR resources. Community engagement exercises clarified motivations and informed action plans (e.g., including vulnerable populations). Community input identified barriers (e.g., trust in government) and CR-building strategies. A CR toolkit and demonstration comparing its implementation with individual preparedness were codeveloped. Community-partnered participatory research was a useful framework to plan a CR initiative through knowledge exchange. PMID:23678916

  15. Applying community engagement to disaster planning: developing the vision and design for the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience initiative.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kenneth B; Tang, Jennifer; Lizaola, Elizabeth; Jones, Felica; Brown, Arleen; Stayton, Alix; Williams, Malcolm; Chandra, Anita; Eisenman, David; Fogleman, Stella; Plough, Alonzo

    2013-07-01

    Community resilience (CR) is a priority for preparedness, but few models exist. A steering council used community-partnered participatory research to support workgroups in developing CR action plans and hosted forums for input to design a pilot demonstration of implementing CR versus enhanced individual preparedness toolkits. Qualitative data describe how stakeholders viewed CR, how toolkits were developed, and demonstration design evolution. Stakeholders viewed community engagement as facilitating partnerships to implement CR programs when appropriately supported by policy and CR resources. Community engagement exercises clarified motivations and informed action plans (e.g., including vulnerable populations). Community input identified barriers (e.g., trust in government) and CR-building strategies. A CR toolkit and demonstration comparing its implementation with individual preparedness were codeveloped. Community-partnered participatory research was a useful framework to plan a CR initiative through knowledge exchange.

  16. Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.

  17. Salud Sí: a case study for the use of participatory evaluation in creating effective and sustainable community-based health promotion.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Piper, Rosalinda; Kunz, Susan; Navarro, Cecilia; Sander, Alicia; Gastelum, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Participatory evaluation can be an essential tool for community-based organizations in tailoring programs to the needs of the populations they serve. This article provides a case study of Salud Sí, a promotora-driven health promotion program designed to encourage physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and stress reduction among Mexican American women. Through a partnership between a community health center and an academic institution, we describe how the participatory evaluation framework is applied over a 10-year period throughout the stages of program development, implementation, and sustainability. Partners used the results to identify the essential elements of the health promotion program.

  18. Making Sense of Participatory Evaluation: Framing Participatory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.; Cousins, J. Bradley; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This chapter begins with a commentary by King, a longtime admirer of Cousins and Whitmore, in which she discusses why their 1998 article on participatory evaluation is considered an important contribution to the field. Participatory evaluation was not a new idea in 1998. By the mid-1990s articles, chapters, and books that described evaluations…

  19. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are

  20. Applying Quality Function Deployment in Industrial Design Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long; Lin, Yi-Zhi; Tseng, Chien-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Industrial design is a discipline that combines multiple professional fields. Enterprise demands for industrial design competencies also change over time; thus, the curriculum of industrial design education should be compatible with the current demands of the industry. However, scientific approaches have not been previously employed to plan…

  1. Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…

  2. Head-Up; An interdisciplinary, participatory and co-design process informing the development of a novel head and neck support for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Reed, Heath; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andy; Heron, Nicola; Clarke, Zoe; Judge, Simon; McCarthy, Avril; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy; Baxter, Susan; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Head-Up project, that aims to provide innovative head support to help improve posture, relieve pain and aid communication for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness. The initial focus is motor neurone disease. The case study illustrates collaborative, interdisciplinary research and new product development underpinned by participatory design. The study was initiated by a 2-day stakeholder workshop followed by early proof-of-concept modelling and patient need evidence building. The work subsequently led to a successful NIHR i4i application funding a 24-month iterative design process, patenting, CE marking and clinical evaluation. The evaluation has informed amendments to the proposed design refered to here as the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS). The outcome positively demonstrates use and performance improvements over current neck orthoses and the process of multidisciplinary and user engagement has created a sense of ownership by MND participants, who have since acted as advocates for the product.

  3. Head-Up; An interdisciplinary, participatory and co-design process informing the development of a novel head and neck support for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Reed, Heath; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andy; Heron, Nicola; Clarke, Zoe; Judge, Simon; McCarthy, Avril; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy; Baxter, Susan; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Head-Up project, that aims to provide innovative head support to help improve posture, relieve pain and aid communication for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness. The initial focus is motor neurone disease. The case study illustrates collaborative, interdisciplinary research and new product development underpinned by participatory design. The study was initiated by a 2-day stakeholder workshop followed by early proof-of-concept modelling and patient need evidence building. The work subsequently led to a successful NIHR i4i application funding a 24-month iterative design process, patenting, CE marking and clinical evaluation. The evaluation has informed amendments to the proposed design refered to here as the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS). The outcome positively demonstrates use and performance improvements over current neck orthoses and the process of multidisciplinary and user engagement has created a sense of ownership by MND participants, who have since acted as advocates for the product. PMID:26453038

  4. Participatory Practices in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

    Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

  5. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenhuener, Bernd . E-mail: bernd.siebenhuener@uni-oldenburg.de; Barth, Volker . E-mail: volker.barth@uni-oldenburg.de

    2005-05-15

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes.

  6. Applying Universal Design for Learning to Instructional Lesson Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Sung, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning is a framework for developing inclusive instructional lesson plans. The effects of introducing Universal Design for Learning Principles and Guidelines in a university teacher education program with pre-service and practicing teachers were explored in a mixed methods approach. The results indicate that the study…

  7. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory.

  8. Self-Adaptive Stepsize Search Applied to Optimal Structural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, L.; Bland, J. A.

    Structural engineering often involves the design of space frames that are required to resist predefined external forces without exhibiting plastic deformation. The weight of the structure and hence the weight of its constituent members has to be as low as possible for economical reasons without violating any of the load constraints. Design spaces are usually vast and the computational costs for analyzing a single design are usually high. Therefore, not every possible design can be evaluated for real-world problems. In this work, a standard structural design problem, the 25-bar problem, has been solved using self-adaptive stepsize search (SASS), a relatively new search heuristic. This algorithm has only one control parameter and therefore overcomes the drawback of modern search heuristics, i.e. the need to first find a set of optimum control parameter settings for the problem at hand. In this work, SASS outperforms simulated-annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search and ant colony optimization.

  9. Applying technology to operator requirements in medical equipment design.

    PubMed

    Woodring, P L

    1986-01-01

    The methodology used by the author consists of the following elements: Expose the design team to the user environment, followed by question and answer periods with users while still in the use environment. Place biomedical engineers in the leading teaching institutions where they will have day-to-day exposure to the use of products similar to the one being designed. Bring biomedical engineers back into the company as part of the design team. Expose concepts to focus groups while the product is in the definition stage. Bring a select group of users into the design review process. Evaluate the ease of use of the device as part of clinical trials. Establish a means of monitoring product performance after the product has been released. How well such a methodology will work in any particular environment is a function of management's recognition of the concept that ease of operator use is a vital element to the overall success of the product.

  10. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  11. Evaluation criteria for participatory research: insights from coastal Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238

  12. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  13. Applying axiomatic design to a medication distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguini, Pepito B.

    As the need to minimize medication errors drives many medical facilities to come up with robust solutions to the most common error that affects patient's safety, these hospitals would be wise to put a concerted effort into finding methodologies that can facilitate an optimized medical distribution system. If the hospitals' upper management is looking for an optimization method that is an ideal fit, it is just as important that the right tool be selected for the application at hand. In the present work, we propose the application of Axiomatic Design (AD), which is a process that focuses on the generation and selection of functional requirements to meet the customer needs for product and/or process design. The appeal of the axiomatic approach is to provide both a formal design process and a set of technical coefficients for meeting the customer's needs. Thus, AD offers a strategy for the effective integration of people, design methods, design tools and design data. Therefore, we propose the AD methodology to medical applications with the main objective of allowing nurses the opportunity to provide cost effective delivery of medications to inpatients, thereby improving quality patient care. The AD methodology will be implemented through the use of focused stores, where medications can be readily stored and can be conveniently located near patients, as well as a mobile apparatus that can also store medications and is commonly used by hospitals, the medication cart. Moreover, a robust methodology called the focused store methodology will be introduced and developed for both the uncapacitated and capacitated case studies, which will set up an appropriate AD framework and design problem for a medication distribution case study.

  14. Ergonomics and design: its principles applied in the industry.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ademario Santos; Silva, Francisco Nilson da

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Design encompasses both product development and optimization of production process. In this sense, Ergonomics plays a fundamental role, because its principles, methods and techniques can help operators to carry out their tasks most successfully. A case study carried out in an industry shows that the interaction among Design, Production Engineering and Materials Engineering departments may improve some aspects concerned security, comfort, efficiency and performance. In this process, Ergonomics had shown to be of essential importance to strategic decision making to the improvement of production section.

  15. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  16. A Probabilistic Design Method Applied to Smart Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1995-01-01

    A probabilistic design method is described and demonstrated using a smart composite wing. Probabilistic structural design incorporates naturally occurring uncertainties including those in constituent (fiber/matrix) material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry and control-related parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity factors are computed to identify those parameters that have a great influence on a specific structural reliability. Two performance criteria are used to demonstrate this design methodology. The first criterion requires that the actuated angle at the wing tip be bounded by upper and lower limits at a specified reliability. The second criterion requires that the probability of ply damage due to random impact load be smaller than an assigned value. When the relationship between reliability improvement and the sensitivity factors is assessed, the results show that a reduction in the scatter of the random variable with the largest sensitivity factor (absolute value) provides the lowest failure probability. An increase in the mean of the random variable with a negative sensitivity factor will reduce the failure probability. Therefore, the design can be improved by controlling or selecting distribution parameters associated with random variables. This can be implemented during the manufacturing process to obtain maximum benefit with minimum alterations.

  17. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  18. Training the Peer Facilitator: Using Participatory Theatre to Promote Engagement in Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Sarah Hunter

    2015-01-01

    "Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…

  19. Applications of Participatory Action Research with Students Who Have Disabilities. ERIC/OSEP Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warger, Cynthia; Burnette, Jane

    This brief paper defines participatory action research, reviews the literature on its use, and offers examples of how researchers and practitioners are applying principles of participatory action research data to select effective practices and support change and innovation in schools. Generation of data-based strategies in natural environments is…

  20. Implementing participatory decision making in forest planning.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein's public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  1. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  2. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations.

  3. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations. PMID:21893945

  4. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain.

  5. Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable

  6. Optical design of low glare luminaire applied for tunnel light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. S.; Lee, X. H.; Lo, Y. C.; Sun, C. C.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a low glare and high-efficient tunnel lighting design which consists of a cluster light-emitting diode and a free-form lens is presented. Most of the energy emitted from the proposed luminaire is transmitted onto the surface of the road in front of drivers, and the probability that the energy is emitted directly into drivers' eyes is low. Compared with traditional fluorescent lamps, the proposed luminaire, of which the optical utilization factor, optical efficiency, and uniformity are, respectively, 44%, 92.5%, and 0.72, performs favorably in traffic safety, energy saving, and glare reduction.

  7. GIS Application System Design Applied to Information Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qun, Zhou; Yujin, Yuan; Yuena, Kang

    Natural environment information management system involves on-line instrument monitoring, data communications, database establishment, information management software development and so on. Its core lies in collecting effective and reliable environmental information, increasing utilization rate and sharing degree of environment information by advanced information technology, and maximizingly providing timely and scientific foundation for environmental monitoring and management. This thesis adopts C# plug-in application development and uses a set of complete embedded GIS component libraries and tools libraries provided by GIS Engine to finish the core of plug-in GIS application framework, namely, the design and implementation of framework host program and each functional plug-in, as well as the design and implementation of plug-in GIS application framework platform. This thesis adopts the advantages of development technique of dynamic plug-in loading configuration, quickly establishes GIS application by visualized component collaborative modeling and realizes GIS application integration. The developed platform is applicable to any application integration related to GIS application (ESRI platform) and can be as basis development platform of GIS application development.

  8. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What design and construction requirements apply to... § 111.20 What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you... in size, construction, and design to facilitate maintenance, cleaning, and sanitizing operations;...

  9. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What design and construction requirements apply to... § 111.20 What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you... in size, construction, and design to facilitate maintenance, cleaning, and sanitizing operations;...

  10. Design of the Bottom-up Innovation project - a participatory, primary preventive, organizational level intervention on work-related stress and well-being for workers in Dutch vocational education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the educational sector job demands have intensified, while job resources remained the same. A prolonged disbalance between demands and resources contributes to lowered vitality and heightened need for recovery, eventually resulting in burnout, sickness absence and retention problems. Until now stress management interventions in education focused mostly on strengthening the individual capacity to cope with stress, instead of altering the sources of stress at work at the organizational level. These interventions have been only partly effective in influencing burnout and well-being. Therefore, the “Bottom-up Innovation” project tests a two-phased participatory, primary preventive organizational level intervention (i.e. a participatory action approach) that targets and engages all workers in the primary process of schools. It is hypothesized that participating in the project results in increased occupational self-efficacy and organizational efficacy. The central research question: is an organization focused stress management intervention based on participatory action effective in reducing the need for recovery and enhancing vitality in school employees in comparison to business as usual? Methods/Design The study is designed as a controlled trial with mixed methods and three measurement moments: baseline (quantitative measures), six months and 18 months (quantitative and qualitative measures). At first follow-up short term effects of taking part in the needs assessment (phase 1) will be determined. At second follow-up the long term effects of taking part in the needs assessment will be determined as well as the effects of implemented tailored workplace solutions (phase 2). A process evaluation based on quantitative and qualitative data will shed light on whether, how and why the intervention (does not) work(s). Discussion “Bottom-up Innovation” is a combined effort of the educational sector, intervention providers and researchers. Results will

  11. Applying Contamination Modelling to Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Designs and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Thomson, Shaun; Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants generated from the operations of a propulsion system may impinge on spacecraft critical surfaces. Plume depositions or clouds may hinder the spacecraft and instruments from performing normal operations. Firing thrusters will generate both molecular and particulate contaminants. How to minimize the contamination impact from the plume becomes very critical for a successful mission. The resulting effect from either molecular or particulate contamination of the thruster firing is very distinct. This paper will discuss the interconnection between the functions of spacecraft contamination modeling and propulsion system implementation. The paper will address an innovative contamination engineering approach implemented from the spacecraft concept design, manufacturing, integration and test (I&T), launch, to on- orbit operations. This paper will also summarize the implementation on several successful missions. Despite other contamination sources, only molecular contamination will be considered here.

  12. Applying Quality by Design Concepts to Pharmacy Compounding.

    PubMed

    Timko, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Compounding of medications is an important part of the practice of the pharmacy profession. Because compounded medications do not have U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, a pharmacist has the responsibility to ensure that compounded medications are of suitable quality, safety, and efficacy. The Federal Government and numerous states have updated their laws and regulations regarding pharmacy compounding as a result of recent quality issues. Compounding pharmacists are expected to follow good preparation prodecures in their compounding practices in much the same way pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to follow Current Good Manufacturing Procedures as detailed in the United States Code of Federal Regulations. Application of Quality by Design concepts to the preparation process for a compounded medication can help in understanding the potential pitfalls and the means to mitigate their impact. The goal is to build quality into the compounding process to ensure that the resultant compounded prescription meets the human or animal patients' requirements. PMID:26891559

  13. APPLYING INSIGHTS FROM BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS TO POLICY DESIGN

    PubMed Central

    Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this article is that an understanding of psychology and other social science disciplines can inform the effectiveness of the economic tools traditionally deployed in carrying out the functions of government, which include remedying market failures, redistributing income, and collecting tax revenue. An understanding of psychology can also lead to the development of different policy tools that better motivate desired behavior change or that are more cost-effective than traditional policy tools. The article outlines a framework for thinking about the psychology of behavior change in the context of market failures. It then describes the research on the effects of a variety of interventions rooted in an understanding of psychology that have policy-relevant applications. The article concludes by discussing how an understanding of psychology can also inform the use and design of traditional policy tools for behavior change, such as financial incentives. PMID:25520759

  14. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice.

  15. Designing and Applying Proximity-Dependent Hybridization Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Koos, Björn; Söderberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Proximity-dependent hybridization chain reaction (proxHCR) is a novel technique for detection of protein interaction, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or protein expression. The method is based upon antibodies targeting the proteins of interest that are covalently conjugated to DNA oligonucleotides, which enables the induction of a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to generate a fluorescent signal visible under a microscope. In contrast to the in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), which is another method that utilizes antibody-DNA conjugates to detect protein interactions, proxHCR does not require enzymatic steps. This makes proxHCR an inexpensive alternative to in situ PLA. Another potential advantage might be that proxHCR could more readily be adapted for use in automated staining procedures and in point-of-care devices, as all reagents can be stored at room temperature. This unit describes how the oligonucleotide system for proxHCR can be designed and a protocol for how to perform proxHCR is presented. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. NMR quantum computing: applying theoretical methods to designing enhanced systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Robert C; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2004-10-01

    Density functional theory results for chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are presented for compounds currently used in NMR quantum computing experiments. Specific design criteria were examined and numerical guidelines were assessed. Using a field strength of 7.0 T, protons require a coupling constant of 4 Hz with a chemical shift separation of 0.3 ppm, whereas carbon needs a coupling constant of 25 Hz for a chemical shift difference of 10 ppm, based on the minimal coupling approximation. Using these guidelines, it was determined that 2,3-dibromothiophene is limited to only two qubits; the three qubit system bromotrifluoroethene could be expanded to five qubits and the three qubit system 2,3-dibromopropanoic acid could also be used as a six qubit system. An examination of substituent effects showed that judiciously choosing specific groups could increase the number of available qubits by removing rotational degeneracies in addition to introducing specific conformational preferences that could increase (or decrease) the magnitude of the couplings. The introduction of one site of unsaturation can lead to a marked improvement in spectroscopic properties, even increasing the number of active nuclei.

