NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takemiya, Tetsushi
, and that (2) the AMF terminates optimization erroneously when the optimization problems have constraints. The first problem is due to inaccuracy in computing derivatives in the AMF, and the second problem is due to erroneous treatment of the trust region ratio, which sets the size of the domain for an optimization in the AMF. In order to solve the first problem of the AMF, automatic differentiation (AD) technique, which reads the codes of analysis models and automatically generates new derivative codes based on some mathematical rules, is applied. If derivatives are computed with the generated derivative code, they are analytical, and the required computational time is independent of the number of design variables, which is very advantageous for realistic aerospace engineering problems. However, if analysis models implement iterative computations such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which solves system partial differential equations iteratively, computing derivatives through the AD requires a massive memory size. The author solved this deficiency by modifying the AD approach and developing a more efficient implementation with CFD, and successfully applied the AD to general CFD software. In order to solve the second problem of the AMF, the governing equation of the trust region ratio, which is very strict against the violation of constraints, is modified so that it can accept the violation of constraints within some tolerance. By accepting violations of constraints during the optimization process, the AMF can continue optimization without terminating immaturely and eventually find the true optimum design point. With these modifications, the AMF is referred to as "Robust AMF," and it is applied to airfoil and wing aerodynamic design problems using Euler CFD software. The former problem has 21 design variables, and the latter 64. In both problems, derivatives computed with the proposed AD method are first compared with those computed with the finite
H ∞ robust control of semi-active Macpherson suspension system: new applied design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saber Fallah, Mohammad; Bhat, Rama; Xie, Wen-Fang
2010-03-01
In this paper, the performance of a robust control scheme for a Macpherson suspension system is investigated using new dynamic and kinematic models. While the new dynamic model incorporates the kinematics of the suspension in order to have a superior description of the plant dynamics, the three-dimensional kinematic model is used to evaluate the wheel motion subject to controlled force variation. A new definition of the measurement of the wheel-road contact is proposed based on the real function of the control arm. In addition, it is recommended to integrate the vertical displacement of the chassis in the formulation of the control design in order to improve wheel motions. It is shown that the robust semi-active suspension system has superior performance compared with those of a modified skyhook controller system and a passive system.
Experimental Investigation on Adaptive Robust Controller Designs Applied to Constrained Manipulators
Nogueira, Samuel L.; Pazelli, Tatiana F. P. A. T.; Siqueira, Adriano A. G.; Terra, Marco H.
2013-01-01
In this paper, two interlaced studies are presented. The first is directed to the design and construction of a dynamic 3D force/moment sensor. The device is applied to provide a feedback signal of forces and moments exerted by the robotic end-effector. This development has become an alternative solution to the existing multi-axis load cell based on static force and moment sensors. The second one shows an experimental investigation on the performance of four different adaptive nonlinear ℋ∞ control methods applied to a constrained manipulator subject to uncertainties in the model and external disturbances. Coordinated position and force control is evaluated. Adaptive procedures are based on neural networks and fuzzy systems applied in two different modeling strategies. The first modeling strategy requires a well-known nominal model for the robot, so that the intelligent systems are applied only to estimate the effects of uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances. The second strategy considers that the robot model is completely unknown and, therefore, intelligent systems are used to estimate these dynamics. A comparative study is conducted based on experimental implementations performed with an actual planar manipulator and with the dynamic force sensor developed for this purpose. PMID:23598503
Nogueira, Samuel L; Pazelli, Tatiana F P A T; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Terra, Marco H
2013-04-18
In this paper, two interlaced studies are presented. The first is directed to the design and construction of a dynamic 3D force/moment sensor. The device is applied to provide a feedback signal of forces and moments exerted by the robotic end-effector. This development has become an alternative solution to the existing multi-axis load cell based on static force and moment sensors. The second one shows an experimental investigation on the performance of four different adaptive nonlinear H∞ control methods applied to a constrained manipulator subject to uncertainties in the model and external disturbances. Coordinated position and force control is evaluated. Adaptive procedures are based on neural networks and fuzzy systems applied in two different modeling strategies. The first modeling strategy requires a well-known nominal model for the robot, so that the intelligent systems are applied only to estimate the effects of uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances. The second strategy considers that the robot model is completely unknown and, therefore, intelligent systems are used to estimate these dynamics. A comparative study is conducted based on experimental implementations performed with an actual planar manipulator and with the dynamic force sensor developed for this purpose.
Applying informed coding and embedding to design a robust high-capacity watermark.