  17. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed Central

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  18. Participatory Evaluation: Implications for Improving Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches…

  19. Process and Design: Applying Technical Writing Theory in the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Robin David

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that technical writing theory, which views the writing process as a process of design, can be applied in the writing classroom. Presents several strategies for teaching design, including teaching editing by levels, making better assignments, and stressing organization. (MM)

  20. Applying Universal Instructional Design to Course Websites by Using Course Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Irene; Leslie, Donald; Kwan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore their use of learner-centred teaching strategies and Universal Instructional Design (UID) on course websites. UID is based on universal design, the design of products and environments intended to be usable by all people to the greatest extent possible (Burgstahler & Cory, 2008). UID applies universal design to instructional…

  1. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  2. Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino's four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the…

  3. Applying Semiotic Theories to Graphic Design Education: An Empirical Study on Poster Design Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The rationales behind design are dissimilar to those behind art. Establishing an adequate theoretical foundation for conducting design education can facilitate scientising design methods. Thus, from the perspectives of the semiotic theories proposed by Saussure and Peirce, we investigated graphic design curricula by performing teaching…

  4. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in

  5. Participatory Evaluation: Factors to Consider when Involving Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…

  6. Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dezhi; Bieber, Michael; Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers' performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at…

  7. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  8. Participatory Evaluation of an Educational Game for Social Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…

  9. China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

  10. Implementation of the Participatory Approach to increase supervisors’ self-efficacy in supporting employees at risk for sick leave; design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of sick leave for society and organisations underlines the urgent need to prevent sick leave. An effective workplace intervention for organisations to shorten sick leave episodes is the Participatory Approach (PA). In this study, we hypothesize that implementation of the PA for supervisors within organisations may prevent sick leave as well. However, implementation of the PA within an organisation is difficult, and barriers at different levels (employee, supervisor and organisational) exist. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA. Methods In a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) a multifaceted implementation of the PA will be compared with a minimal implementation strategy of the PA. Participating organisations are a university medical centre, a university and a steel factory. Randomisation will take place at department level. Intervention departments will receive a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA, which incorporates a working group, supervisor training, and supervisor coaching. Control departments will receive the minimal implementation strategy of the PA, consisting of written information only. The primary outcome measure is self-efficacy of supervisors in joint problem solving to improve work functioning of employees with health complaints and to prevent sick leave. A secondary outcome measure at supervisor level is self-efficacy in communicating with employees about situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave. Secondary outcome measures at employee level are attitude, self-efficacy, and social influence, with regard to addressing situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave, as well as work functioning, psychological well being, and sick leave. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after six and twelve months follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed as well

  11. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  12. Participatory Video in Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of participatory video in rural underdeveloped countries and describes a video project in Costa Rica that helped farmers with agricultural management and soil erosion problems. Video production considerations are described, and the use of role playing to supplement documentation is explained. (four references) (LRW)

  13. Applying Universal Design to Disability Service Provision: Outcome Analysis of a Universal Design (UD) Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Tanja; Diaz del Castillo, Patricia; Fovet, Frederic; Mole, Heather; Noga, Brodie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents out an outcome analysis of a Universal Design (UD) audit to the various professional facets of a disability service (DS) provider's office on a large North American campus. The context of the audit is a broad campus-wide drive to implement Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in teaching practices. In an effort for…

  14. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  15. A Tutorial Design Process Applied to an Introductory Materials Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Heckler, Andrew F.; Flores, Katharine

    2013-01-01

    We apply a "tutorial design process", which has proven to be successful for a number of physics topics, to design curricular materials or "tutorials" aimed at improving student understanding of important concepts in a university-level introductory materials science and engineering course. The process involves the identification…

  16. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644

  17. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  18. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  19. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed. PMID:26294097

  20. Broadening and Deepening the Definition of Outreach Scholarship: Linking Popular Education and Community-Based Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Kalyani

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a Community-based Participatory Action Research model designed and implemented by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Continuing Education with two community-based agencies in Milwaukee. In two participatory action learning seminars, research was combined with action to improve the educational experience of…

  1. "Producing Different Knowledge and Producing Knowledge Differently": Rethinking Physical Education Research and Practice through Participatory Visual Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Eimear; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from a three-year Participatory Action Research project, undertaken with 41 teenage girls within and beyond the boundaries of a designated disadvantaged urban school, this article is an effort to critique the use of participatory methods as a means of producing different knowledge, and producing knowledge differently with students.…

  2. Applying Instructional Design Theories to Bioinformatics Education in Microarray Analysis and Primer Design Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachak, Aviv; Ophir, Ron; Rubin, Eitan

    2005-01-01

    The need to support bioinformatics training has been widely recognized by scientists, industry, and government institutions. However, the discussion of instructional methods for teaching bioinformatics is only beginning. Here we report on a systematic attempt to design two bioinformatics workshops for graduate biology students on the basis of…

  3. User-Centred Design Using Gamestorming.

    PubMed

    Currie, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    User-centered design (UX) is becoming a standard in software engineering and has tremendous potential in healthcare. The purpose of this tutorial will be to demonstrate and provide participants with practice in user-centred design methods that involve 'Gamestorming', a form of brainstorming where 'the rules of life are temporarily suspended'. Participants will learn and apply gamestorming methods including persona development via empathy mapping and methods to translate artefacts derived from participatory design sessions into functional and design requirements.

  4. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention.

  5. System Sensitivity Analysis Applied to the Conceptual Design of a Dual-Fuel Rocket SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of initial efforts to apply the System Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) optimization method to the conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle. SSA is an efficient, calculus-based MDO technique for generating sensitivity derivatives in a highly multidisciplinary design environment. The method has been successfully applied to conceptual aircraft design and has been proven to have advantages over traditional direct optimization methods. The method is applied to the optimization of an advanced, piloted SSTO design similar to vehicles currently being analyzed by NASA as possible replacements for the Space Shuttle. Powered by a derivative of the Russian RD-701 rocket engine, the vehicle employs a combination of hydrocarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen propellants. Three primary disciplines are included in the design - propulsion, performance, and weights & sizing. A complete, converged vehicle analysis depends on the use of three standalone conceptual analysis computer codes. Efforts to minimize vehicle dry (empty) weight are reported in this paper. The problem consists of six system-level design variables and one system-level constraint. Using SSA in a 'manual' fashion to generate gradient information, six system-level iterations were performed from each of two different starting points. The results showed a good pattern of convergence for both starting points. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the method, possible areas of improvement, and future work is included.

  6. Through Their Eyes: Lessons Learned Using Participatory Methods in Health Care Quality Improvement Projects

    PubMed Central

    Balbale, Salva N.; Locatelli, Sara M.; LaVela, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological article, we examine participatory methods in-depth to demonstrate how these methods can be adopted for quality improvement (QI) projects in health care. We draw on existing literature and our QI initiatives in the Department of Veterans Affairs to discuss the application of photovoice and guided tours in QI efforts. We highlight lessons learned and several benefits of using participatory methods in this area. Using participatory methods, evaluators can engage patients, providers and other stakeholders as partners to enhance care. Participant involvement helps yield actionable data that can be translated into improved care practices. Use of these methods also helps generate key insights to inform improvements that truly resonate with stakeholders. Using participatory methods is a valuable strategy to harness participant engagement and drive improvements that address individual needs. In applying these innovative methodologies, evaluators can transcend traditional approaches to uniquely support evaluations and improvements in health care. PMID:26667882

  7. 34 CFR 607.5 - How does an institution apply to be designated an eligible institution?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does an institution apply to be designated an eligible institution? 607.5 Section 607.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STRENGTHENING...

  8. Accessible by Design: Applying UDL Principles in a First Year Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Kari Lynne; Wideman, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a technology-enhanced face-to-face health sciences course in which the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) were applied. Students were offered a variety of means of representation, engagement, and expression throughout the course, and were surveyed and interviewed at the end of the term to…

  9. 13 CFR 108.300 - When and how to apply for designation as a NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When and how to apply for designation as a NMVC Company. 108.300 Section 108.300 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Application and Approval Process for NMVC...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.630 - What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for all manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for all manufacturers? 1051.630 Section 1051.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.630 - What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for all manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for all manufacturers? 1051.630 Section 1051.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

  12. "Design Your Own Disease" Assignment: Teaching Students to Apply Metabolic Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Nick

    2010-01-01

    One of the major focuses of biochemistry courses is metabolic pathways. Although certain aspects of this content may require a rote approach, more applied techniques make these subject areas more interesting. This article describes the use of an assignment, "Design Your Own Disease" to teach students metabolic regulation and biosignaling…

  13. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  14. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

  15. 34 CFR 367.10 - How does a designated State agency (DSA) apply for an award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true How does a designated State agency (DSA) apply for an award? 367.10 Section 367.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... LIVING SERVICES FOR OLDER INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE BLIND What Are the Application Requirements? § 367.10...

  16. A generalized concept for cost-effective structural design. [Statistical Decision Theory applied to aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hawk, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized concept for cost-effective structural design is introduced. It is assumed that decisions affecting the cost effectiveness of aerospace structures fall into three basic categories: design, verification, and operation. Within these basic categories, certain decisions concerning items such as design configuration, safety factors, testing methods, and operational constraints are to be made. All or some of the variables affecting these decisions may be treated probabilistically. Bayesian statistical decision theory is used as the tool for determining the cost optimum decisions. A special case of the general problem is derived herein, and some very useful parametric curves are developed and applied to several sample structures.

  17. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP. PMID:21330730

  18. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  19. The transfer function method for gear system dynamics applied to conventional and minimum excitation gearing designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    A transfer function method for predicting the dynamic responses of gear systems with more than one gear mesh is developed and applied to the NASA Lewis four-square gear fatigue test apparatus. Methods for computing bearing-support force spectra and temporal histories of the total force transmitted by a gear mesh, the force transmitted by a single pair of teeth, and the maximum root stress in a single tooth are developed. Dynamic effects arising from other gear meshes in the system are included. A profile modification design method to minimize the vibration excitation arising from a pair of meshing gears is reviewed and extended. Families of tooth loading functions required for such designs are developed and examined for potential excitation of individual tooth vibrations. The profile modification design method is applied to a pair of test gears.

  20. A participatory modelling approach to developing a numerical sediment dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas; McEwen, Lindsey; Parker, Chris; Staddon, Chad

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is recognised as an important consideration in policy and legislation in the management of river catchments. Despite this recognition, limited knowledge exchange occurs between scientific researchers and river management practitioners. An example of this can be found within the limited uptake of numerical models of sediment dynamics by river management practitioners in the United Kingdom. The uptake of these models amongst the applied community is important as they have the potential to articulate how, at the catchment-scale, the impacts of management strategies of land-use change affect sediment dynamics and resulting channel quality. This paper describes and evaluates a new approach which involves river management stakeholders in an iterative and reflexive participatory modelling process. The aim of this approach was to create an environment for knowledge exchange between the stakeholders and the research team in the process of co-constructing a model. This process adopted a multiple case study approach, involving four groups of river catchment stakeholders in the United Kingdom. These stakeholder groups were involved in several stages of the participatory modelling process including: requirements analysis, model design, model development, and model evaluation. Stakeholders have provided input into a number of aspects of the modelling process, such as: data requirements, user interface, modelled processes, model assumptions, model applications, and model outputs. This paper will reflect on this process, in particular: the innovative methods used, data generated, and lessons learnt.

  1. Lead users’ ideas on core features to support physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a first step in the development of an internet service using participatory design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence of the benefits of physical activity (PA) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the majority is not physically active enough. An innovative strategy is to engage lead users in the development of PA interventions provided over the internet. The aim was to explore lead users’ ideas and prioritization of core features in a future internet service targeting adoption and maintenance of healthy PA in people with RA. Methods Six focus group interviews were performed with a purposively selected sample of 26 individuals with RA. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and quantification of participants’ prioritization of most important content. Results Six categories were identified as core features for a future internet service: up-to-date and evidence-based information and instructions, self-regulation tools, social interaction, personalized set-up, attractive design and content, and access to the internet service. The categories represented four themes, or core aspects, important to consider in the design of the future service: (1) content, (2) customized options, (3) user interface and (4) access and implementation. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study involving people with RA in the development of an internet service to support the adoption and maintenance of PA. Participants helped identifying core features and aspects important to consider and further explore during the next phase of development. We hypothesize that involvement of lead users will make transfer from theory to service more adequate and user-friendly and therefore will be an effective mean to facilitate PA behavior change. PMID:24655757

  2. Indicators of Dependency in Participatory Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Hargrove, Tasha M.

    Participatory adult education programs assist individuals to substitute interdependent, mutually beneficial relationships for unrewarding, dependent relationships. Indicators of changes in dependency, however, are absent or imprecise in evaluations of participatory projects. A study explored facets of dependency by relating practitioners'…

  3. Participatory Action Research: International Contexts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTaggart, Robin, Ed.

    The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…

  4. Participatory Action Research and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.

    This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…

  5. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  6. Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579

  7. The Enzyme Portal: a case study in applying user-centred design methods in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Paula; Cham, Jennifer A; Cao, Hong; Alcántara, Rafael; Rowland, Francis; Lopez, Rodrigo; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-03-20

    User-centred design (UCD) is a type of user interface design in which the needs and desires of users are taken into account at each stage of the design process for a service or product; often for software applications and websites. Its goal is to facilitate the design of software that is both useful and easy to use. To achieve this, you must characterise users' requirements, design suitable interactions to meet their needs, and test your designs using prototypes and real life scenarios.For bioinformatics, there is little practical information available regarding how to carry out UCD in practice. To address this we describe a complete, multi-stage UCD process used for creating a new bioinformatics resource for integrating enzyme information, called the Enzyme Portal (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enzymeportal). This freely-available service mines and displays data about proteins with enzymatic activity from public repositories via a single search, and includes biochemical reactions, biological pathways, small molecule chemistry, disease information, 3D protein structures and relevant scientific literature.We employed several UCD techniques, including: persona development, interviews, 'canvas sort' card sorting, user workflows, usability testing and others. Our hope is that this case study will motivate the reader to apply similar UCD approaches to their own software design for bioinformatics. Indeed, we found the benefits included more effective decision-making for design ideas and technologies; enhanced team-working and communication; cost effectiveness; and ultimately a service that more closely meets the needs of our target audience.

  8. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to the design of a rotorcraft flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Gorder, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. Quantitative Feedback Theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear uncertain model of the AH-64 rotorcraft. In this model, the uncertainty is assigned, and is assumed to be attributable to actual uncertainty in the dynamic model and to the changes in the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics which occur near hover. The model includes an approximation to the rotor and actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which handling qualities criteria may be incorporated into the design of realistic rotorcraft control systems in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model.

  9. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on applying Monte Carlo simulation to probabilistic launch vehicle design and requirements verification. The approaches developed in this paper can be applied to other complex design efforts as well. Typically the verification must show that requirement "x" is met for at least "y" % of cases, with, say, 10% consumer risk or 90% confidence. Two particular aspects of making these runs for requirements verification will be explored in this paper. First, there are several types of uncertainties that should be handled in different ways, depending on when they become known (or not). The paper describes how to handle different types of uncertainties and how to develop vehicle models that can be used to examine their characteristics. This includes items that are not known exactly during the design phase but that will be known for each assembled vehicle (can be used to determine the payload capability and overall behavior of that vehicle), other items that become known before or on flight day (can be used for flight day trajectory design and go/no go decision), and items that remain unknown on flight day. Second, this paper explains a method (order statistics) for determining whether certain probabilistic requirements are met or not and enables the user to determine how many Monte Carlo samples are required. Order statistics is not new, but may not be known in general to the GN&C community. The methods also apply to determining the design values of parameters of interest in driving the vehicle design. The paper briefly discusses when it is desirable to fit a distribution to the experimental Monte Carlo results rather than using order statistics.

  10. Applying observations of work activity in designing prototype data analysis tools

    SciTech Connect

    Springmeyer, R.R.

    1993-07-06

    Designers, implementers, and marketers of data analysis tools typically have different perspectives than users. Consequently, data analysis often find themselves using tools focused on graphics and programming concepts rather than concepts which reflect their own domain and the context of their work. Some user studies focus on usability tests late in development; others observe work activity, but fail to show how to apply that knowledge in design. This paper describes a methodology for applying observations of data analysis work activity in prototype tool design. The approach can be used both in designing improved data analysis tools, and customizing visualization environments to specific applications. We present an example of user-centered design for a prototype tool to cull large data sets. We revisit the typical graphical approach of animating a large data set from the point of view of an analysis who is culling data. Field evaluations using the prototype tool not only revealed valuable usability information, but initiated in-depth discussions about user`s work, tools, technology, and requirements.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Thrust Vector Mechanism Applied in a Flying Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanhe; Gao, Liang; Wang, Hongwei; Zhao, Jie

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a thrust vector mechanism applied in a flying wing. A thrust vector mechanism driven by two servos is developed. An analysis of the dynamic differences in minimum hovering radius between conventional flying wing and one with thrust vector mechanism is given and validated with simulation. It is shown that thrust vector has obvious advantages over the usual flying wing including decreasing the hovering radius and decreasing roll angle. The benefits should improve maneuverability and agility.

  12. Selection of a turbine cooling system applying multi-disciplinary design considerations.

    PubMed

    Glezer, B

    2001-05-01

    The presented paper describes a multi-disciplinary cooling selection approach applied to major gas turbine engine hot section components, including turbine nozzles, blades, discs, combustors and support structures, which maintain blade tip clearances. The paper demonstrates benefits of close interaction between participating disciplines starting from early phases of the hot section development. The approach targets advancements in engine performance and cost by optimizing the design process, often requiring compromises within individual disciplines.

  13. Designing and applying treatment technologies: Remediation of chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This book combines technical guidance on some of the newer remediation technologies with case studies on remediation strategies that have worked effectively at real-world sites. Chapters cover bench-scale testing, modeling and performance evaluation for permeable barriers, barrier design and construction, remediation of explosives and nitroaromatics, remediation of pesticides and herbicides, regulation and remediation of PCBs/dioxins, emerging technologies, and applying multiple remediation technologies.

  14. Selection of a turbine cooling system applying multi-disciplinary design considerations.

    PubMed

    Glezer, B

    2001-05-01

    The presented paper describes a multi-disciplinary cooling selection approach applied to major gas turbine engine hot section components, including turbine nozzles, blades, discs, combustors and support structures, which maintain blade tip clearances. The paper demonstrates benefits of close interaction between participating disciplines starting from early phases of the hot section development. The approach targets advancements in engine performance and cost by optimizing the design process, often requiring compromises within individual disciplines. PMID:11460630

  15. 20 CFR 669.640 - What is the process for applying for designation as an MSFW youth program grantee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... designation as an MSFW youth program grantee? 669.640 Section 669.640 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT The MSFW Youth Program § 669.640 What is the process for applying for designation as an MSFW youth program grantee? (a) To apply for designation as an MSFW youth program...

  16. 20 CFR 669.640 - What is the process for applying for designation as an MSFW youth program grantee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designation as an MSFW youth program grantee? 669.640 Section 669.640 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT The MSFW Youth Program § 669.640 What is the process for applying for designation as an MSFW youth program grantee? (a) To apply for designation as an MSFW youth program...

  17. 20 CFR 669.640 - What is the process for applying for designation as an MSFW youth program grantee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designation as an MSFW youth program grantee? 669.640 Section 669.640 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT The MSFW Youth Program § 669.640 What is the process for applying for designation as an MSFW youth program grantee? (a) To apply for designation as an MSFW youth program...

  18. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... apply to design-build projects? 636.116 Section 636.116 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.116 What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a)...

  19. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... apply to design-build projects? 636.116 Section 636.116 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.116 What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a)...

  20. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... apply to design-build projects? 636.116 Section 636.116 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.116 What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a)...

  5. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... apply to design-build projects? 636.116 Section 636.116 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.116 What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a)...

  6. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 23 CFR 636.116 - What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... apply to design-build projects? 636.116 Section 636.116 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.116 What organizational conflict of interest requirements apply to design-build projects? (a)...

  8. The Educator as Researcher: Principles and Practice of Participatory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Alma Flor; And Others

    The text of three papers are presented. The first, by Alma Ada Flor, focuses on the question "What is participatory research?" It is suggested that participatory research enriches the knowledge of participants and opens up new topics to them. The nature and theory fundmental to participatory research and the relation of participatory research to…

  9. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to study children’s health in China: Experiences and reflections

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; McCauley, Linda; Leung, Patrick; Wang, Bo; Needleman, Herbert; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Group, Jintan Cohort

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research principles have been successfully applied to public health research in U.S. settings. While there is a long history of collaboration between government and communities in China, to date, community-based participatory research has not been used in children’s environmental health studies. Method This article describes how community-based participatory research principles were applied by an international research group to the China Jintan Child Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of malnutrition and lead exposure on cognitive and neurobehavioral development. Challenges emerged and lessons learned from implementing the study were discussed and recommendations were presented. Conclusion We conclude that the community-based participatory research model can be applied in conducting and promoting environmental health research in China and researchers should be prepared for special challenges and cultural constraints in the implementation of the research in regards to human subject regulations, information dissemination, and culture. PMID:21601204

  10. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1993-01-01

    We applied three design principles (DPs) to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: (1) provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, (2) operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and (3) optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific Jet power. The three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations are: (1) the thermal-barrier-tandem-mirror (TBTM), (2) field-reversed-mirror (FRM), and (3) levitated-dipole-field (LDF). The resulting three candidate-space-fusion-propulsion systems have their initial-mass-to-LEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. We performed a preliminary rating of these configurations and concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System.

  11. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fusion power to space propulsion requires rethinking the engineering-design solution to controlled-fusion energy. Whereas the unit cost of electricity (COE) drives the engineering-design solution for utility-based fusion reactor configurations; initial mass to low earth orbit (IMLEO), specific jet power (kW(thrust)/kg(engine)), and reusability drive the engineering-design solution for successful application of fusion power to space propulsion. We applied three design principles (DP's) to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific jet power. The three candidate terrestrial fusion reactor configurations are: the thermal barrier tandem mirror (TBTM), field reversed mirror (FRM), and levitated dipole field (LDF). The resulting three candidate space fusion propulsion systems have their IMLEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. We performed a preliminary rating of these configurations and concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS).

  12. Negotiating Change: Participatory Curriculum Design in Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines an important component of the developing field of education in emergencies: curriculum decision-making processes. The paper argues that in order to fully meet the commitment articulated by the INEE Minimum Standards to provide quality education for all, curricula decisions cannot be ignored or postponed until after a crisis has…

  13. The Enzyme Portal: a case study in applying user-centred design methods in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Paula; Cham, Jennifer A; Cao, Hong; Alcántara, Rafael; Rowland, Francis; Lopez, Rodrigo; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    User-centred design (UCD) is a type of user interface design in which the needs and desires of users are taken into account at each stage of the design process for a service or product; often for software applications and websites. Its goal is to facilitate the design of software that is both useful and easy to use. To achieve this, you must characterise users' requirements, design suitable interactions to meet their needs, and test your designs using prototypes and real life scenarios.For bioinformatics, there is little practical information available regarding how to carry out UCD in practice. To address this we describe a complete, multi-stage UCD process used for creating a new bioinformatics resource for integrating enzyme information, called the Enzyme Portal (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enzymeportal). This freely-available service mines and displays data about proteins with enzymatic activity from public repositories via a single search, and includes biochemical reactions, biological pathways, small molecule chemistry, disease information, 3D protein structures and relevant scientific literature.We employed several UCD techniques, including: persona development, interviews, 'canvas sort' card sorting, user workflows, usability testing and others. Our hope is that this case study will motivate the reader to apply similar UCD approaches to their own software design for bioinformatics. Indeed, we found the benefits included more effective decision-making for design ideas and technologies; enhanced team-working and communication; cost effectiveness; and ultimately a service that more closely meets the needs of our target audience. PMID:23514033

  14. The Enzyme Portal: a case study in applying user-centred design methods in bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    User-centred design (UCD) is a type of user interface design in which the needs and desires of users are taken into account at each stage of the design process for a service or product; often for software applications and websites. Its goal is to facilitate the design of software that is both useful and easy to use. To achieve this, you must characterise users’ requirements, design suitable interactions to meet their needs, and test your designs using prototypes and real life scenarios. For bioinformatics, there is little practical information available regarding how to carry out UCD in practice. To address this we describe a complete, multi-stage UCD process used for creating a new bioinformatics resource for integrating enzyme information, called the Enzyme Portal (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enzymeportal). This freely-available service mines and displays data about proteins with enzymatic activity from public repositories via a single search, and includes biochemical reactions, biological pathways, small molecule chemistry, disease information, 3D protein structures and relevant scientific literature. We employed several UCD techniques, including: persona development, interviews, ‘canvas sort’ card sorting, user workflows, usability testing and others. Our hope is that this case study will motivate the reader to apply similar UCD approaches to their own software design for bioinformatics. Indeed, we found the benefits included more effective decision-making for design ideas and technologies; enhanced team-working and communication; cost effectiveness; and ultimately a service that more closely meets the needs of our target audience. PMID:23514033

  15. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay

  16. Applying ILT mask synthesis for co-optimizing design rules and DSA process characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Thuc; Stanton, William

    2014-03-01

    During early stage development of a DSA process, there are many unknown interactions between design, DSA process, RET, and mask synthesis. The computational resolution of these unknowns can guide development towards a common process space whereby manufacturing success can be evaluated. This paper will demonstrate the use of existing Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) to co-optimize the multitude of parameters. ILT mask synthesis will be applied to a varied hole design space in combination with a range of DSA model parameters under different illumination and RET conditions. The design will range from 40 nm pitch doublet to random DSA designs with larger pitches, while various effective DSA characteristics of shrink bias and corner smoothing will be assumed for the DSA model during optimization. The co-optimization of these design parameters and process characteristics under different SMO solutions and RET conditions (dark/bright field tones and binary/PSM mask types) will also help to provide a complete process mapping of possible manufacturing options. The lithographic performances for masks within the optimized parameter space will be generated to show a common process space with the highest possibility for success.

  17. Applied magnetic field design for the field reversed configuration compression heating experiment.

    PubMed

    Domonkos, M T; Amdahl, D; Camacho, J F; Coffey, S K; Degnan, J H; Delaney, R; Frese, M; Gale, D; Grabowski, T C; Gribble, R; Intrator, T P; McCullough, J; Montano, N; Robinson, P R; Wurden, G

    2013-04-01

    Detailed calculations of the formation, guide, and mirror applied magnetic fields in the FRC compression-heating experiment (FRCHX) were conducted using a commercially available generalized finite element solver, COMSOL Multiphysics(®). In FRCHX, an applied magnetic field forms, translates, and finally captures the FRC in the liner region sufficiently long to enable compression. Large single turn coils generate the fast magnetic fields necessary for FRC formation. Solenoidal coils produce the magnetic field for translation and capture of the FRC prior to liner implosion. Due to the limited FRC lifetime, liner implosion is initiated before the FRC is injected, and the magnetic flux that diffuses into the liner is compressed. Two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations using MACH2 were used to specify optimal magnetic field characteristics, and this paper describes the simulations conducted to design magnetic field coils and compression hardware for FRCHX. This paper presents the vacuum solution for the magnetic field. PMID:23635196

  18. Engineering Design and Automation in the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P. J.; Hollen, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some design and automation-related projects ongoing within the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. AET uses a diverse set of technical capabilities to develop and apply processes and technologies to applications for a variety of customers both internal and external to the Laboratory. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) represents a new paradigm for the processing of nuclear material from retired weapon systems in an environment that seeks to minimize the radiation dose to workers. To achieve this goal, ARIES relies upon automation-based features to handle and process the nuclear material. Our Chemical Process Development Team specializes in fuzzy logic and intelligent control systems. Neural network technology has been utilized in some advanced control systems developed by team members. Genetic algorithms and neural networks have often been applied for data analysis. Enterprise modeling, or discrete event simulation, as well as chemical process simulation has been employed for chemical process plant design. Fuel cell research and development has historically been an active effort within the AET organization. Under the principal sponsorship of the Department of Energy, the Fuel Cell Team is now focusing on technologies required to produce fuel cell compatible feed gas from reformation of a variety of conventional fuels (e.g., gasoline, natural gas), principally for automotive applications. This effort involves chemical reactor design and analysis, process modeling, catalyst analysis, as well as full scale system characterization and testing. The group's Automation and Robotics team has at its foundation many years of experience delivering automated and robotic systems for nuclear, analytical chemistry, and bioengineering applications. As an integrator of commercial systems and a developer of unique custom-made systems, the team currently supports the automation

  19. Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.

    PubMed

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.

  20. Participatory Citizenship in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, JoAnn C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Student Advisory Council which was established to address the problems of the Cottage Lane Elementary School (Blauvelt, New York) and its students. Contends that through this participatory activity, students are learning how to solve public problems. (SLM)

  1. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998. PMID:18505505

  2. Design of a uniform bias magnetic field for giant magnetostrictive actuators applying triple-ring magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Tianli; Jiang, Chengbao

    2013-11-01

    Uniform bias magnetic field is very important for giant magnetostrictive actuators (GMA) to fully utilize the performance of giant magnetostrictive materials (GMM). However, it is difficult to keep it uniform when the length to diameter ratio (α) of the GMM is larger than 3.5, though the shapes of the applied GMM are different with α usually larger than 3.5. In this paper, a design method with triple-ring permanent magnets is established to provide an even bias magnetic field for GMM with varying α. Firstly, the magnetic circuit model is set up. According to the analysis of the field distribution along the GMM rod, the main factor causing unevenness of the bias magnetic field is confirmed to be the inner leakage flux. A design of triple-ring topology for the magnets is developed to control the inner leakage flux to reduce the unevenness. Then, finite element analysis is adopted to optimize a design which can ensure an unevenness of the bias magnetic field of less than 3% while the α of a GMM rod is up to 20. Finally, an actual GMA is fabricated with the GMM dimension of ∅10 mm × 50 mm (α = 5), and the testing results show that the unevenness of the bias field along the GMM is 1.38%. The bias magnetic system design is practicable, simple and efficient for offering an even bias magnetic field when α lies in a wide range.

  3. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998.

  4. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved

  5. 23 CFR 636.210 - What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Award Criteria § 636.210 What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure? 636.210 Section 636.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  6. 23 CFR 636.210 - What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Award Criteria § 636.210 What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure? 636.210 Section 636.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  7. 23 CFR 636.210 - What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Award Criteria § 636.210 What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure? 636.210 Section 636.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  8. 23 CFR 636.210 - What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Award Criteria § 636.210 What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure? 636.210 Section 636.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  9. 23 CFR 636.210 - What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Award Criteria § 636.210 What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to projects which use the modified design-build procedure? 636.210 Section 636.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  10. Design for robustness using the μ-synthesis applied to launcher attitude and vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yasuhiro; Goto, Shinichi

    2008-01-01

    The M-V launch vehicle of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has successfully injected Japan's fifth X-ray space telescope "SUZAKU" into its low earth orbit in this past July. The attitude and vibration control algorithm of the M-V rocket used to be highlighted by its H∞ robust stability since its first flight conducted in 1997. Beyond this, its robustness character has been further enhanced using the μ-synthesis approach to get better robust characteristics not only in stability but in tracking performance under uncertainty of the system dynamics. The performance has been validated by the latest back-to-back successful flights of the vehicle: in May 2003 to directly inject Japan's first asteroid sample return spaceship "HAYABUSA" into the planned inter-planetary trajectory and in this past July to launch the telescope. The μ-synthesis has been applied for the first time ever for Japan's launcher control beyond the reliable H∞ design. The plant dynamics has an extremely high-order and unstable characteristics, thus the standard μ-synthesis format cannot be directly applied. The paper gives a unique methodology to apply the theory to such a real high-order complicated system.

  11. PSALM for Empowering Educational Stakeholders: Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…

  12. Genetic algorithm for design and manufacture optimization based on numerical simulations applied to aeronautic composite parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sébastian, P.

    2010-06-01

    A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM® and Samcef® softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.

  13. Genetic algorithm for design and manufacture optimization based on numerical simulations applied to aeronautic composite parts

    SciTech Connect

    Mouton, S.; Ledoux, Y.; Teissandier, D.; Sebastian, P.

    2010-06-15

    A key challenge for the future is to reduce drastically the human impact on the environment. In the aeronautic field, this challenge aims at optimizing the design of the aircraft to decrease the global mass. This reduction leads to the optimization of every part constitutive of the plane. This operation is even more delicate when the used material is composite material. In this case, it is necessary to find a compromise between the strength, the mass and the manufacturing cost of the component. Due to these different kinds of design constraints it is necessary to assist engineer with decision support system to determine feasible solutions. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the coupling of the different key characteristics of the design process and on the consideration of the failure risk of the component. The originality of this work is that the manufacturing deviations due to the RTM process are integrated in the simulation of the assembly process. Two kinds of deviations are identified: volume impregnation (injection phase of RTM process) and geometrical deviations (curing and cooling phases). The quantification of these deviations and the related failure risk calculation is based on finite element simulations (Pam RTM registered and Samcef registered softwares). The use of genetic algorithm allows to estimate the impact of the design choices and their consequences on the failure risk of the component. The main focus of the paper is the optimization of tool design. In the framework of decision support systems, the failure risk calculation is used for making the comparison of possible industrialization alternatives. It is proposed to apply this method on a particular part of the airplane structure: a spar unit made of carbon fiber/epoxy composite.

  14. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future.

  15. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. PMID:26040608

  16. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  17. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  18. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  19. Low power considerations and design for CMOS VCOs applied for direct conversion receivers at 5GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adin, Iñigo; Quemada, Carlos; Solar, Hector; Sedano, Beatriz; Gutierrez, Iñigo

    2007-05-01

    Low power design often requires direct conversion architectures, such as low-IF or zero-IF. Any of these two possibilities needs a low power, low phase noise voltage control oscillator (VCO) in the frequency synthesizer. This work is focused on low power considerations applied to the practical modern conception of this device. Fulfilling the standard specifications (output power, phase noise, frequency range) should be completed with this deeper step. A conscious design leads moreover to an improvement in the results obtained by the classical considerations. The increase of the quality factor of the passive elements is one of the key points, followed by an accurate design of the architecture scheme. Furthermore, lower current consumption provides higher oscillation frequencies and facilitates higher frequency ranges, which follow the trends of modern wireless and wideband communication standards. In order to validate the aforementioned assumptions, a CMOS VCO has been implemented in UMC 0.18μm 1P6M technology, with power consumption down to 3.4mW.

  20. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    PubMed Central

    HECHT, GREGORY B.; MOSTO, PATRICIA; SLATER, C. STEWART

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course. PMID:23653549

  1. Basis of human factors methodology applied in the Westinghouse AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 brought about an awareness that there is a need for a new perspective on nuclear power plant operator performance. It was discerned that besides executing control actions, the operator needs an additional role, that of systems supervisor-someone who considers plant health at the functional level of how all the plant processes are related and how they perform with regard to the high-level operational goals of the plant. Westinghouse has taken the initiative to apply these ideas in dealing with the operator by studying the work of Rasmussen of Denmark's Riso Laboratory, regarding knowledge-based behavior and the requirements for supporting the cognitive processes required of an operator. This has led to the Westinghouse Man-Machine-Interface System (MMIS) design process.

  2. New aspects of developing a dry powder inhalation formulation applying the quality-by-design approach.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Karimi, Keyhaneh; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2016-09-10

    The current work outlines the application of an up-to-date and regulatory-based pharmaceutical quality management method, applied as a new development concept in the process of formulating dry powder inhalation systems (DPIs). According to the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology and Risk Assessment (RA) thinking, a mannitol based co-spray dried formula was produced as a model dosage form with meloxicam as the model active agent. The concept and the elements of the QbD approach (regarding its systemic, scientific, risk-based, holistic, and proactive nature with defined steps for pharmaceutical development), as well as the experimental drug formulation (including the technological parameters assessed and the methods and processes applied) are described in the current paper. Findings of the QbD based theoretical prediction and the results of the experimental development are compared and presented. Characteristics of the developed end-product were in correlation with the predictions, and all data were confirmed by the relevant results of the in vitro investigations. These results support the importance of using the QbD approach in new drug formulation, and prove its good usability in the early development process of DPIs. This innovative formulation technology and product appear to have a great potential in pulmonary drug delivery.