Miller, Matt L; Doërr, Gwenaël J; Cox, Ingemar J
2004-06-01
We describe a new watermarking system based on the principles of informed coding and informed embedding. This system is capable of embedding 1380 bits of information in images with dimensions 240 x 368 pixels. Experiments on 2000 images indicate the watermarks are robust to significant valumetric distortions, including additive noise, low-pass filtering, changes in contrast, and lossy compression. Our system encodes watermark messages with a modified trellis code in which a given message may be represented by a variety of different signals, with the embedded signal selected according to the cover image. The signal is embedded by an iterative method that seeks to ensure the message will not be confused with other messages, even after addition of noise. Fidelity is improved by the incorporation of perceptual shaping into the embedding process. We show that each of these three components improves performance substantially.
Houng, Jer Yiing; Hsu, Hsia Fen; Liu, Yung Hau; Wu, Jiumn Yih
2003-02-13
This study examined the characteristics and operational parameters of the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-chloro acetoacetate by bakers' yeast in order to produce S-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester. Eight operational variables were also optimized using the Taguchi method with consideration of the freshness of yeast cells as a noise factor. An L(18) orthogonal array was used to design the experiments. The reaction yield and the product's optical purity were considered as two product quality variables. A desirability function was applied to combine these two qualities as a single objective function. Additionally, the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio was used to estimate the variability in product quality. Optimization was undertaken not only to yield the best performance, but also to minimize the variation in quality. The confirmation experiments indicated that the reaction performance and the robustness of the product quality under the optimized conditions were higher than those obtained in other experiments in this study. Our results further demonstrate that the product's optical purity could be increased to >95% by adjusting the operational level of the main factors.
The Problem of Size in Robust Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Patrick N.; Allen, Janet K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Mavris, Dimitri
1997-01-01
To facilitate the effective solution of multidisciplinary, multiobjective complex design problems, a departure from the traditional parametric design analysis and single objective optimization approaches is necessary in the preliminary stages of design. A necessary tradeoff becomes one of efficiency vs. accuracy as approximate models are sought to allow fast analysis and effective exploration of a preliminary design space. In this paper we apply a general robust design approach for efficient and comprehensive preliminary design to a large complex system: a high speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. Specifically, we investigate the HSCT wing configuration design, incorporating life cycle economic uncertainties to identify economically robust solutions. The approach is built on the foundation of statistical experimentation and modeling techniques and robust design principles, and is specialized through incorporation of the compromise Decision Support Problem for multiobjective design. For large problems however, as in the HSCT example, this robust design approach developed for efficient and comprehensive design breaks down with the problem of size - combinatorial explosion in experimentation and model building with number of variables -and both efficiency and accuracy are sacrificed. Our focus in this paper is on identifying and discussing the implications and open issues associated with the problem of size for the preliminary design of large complex systems.
Robust modular product family design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Lan; Allada, Venkat
2001-10-01
This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust product family? An example of a simplified vacuum product family is used to illustrate our methodology. In the example, customer requirements are selected as signal factors; future changes of customer requirements are selected as noise factors; an index called quality characteristic (QC) is set to evaluate the product vacuum family; and the module instance matrix (M) is selected as control factor. Initially a relation between the objective function (QC) and the control factor (M) is established, and then the feasible M space is systemically explored using a simplex method to determine the optimum M and the corresponding QC values. Next, various noise levels at different time points are introduced into the system. For each noise level, the optimal values of M and QC are computed and plotted on a QC-chart. The tunable time period of the control factor (the module matrix, M) is computed using the QC-chart. The tunable time period represents the maximum time for which a given control factor can be used to satisfy current and future customer needs. Finally, a robustness index is used to break up the tunable time period into suitable time periods that designers should consider while designing product families.
Robust design of dynamic observers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharyya, S. P.
1974-01-01
The two (identity) observer realizations z = Mz + Ky and z = transpose of Az + transpose of K(y - transpose of Cz), respectively called the open loop and closed loop realizations, for the linear system x = Ax, y = Cx are analyzed with respect to the requirement of robustness; i.e., the requirement that the observer continue to regulate the error x - z satisfactorily despite small variations in the observer parameters from the projected design values. The results show that the open loop realization is never robust, that robustness requires a closed loop implementation, and that the closed loop realization is robust with respect to small perturbations in the gains transpose of K if and only if the observer can be built to contain an exact replica of the unstable and underdamped dynamics of the system being observed. These results clarify the stringent accuracy requirements on both models and hardware that must be met before an observer can be considered for use in a control system.
Advances in robust flight design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Kelvin K.; Dhand, Sanjeev K.