  3. New aspects of developing a dry powder inhalation formulation applying the quality-by-design approach.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Karimi, Keyhaneh; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2016-09-10

    The current work outlines the application of an up-to-date and regulatory-based pharmaceutical quality management method, applied as a new development concept in the process of formulating dry powder inhalation systems (DPIs). According to the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology and Risk Assessment (RA) thinking, a mannitol based co-spray dried formula was produced as a model dosage form with meloxicam as the model active agent. The concept and the elements of the QbD approach (regarding its systemic, scientific, risk-based, holistic, and proactive nature with defined steps for pharmaceutical development), as well as the experimental drug formulation (including the technological parameters assessed and the methods and processes applied) are described in the current paper. Findings of the QbD based theoretical prediction and the results of the experimental development are compared and presented. Characteristics of the developed end-product were in correlation with the predictions, and all data were confirmed by the relevant results of the in vitro investigations. These results support the importance of using the QbD approach in new drug formulation, and prove its good usability in the early development process of DPIs. This innovative formulation technology and product appear to have a great potential in pulmonary drug delivery. PMID:27386791

  4. Aerodynamic design applying automatic differentiation and using robust variable fidelity optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemiya, Tetsushi

    , and that (2) the AMF terminates optimization erroneously when the optimization problems have constraints. The first problem is due to inaccuracy in computing derivatives in the AMF, and the second problem is due to erroneous treatment of the trust region ratio, which sets the size of the domain for an optimization in the AMF. In order to solve the first problem of the AMF, automatic differentiation (AD) technique, which reads the codes of analysis models and automatically generates new derivative codes based on some mathematical rules, is applied. If derivatives are computed with the generated derivative code, they are analytical, and the required computational time is independent of the number of design variables, which is very advantageous for realistic aerospace engineering problems. However, if analysis models implement iterative computations such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which solves system partial differential equations iteratively, computing derivatives through the AD requires a massive memory size. The author solved this deficiency by modifying the AD approach and developing a more efficient implementation with CFD, and successfully applied the AD to general CFD software. In order to solve the second problem of the AMF, the governing equation of the trust region ratio, which is very strict against the violation of constraints, is modified so that it can accept the violation of constraints within some tolerance. By accepting violations of constraints during the optimization process, the AMF can continue optimization without terminating immaturely and eventually find the true optimum design point. With these modifications, the AMF is referred to as "Robust AMF," and it is applied to airfoil and wing aerodynamic design problems using Euler CFD software. The former problem has 21 design variables, and the latter 64. In both problems, derivatives computed with the proposed AD method are first compared with those computed with the finite

  5. The Indian Family Wellness project: an application of the tribal participatory research model.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a family-centered prevention intervention for preschool-aged children-the Indian Family Wellness (IFW) project. The development, implementation, and evaluation of IFW has been based upon a tribal participatory research model, an approach that emphasizes full participation of tribes and tribal members in all phases of the research process and incorporates cultural and historical factors vital to strengthening American Indian and Alaska Native families. We present four mechanisms of tribal participatory research, describe how they have been applied in the IFW project, and consider the implications of this work for the field of family-centered prevention research.

  6. Exceptional Education and the Physical Environment: Toward Behaviorally-Based Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.; Cohen, Uriel

    The paper summarizes findings from an applied research programing and design project for children with learning disabilities. Information was collected and analyzed from the literature, interviews, observations, participatory games, consultants, and a building type analysis. Findings are reported along 14 developmental goals (such as perceptual…

  7. Learning How to Manage Bias: A Case Study of Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…

  8. Participatory Management Emphasizing Quality: A Viable Alternative for American Corporations and Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheane, Kim E.

    This paper addresses issues and the viability of applying participatory management (PM) to education, with focus on Total Quality Management (TQM). Following a description of PM techniques with an TQM focus and a historical overview of Deming's management theory, four stages of team growth experienced during the implementation process are…

  9. Design, fabrication, and test of a graphite/epoxy metering truss. [as applied to the LST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oken, S.; Skoumal, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A graphite/epoxy metering truss as applied to the large space telescope was investigated. A full-scale truss was designed, fabricated and tested. Tests included static limit loadings, a modal survey and thermal-vacuum distortion evaluation. The most critical requirement was the demonstration of the dimensional stability provided by the graphite/epoxy truss concept. Crucial to the attainment of this objective was the ability to make very sophisticated thermal growth measurements which was provided by a seven beam laser interferometer. The design of the basic truss elements were tuned to provide the high degree of dimensional stability and stiffness required by the truss. The struts and spider assembly were fabricated with Fiberite's AS/934 and HMS/934 broadgoods. The rings utilized T300 graphite fabricate with the same materials. The predicted performance of the truss was developed using the NASTRAN program. These results showed conformance with the critical stiffness and thermal distortion requirements and correlated well with the test results.

  10. [Participatory Quality Development: Engaging Community Members in All Phases of Project Planning and Implementation].

    PubMed

    Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Block, M; von Unger, H; Brandes, S; Ziesemer, M; Gold, C; Rosenbrock, R

    2015-09-01

    Community participation, recognised as a central feature of successful health promotion and prevention, is often difficult to implement. In this research project internationally recognised methods of participatory health research were applied to demonstrate ways in which community members can be engaged. Participatory health research is characterised by a close collaboration between academic researchers, practitioners and community members in order to generate common knowledge. It is not a question of translating knowledge from research into practice, but rather a question of promoting a collective learning process on the part of all participants for the purpose of developing solutions which address the interests and needs of local people. The result of the project is a new approach for strengthening the quality of prevention and health promotion interventions: participatory quality development (PQD).

  11. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy consumption. In addition the

  12. Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

  13. Designing Brave New Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of designing settings for children that encourage hands-on creativity through play. Suggests the designs are art forms requiring a participatory art teaching style. Describes the technique and provides proven design ideas. (CMK)

  14. Towards a global participatory platform. Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.

  15. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    PubMed

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.

  16. General Strategy for the Design of DNA Coding Sequences Applied to Nanoparticle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Calais, Théo; Baijot, Vincent; Djafari Rouhani, Mehdi; Gauchard, David; Chabal, Yves J; Rossi, Carole; Estève, Alain

    2016-09-20

    The DNA-directed assembly of nano-objects has been the subject of many recent studies as a means to construct advanced nanomaterial architectures. Although much experimental in silico work has been presented and discussed, there has been no in-depth consideration of the proper design of single-strand sticky termination of DNA sequences, noted as ssST, which is important in avoiding self-folding within one DNA strand, unwanted strand-to-strand interaction, and mismatching. In this work, a new comprehensive and computationally efficient optimization algorithm is presented for the construction of all possible DNA sequences that specifically prevents these issues. This optimization procedure is also effective when a spacer section is used, typically repeated sequences of thymine or adenine placed between the ssST and the nano-object, to address the most conventional experimental protocols. We systematically discuss the fundamental statistics of DNA sequences considering complementarities limited to two (or three) adjacent pairs to avoid self-folding and hybridization of identical strands due to unwanted complements and mismatching. The optimized DNA sequences can reach maximum lengths of 9 to 34 bases depending on the level of applied constraints. The thermodynamic properties of the allowed sequences are used to develop a ranking for each design. For instance, we show that the maximum melting temperature saturates with 14 bases under typical solvation and concentration conditions. Thus, DNA ssST with optimized sequences are developed for segments ranging from 4 to 40 bases, providing a very useful guide for all technological protocols. An experimental test is presented and discussed using the aggregation of Al and CuO nanoparticles and is shown to validate and illustrate the importance of the proposed DNA coding sequence optimization. PMID:27578445

  17. Participatory Workplace Wellness Programs: Reward, Penalty, and Regulatory Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Context In keeping with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Congress revised the law related to workplace wellness programs. In June 2013, the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services passed the final regulations, updating their 2006 regulatory framework. Participatory programs that reward the completion of a health risk assessment are now the most common type of wellness program in the United States. However, legal and ethical concerns emerge when employers utilize incentives that raise questions about the voluntariness of such programs. At issue is that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, employers cannot require health-related inquiries and exams. Methods To analyze the current interpretation of the ADA, I conducted research on both LexisNexis and federal agency websites. The resulting article evaluates the differences in the language of Congress's enabling legislation and the federal departments’ regulations and how they may conflict with the ADA. It also reviews the federal government's authority to address both the legal conflict and ethical concerns related to nonvoluntary participatory programs. Findings Employers’ practices and the federal departments’ regulations conflict with the current interpretation of the ADA by permitting employers to penalize employees who do not complete a health risk assessment. The departments’ regulations may be interpreted as conflicting with Congress's legislation, which mentions penalties only for health-contingent wellness programs. Furthermore, the regulatory protections for employees applicable to health-contingent wellness programs do not apply to participatory programs. Conclusions Either Congress or the federal agencies should address the conflict among employers’ practices, the wellness regulations, and the ADA and also consider additional protections for employees. Employers can avoid ethical and legal complications by offering voluntary programs with

  18. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  19. Developing and Implementing a Framework of Participatory Simulation for Mobile Learning Using Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Song, Yanjie; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage,…

  20. Prospects for the Future: The Use of Participatory Action Research to Study Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Emily Alana

    2005-01-01

    Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a…

  1. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  2. Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

  3. Participatory Action Research: Reflections on Critical Incidents in a PAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, Betsy; Singer, George H. S.; DiVenere, Nancy; Ginsberg, Connie; Powers, Laurie E.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes a participatory action research (PAR) project designed to evaluate Parent to Parent programs in five states. The process of developing a shared understanding of the program and of the purpose for evaluating them, along with an on-going willingness of parents and researchers to compromise, led to creative solutions to…

  4. Participatory and Anticipatory Stages of Mathematical Concept Learning: Further Empirical and Theoretical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora; Avitzur, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Tzur and Simon (2004) postulated 2 stages of development in learning a mathematical concept: participatory and anticipatory. The authors discuss the affordances for research of this stage distinction related to data analysis, task design, and assessment as demonstrated in a 2-year teaching experiment.

  5. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  6. Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…

  7. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  8. Applying Monte Carlo Simulation to Launch Vehicle Design and Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. M.; Beard, B. B.

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) is meant to address a number of topics related to the application of Monte Carlo simulation to launch vehicle design and requirements analysis. Although the focus is on a launch vehicle application, the methods may be applied to other complex systems as well. The TP is organized so that all the important topics are covered in the main text, and detailed derivations are in the appendices. The TP first introduces Monte Carlo simulation and the major topics to be discussed, including discussion of the input distributions for Monte Carlo runs, testing the simulation, how many runs are necessary for verification of requirements, what to do if results are desired for events that happen only rarely, and postprocessing, including analyzing any failed runs, examples of useful output products, and statistical information for generating desired results from the output data. Topics in the appendices include some tables for requirements verification, derivation of the number of runs required and generation of output probabilistic data with consumer risk included, derivation of launch vehicle models to include possible variations of assembled vehicles, minimization of a consumable to achieve a two-dimensional statistical result, recontact probability during staging, ensuring duplicated Monte Carlo random variations, and importance sampling.

  9. 40 CFR 1051.625 - What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers? 1051.625 Section 1051.625 Protection of... snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers? (a) If you are a small-volume manufacturer, we may permit... different deadlines apply to companies that are not small-volume manufacturers, do not send your...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.625 - What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers? 1051.625 Section 1051.625 Protection of... snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers? (a) If you are a small-volume manufacturer, we may permit... different deadlines apply to companies that are not small-volume manufacturers, do not send your...

  11. 40 CFR 1051.625 - What special provisions apply to unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unique snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers? 1051.625 Section 1051.625 Protection of... snowmobile designs for small-volume manufacturers? (a) If you are a small-volume manufacturer, we may permit... different deadlines apply to companies that are not small-volume manufacturers, do not send your...

  12. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  13. Can Public Education Coexist with Participatory Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…

  14. Participatory Management of Co-Curricular Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLenighan, Harry

    This paper argues that, for both practical and philosophical reasons, high school activities ought to be managed by participatory principles. It further argues that the responsibility for bringing this about belongs to principals and activities directors through appropriate modeling and in-service education. In addition, obstacles to the…

  15. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  16. Principled Challenges for a Participatory Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The ideals that are central to action research are not often explicitly addressed in writing about action research and participation. This article argues for a more explicit dialogue about the ideals of participation and how those ideals relate to participatory practices. The lack of such a dialogue can obscure both the process of participation…

  17. Evaluation of Complex Programs Using Participatory Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhon, Karen; And Others

    Summaries are presented of papers from a symposium entitled "The Evaluation of Complex Programs Using Participatory Evaluation" that focused on a comprehensive school service program in a south Texas alternative high school. "Theoretical Framework and Objectives" explores the problems of evaluating such programs. Problems result from the…

  18. Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

  19. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  20. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…

  1. Teaching Writing: A Multilayered Participatory Scaffolding Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to the research on teachers' writing pedagogy. It reviews and challenges the research literature on scaffolding as an instructional practice and presents a more inclusive framework for analysis. As student participation and voice were absent from much of the literature, a participatory scaffolding framework was developed to…

  2. Participatory Research: A Tool for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Given their positions in communities across the United States, Extension educators are poised to have meaningful partnerships with the communities they serve. This article presents a case for the use of participatory research, which is a departure from more conventional forms of research based on objectivity, researcher distance, and social…

  3. Participatory Pedagogy: A Compass for Transformative Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…

  4. 7 CFR 1944.259 - Participatory agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Participatory agreement. 1944.259 Section 1944.259... service coordinator in developing supportive services case plans. A participant has the option of accepting any of the services under the case plan. (b) Once the plan is approved by the PAC and the...

  5. Further Development of an Optimal Design Approach Applied to Axial Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloodgood, V. Dale, Jr.; Groom, Nelson J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    2000-01-01

    Classical design methods involved in magnetic bearings and magnetic suspension systems have always had their limitations. Because of this, the overall effectiveness of a design has always relied heavily on the skill and experience of the individual designer. This paper combines two approaches that have been developed to aid the accuracy and efficiency of magnetostatic design. The first approach integrates classical magnetic circuit theory with modern optimization theory to increase design efficiency. The second approach uses loss factors to increase the accuracy of classical magnetic circuit theory. As an example, an axial magnetic thrust bearing is designed for minimum power.

  6. A Study of the Effectiveness of Information Design Principles Applied to Clinical Research Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Beverly B.; Schultz, Jessica R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of information design principles and feedback-based usability testing in developing clinical questionnaires. Finds that a form developed using information design principles collected significantly more data than did a control form. (SR)

  7. Design for Review - Applying Lessons Learned to Improve the FPGA Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Li, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Flight Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) designs are required to be independently reviewed. This paper provides recommendations to Flight FPGA designers to properly prepare their designs for review in order to facilitate the review process, and reduce the impact of the review time in the overall project schedule.

  8. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. PMID:27542290

  9. Hybrid inversions of CO2 fluxes at regional scale applied to network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; -Thomas Koch, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Long term observations of atmospheric greenhouse gas measuring stations, located at representative regions over the continent, improve our understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. These mixing ratio measurements can be linked to surface fluxes by atmospheric transport inversions. Within the upcoming years new stations are to be deployed, which requires decision making tools with respect to the location and the density of the network. We are developing a method to assess potential greenhouse gas observing networks in terms of their ability to recover specific target quantities. As target quantities we use CO2 fluxes aggregated to specific spatial and temporal scales. We introduce a high resolution inverse modeling framework, which attempts to combine advantages from pixel based inversions with those of a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). The hybrid inversion system consists of the Lagrangian transport model STILT, the diagnostic biosphere model VPRM and a Bayesian inversion scheme. We aim to retrieve the spatiotemporal distribution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at a high spatial resolution (10 km x 10 km) by inverting for spatially and temporally varying scaling factors for gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) and respiration (R) rather than solving for the fluxes themselves. Thus the state space includes parameters for controlling photosynthesis and respiration, but unlike in a CCDAS it allows for spatial and temporal variations, which can be expressed as NEE(x,y,t) = λG(x,y,t) GEE(x,y,t) + λR(x,y,t) R(x,y,t) . We apply spatially and temporally correlated uncertainties by using error covariance matrices with non-zero off-diagonal elements. Synthetic experiments will test our system and select the optimal a priori error covariance by using different spatial and temporal correlation lengths on the error statistics of the a priori covariance and comparing the optimized fluxes against the 'known truth'. As 'known truth' we use independent fluxes

  10. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied transonic aerodynamic wing design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the direct-inverse wing design method in curvilinear coordinates has been made. This includes the remedying of a spanwise oscillation problem and the assessment of grid skewness, viscous interaction, and the initial airfoil section on the final design. It was found that, in response to the spanwise oscillation problem that designing at every other spanwise station produced the best results for the cases presented, a smoothly varying grid is especially needed for the accurate design at the wing tip, the boundary layer displacement thicknesses must be included in a successful wing design, the design of high and medium aspect ratio wings is possible with this code, and the final airfoil section designed is fairly independent of the initial section.

  11. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    PubMed

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.

  12. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    PubMed

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning. PMID:23438266

  13. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine

  14. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  15. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  16. 34 CFR 370.44 - What reporting requirement applies to each designated agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT... designated agency from clients or client applicants; (d) The number of the requests for advocacy services... the designated agency was unable to serve all of the requests for advocacy services from clients...

  17. 34 CFR 370.44 - What reporting requirement applies to each designated agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CLIENT... designated agency from clients or client applicants; (d) The number of the requests for advocacy services... the designated agency was unable to serve all of the requests for advocacy services from clients...

  18. Interview with Charles M. Reigeluth: Applying Instructional Design to Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Charles M. Reigeluth is one of the most contributing and certainly the leading scholars in the field of educational technology and instructional design. His early contributions were about developing instructional design theories such as Elaboration Theory and Component Display Theory. He has also edited monumental books as collections of major ID…

  19. Applying a Competency- and Problem-Based Approach for Learning Compiler Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoumsi, Ahmed; Gonzalez-Rubio, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    Our department has redesigned its electrical engineering and computer engineering programs completely by adopting a learning methodology based on competence development, problem solving, and the realization of design projects. In this article, we show how this pedagogical approach has been successfully used for learning compiler design.