1991-01-01
Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies, generally based on maximizing payload capability, result in an expensive and time-consuming iteration in trajectory design for each mission. However, for a launch system that is not performance-driven, a flight design that is robust to variations in missions and provides single-engine-out capability can be highly cost-effective. This philosophy has led to the development of two flight design concepts to reduce recurring costs: standard trajectories and command multiplier steering. Preliminary analyses of these two concepts had proven the feasibility and showed encouraging results in applications to an Advanced Launch System vehicle. Recent progress has demonstrated the effective and efficient integration of the two concepts with minimal payload penalty.
Designing robust control laws using genetic algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marrison, Chris
1994-01-01
The purpose of this research is to create a method of finding practical, robust control laws. The robustness of a controller is judged by Stochastic Robustness metrics and the level of robustness is optimized by searching for design parameters that minimize a robustness cost function.
Designing for Reliability and Robustness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svetlik, Randall G.; Moore, Cherice; Williams, Antony
2017-01-01
Long duration spaceflight has a negative effect on the human body, and exercise countermeasures are used on-board the International Space Station (ISS) to minimize bone and muscle loss, combatting these effects. Given the importance of these hardware systems to the health of the crew, this equipment must continue to be readily available. Designing spaceflight exercise hardware to meet high reliability and availability standards has proven to be challenging throughout the time the crewmembers have been living on ISS beginning in 2000. Furthermore, restoring operational capability after a failure is clearly time-critical, but can be problematic given the challenges of troubleshooting the problem from 220 miles away. Several best-practices have been leveraged in seeking to maximize availability of these exercise systems, including designing for robustness, implementing diagnostic instrumentation, relying on user feedback, and providing ample maintenance and sparing. These factors have enhanced the reliability of hardware systems, and therefore have contributed to keeping the crewmembers healthy upon return to Earth. This paper will review the failure history for three spaceflight exercise countermeasure systems identifying lessons learned that can help improve future systems. Specifically, the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (TVIS), Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) will be reviewed, analyzed, and conclusions identified so as to provide guidance for improving future exercise hardware designs. These lessons learned, paired with thorough testing, offer a path towards reduced system down-time.
Robust multivariable controller design for flexible spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joshi, Suresh M.; Armstrong, Ernest S.
1986-01-01
Large, flexible spacecraft are typically characterized by a large number of significant elastic modes with very small inherent damping, low, closely spaced natural frequencies, and the lack of accurate knowledge of the structural parameters. Summarized here is some recent research on the design of robust controllers for such spacecraft, which will maintain stability, and possible performance, despite these problems. Two types of controllers are considered, the first being the linear-quadratic-Gaussian-(LQG)-type. The second type utilizes output feedback using collocated sensors and actuators. The problem of designing robust LQG-type controllers using the frequency domain loop transfer recovery (LTR) method is considered, and the method is applied to a large antenna model. Analytical results regarding the regions of stability for LQG-type controllers in the presence of actuator nonlinearities are also presented. The results obtained for the large antenna indicate that the LQG/LTR method is a promising approach for control system design for flexible spacecraft. For the second type of controllers (collocated controllers), it is proved that the stability is maintained in the presence of certain commonly encountered nonlinearities and first-order actuator dynamics. These results indicate that collocated controllers are good candidates for robust control in situations where model errors are large.
Evaluating efficiency and robustness in cilia design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva
2016-03-01
Motile cilia are used by many eukaryotic cells to transport flow. Cilia-driven flows are important to many physiological functions, yet a deep understanding of the interplay between the mechanical structure of cilia and their physiological functions in healthy and diseased conditions remains elusive. To develop such an understanding, one needs a quantitative framework to assess cilia performance and robustness when subject to perturbations in the cilia apparatus. Here we link cilia design (beating patterns) to function (flow transport) in the context of experimentally and theoretically derived cilia models. We particularly examine the optimality and robustness of cilia design. Optimality refers to efficiency of flow transport, while robustness is defined as low sensitivity to variations in the design parameters. We find that suboptimal designs can be more robust than optimal ones. That is, designing for the most efficient cilium does not guarantee robustness. These findings have significant implications on the understanding of cilia design in artificial and biological systems.
Robust Controller Design for Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope
2011-11-01
f v Figure 1. Operating principle of HRG Robust Controller Design for Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope Chul Hyun1), Byung ...Petersburg, Russia.: 26-34 4) Chul Hyun. 2011. Design of Robust Digital Controller for Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscopes, Ph.D. dissertation, Seoul
H∞ optimal design of robust observer against disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Min-Shin; Chen, Chi-Che
2014-06-01
This paper considers the robust observer design problem for linear dynamic systems subject to the interference of external disturbances. For such systems, the state estimate from the conventional Luenberger is normally biased with respect to the true system state. To remedy this situation, this paper proposes a new structure for robust observers. With this new structure, the robust observer design problem is skillfully transformed into the well-known disturbance rejection control problem. The H∞ optimal control design technique can then be applied to shape the proposed robust observer in the frequency domain. The proposed robust observer is a joint state and disturbance observer, which simultaneously estimates both the system state and unknown disturbances, and can be applied to non-minimum-phase systems.
Robust Design Optimization via Failure Domain Bounding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.
2007-01-01
This paper extends and applies the strategies recently developed by the authors for handling constraints under uncertainty to robust design optimization. For the scope of this paper, robust optimization is a methodology aimed at problems for which some parameters are uncertain and are only known to belong to some uncertainty set. This set can be described by either a deterministic or a probabilistic model. In the methodology developed herein, optimization-based strategies are used to bound the constraint violation region using hyper-spheres and hyper-rectangles. By comparing the resulting bounding sets with any given uncertainty model, it can be determined whether the constraints are satisfied for all members of the uncertainty model (i.e., constraints are feasible) or not (i.e., constraints are infeasible). If constraints are infeasible and a probabilistic uncertainty model is available, upper bounds to the probability of constraint violation can be efficiently calculated. The tools developed enable approximating not only the set of designs that make the constraints feasible but also, when required, the set of designs for which the probability of constraint violation is below a prescribed admissible value. When constraint feasibility is possible, several design criteria can be used to shape the uncertainty model of performance metrics of interest. Worst-case, least-second-moment, and reliability-based design criteria are considered herein. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, these strategies are easily applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.
Towards designing robust coupled networks.
Schneider, Christian M; Yazdani, Nuri; Araújo, Nuno A M; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J
2013-01-01
Natural and technological interdependent systems have been shown to be highly vulnerable due to cascading failures and an abrupt collapse of global connectivity under initial failure. Mitigating the risk by partial disconnection endangers their functionality. Here we propose a systematic strategy of selecting a minimum number of autonomous nodes that guarantee a smooth transition in robustness. Our method which is based on betweenness is tested on various examples including the famous 2003 electrical blackout of Italy. We show that, with this strategy, the necessary number of autonomous nodes can be reduced by a factor of five compared to a random choice. We also find that the transition to abrupt collapse follows tricritical scaling characterized by a set of exponents which is independent on the protection strategy.
Towards designing robust coupled networks
Schneider, Christian M.; Yazdani, Nuri; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J.
2013-01-01
Natural and technological interdependent systems have been shown to be highly vulnerable due to cascading failures and an abrupt collapse of global connectivity under initial failure. Mitigating the risk by partial disconnection endangers their functionality. Here we propose a systematic strategy of selecting a minimum number of autonomous nodes that guarantee a smooth transition in robustness. Our method which is based on betweenness is tested on various examples including the famous 2003 electrical blackout of Italy. We show that, with this strategy, the necessary number of autonomous nodes can be reduced by a factor of five compared to a random choice. We also find that the transition to abrupt collapse follows tricritical scaling characterized by a set of exponents which is independent on the protection strategy. PMID:23752705
Towards designing robust coupled networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, Christian M.; Yazdani, Nuri; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Havlin, Shlomo; Herrmann, Hans J.
2013-06-01
Natural and technological interdependent systems have been shown to be highly vulnerable due to cascading failures and an abrupt collapse of global connectivity under initial failure. Mitigating the risk by partial disconnection endangers their functionality. Here we propose a systematic strategy of selecting a minimum number of autonomous nodes that guarantee a smooth transition in robustness. Our method which is based on betweenness is tested on various examples including the famous 2003 electrical blackout of Italy. We show that, with this strategy, the necessary number of autonomous nodes can be reduced by a factor of five compared to a random choice. We also find that the transition to abrupt collapse follows tricritical scaling characterized by a set of exponents which is independent on the protection strategy.
Robust holographic storage system design.
Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru
2011-11-21
Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration.
A robust optimization methodology for preliminary aircraft design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prigent, S.; Maréchal, P.; Rondepierre, A.; Druot, T.; Belleville, M.