  20. Development of direct-inverse 3-D methods for applied transonic aerodynamic wing design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    An inverse wing design method was developed around an existing transonic wing analysis code. The original analysis code, TAWFIVE, has as its core the numerical potential flow solver, FLO30, developed by Jameson and Caughey. Features of the analysis code include a finite-volume formulation; wing and fuselage fitted, curvilinear grid mesh; and a viscous boundary layer correction that also accounts for viscous wake thickness and curvature. The development of the inverse methods as an extension of previous methods existing for design in Cartesian coordinates is presented. Results are shown for inviscid wing design cases in super-critical flow regimes. The test cases selected also demonstrate the versatility of the design method in designing an entire wing or discontinuous sections of a wing.

  1. Efficient design of a truss beam by applying first order optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorik, Filip

    2013-10-01

    Applications of optimization procedures in structural designs are widely discussed problems, which are caused by currently still-increasing demands on structures. Using of optimization methods in efficient designs passes through great development, especially in duplicate production where even small savings might lead to considerable reduction of total costs. The presented paper deals with application and analysis of the First Order optimization technique, which is implemented in the Design Optimization module that uses the main features of multi-physical FEM program ANSYS, in steel truss-beam design. Constraints of the design are stated by EN 1993 Eurocode 3, for uniform compression forces in compression members and tensile resistance moments in tension members. Furthermore, a minimum frequency of the first natural modal shape of the structure is determined. The aim of the solution is minimizing the weight of the structure by changing members' cross-section properties.

  2. The importance of user centered design methods applied to the design of a new workstation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Duschenes, Ronaldo; Mendes, Andressa; Betiol, Adriana; Barreto, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the application of user centered design methodologies in the product development for a line of ergonomic office furniture. The study aimed to analyze the experience of using a workstation from the perspective of two groups of users, installers and end users. The observation of users in their natural context of use not only allowed the development team to identify key needs and strategies of the users, transforming them into design solutions, but mainly it warned them of the importance and impact of user involvement in the product development cycle.

  3. 40 CFR 267.1103 - What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building? 267.1103 Section 267.1103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS...

  4. The light airplane : modern theoretical aerodynamics as applied to light airplane design with a series of charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggs, Ivan H

    1925-01-01

    T.M. 311 gave a short outline of modern theoretical aerodynamics as applied to light airplane design. This discussion may have been somewhat obscure to the nontechnical reader. A series of charts or curves should serve to clear up such obscurity as well as to more definitely emphasize those quantities most important for each flight characteristic.

  5. 41 CFR 102-76.55 - What sustainable development principles must Federal agencies apply to the siting, design, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.55 What sustainable development principles must... Acquisition,” Federal agencies must apply sustainable development principles to the siting, design, and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What...

  6. 41 CFR 102-76.55 - What sustainable development principles must Federal agencies apply to the siting, design, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.55 What sustainable development principles must... Acquisition,” Federal agencies must apply sustainable development principles to the siting, design, and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What...

  7. 41 CFR 102-76.55 - What sustainable development principles must Federal agencies apply to the siting, design, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.55 What sustainable development principles must... Acquisition,” Federal agencies must apply sustainable development principles to the siting, design, and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What...

  8. 41 CFR 102-76.55 - What sustainable development principles must Federal agencies apply to the siting, design, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.55 What sustainable development principles must... Acquisition,” Federal agencies must apply sustainable development principles to the siting, design, and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What...

  9. D-optimal design applied to binding saturation curves of an enkephalin analog in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Verotta, D.; Petrillo, P.; La Regina, A.; Rocchetti, M.; Tavani, A.

    1988-01-01

    The D-optimal design, a minimal sample design that minimizes the volume of the joint confidence region for the parameters, was used to evaluate binding parameters in a saturation curve with a view to reducing the number of experimental points without loosing accuracy in binding parameter estimates. Binding saturation experiments were performed in rat brain crude membrane preparations with the opioid ..mu..-selective ligand (/sup 3/H)-(D-Ala/sup 2/, MePhe/sup 4/, Gly-ol/sup 5/)enkephalin (DAGO), using a sequential procedure. The first experiment consisted of a wide-range saturation curve, which confirmed that (/sup 3/H)-DAGO binds only one class of specific sites and non-specific sites, and gave information on the experimental range and a first estimate of binding affinity (K/sub a/), capacity (B/sub max/) and non-specific constant (k). On this basis the D-optimal design was computed and sequential experiments were performed each covering a wide-range traditional saturation curve, the D-optimal design and a splitting of the D-optimal design with the addition of 2 points (+/- 15% of the central point). No appreciable differences were obtained with these designs in parameter estimates and their accuracy. Thus, sequential experiments based on D-optimal design seem a valid method for accurate determination of binding parameters, using far fewer points with no loss in parameter estimation accuracy. 25 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Some effects of applying sonic boom minimization to supersonic cruise aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, R. J.; Darden, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of an aircraft shaping method to control sonic boom over-pressure levels along with the analysis of wind-tunnel data which validated the method. The results indicate that the sonic boom minimization method can guide the design team choices of aircraft planform and component arrangement toward a low-boom-level configuration while permitting sufficient freedom and flexibility to satisfy other design criteria. Further, it is shown that off-design flight conditions do not drastically change the overpressure sonic boom shape and strength.

  11. A General Multidisciplinary Turbomachinery Design Optimization system Applied to a Transonic Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemnem, Ahmed Mohamed Farid

    The blade geometry design process is integral to the development and advancement of compressors and turbines in gas generators or aeroengines. A new airfoil section design capability has been added to an open source parametric 3D blade design tool. Curvature of the meanline is controlled using B-splines to create the airfoils. The curvature is analytically integrated to derive the angles and the meanline is obtained by integrating the angles. A smooth thickness distribution is then added to the airfoil to guarantee a smooth shape while maintaining a prescribed thickness distribution. A leading edge B-spline definition has also been implemented to achieve customized airfoil leading edges which guarantees smoothness with parametric eccentricity and droop. An automated turbomachinery design and optimization system has been created. An existing splittered transonic fan is used as a test and reference case. This design was more general than a conventional design to have access to the other design methodology. The whole mechanical and aerodynamic design loops are automated for the optimization process. The flow path and the geometrical properties of the rotor are initially created using the axi-symmetric design and analysis code (T-AXI). The main and splitter blades are parametrically designed with the created geometry builder (3DBGB) using the new added features (curvature technique). The solid model creation of the rotor sector with a periodic boundaries combining the main blade and splitter is done using MATLAB code directly connected to SolidWorks including the hub, fillets and tip clearance. A mechanical optimization is performed with DAKOTA (developed by DOE) to reduce the mass of the blades while keeping maximum stress as a constraint with a safety factor. A Genetic algorithm followed by Numerical Gradient optimization strategies are used in the mechanical optimization. The splittered transonic fan blades mass is reduced by 2.6% while constraining the maximum

  12. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2016-03-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  13. Investigating Geosparql Requirements for Participatory Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.

  14. Design of multivariable feedback control systems via spectral assignment. [as applied to aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberty, S. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Tung, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Applied research in the area of spectral assignment in multivariable systems is reported. A frequency domain technique for determining the set of all stabilizing controllers for a single feedback loop multivariable system is described. It is shown that decoupling and tracking are achievable using this procedure. The technique is illustrated with a simple example.

  15. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: Applying Image-Based Learning to Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Cameron T.

    2013-01-01

    Although images are often used in the classroom to communicate difficult concepts, students have little input into their selection and application. This approach can create a passive experience for students and represents a missed opportunity for instructors to engage participation. By applying concepts found in visual sociology to techniques…

  16. Comparative Case Study on Designing and Applying Flipped Classroom at Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Jihyun; Kim, Hyeonsu; Han, Hyeongjong

    2014-01-01

    There have been many reports on cases where flipped classroom was applied which put greater emphasis on conducting various learning activities during class. However, there is a limitation in redesigning existing university lectures as flipped classrooms merely based on reports that describe the learning activities of and their effects on…

  17. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  18. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  19. Limitations of the method of characteristics when applied to axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Anne C.; Perkins, John N.; Benton, James R.

    1990-01-01

    A design study of axisymmetric hypersonic wind tunnel nozzles was initiated by NASA Langley Research Center with the objective of improving the flow quality of their ground test facilities. Nozzles for Mach 6 air, Mach 13.5 nitrogen, and Mach 17 nitrogen were designed using the Method of Characteristics/Boundary Layer (MOC/BL) approach and were analyzed with a Navier-Stokes solver. Results of the analysis agreed well with design for the Mach 6 case, but revealed oblique shock waves of increasing strength originating from near the inflection point of the Mach 13.5 and Mach 17 nozzles. The findings indicate that the MOC/BL design method has a fundamental limitation that occurs at some Mach number between 6 an 13.5. In order to define the limitation more exactly and attempt to discover the cause, a parametric study of hypersonic ideal air nozzles designed with the current MOC/BL method was done. Results of this study indicate that, while stagnations conditions have a moderate affect on the upper limit of the method, the method fails at Mach numbers above 8.0.

  20. Dead-blow hammer design applied to a calibration target mechanism to dampen excessive rebound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Brian Y.

    1991-01-01

    An existing rotary electromagnetic driver was specified to be used to deploy and restow a blackbody calibration target inside of a spacecraft infrared science instrument. However, this target was much more massive than any other previously inherited design applications. The target experienced unacceptable bounce when reaching its stops. Without any design modification, the momentum generated by the driver caused the target to bounce back to its starting position. Initially, elastomeric dampers were used between the driver and the target. However, this design could not prevent the bounce, and it compromised the positional accuracy of the calibration target. A design that successfully met all the requirements incorporated a sealed pocket 85 percent full of 0.75 mm diameter stainless steel balls in the back of the target to provide the effect of a dead-blow hammer. The energy dissipation resulting from the collision of balls in the pocket successfully dampened the excess momentum generated during the target deployment. The disastrous effects of new requirements on a design with a successful flight history, the modifications that were necessary to make the device work, and the tests performed to verify its functionality are described.

  1. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    PubMed

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success.

  2. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    PubMed

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success. PMID:26360206

  3. System and antenna design considerations for highly elliptical orbits as applied to the proposed Archimedes Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paynter, C.; Cuchanski, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses various aspects of the system design for a satellite in a highly elliptical inclined orbit, and presents a number of antenna design options for the proposed Archimedes mission. A satellite constellation was studied for the provision of multi media communication services in the L and S Band for northern latitudes. The inclined elliptical orbit would allow coverage of Europe, America, and East Asia. Using Canada and North America as the baseline coverage area, this paper addresses system considerations such as the satellite configuration and pointing, beam configuration, and requirements for antennas. A trade-off is performed among several antenna candidates including a direct radiating array, a focal-fed reflector, and a single reflector imaging system. Antenna geometry, performance, and beam forming methods are described. The impact of the designs on the antenna deployment is discussed.

  4. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  5. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted. PMID:26560977

  6. Prospects of Applying Enhanced Semi-Empirical QM Methods for 2101 Virtual Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The last five years have seen a renaissance of semiempirical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods in the field of virtual drug design, largely due to the increased accuracy of so-called enhanced SQM approaches. These methods make use of additional terms for treating dispersion (D) and hydrogen bond (H) interactions with an accuracy comparable to dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D). DFT-D in turn was shown to provide an accuracy comparable to the most sophisticated QM approaches when it comes to non-covalent intermolecular forces, which usually dominate the protein/ligand interactions that are central to virtual drug design. Enhanced SQM methods thus offer a very promising way to improve upon the current state of the art in the field of virtual drug design. PMID:27183985

  7. Applied Virtual Reality in Reusable Launch Vehicle Design, Operations Development, and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Application of Virtual Reality (VR) technology offers much promise to enhance and accelerate the development of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) infrastructure and operations while simultaneously reducing developmental and operational costs. One of the primary cost areas in the RLV concept that is receiving special attention is maintenance and refurbishment operations. To produce and operate a cost effective RLV, turnaround cost must be minimized. Designing for maintainability is a necessary requirement in developing RLVs. VR can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is beginning to utilize VR for design, operations development, and design analysis for RLVs. A VR applications program has been under development at NASA/MSFC since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. The NASA/MSFC VR capability has also been utilized in several applications. These include: 1) the assessment of the design of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA), the control room from which onboard payload operations are managed; 2) a viewing analysis of the Tethered Satellite System's (TSS) "end-of-reel" tether marking options; 3) development of a virtual mockup of the International Space Welding Experiment for science viewing analyses from the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System elbow camera and as a trainer for ground controllers; and 4) teleoperations using VR. This presentation will give a general overview of the MSFC VR Applications Program and describe the use of VR in design analyses, operations development, and training for RLVs.

  8. Design Factors for Applying Cryogen Storage and Delivery Technology to Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) and Multilayer Insulation (MLI) technology, originally developed for long term storage of cryogen propellants in microgravity, is ideally suited for propellant storage and delivery systems for solar thermal propulsion. With this technology the heat-induced pressure rise in the tank provides the propellant delivery pressure without the need for an auxiliary pressurant system, and propellant delivery is used to remove the excess heat to control tank pressure. The factors to consider in designing such a balanced system, are presented. An example of a minimum system design is presented along with examples of laboratory-tested hardware.

  9. A new design of flocculation tank: the Turbomix applied to weighted flocculation.

    PubMed

    Levecq, C; Breda, C; Ursel, V; Marteil, P; Sauvignet, P

    2007-01-01

    As far as flocculation is concerned, the agglomeration of suspended particles into flocs is highly linked to the hydraulic behaviour of the agitation. The Turbomix is a special design of mixing tank; its design was developed to better control the flow during the flocculation stage. It enables a significant decrease in footprint of the process. The combination of the Turbomix and ballasted flocculation has been studied during pilot trials in terms of treatment efficiency. Its controlled hydraulic behaviour explains the efficiency of the process as proved by CFD investigation. PMID:18057652

  10. Structure-Based Design of Type II Inhibitors Applied to Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel Type II kinase inhibitor chemotype has been identified for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) using structure-based ligand design. The strategy involved structural characterization of an induced DFG-out pocket by protein–ligand X-ray crystallography and incorporation of a slender linkage capable of bypassing a large gate-keeper residue, thus enabling design of molecules accessing both hinge and induced pocket regions. Optimization of an initial hit led to the identification of a low-nanomolar, cell-penetrant Type II inhibitor suitable for use as a chemical probe for MELK. PMID:25589926

  11. Applying Theory to the Design of Cultural Competency Training for Medical Students: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Sonia J.; George, Geeta; Marion, Gail S.; Davis, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the current practice of cultural competency training within medical education and describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a theoretically based, year-long cultural competency training course for second-year students at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. (EV)

  12. Designing an Applied Writing M.A. within a Traditional English Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, W. Steve

    A Master of Arts in Technical and Expository Writing program has been implemented in the English department at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Designed to make future teachers and technical writers into better writers, the program gives them a larger view of the writing process in which they are participating. Three required courses…

  13. Applying a Mixed Method Design to Evaluate Training Seminars within an Early Childhood Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Pickup, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The body of research relating to assessment in education suggests that professional developers and seminar administrators have generally paid little attention to evaluation procedures. Scholars have also been critical of evaluations which use a single data source and have favoured the use of a multiple method design to generate a complete picture…

  14. Interview with Charles M. Reigeluth: Applying Instructional Design to Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Professor Reigeluth emphasizes that the work of educational technology researchers should focus on advancing instructional design theories rather than investigating some trendy aspects of utilizing educational media in schools. He makes the point that such an orientation will provide a comprehensive framework for efforts toward improving education…

  15. Applying Strategic Visualization(Registered Trademark) to Lunar and Planetary Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frassanito, John R.; Cooke, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA teams, such as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT), utilize advanced computational visualization processes to develop mission designs and architectures for lunar and planetary missions. One such process, Strategic Visualization (trademark), is a tool used extensively to help mission designers visualize various design alternatives and present them to other participants of their team. The participants, which may include NASA, industry, and the academic community, are distributed within a virtual network. Consequently, computer animation and other digital techniques provide an efficient means to communicate top-level technical information among team members. Today,Strategic Visualization(trademark) is used extensively both in the mission design process within the technical community, and to communicate the value of space exploration to the general public. Movies and digital images have been generated and shown on nationally broadcast television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and digital media. In our presentation will show excerpts of a computer-generated animation depicting the reference Earth/Moon L1 Libration Point Gateway architecture. The Gateway serves as a staging corridor for human expeditions to the lunar poles and other surface locations. Also shown are crew transfer systems and current reference lunar excursion vehicles as well as the Human and robotic construction of an inflatable telescope array for deployment to the Sun/Earth Libration Point.

  16. Multimedia and Cognition: Examining the Effect of Applying Cognitive Principles to the Design of Instructional Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nik; McGill, Tanya Jane

    2008-01-01

    The human cognitive system possesses a finite processing capacity, which is split into channels for various modalities, and learning can be inhibited if any of the cognitive channels is overloaded. However, although the amount of e-learning materials is increasing steadily, the design of instructional material has been largely based on intuition…

  17. Applying Universal Design for Learning in Online Courses: Pedagogical and Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Dell, Thomas F.; Blackwell, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the universal design for learning (UDL) model as a guiding set of principles for online curriculum development in higher education is discussed. Fundamentally, UDL provides the student with multiple means of accessing the course based on three overarching principles: presentation; action and expression; and engagement and interaction.…

  18. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  19. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The design and construction must include: (i) Floors, walls, and ceilings that can be adequately... bulbs, fixtures, skylights, or other glass or glass-like materials when the light bulbs, fixtures, skylights or other glass or glass-like materials are suspended over exposed components or...

  20. IMAGE: A Design Integration Framework Applied to the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Mark A.; Craig, James I.

    1993-01-01

    Effective design of the High Speed Civil Transport requires the systematic application of design resources throughout a product's life-cycle. Information obtained from the use of these resources is used for the decision-making processes of Concurrent Engineering. Integrated computing environments facilitate the acquisition, organization, and use of required information. State-of-the-art computing technologies provide the basis for the Intelligent Multi-disciplinary Aircraft Generation Environment (IMAGE) described in this paper. IMAGE builds upon existing agent technologies by adding a new component called a model. With the addition of a model, the agent can provide accountable resource utilization in the presence of increasing design fidelity. The development of a zeroth-order agent is used to illustrate agent fundamentals. Using a CATIA(TM)-based agent from previous work, a High Speed Civil Transport visualization system linking CATIA, FLOPS, and ASTROS will be shown. These examples illustrate the important role of the agent technologies used to implement IMAGE, and together they demonstrate that IMAGE can provide an integrated computing environment for the design of the High Speed Civil Transport.