2016-05-01
This article focuses on a robust optimization of an aircraft preliminary design under operational constraints. According to engineers' know-how, the aircraft preliminary design problem can be modelled as an uncertain optimization problem whose objective (the cost or the fuel consumption) is almost affine, and whose constraints are convex. It is shown that this uncertain optimization problem can be approximated in a conservative manner by an uncertain linear optimization program, which enables the use of the techniques of robust linear programming of Ben-Tal, El Ghaoui, and Nemirovski [Robust Optimization, Princeton University Press, 2009]. This methodology is then applied to two real cases of aircraft design and numerical results are presented.
Robustness, canalyzing functions and systems design.
Rauh, Johannes; Ay, Nihat
2014-06-01
We study a notion of knockout robustness of a stochastic map (Markov kernel) that describes a system of several input random variables and one output random variable. Robustness requires that the behaviour of the system does not change if one or several of the input variables are knocked out. Gibbs potentials are used to give a mechanistic description of the behaviour of the system after knockouts. Robustness imposes structural constraints on these potentials. We show that robust systems can be described in terms of suitable interaction families of Gibbs potentials, which allows us to address the problem of systems design. Robustness is also characterized by conditional independence constraints on the joint distribution of input and output. The set of all probability distributions corresponding to robust systems can be decomposed into a finite union of components, and we find parametrizations of the components.
Robust Crossfeed Design for Hovering Rotorcraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Catapang, David R.
1993-01-01
Control law design for rotorcraft fly-by-wire systems normally attempts to decouple angular responses using fixed-gain crossfeeds. This approach can lead to poor decoupling over the frequency range of pilot inputs and increase the load on the feedback loops. In order to improve the decoupling performance, dynamic crossfeeds may be adopted. Moreover, because of the large changes that occur in rotorcraft dynamics due to small changes about the nominal design condition, especially for near-hovering flight, the crossfeed design must be 'robust'. A new low-order matching method is presented here to design robust crossfeed compensators for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The technique identifies degrees-of-freedom that can be decoupled using crossfeeds, given an anticipated set of parameter variations for the range of flight conditions of concern. Cross-coupling is then reduced for degrees-of-freedom that can use crossfeed compensation by minimizing off-axis response magnitude average and variance. Results are presented for the analysis of pitch, roll, yaw and heave coupling of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in near-hovering flight. Robust crossfeeds are designed that show significant improvement in decoupling performance and robustness over nominal, single design point, compensators. The design method and results are presented in an easily used graphical format that lends significant physical insight to the design procedure. This plant pre-compensation technique is an appropriate preliminary step to the design of robust feedback control laws for rotorcraft.
Robust input design for nonlinear dynamic modeling of AUV.
Nouri, Nowrouz Mohammad; Valadi, Mehrdad
2017-09-01
Input design has a dominant role in developing the dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) through system identification. Optimal input design is the process of generating informative inputs that can be used to generate the good quality dynamic model of AUVs. In a problem with optimal input design, the desired input signal depends on the unknown system which is intended to be identified. In this paper, the input design approach which is robust to uncertainties in model parameters is used. The Bayesian robust design strategy is applied to design input signals for dynamic modeling of AUVs. The employed approach can design multiple inputs and apply constraints on an AUV system's inputs and outputs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to solve the constraint robust optimization problem. The presented algorithm is used for designing the input signals for an AUV, and the estimate obtained by robust input design is compared with that of the optimal input design. According to the results, proposed input design can satisfy both robustness of constraints and optimality. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Design and implementation of robust controllers for a gait trainer.
Wang, F C; Yu, C H; Chou, T Y
2009-08-01
This paper applies robust algorithms to control an active gait trainer for children with walking disabilities. Compared with traditional rehabilitation procedures, in which two or three trainers are required to assist the patient, a motor-driven mechanism was constructed to improve the efficiency of the procedures. First, a six-bar mechanism was designed and constructed to mimic the trajectory of children's ankles in walking. Second, system identification techniques were applied to obtain system transfer functions at different operating points by experiments. Third, robust control algorithms were used to design Hinfinity robust controllers for the system. Finally, the designed controllers were implemented to verify experimentally the system performance. From the results, the proposed robust control strategies are shown to be effective.
Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.
2012-01-01
One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.
Design optimization for cost and quality: The robust design approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Resit
1990-01-01
Designing reliable, low cost, and operable space systems has become the key to future space operations. Designing high quality space systems at low cost is an economic and technological challenge to the designer. A systematic and efficient way to meet this challenge is a new method of design optimization for performance, quality, and cost, called Robust Design. Robust Design is an approach for design optimization. It consists of: making system performance insensitive to material and subsystem variation, thus allowing the use of less costly materials and components; making designs less sensitive to the variations in the operating environment, thus improving reliability and reducing operating costs; and using a new structured development process so that engineering time is used most productively. The objective in Robust Design is to select the best combination of controllable design parameters so that the system is most robust to uncontrollable noise factors. The robust design methodology uses a mathematical tool called an orthogonal array, from design of experiments theory, to study a large number of decision variables with a significantly small number of experiments. Robust design also uses a statistical measure of performance, called a signal-to-noise ratio, from electrical control theory, to evaluate the level of performance and the effect of noise factors. The purpose is to investigate the Robust Design methodology for improving quality and cost, demonstrate its application by the use of an example, and suggest its use as an integral part of space system design process.
Robust regression applied to fractal/multifractal analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Portilla, F.; Valencia, J. L.; Tarquis, A. M.; Saa-Requejo, A.
2012-04-01
Fractal and multifractal are concepts that have grown increasingly popular in recent years in the soil analysis, along with the development of fractal models. One of the common steps is to calculate the slope of a linear fit commonly using least squares method. This shouldn't be a special problem, however, in many situations using experimental data the researcher has to select the range of scales at which is going to work neglecting the rest of points to achieve the best linearity that in this type of analysis is necessary. Robust regression is a form of regression analysis designed to circumvent some limitations of traditional parametric and non-parametric methods. In this method we don't have to assume that the outlier point is simply an extreme observation drawn from the tail of a normal distribution not compromising the validity of the regression results. In this work we have evaluated the capacity of robust regression to select the points in the experimental data used trying to avoid subjective choices. Based on this analysis we have developed a new work methodology that implies two basic steps: • Evaluation of the improvement of linear fitting when consecutive points are eliminated based on R p-value. In this way we consider the implications of reducing the number of points. • Evaluation of the significance of slope difference between fitting with the two extremes points and fitted with the available points. We compare the results applying this methodology and the common used least squares one. The data selected for these comparisons are coming from experimental soil roughness transect and simulated based on middle point displacement method adding tendencies and noise. The results are discussed indicating the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology. Acknowledgements Funding provided by CEIGRAM (Research Centre for the Management of Agricultural and Environmental Risks) and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no
Extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinfeldt, Bradley A.; Braun, Robert D.
2016-05-01
The extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology is examined. This analysis is approached from a computational cost and accuracy perspective. The sensitivity of the solution's computational cost is examined by analysing effects such as the number of design variables, nonlinearity of the CAs, and nonlinearity of the response in addition to several potential complexity metrics. Relative to traditional robust design methods, the linear rapid robust design methodology scaled better with the size of the problem and had performance that exceeded the traditional techniques examined. The accuracy of applying a method with linear fundamentals to nonlinear problems was examined. It is observed that if the magnitude of nonlinearity is less than 1000 times that of the nominal linear response, the error associated with applying successive linearization will result in ? errors in the response less than 10% compared to the full nonlinear error.
Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits
2010-01-01
Background One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. Results We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR) within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. Conclusions A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits including point
ADSL Transceivers Applying DSM and Their Nonstationary Noise Robustness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
den Bogaert, Etienne Van; Bostoen, Tom; Verlinden, Jan; Cendrillon, Raphael; Moonen, Marc
2006-12-01
Dynamic spectrum management (DSM) comprises a new set of techniques for multiuser power allocation and/or detection in digital subscriber line (DSL) networks. At the Alcatel Research and Innovation Labs, we have recently developed a DSM test bed, which allows the performance of DSM algorithms to be evaluated in practice. With this test bed, we have evaluated the performance of a DSM level-1 algorithm known as iterative water-filling in an ADSL scenario. This paper describes the results of, on the one hand, the performance gains achieved with iterative water-filling, and, on the other hand, the nonstationary noise robustness of DSM-enabled ADSL modems. It will be shown that DSM trades off nonstationary noise robustness for performance improvements. A new bit swap procedure is then introduced to increase the noise robustness when applying DSM.
Robustness Analysis and Optimally Robust Control Design via Sum-of-Squares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorobantu, Andrei; Crespo, Luis G.; Seiler, Peter J.