  1. Applying Theory of Mind Concepts When Designing Interventions Targeting Social Cognition among Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Kristine K.; Westby, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a multiple baseline, across-participants, single-subject design to investigate the feasibility of an individual, narrative-based, social problem-solving intervention on the social problem-solving, narrative, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities of 3 incarcerated adolescent youth offenders identified as having emotional…

  2. Applying Evidence-Centered Design for the Development of Game-Based Assessments in Physics Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yoon Jeon; Almond, Russell G.; Shute, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    Game-based assessment (GBA) is a specific use of educational games that employs game activities to elicit evidence for educationally valuable skills and knowledge. While this approach can provide individualized and diagnostic information about students, the design and development of assessment mechanics for a GBA is a nontrivial task. In this…

  3. Syllabus Design for the General Class: What Happens When You Apply It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katie

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of current trends in syllabus design is presented with particular focus on one attempt to implement a negotiated process syllabus for English-as-a-Second-Language teaching classes. Anticipated problems; teacher and student reactions; and the success of such aspects as learning rooms, tangible end-products, and teaching pairs are…

  4. A robust PCR primer design platform applied to the detection of Acidobacteria Group 1 in soil.

    PubMed

    Gans, Jason D; Dunbar, John; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Wolinsky, Murray; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2012-07-01

    Environmental biosurveillance and microbial ecology studies use PCR-based assays to detect and quantify microbial taxa and gene sequences within a complex background of microorganisms. However, the fragmentary nature and growing quantity of DNA-sequence data make group-specific assay design challenging. We solved this problem by developing a software platform that enables PCR-assay design at an unprecedented scale. As a demonstration, we developed quantitative PCR assays for a globally widespread, ecologically important bacterial group in soil, Acidobacteria Group 1. A total of 33,684 Acidobacteria 16S rRNA gene sequences were used for assay design. Following 1 week of computation on a 376-core cluster, 83 assays were obtained. We validated the specificity of the top three assays, collectively predicted to detect 42% of the Acidobacteria Group 1 sequences, by PCR amplification and sequencing of DNA from soil. Based on previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Acidobacteria Group 1 species were expected to decrease in response to elevated atmospheric CO(2). Quantitative PCR results, using the Acidobacteria Group 1-specific PCR assays, confirmed the expected decrease and provided higher statistical confidence than the 16S rRNA gene-sequencing data. These results demonstrate a powerful capacity to address previously intractable assay design challenges.

  5. A Case Study of Universal Design for Learning Applied in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichliter, Marie E.

    2010-01-01

    As the landscape of education and the demographics of the postsecondary classroom continue to evolve, so too must the teaching practices at our nation's institutions of higher education. This study follows an instructor who has evolved to incorporate Universal Design for Learning (UDL) techniques into her classroom, even though prior to…

  6. Mathematics, critical literacy, and youth participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Yang, K Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.

  7. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed. PMID:26294566

  8. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  9. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

  10. Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was

  11. Neural-network design applied to protein-secondary-structure predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, R.C.; Head-Gordon, T.

    1995-04-01

    The success of neural networks is often limited by a sparse database of training examples, deficient neural-network architectures, and nonglobal optimization of the network variables. The convolution of these three problems has curtailed the application of network models to protein-structure predictions, where homology modeling or information theory approaches are considered better controlled alternatives. This paper introduces our broad objective of disentangling the three degrading features of neural networks cited above, beginning with improved designs of network architectures used in the prediction of protein secondary structure. This work demonstrates that network architecture design considerations greatly improve generalization and more efficiently extract complex sequence-structure relationships from the existing database, as compared to arbitrary architectures with the same size input window.

  12. Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelnett, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

  13. Computational mechanics applied to the design and analysis of investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D.K.; Givler, R.C.; Glass, M.W.; Hogan, R.E.; Rashid, M.M.

    1992-11-01

    Computational mechanics simulation capability via the finite element method is being integrated into the FASTCAST project to allow realistic analyses of investment casting problems. Commercial and in-house software is being coupled to new, solid model based mesh generation capabilities to provide improved access to fluid, thermal and structural simulations. These simulations are being used for the validation of complex gating designs and the study of fundamental problems in casting.

  14. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  15. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Airame, S.; Dugan, J.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.; McArdle, D.A.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries management. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies, organizations, and individuals established clear goals for marine reserves in the Channel Islands, including conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, sustainable fisheries, economic viability, natural and cultural heritage, and education. Given the constraints of risk management, experimental design, monitoring, and enforcement, scientists recommended at least one, but no more than four, reserves in each biogeographic region. In general, the percentage of an area to be included in a reserve network depends on the goals. In the Channel Islands, after consideration of both conservation goals and the risk from human threats and natural catastrophes, scientists recommended reserving an area of 30-50% of all representative habitats in each biogeographic region. For most species of concern, except pinnipeds and seabirds, information about distributions, dispersal, and population growth was limited. As an alternative to species distribution information, suitable habitats for species of concern were used to locate potential reserve sites. We used a simulated annealing algorithm to identify potential reserve network scenarios that would represent all habitats within the smallest area possible. The analysis produced an array of potential reserve network scenarios that all met the established goals.

  16. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.

  17. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work. PMID:25665213

  18. Back on "Whose" Track? Reframing Ideologies of Inclusion and Misrecognition in a Participatory Theatre Project with Young People in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the limitations of applied drama interventions promising integration and inclusion against the material realities of urban disenfranchisement and misrecognition. Through reflection on a participatory theatre project facilitated with young women in an urban secondary school in London, social and moral agendas emerge which…

  19. Assessing Spatial Data Quality of Participatory GIS Studies: a Case Study in Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musungu, K.

    2015-10-01

    Participatory GIS (PGIS) has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of research, little has been done in the analysis of the quality of PGIS information. The study investigated the use of data quality criteria commonly used in traditional GIS systems and shows that it is possible to apply the criteria used in traditional GIS to PGIS. It provides a starting point for PGIS studies to assess the quality of the product. Notably, this a reflective exercise on one case study, but the methodologies used in this study have been replicated in many others undertaken by Community Based Organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. Therefore the findings are relevant to such projects.

  20. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Point of Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.G.

    1998-10-26

    This paper describes the design process of physical security as applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry (PoE). Included in this paper are descriptions of the elements that compose U.S. border security. The physical security design will describe the various elements that make up the process as well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry and exit of illegal contraband will be emphasized.

  1. Trend-Centric Motion Visualization: Designing and Applying a New Strategy for Analyzing Scientific Motion Collections.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Knipe, Carissa Mai-Ping; Thorson, Lauren; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David; Carlis, John; Keefe, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In biomechanics studies, researchers collect, via experiments or simulations, datasets with hundreds or thousands of trials, each describing the same type of motion (e.g., a neck flexion-extension exercise) but under different conditions (e.g., different patients, different disease states, pre- and post-treatment). Analyzing similarities and differences across all of the trials in these collections is a major challenge. Visualizing a single trial at a time does not work, and the typical alternative of juxtaposing multiple trials in a single visual display leads to complex, difficult-to-interpret visualizations. We address this problem via a new strategy that organizes the analysis around motion trends rather than trials. This new strategy matches the cognitive approach that scientists would like to take when analyzing motion collections. We introduce several technical innovations making trend-centric motion visualization possible. First, an algorithm detects a motion collection's trends via time-dependent clustering. Second, a 2D graphical technique visualizes how trials leave and join trends. Third, a 3D graphical technique, using a median 3D motion plus a visual variance indicator, visualizes the biomechanics of the set of trials within each trend. These innovations are combined to create an interactive exploratory visualization tool, which we designed through an iterative process in collaboration with both domain scientists and a traditionally-trained graphic designer. We report on insights generated during this design process and demonstrate the tool's effectiveness via a validation study with synthetic data and feedback from expert musculoskeletal biomechanics researchers who used the tool to analyze the effects of disc degeneration on human spinal kinematics. PMID:26356978

  2. Trend-Centric Motion Visualization: Designing and Applying a New Strategy for Analyzing Scientific Motion Collections.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Knipe, Carissa Mai-Ping; Thorson, Lauren; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David; Carlis, John; Keefe, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In biomechanics studies, researchers collect, via experiments or simulations, datasets with hundreds or thousands of trials, each describing the same type of motion (e.g., a neck flexion-extension exercise) but under different conditions (e.g., different patients, different disease states, pre- and post-treatment). Analyzing similarities and differences across all of the trials in these collections is a major challenge. Visualizing a single trial at a time does not work, and the typical alternative of juxtaposing multiple trials in a single visual display leads to complex, difficult-to-interpret visualizations. We address this problem via a new strategy that organizes the analysis around motion trends rather than trials. This new strategy matches the cognitive approach that scientists would like to take when analyzing motion collections. We introduce several technical innovations making trend-centric motion visualization possible. First, an algorithm detects a motion collection's trends via time-dependent clustering. Second, a 2D graphical technique visualizes how trials leave and join trends. Third, a 3D graphical technique, using a median 3D motion plus a visual variance indicator, visualizes the biomechanics of the set of trials within each trend. These innovations are combined to create an interactive exploratory visualization tool, which we designed through an iterative process in collaboration with both domain scientists and a traditionally-trained graphic designer. We report on insights generated during this design process and demonstrate the tool's effectiveness via a validation study with synthetic data and feedback from expert musculoskeletal biomechanics researchers who used the tool to analyze the effects of disc degeneration on human spinal kinematics.

  3. Using participatory mapping to inform a community-randomized trial of HIV counseling and testing

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Lane, Tim; Ntogwisangu, Jacob; Modiba, Precious; vanRooyen, Heidi; Timbe, Andrew; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Fritz, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Participatory mapping and transect walks were used to inform the research and intervention design and to begin building community relations in preparation for Project Accept, a community-randomized trial sponsored by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). NIMH Project Accept is being conducted in five sites within four countries including Thailand, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Tanzania. Results from the mapping exercises informed decisions about the research design such as defining community boundaries, and identifying appropriate criteria for matching community pairs for the trial. The mapping also informed intervention related decisions such as where to situate the services. The participatory methods enabled each site to develop an understanding of the communities that could not have been derived from existing data or data collected through standard data collection techniques. Furthermore, the methods lay the foundation for collaborative community research partnerships. PMID:25328451

  4. Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

    This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

  5. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative Research Methods:…

  6. Design and Fabrication of a Tank-Applied Broad Area Cooling Shield Coupon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. J.; Middlemas, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    The small-scale broad area cooling (BAC) shield test panel represents a section of the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer ground test article, a flight-like cryogenic propellant storage tank. The test panel design includes an aluminum tank shell, primer, spray-on foam insulation, multilayer insulation (MLI), and BAC shield hardware. This assembly was sized to accurately represent the character of the MLI/BAC shield system, be quickly and inexpensively assembled, and be tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center Acoustic Test Facility. Investigating the BAC shield response to a worst-case launch dynamic load was the key purpose for developing the test article and performing the test. A preliminary method for structurally supporting the BAC shield using low-conductivity standoffs was designed, manufactured, and evaluated as part of the test. The BAC tube-standoff interface and unsupported BAC tube lengths were key parameters for evaluation. No noticeable damage to any system hardware element was observed after acoustic testing.

  7. CAD techniques applied to diesel engine design. Extension of the RK range. [Ruston diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Buckthorpe, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rustion Diesels Ltd. produce three ranges of engines, the AP range covering engine powers from 500 to 1400 bhp (350 to 1000 kW electrical), the RK range covering 1410 to 4200 bhp (1 to 3 MW electrical), and the AT range covering 1650 to 4950 bhp (1-2 to 3-5 MW electrical). The AT engine range is available at speeds up to 600 rev/min, whereas the AP and RK ranges cover engine speeds from 600 to 1000 rev/min. The design philosophy and extension of the RK range of engines are investigated. This is a 251 mm (ten inch) bore by 305mm (twelve inch) stroke engine and is available in 6-cylinder in-line form and 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder vee form. The RK engine features a cast-iron crankcase and bedplate design with a forged alloy-steel crankshaft. Combustion-chamber components consist of a cast-iron cylinder head and liner, steel exhaust and inlet valves, and a single-piece aluminium piston. The durability and reliability of RK engines have been fully proven in service with over 30 years' experience in numerous applications for power generation, reaction, and marine propulsion.

  8. Higher Order Combination Tones Applied To Sonar Waveform Design And Underwater Digital Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Stephen L.

    2006-05-01

    Nonlinear `parametric' sonar is distinguished by highly predictable in-water formations of identifiable von Helmholtz spectral energies produced directly as a result of two or more preselected primaries simultaneously contained in a transmit waveform. In the nearly half-century of scientific endeavors within the field of parametric sonar, the methodical investigation into formulation techniques and practical applications using higher-order combination tones has been noticeably lagging the attention received by their more commonly recognized kin of second-order sum and difference frequencies. Generalized mathematical and graphical viewing techniques are presented for elucidating the abundance of cross-band complexities and facilitating preliminary design efforts specifically employing any of these higher-order parametric frequency components on operational systems. Recent sonar experiments implementing pulsed parametric transmit waveforms intended to fully exploit their intrinsic broadband nonlinear energy have demonstrated the potential for improved underwater target detection and classification in acoustically harsh environments. However, research efforts could benefit from more efficient and universal tools for predetermining all of the desired in-water spectral-temporal characteristics. New developments utilizing this methodology have led to unique approaches for designing stepped CW, LFM and hyperbolic FM detection waveforms incorporating enhanced signal processing qualities and constructing coding schemes for reliable underwater acoustic digital communications.

  9. Participatory ergonomics that builds on local solutions.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1995-06-01

    Ergonomic interventions must be a local process that responds to the particular needs of local people. In view of the many constraints, a special attention is drawn to participatory ergonomics as an effective means of finding locally workable solutions. Recent experiences show that the best way to utilize its practical advantage is to focus on solutions. The practical steps in providing necessary support for participatory ergonomics should include (1) a good starting point for group discussion and subsequent participatory action based on locally achieved examples; (2) prioritizing different elements of the workplace by means of checklists of available solutions; and (3) making small improvements with a view to learning-by-doing through small wins. Good local examples that have been achieved in the given local conditions can show how improvements can be done in the local conditions and thus motivate people in making improvements. The next important step is to help the participants determine priority solutions by means of "action checklists" that list the available solutions. It is necessary to concentrate on those aspects in which both better working conditions and higher productivity are accessible simultaneously. They include operational, cognitive and organizational aspects. Through learning-by-doing, the participants must be able to base their judgement on the results of relative assessment of locally available solutions and to implement the chosen solutions. To sustain active initiatives of the participants, support and advice must be provided which are suitable for working in small groups, sharing experiences and identifying workable solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24571

  11. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders.

  12. Design-driven, multi-use research agendas to enable applied synthetic biology for global health.

    PubMed

    Carothers, James M

    2013-09-01

    Many of the synthetic biological devices, pathways and systems that can be engineered are multi-use, in the sense that they could be used both for commercially-important applications and to help meet global health needs. The on-going development of models and simulation tools for assembling component parts into functionally-complex devices and systems will enable successful engineering with much less trial-and-error experimentation and laboratory infrastructure. As illustrations, I draw upon recent examples from my own work and the broader Keasling research group at the University of California Berkeley and the Joint BioEnergy Institute, of which I was formerly a part. By combining multi-use synthetic biology research agendas with advanced computer-aided design tool creation, it may be possible to more rapidly engineer safe and effective synthetic biology technologies that help address a wide range of global health problems.

  13. Design of sewage treatment system by applying fuzzy adaptive PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liang-Ping; Li, Hong-Chan

    2013-03-01

    In the sewage treatment system, the dissolved oxygen concentration control, due to its nonlinear, time-varying, large time delay and uncertainty, is difficult to establish the exact mathematical model. While the conventional PID controller only works with good linear not far from its operating point, it is difficult to realize the system control when the operating point far off. In order to solve the above problems, the paper proposed a method which combine fuzzy control with PID methods and designed a fuzzy adaptive PID controller based on S7-300 PLC .It employs fuzzy inference method to achieve the online tuning for PID parameters. The control algorithm by simulation and practical application show that the system has stronger robustness and better adaptability.

  14. An Attractive Choice: Education Researchers' Use of Participatory Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.; Beukes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education…

  15. Participatory Decisionmaking: Working Models in Virginia Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Described are six elementary schools in Virginia that were judged as meeting nine criteria for programs facilitating participatory decision-making by teachers. The term "participatory decision-making" refers to the sharing of decisions on school policies and practices between teachers and school administrators. Information on the schools' programs…

  16. Methodological Immaturity in Childhood Research?: Thinking through "Participatory Methods"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, Lesley-Anne; Gallagher, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Much of the recent literature on social research with children advocates the use of participatory techniques. This article attempts to rethink such techniques in several ways. The authors argue that participatory approaches, in their insistence that children should take part in research, may in fact involve children in processes that aim to…

  17. The Challenges of Participatory Research with "Tech-Savvy" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallan, Kerry Margaret; Singh, Parlo; Giardina, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on participatory research and how it can be understood and employed when researching children and youth. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretically and empirically grounded discussion of participatory research methodologies with respect to investigating the dynamic and evolving phenomenon of young people growing up in…

  18. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  19. Designing Driver Assistance Systems with Crossmodal Signals: Multisensory Integration Rules for Saccadic Reaction Times Apply

    PubMed Central

    Steenken, Rike; Weber, Lars; Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror), presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel) was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic “time window of integration” model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target–nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed. PMID:24800823

  20. Exploring social inclusion strategies for public health research and practice: The use of participatory visual methods to counter stigmas surrounding street-based substance abuse in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ritterbusch, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.

  1. Developing a community-based participatory research model to engage transition age youth using mental health service in research.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for the development and conduct of a community-based participatory research project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. Community-based participatory research frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion but have not been fully drawn upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project.