2012-01-01
A control analysis and design framework is proposed for systems subject to parametric uncertainty. The underlying strategies are based on sum-of-squares (SOS) polynomial analysis and nonlinear optimization to design an optimally robust controller. The approach determines a maximum uncertainty range for which the closed-loop system satisfies a set of stability and performance requirements. These requirements, de ned as inequality constraints on several metrics, are restricted to polynomial functions of the uncertainty. To quantify robustness, SOS analysis is used to prove that the closed-loop system complies with the requirements for a given uncertainty range. The maximum uncertainty range, calculated by assessing a sequence of increasingly larger ranges, serves as a robustness metric for the closed-loop system. To optimize the control design, nonlinear optimization is used to enlarge the maximum uncertainty range by tuning the controller gains. Hence, the resulting controller is optimally robust to parametric uncertainty. This approach balances the robustness margins corresponding to each requirement in order to maximize the aggregate system robustness. The proposed framework is applied to a simple linear short-period aircraft model with uncertain aerodynamic coefficients.
Robust network design for multispecies conservation
Ronan Le Bras; Bistra Dilkina; Yexiang Xue; Carla P. Gomes; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Schwartz; Claire A. Montgomery
2013-01-01
Our work is motivated by an important network design application in computational sustainability concerning wildlife conservation. In the face of human development and climate change, it is important that conservation plans for protecting landscape connectivity exhibit certain level of robustness. While previous work has focused on conservation strategies that result...
Effects-Based Design of Robust Organizations
2004-06-01
turn, are used to synthesize a robust organizational structure. Keywords: Organizational Design, Markov Deci- sion Processes, Reinforcement Learning , and...Markov Decision Processes (MDP), reinforcement learning , Monte Carlo con- trol method, and mixed integer optimization, as in aElectrical and Computer...based on MDP, Monte Carlo control method, reinforcement learning , and mixed integer optimization techniques. In section III, we formulate the dynamic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayard, David S.; Chiang, Richard Y.
1996-01-01
This paper demonstrates an approach to frequency domain identification for the explicit purpose of designing robust H(infinity) controllers. The approach transforms raw experimental data into a plant set estimate directly usable by modern robust control design software(e.g., Matlab Robust Control Toolboxes [11][2]). A key issue in control design from raw data is the question of whether the controller will work when applied to the true system. The main feature fo this approach is that the resulting controller in guaranteed to work as designed(when applied to the true system) to a prescribed statistical confidence. While the overall methodology addresses key theoretical issues, it has at the same time been specifically designed to support practical implementations. A simulation example is included to demonstrate the overall approach.
Networked Robust Predictive Control Systems Design with Packet Loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Quang T.; Veselý, Vojtech; Kozáková, Alena; Pakshin, Pavel
2014-01-01
The paper addresses problem of designing a robust output feedback model predictive control for uncertain linear systems over networks with packet-loss. The packet-loss process is arbitrary and bounded by the control horizon of model predictive control. Networked predictive control systems with packet loss are modeled as switched linear systems. This enables us to apply the theory of switched systems to establish the stability condition. The stabilizing controller design is based on sufficient robust stability conditions formulated as a solution of bilinear matrix inequality. Finally, a benchmark numerical example-double integrator is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A method for designing robust multivariable feedback systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milich, David Albert; Athans, Michael; Valavani, Lena; Stein, Gunter
1988-01-01
A new methodology is developed for the synthesis of linear, time-invariant (LTI) controllers for multivariable LTI systems. The aim is to achieve stability and performance robustness of the feedback system in the presence of multiple unstructured uncertainty blocks; i.e., to satisfy a frequency-domain inequality in terms of the structured singular value. The design technique is referred to as the Causality Recovery Methodology (CRM). Starting with an initial (nominally) stabilizing compensator, the CRM produces a closed-loop system whose performance-robustness is at least as good as, and hopefully superior to, that of the original design. The robustness improvement is obtained by solving an infinite-dimensional, convex optimization program. A finite-dimensional implementation of the CRM was developed, and it was applied to a multivariate design example.
Matlab as a robust control design tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregory, Irene M.
1994-01-01
This presentation introduces Matlab as a tool used in flight control research. The example used to illustrate some of the capabilities of this software is a robust controller designed for a single stage to orbit air breathing vehicles's ascent to orbit. The global requirements of the controller are to stabilize the vehicle and follow a trajectory in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and strong dynamic coupling between airframe and propulsion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, R.
1993-01-01
Robustness is a buzz word common to all newly proposed space systems design as well as many new commercial products. The image that one conjures up when the word appears is a 'Paul Bunyon' (lumberjack design), strong and hearty; healthy with margins in all aspects of the design. In actuality, robustness is much broader in scope than margins, including such factors as simplicity, redundancy, desensitization to parameter variations, control of parameter variations (environments flucation), and operational approaches. These must be traded with concepts, materials, and fabrication approaches against the criteria of performance, cost, and reliability. This includes manufacturing, assembly, processing, checkout, and operations. The design engineer or project chief is faced with finding ways and means to inculcate robustness into an operational design. First, however, be sure he understands the definition and goals of robustness. This paper will deal with these issues as well as the need for the requirement for robustness.