  2. Doehlert experimental design applied to optimization of light emitting textile structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Yesim; Cochrane, Cedric; Koncar, Vladan; Mordon, Serge R.

    2016-07-01

    A light emitting fabric (LEF) has been developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of dermatologic diseases such as Actinic Keratosis (AK). A successful PDT requires homogenous and reproducible light with controlled power and wavelength on the treated skin area. Due to the shape of the human body, traditional PDT with external light sources is unable to deliver homogenous light everywhere on the skin (head vertex, hand, etc.). For better light delivery homogeneity, plastic optical fibers (POFs) have been woven in textile in order to emit laterally the injected light. The previous studies confirmed that the light power could be locally controlled by modifying the radius of POF macro-bendings within the textile structure. The objective of this study is to optimize the distribution of macro-bendings over the LEF surface in order to increase the light intensity (mW/cm2), and to guarantee the best possible light deliver homogeneity over the LEF which are often contradictory. Fifteen experiments have been carried out with Doehlert experimental design involving Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The proposed models are fitted to the experimental data to enable the optimal set up of the warp yarns tensions.

  3. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  4. Constructal design applied to the elastic buckling of thin plates with holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luiz A. O.; Isoldi, Liércio A.; de Vasconcellos Real, Mauro; dos Santos, Elizaldo Domingues; Correia, Anderson L. G.; Lorenzini, Giulio; Biserni, Cesare

    2013-09-01

    Elastic buckling is an instability phenomenon that can occur if a slender and thin plate is subjected to axial compression. An important characteristic of the buckling is that the instability may occur at a stress level that is substantially lower than the material yield strength. Besides, the presence of holes in structural plate elements is common. However these perforations cause a redistribution in plate membrane stresses, significantly altering their stability. In this paper the Bejan's Constructal Design was employed to optimize the geometry of simply supported, rectangular, thin perforated plates subjected to the elastic buckling. Three different centered hole shapes were considered: elliptical, rectangular and diamond. The objective function was to maximize the critical buckling load. The degree of freedom H/L (ratio between width and length of the plate) was kept constant, while H0/L0 (ratio between the characteristic dimensions of the holes) was optimized for several hole volume fractions ( ϕ). A numerical model employing the Lanczos method and based on the finite element method was used. The results showed that, for lower values of ϕ the optimum geometry is the diamond hole. For intermediate and higher values of ϕ, the elliptical and rectangular hole, respectively, led to the best performance.

  5. Constructal design applied to the elastic buckling of thin plates with holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luiz; Isoldi, Liércio; Vasconcellos Real, Mauro; Santos, Elizaldo; Correia, Anderson; Lorenzini, Giulio; Biserni, Cesare

    2013-09-01

    Elastic buckling is an instability phenomenon that can occur if a slender and thin plate is subjected to axial compression. An important characteristic of the buckling is that the instability may occur at a stress level that is substantially lower than the material yield strength. Besides, the presence of holes in structural plate elements is common. However these perforations cause a redistribution in plate membrane stresses, significantly altering their stability. In this paper the Bejan's Constructal Design was employed to optimize the geometry of simply supported, rectangular, thin perforated plates subjected to the elastic buckling. Three different centered hole shapes were considered: elliptical, rectangular and diamond. The objective function was to maximize the critical buckling load. The degree of freedom H/L (ratio between width and length of the plate) was kept constant, while H0/L0 (ratio between the characteristic dimensions of the holes) was optimized for several hole volume fractions (ϕ). A numerical model employing the Lanczos method and based on the finite element method was used. The results showed that, for lower values of ϕ the optimum geometry is the diamond hole. For intermediate and higher values of ϕ, the elliptical and rectangular hole, respectively, led to the best performance.

  6. Mixture design applied for the study of the tartaric acid effect on starch/polyester films.

    PubMed

    Olivato, J B; Nobrega, M M; Müller, C M O; Shirai, M A; Yamashita, F; Grossmann, M V E

    2013-02-15

    Tartaric acid (TA), a dicarboxylic acid, can act as a compatibiliser in starch/polyester blends. A mixture design was proposed to evaluate the effect of TA on the properties of starch/poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blown films plasticised with glycerol. The interaction between the starch/PBAT and the TA has a positive effect on the tensile strength and puncture force. Additionally, greater proportions of TA increased Young's modulus. The starch+PBAT/TA and Gly/TA interactions contributed to a reduction in the water vapour permeability of the films. The inclusion of TA did not change the crystallinity of the samples. Formulations with intermediate proportions of TA (0.8 g/100 g) were shown to produce the best compatibilising effect. This was observed by DMA analysis as a consequence of the perfect equilibrium between the contributions of TA as a compatibiliser and in the acidolysis of starch, resulting in films with a tensile strength of 5.93 MPa, a possible alternative to non-biodegradable packaging.

  7. NOMAD: a versatile strategy for in vitro DNA manipulation applied to promoter analysis and vector design.

    PubMed Central

    Rebatchouk, D; Daraselia, N; Narita, J O

    1996-01-01

    Molecular analysis of complex modular structures, such as promoter regions or multi-domain proteins, often requires the creation of families of experimental DNA constructs having altered composition, order, or spacing of individual modules. Generally, creation of every individual construct of such a family uses a specific combination of restriction sites. However, convenient sites are not always available and the alternatives, such as chemical resynthesis of the experimental constructs or engineering of different restriction sites onto the ends of DNA fragments, are costly and time consuming. A general cloning strategy (nucleic acid ordered assembly with directionality, NOMAD; WWW resource locator http:@Lmb1.bios.uic.edu/NOMAD/NOMAD.htm l) is proposed that overcomes these limitations. Use of NOMAD ensures that the production of experimental constructs is no longer the rate-limiting step in applications that require combinatorial rearrangement of DNA fragments. NOMAD manipulates DNA fragments in the form of "modules" having a standardized cohesive end structure. Specially designed "assembly vectors" allow for sequential and directional insertion of any number of modules in an arbitrary predetermined order, using the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to cut DNA outside of their recognition sequences. Studies of regulatory regions in DNA, such as promoters, replication origins, and RNA processing signals, construction of chimeric proteins, and creation of new cloning vehicles, are among the applications that will benefit from using NOMAD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855278

  8. Factorial design applied to the optimization of lipid composition of topical antiherpetic nanoemulsions containing isoflavone genistein

    PubMed Central

    Argenta, Débora Fretes; de Mattos, Cristiane Bastos; Misturini, Fabíola Dallarosa; Koester, Leticia Scherer; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize topical nanoemulsions containing genistein, by means of a 23 full factorial design based on physicochemical properties and skin retention. The experimental arrangement was constructed using oil type (isopropyl myristate or castor oil), phospholipid type (distearoylphosphatidylcholine [DSPC] or dioleylphosphaditylcholine [DOPC]), and ionic cosurfactant type (oleic acid or oleylamine) as independent variables. The analysis of variance showed effect of third order for particle size, polydispersity index, and skin retention of genistein. Nanoemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine showed the smallest diameter and highest genistein amount in porcine ear skin whereas the formulation composed of isopropyl myristate/DSPC/oleylamine exhibited the lowest polydispersity index. Thus, these two formulations were selected for further studies. The formulations presented positive ζ potential values (>25 mV) and genistein content close to 100% (at 1 mg/mL). The incorporation of genistein in nanoemulsions significantly increased the retention of this isoflavone in epidermis and dermis, especially when the formulation composed by isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine was used. These results were supported by confocal images. Such formulations exhibited antiherpetic activity in vitro against herpes simplex virus 1 (strain KOS) and herpes simplex virus 22 (strain 333). Taken together, the results show that the genistein-loaded nanoemulsions developed in this study are promising options in herpes treatment. PMID:25336951

  9. Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rupesh; Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Lundberg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

  10. Developing a participatory process to include ecosystem services in landscape planing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaindia, Miren; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Peña, Lorena; Madariaga, Iosu; Ametzaga, Ibone

    2015-04-01

    This work develops an approach that integrates scientific knowledge on ecosystem services and stakeholders demands to get guidelines for landscape planning strategies in the region of Biscay (Basque Country, northern Spain). In the conducted participatory process, forest multi-functionality was considered as a practicable good alternative. This process identified also a knowledge gap on the synergies and trade-offs between biodiversity, timber production and carbon storage, guiding the directions of the research actions. The results from developed spatial analysis converged with those from the participatory process in the adequacy of promoting, where possible and appropriate, natural forest ecosystems restoration. The ongoing stepwise learning strategy is already showing its effectiveness for decision making, with concrete examples of how the results obtained with the applied approach are being included in planning and decision-making processes.

  11. Giving Student Groups a Stronger Voice: Using Participatory Research and Action (PRA) to Initiate Change to a Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Geraldine; McMahon, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Traditional student feedback mechanisms have been criticised for being teacher-centred in design and, in particular, for their absence of transparent follow-up actions. In contrast, this study describes the process and the evaluation of a participatory research and action (PRA) approach used in an undergraduate physiotherapy degree. This approach…

  12. Video Games and Learning: Teaching and Participatory Culture in the Digital Age. Technology, Education--Connections (the TEC Series)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Can we learn socially and academically valuable concepts and skills from video games? How can we best teach the "gamer generation?" This accessible book describes how educators and curriculum designers can harness the participatory nature of digital media and play. The author presents a comprehensive model of games and learning that integrates…

  13. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

  14. Explore Locally, Excel Digitally: A Participatory Learning After-School Program for Enriching Citizenship On- and Offline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felt, Laurel J.; Vartabedian, Vanessa; Literat, Ioana; Mehta, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a participatory culture pedagogy in the context of a pilot after-school program at LAUSD's Robert F. Kennedy Community Schools. Ethnographic fieldnotes, instructor and student reflections, photographs, video recordings, and student work illustrate the program's culture of participatory…

  15. "It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

  16. Engaging Students in a Simulated Collaborative Action Research Project: An Evaluation of a Participatory Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Graham John; Congdon, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an action research project designed to develop and implement a new participatory learning and teaching approach to enable postgraduate healthcare students to develop skills and knowledge in preparation for undertaking an action research study within their practice setting. The learning and teaching approach was based upon the…

  17. Recent advances in computer-aided drug design as applied to anti-influenza drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Mallipeddi, Prema L; Kumar, Gyanendra; White, Stephen W; Webb, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a seasonal and serious health threat, and the recent outbreak of H7N9 following the pandemic spread of H1N1 in 2009 has served to emphasize the importance of anti-influenza drug discovery. Zanamivir (Relenza™) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) are two antiviral drugs currently recommended by the CDC for treating influenza. Both are examples of the successful application of structure-based drug design strategies. These strategies have combined computer- based approaches, such as docking- and pharmacophore-based virtual screening with X-ray crystallographic structural analyses. Docking is a routinely used computational method to identify potential hits from large compound libraries. This method has evolved from simple rigid docking approaches to flexible docking methods to handle receptor flexibility and to enhance hit rates in virtual screening. Virtual screening approaches can employ both ligand-based and structurebased pharmacophore models depending on the available information. The exponential growth in computing power has increasingly facilitated the application of computer-aided methods in drug discovery, and they now play significant roles in the search for novel therapeutics. An overview of these computational tools is presented in this review, and recent advances and challenges will be discussed. The focus of the review will be anti-influenza drug discovery and how advances in our understanding of viral biology have led to the discovery of novel influenza protein targets. Also discussed will be strategies to circumvent the problem of resistance emerging from rapid mutations that has seriously compromised the efficacy of current anti-influenza therapies.

  18. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  19. Classification and design of teledermatology practice: what dermatoses? Which technology to apply?

    PubMed

    Kanthraj, G R

    2009-08-01

    Dermatologists are mostly confined to urban regions and rural population is deprived of specialist care. Teledermatology Practice (TDP) is a solution to overcome this global problem. Tools for TDP includes video conference, store and forward, hybrid, mobile, satellite communication, integration model, nurse-led teledermatology, teledermatology focusing on difficult-to-manage cases, teledermoscopy, and teledermatopathology with combined applications. This article reviews the feasibility studies focusing teledermatology tools and analyses the possible options in designing TDP. Categorizing dermatoses for TDP depends on the purpose and types of technology. The dermatoses presenting from a remote geographic regions requires any of the following approaches (i) only TDP, (b) initial TDP followed by face-to-face, (iii) initial face-to-face followed by TDP and (iv) only face-to-face examination. The technology should suit the dermatoses, meet the purpose, be cost-effective and provide better management with follow-up care. We recommend store and forward as a basic TDP model as most dermatoses are diagnosed and follow-up care is delivered. Leprosy, pigmented skin lesions, leg ulcers, HIV and endemic dermatoses require screening and triage services using mobile teledermatology. Counselling and education require videoconference. Rural dermatology's camps require satellite communication mounted on a vehicle. Objective assessment (vitiligo and leg ulcer) after treatment requires integration model at a tertiary centre. Difficult-to-manage cases require second opinion using hybrid/store and forward TDP. Lower rural centre are provided with mobile/ store and forward teledermatology services. Selected or major community centre should be equipped with hybrid teledermatology and linked to a tertiary centre. This process helps healthcare administration to plan a TDP to cover all dermatoses, utilizing the available health care professional (HCP) and technology with minimum budget

  20. Diffusion, decolonializing, and participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Woodward, William R; Hetley, Richard S

    2007-03-01

    Miki Takasuna describes knowledge transfer between elite communities of scientists, a process by which ideas become structurally transformed in the host culture. By contrast, a process that we have termed knowledge transfer by deelitization occurs when (a) participatory action researchers work with a community to identify a problem involving oppression or exploitation. Then (b) community members suggest solutions and acquire the tools of analysis and action to pursue social actions. (c) Disadvantaged persons thereby become more aware of their own abilities and resources, and persons with special expertise become more effective. (d) Rather than detachment and value neutrality, this joint process involves advocacy and structural transformation. In the examples of participatory action research documented here, Third World social scientists collaborated with indigenous populations to solve problems of literacy, community-building, land ownership, and political voice. Western social scientists, inspired by these non-Western scientists, then joined in promoting PAR both in the Third World and in Europe and the Americas, e.g., adapting it for solving problems of people with disabilities or disenfranchised women. Emancipatory goals such as these may even help North American psychologists to break free of some methodological chains and to bring about social and political change.

  1. Diffusion, decolonializing, and participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Woodward, William R; Hetley, Richard S

    2007-03-01

    Miki Takasuna describes knowledge transfer between elite communities of scientists, a process by which ideas become structurally transformed in the host culture. By contrast, a process that we have termed knowledge transfer by deelitization occurs when (a) participatory action researchers work with a community to identify a problem involving oppression or exploitation. Then (b) community members suggest solutions and acquire the tools of analysis and action to pursue social actions. (c) Disadvantaged persons thereby become more aware of their own abilities and resources, and persons with special expertise become more effective. (d) Rather than detachment and value neutrality, this joint process involves advocacy and structural transformation. In the examples of participatory action research documented here, Third World social scientists collaborated with indigenous populations to solve problems of literacy, community-building, land ownership, and political voice. Western social scientists, inspired by these non-Western scientists, then joined in promoting PAR both in the Third World and in Europe and the Americas, e.g., adapting it for solving problems of people with disabilities or disenfranchised women. Emancipatory goals such as these may even help North American psychologists to break free of some methodological chains and to bring about social and political change. PMID:17992874

  2. Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland

    2013-04-01

    newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.

  3. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others

  4. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction

  5. Participatory ergonomic intervention for prevention of low back pain: assembly line redesign case.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain. PMID:22317739

  6. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project.

    PubMed

    Debelius, Justine W; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond.

  7. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project

    PubMed Central

    Debelius, Justine W.; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond. PMID:27047589

  8. Turning Participatory Microbiome Research into Usable Data: Lessons from the American Gut Project.

    PubMed

    Debelius, Justine W; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; McDonald, Daniel; Xu, Zhenjiang; Wolfe, Elaine; Knight, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The role of the human microbiome is the subject of continued investigation resulting in increased understanding. However, current microbiome research has only scratched the surface of the variety of healthy microbiomes. Public participation in science through crowdsourcing and crowdfunding microbiome research provides a novel opportunity for both participants and investigators. However, turning participatory science into publishable data can be challenging. Clear communication with the participant base and among researchers can ameliorate some challenges. Three major aspects need to be considered: recruitment and ongoing interaction, sample collection, and data analysis. Usable data can be maximized through diligent participant interaction, careful survey design, and maintaining an open source pipeline. While participatory science will complement rather than replace traditional avenues, it presents new opportunities for studies in the microbiome and beyond. PMID:27047589

  9. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  10. Epigraph: A Vaccine Design Tool Applied to an HIV Therapeutic Vaccine and a Pan-Filovirus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Theiler, James; Yoon, Hyejin; Yusim, Karina; Picker, Louis J.; Fruh, Klaus; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Epigraph is an efficient graph-based algorithm for designing vaccine antigens to optimize potential T-cell epitope (PTE) coverage. Epigraph vaccine antigens are functionally similar to Mosaic vaccines, which have demonstrated effectiveness in preliminary HIV non-human primate studies. In contrast to the Mosaic algorithm, Epigraph is substantially faster, and in restricted cases, provides a mathematically optimal solution. Epigraph furthermore has new features that enable enhanced vaccine design flexibility. These features include the ability to exclude rare epitopes from a design, to optimize population coverage based on inexact epitope matches, and to apply the code to both aligned and unaligned input sequences. Epigraph was developed to provide practical design solutions for two outstanding vaccine problems. The first of these is a personalized approach to a therapeutic T-cell HIV vaccine that would provide antigens with an excellent match to an individual’s infecting strain, intended to contain or clear a chronic infection. The second is a pan-filovirus vaccine, with the potential to protect against all known viruses in the Filoviradae family, including ebolaviruses. A web-based interface to run the Epigraph tool suite is available (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/EPIGRAPH/epigraph.html). PMID:27703185

  11. Improving hazard communication through collaborative participatory workshops: challenges and opportunities experienced at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.; Avard, G.; Martinez, M.; de Moor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Communication is key to disaster risk management before, during and after a hazardous event occurs. In this study we used a participatory design approach to increase disaster preparedness levels around Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) in collaboration with local communities. We organised five participatory workshops in communities around Turrialba volcano, 2 in February 2014 and a further 3 in May 2014. A total of 101 people attended and participants included the general public, decision makers and relevant government employees. The main finding of the workshops was that people want more information, specifically regarding 1) the activity level at the volcano and 2) how to prepare. In addition, the source of information was identified as an important factor in communication, with credibility and integrity being key. This outcome highlights a communication gap between the communities at risk and the institutions monitoring the volcano, who publish their scientific results monthly. This strong and explicitly expressed desire for more information should be acknowledged and responded to. However, this gives rise to the challenge of how to communicate: how to change the delivery and/or content of the messages already disseminated for greater effectiveness. In our experience, participatory workshops provide a successful mechanism for effective communication. However, critically evaluating the workshops reveals a number of challenges and opportunities, with the former arising from human, cultural and resource factors, specifically the need to develop people's capacity to participate, whereas the latter is predominantly represented by participant empowerment. As disasters are mostly felt at individual, household and community levels, improving communication, not at but with these stakeholders, is an important component of a comprehensive disaster resilience strategy. This work provides an initial insight into the potential value of participatory design approaches for

  12. Improved understanding of the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms applied to the water distribution design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, A. C.; Simpson, A. R.; Maier, H. R.; Marchi, A.; Nixon, J. B.

    2012-09-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been applied successfully to many water resource problems, such as system design, management decision formulation, and model calibration. The performance of an EA with respect to a particular problem type is dependent on how effectively its internal operators balance the exploitation/exploration trade-off to iteratively find solutions of an increasing quality. For a given problem, different algorithms are observed to produce a variety of different final performances, but there have been surprisingly few investigations into characterizing how the different internal mechanisms alter the algorithm's searching behavior, in both the objective and decision space, to arrive at this final performance. This paper presents metrics for analyzing the searching behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms, a particular type of EA, for the optimal water distribution system design problem, which is a classical NP-hard problem in civil engineering. Using the proposed metrics, behavior is characterized in terms of three different attributes: (1) the effectiveness of the search in improving its solution quality and entering into optimal or near-optimal regions of the search space, (2) the extent to which the algorithm explores as it converges to solutions, and (3) the searching behavior with respect to the feasible and infeasible regions. A range of case studies is considered, where a number of ant colony optimization variants are applied to a selection of water distribution system optimization problems. The results demonstrate the utility of the proposed metrics to give greater insight into how the internal operators affect each algorithm's searching behavior.

  13. Using participatory methods to examine policy and women prisoners' health.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Diane C; Fisher, Anastasia A

    2011-05-01

    This article describes how community-based participatory research (CBPR) led to the discovery of the unintended consequences of jail and prison copayment policy on women prisoners' health. The article addresses (a) a working definition of participatory research; (b) the importance of research with women prisoners; (c) the origins and development of our work and its grounding in CBPR; (d) issues related to research with prisoners; and (e) recommendations for using participatory methods to bring women prisoners into the discourse about the practices and policies that impact their lives. These methods have the potential to minimize the invisibility of prisoners and their health disparities. PMID:21903718

  14. A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA

    SciTech Connect

    Rauschmayer, Felix . E-mail: felix.rauschmayer@ufz.de; Risse, Nathalie . E-mail: nrisse@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-15

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

  15. Introduction of participatory conservation in Croatia, residents' perceptions: a case study from the Istrian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  16. Participatory Games: Experiential learning to bridge disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan, E.; Suarez, P.; Mendler de Suarez, J.; Bachofen, C.

    2014-12-01

    While the benefits of multi-disciplinary education have been extolled, there is more to success than producing students who are able to articulate the theorems of all pertinent disciplines. Here, we will describe case studies in which participatory scenario exercises and games can make the difference between memorizing information from an "outside" discipline, and actually internalizing the priorities and complications of the issue from an alien perspective. Case studies include teaching Red Cross community-based volunteers the Probability Distribution Function of seasonal rainfall forecasts, as well as requiring students of Columbia University's Master's Program in Climate and Society to study both natural and social aspects of climate. Games create a model system of the world, in which players assume a role and make decisions with consequences, facing complex feedback loops. Taking such roles catalyzes "AHA" moments that effectively bring home the intricacies of disciplinary paradigms outside of one's own.

  17. [Participatory research : Meaning, concept, objectives and methods].

    PubMed

    Brütt, Anna Levke; Buschmann-Steinhage, Rolf; Kirschning, Silke; Wegscheider, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Shaping one's own life and feeling equal in society is an essential aspect of participation. Based on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Social Security Code IX and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), participation is relevant for the German health system. The cross-sectional discipline of participation research investigates conditions for self-determined and equal participation in society. Research results can reinforce and promote the participation of humans with disabilities. Participation research uses established quantitative and qualitative approaches. Moreover, participatory research is a relevant approach that demands involving persons with disabilities in decisions in the research process. In the future, it will be important to concentrate findings and to connect researchers. The participation research action alliance (Aktionsbündnis Teilhabeforschung), which was established in 2015, aims to make funding accessible as well as strengthen and profile participation research. PMID:27503496

  18. Designing evidence-based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: applying the four component instructional design model.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.

  19. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Eric J.; Hyde, Kelly L.; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa; Lyon, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorporated user/stakeholder perspectives at multiple points and resulted in an electronic behavioral health information system (EBHIS) specific to the wraparound care coordination model for youth with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. First, we review foundational HIT research on how EBHIS can enhance efficiency and outcomes of wraparound that was used to inform development. After describing the rationale for and functions of a prototype EBHIS for wraparound, we describe methods and results for a series of six small studies that informed system development across four phases of effort – predevelopment, development, initial user testing, and commercialization – and discuss how these results informed system design and refinement. Finally, we present next steps, challenges to dissemination, and guidance for others aiming to develop specialized behavioral health HIT. The research team's experiences reinforce the opportunity presented by EBHIS to improve care coordination for populations with complex needs, while also pointing to a litany of barriers and challenges to be overcome to implement such technologies. PMID:26060099

  20. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively.

  1. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Eric J; Hyde, Kelly L; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa N; Lyon, Aaron R

    2016-05-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorporated user/stakeholder perspectives at multiple points and resulted in an electronic behavioral health information system (EBHIS) specific to the wraparound care coordination model for youth with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. First, we review foundational HIT research on how EBHIS can enhance efficiency and outcomes of wraparound that was used to inform development. After describing the rationale for and functions of a prototype EBHIS for wraparound, we describe methods and results for a series of six small studies that informed system development across four phases of effort-predevelopment, development, initial user testing, and commercialization-and discuss how these results informed system design and refinement. Finally, we present next steps, challenges to dissemination, and guidance for others aiming to develop specialized behavioral health HIT. The research team's experiences reinforce the opportunity presented by EBHIS to improve care coordination for populations with complex needs, while also pointing to a litany of barriers and challenges to be overcome to implement such technologies. PMID:26060099

  2. Building a better cell trap: Applying Lagrangian modeling to the design of microfluidic devices for cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Wang, Zhanhui; Lam, Raymond H. W.; Thorsen, Todd

    2008-02-01

    In this report, we show how computational fluid dynamics can be applied to the design of efficient hydrodynamic cell traps in microfluidic devices. Modeled hydrodynamic trap designs included a large, multiple-aperture "C-type" sieve for trapping hundreds of cells, flat single-aperture arrays for single cells, and "U-type" hydrodynamic structures with one or two apertures to confine small clusters of cells (˜10-15 cells per trap). Using 3T3 cells as a model system, the motion of each individual cell was calculated using a one-way coupled Lagrangian method. The cell was assumed to be a solid sphere, and interactions with other cells were only considered when a cell sedimented in the trap. The ordinary differential equations were solved along the cell trajectory for the three components of the velocity and location vector by using the Rosenbrock method based on an adaptive time-stepping technique. Validation of the predictive value of modeling, using 3T3 cells flowed through microfluidic devices containing "U-type sieves" under the simulation flow parameters, showed excellent agreement between experiment and simulation with respect to cell number per trap and the uniformity of cell distribution within individual microchambers. For applications such as on-chip cell culture or high-throughput screening of cell populations within a lab-on-a-chip environment, Lagrangian simulations have the potential to greatly simplify the design process.

  3. Applying User Input to the Design and Testing of an Electronic Behavioral Health Information System for Wraparound Care Coordination.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Eric J; Hyde, Kelly L; Sather, April; Hook, Alyssa N; Lyon, Aaron R

    2016-05-01

    Health information technology (HIT) and care coordination for individuals with complex needs are high priorities for quality improvement in health care. However, there is little empirical guidance about how best to design electronic health record systems and related technologies to facilitate implementation of care coordination models in behavioral health, or how best to apply user input to the design and testing process. In this paper, we describe an iterative development process that incorporated user/stakeholder perspectives at multiple points and resulted in an electronic behavioral health information system (EBHIS) specific to the wraparound care coordination model for youth with serious emotional and behavioral disorders. First, we review foundational HIT research on how EBHIS can enhance efficiency and outcomes of wraparound that was used to inform development. After describing the rationale for and functions of a prototype EBHIS for wraparound, we describe methods and results for a series of six small studies that informed system development across four phases of effort-predevelopment, development, initial user testing, and commercialization-and discuss how these results informed system design and refinement. Finally, we present next steps, challenges to dissemination, and guidance for others aiming to develop specialized behavioral health HIT. The research team's experiences reinforce the opportunity presented by EBHIS to improve care coordination for populations with complex needs, while also pointing to a litany of barriers and challenges to be overcome to implement such technologies.

  4. The pursuit of excellence: engaging the community in participatory health research.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Vivian R; McKay, Shari; Crowe, Jackie

    2010-12-01

    Community-based participatory research approaches are designed to improve health and well-being in communities and to minimize health disparities in general. It is this partnership approach to research that equitably involves community members, organizational representatives and researchers in all aspects of the research process and in which all partners contribute expertise, decision-making and ownership. Further to this, community-based participatory research is utilized to study and address community-identified issues through a collaborative and empowering action-oriented process that builds on the strengths of the community. The results of this research endeavour highlight the need for integrating community-based participatory research, primary health care and social accountability in the pursuit of excellence. The process and the results/findings provide ways that the community are able to enhance their health and wellness, increase capacity and be empowered to direct their education, research and service activities towards addressing and meeting the health priorities of the community. PMID:21510097

  5. Participatory Evaluation of a Community-Academic Partnership to Inform Capacity-building and Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B.; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M.; Jackson, Nia T.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D.; Gwede, Clement K.

    2015-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN’s primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships’ priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships’ adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners’ perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability. PMID:25863014

  6. Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?

    PubMed

    Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

    2013-12-15

    Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation.

  7. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users’ views of a horticultural and arts project

    PubMed Central

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. Aim To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as ‘coworkers’) of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life’s pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. PMID:22520790

  8. Participatory evaluation of a community-academic partnership to inform capacity-building and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M; Jackson, Nia T; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2015-10-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN's primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships' priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships' adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners' perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability.

  9. Forming social capital--does participatory planning foster trust in institutions?

    PubMed

    Menzel, Susanne; Buchecker, Matthias; Schulz, Tobias

    2013-12-15

    Participatory planning that includes interest groups and municipal representatives has been presented as a means to deal with the increasing difficulty to reach arrangements due to progressively scarce land resources. Under dispute is whether collaborative forms of planning augment social capital or whether they might actually cause the destruction of such a valuable social commodity. In this paper we focus on trust in institution as a specific dimension of social capital because we argue that this is one of the effects the convenors of such participatory planning procedures are most interested in. We pursue a pre-post design and survey advisory group members of five on-going river-related planning processes in Switzerland. Controlling for generalised trust, we investigate how trust in institutions is affected over time by the quality of such processes and the degree of participation they offer. We find that generalised trust is highly correlated with initial levels of trust and so is process quality. Particularly the latter finding challenges the usually assumed direction of causality according to which process quality influences trust building. Additionally, we find a positive (non-significant) effect of process quality on changes in trust, while a higher degree of participation rather seems to hinder trust building. We suppose this indicates that under the conditions of limited time and resources more attention should be paid to how to improve the quality of participatory processes than putting much effort in increasing the degree of participation. PMID:24211564

  10. Community Intervention Development Using Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition needs assessment and program planning requires involvement of community members in order to yield programs that address local priorities. The Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) approach emphasizes direct, active participation of community members in assessment, plan...

  11. A Field Methodology for Participatory Self-Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphoff, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the participatory self-evaluation methods of the People's Participation Programme of the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. Benefits, six steps for introducing the method, and problems of language, comparability of numbers, and objectivity are described. (SK)

  12. Introduction to the Special Series on Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori

    1998-01-01

    This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)

  13. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  14. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory Research"; "The Researcher and the…

  15. In pursuit of rigour and accountability in participatory design☆

    PubMed Central

    Frauenberger, Christopher; Good, Judith; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    The field of Participatory Design (PD) has greatly diversified and we see a broad spectrum of approaches and methodologies emerging. However, to foster its role in designing future interactive technologies, a discussion about accountability and rigour across this spectrum is needed. Rejecting the traditional, positivistic framework, we take inspiration from related fields such as Design Research and Action Research to develop interpretations of these concepts that are rooted in PD׳s own belief system. We argue that unlike in other fields, accountability and rigour are nuanced concepts that are delivered through debate, critique and reflection. A key prerequisite for having such debates is the availability of a language that allows designers, researchers and practitioners to construct solid arguments about the appropriateness of their stances, choices and judgements. To this end, we propose a “tool-to-think-with” that provides such a language by guiding designers, researchers and practitioners through a process of systematic reflection and critical analysis. The tool proposes four lenses to critically reflect on the nature of a PD effort: epistemology, values, stakeholders and outcomes. In a subsequent step, the coherence between the revealed features is analysed and shows whether they pull the project in the same direction or work against each other. Regardless of the flavour of PD, we argue that this coherence of features indicates the level of internal rigour of PD work and that the process of reflection and analysis provides the language to argue for it. We envision our tool to be useful at all stages of PD work: in the planning phase, as part of a reflective practice during the work, and as a means to construct knowledge and advance the field after the fact. We ground our theoretical discussions in a specific PD experience, the ECHOES project, to motivate the tool and to illustrate its workings. PMID:26109833

  16. The Template of Events for Applied and Critical Healthcare Simulation (TEACH Sim): a tool for systematic simulation scenario design.

    PubMed

    Benishek, Lauren E; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Gaught, William L; Arcaro, Lygia L; Okuda, Yasuharu; Salas, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Simulation-based training (SBT) affords practice opportunities for improving the quality of clinicians' technical and nontechnical skills. However, the development of practice scenarios is a process plagued by a set of challenges that must be addressed for the full learning potential of SBT to be realized. Scenario templates are useful tools for assisting with SBT and navigating its inherent challenges. This article describes existing SBT templates, explores considerations in choosing an appropriate template, and introduces the Template of Events for Applied and Critical Healthcare Simulation (TEACH Sim) as a tool for facilitating the formation of practice scenarios in accordance with an established evidence-based simulation design methodology. TEACH Sim's unique contributions are situated within the landscape of previously existing templates, and each of its component sections is explained in detail.

  17. Collaborative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Debora

    2014-01-01

    This practitioner research study investigates the power of multimodal texts within a real-world context and argues that a participatory culture focused on literary arts offers marginalized high school students opportunities for collaborative design and authoring. Additionally, this article invites educators to rethink the at-risk label. This…

  18. Participatory approaches to improving safety and health under trade union initiative--experiences of POSITIVE training program in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Kogi, Kazutaka; Toyama, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2004-04-01

    The participatory, action-oriented training program in occupational safety and health named POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvements by Trade Union InitiatiVE) was established in Pakistan and extended to other countries in Asia. The steps taken in the development of the POSITIVE program included collecting local good examples in safety and health, developing an action-checklist, testing a participatory training program, and conducting follow-up activities to examine local achievements. Training manuals were compiled to provide workers with the practical, easy-to-understand information on safety and health improvements and on the positive roles of trade unions. Trade union trainers trained in the methodology conducted serial POSITIVE training workshops in Pakistan and then in Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand and recently in China. These workshops resulted in many low-cost improvements at the workplace level. These improvements were carried out in the technical areas of materials handling, workstations, machine safety, physical environment, and welfare facilities. The trade union networks have been vital in reaching an increasing number of grass-root workplaces and in expanding the program to other countries. This included the visits to Mongolia and Thailand of Pakistani trade union trainers to demonstrate the POSITIVE training. The participatory training tools used in the POSITIVE program such as the action checklist and group discussion methods were commonly applied in different local situations. Participatory approaches adopted in the POSITIVE program have proven useful for providing practical problem-solving measures based on the local trade union initiative.

  19. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100-2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000-10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0-50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance.

  20. Participatory approach in planning for low carbon and eco-village: A case of Felda Taib Andak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngah, I.; Zulkifli, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    Participatory approaches have becoming an important tool in planning of sustainable communities. Although participation is conceived as a malleable concept there are certain methods that planners can adopt to ensure a meaningful participation. This paper will provide some experiences and lessons on how participatory planning could be carried out with local people, the role of planners in the process of plan preparation, implementation and the outcome. This paper first explores some of the meanings of participation, the criteria of participation and the approaches of participation in planning for sustainable community. The second part is a description and discussion of how participatory approach in planning was applied in planning for low carbon and eco-village in Iskandar Malaysia based on a case study of planning of Felda Taib Andak scheme. The participatory approach involved a series of meetings, site visit and focus group discussions with representative of the Felda Village to come out with action plan and actual implementation. From focus group discussions a roadmap consisted of a vision and objectives and a dozen actions were formulated and adopted. In the process of implementation the main implementation & coordination committee was form in which the author (planner) is one of its members to look into fund raising & implementation strategies together with the local people. Several task forces or sub committees responsible to implement the dozen actions were also formed. The outcome was encouraging in which some of the actions such as planting of bamboo trees, reduction of pollution from oil palm factory and bicycling activities has been implemented and shown progress. The paper also highlights some of the issues and challenges in participatory planning.