Robustness of speckle imaging techniques applied to horizontal imaging scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bos, Jeremy P.
Atmospheric turbulence near the ground severely limits the quality of imagery acquired over long horizontal paths. In defense, surveillance, and border security applications, there is interest in deploying man-portable, embedded systems incorporating image reconstruction to improve the quality of imagery available to operators. To be effective, these systems must operate over significant variations in turbulence conditions while also subject to other variations due to operation by novice users. Systems that meet these requirements and are otherwise designed to be immune to the factors that cause variation in performance are considered robust. In addition to robustness in design, the portable nature of these systems implies a preference for systems with a minimum level of computational complexity. Speckle imaging methods are one of a variety of methods recently been proposed for use in man-portable horizontal imagers. In this work, the robustness of speckle imaging methods is established by identifying a subset of design parameters that provide immunity to the expected variations in operating conditions while minimizing the computation time necessary for image recovery. This performance evaluation is made possible using a novel technique for simulating anisoplanatic image formation. I find that incorporate as few as 15 image frames and 4 estimates of the object phase per reconstructed frame provide an average reduction of 45% reduction in Mean Squared Error (MSE) and 68% reduction in deviation in MSE. In addition, the Knox-Thompson phase recovery method is demonstrated to produce images in half the time required by the bispectrum. Finally, it is shown that certain blind image quality metrics can be used in place of the MSE to evaluate reconstruction quality in field scenarios. Using blind metrics rather depending on user estimates allows for reconstruction quality that differs from the minimum MSE by as little as 1%, significantly reducing the deviation in
A Robust Control Design Framework for Substructure Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lim, Kyong B.
1994-01-01
A framework for designing control systems directly from substructure models and uncertainties is proposed. The technique is based on combining a set of substructure robust control problems by an interface stiffness matrix which appears as a constant gain feedback. Variations of uncertainties in the interface stiffness are treated as a parametric uncertainty. It is shown that multivariable robust control can be applied to generate centralized or decentralized controllers that guarantee performance with respect to uncertainties in the interface stiffness, reduced component modes and external disturbances. The technique is particularly suited for large, complex, and weakly coupled flexible structures.
Design of robust failure detection filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
San Martin, A. M.; Vander Velde, W. E.
1986-01-01
An essential aspect of the design of control systems for large, flexible spacecraft is fault tolerance. Because it is anticipated that a large number of sensors and actuators will be required to realize good control over these assemblies, the detection and isolation of component failures cannot be based on direct comparisons among replicated components. Instead, the notion of 'analytic redundancy' must be employed for the FDI function. Unfortunately this makes the FDI function sensitive to modeling errors which are certain to exist in the large space structure problem due to model truncation and parameter uncertainty. This paper addresses the robustness to model error of one method of FDI residual generation - the failure detection filter. Initial designs were found to be extremely sensitive to modeling error. The sources of this sensitivity are analyzed and modifications to the design are suggested. The improved filter is shown to have much better visibility of the failure signatures relative to the background due to modeling error.
Design of robust failure detection filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
San Martin, A. M.; Vander Velde, W. E.
1986-01-01
An essential aspect of the design of control systems for large, flexible spacecraft is fault tolerance. Because it is anticipated that a large number of sensors and actuators will be required to realize good control over these assemblies, the detection and isolation of component failures cannot be based on direct comparisons among replicated components. Instead, the notion of 'analytic redundancy' must be employed for the FDI function. Unfortunately this makes the FDI function sensitive to modeling errors which are certain to exist in the large space structure problem due to model truncation and parameter uncertainty. This paper addresses the robustness to model error of one method of FDI residual generation - the failure detection filter. Initial designs were found to be extremely sensitive to modeling error. The sources of this sensitivity are analyzed and modifications to the design are suggested. The improved filter is shown to have much better visibility of the failure signatures relative to the background due to modeling error.
Design analysis, robust methods, and stress classification
Bees, W.J.
1993-01-01
This special edition publication volume is comprised of papers presented at the 1993 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, July 25--29, 1993 in Denver, Colorado. The papers were prepared for presentations in technical sessions developed under the auspices of the PVPD Committees on Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, Operations Applications and Components. The topics included are: Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Components; Expansion Joints; Robust Methods; Stress Classification; and Non-Linear Analysis. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.
System identification for robust control design
Dohner, J.L.
1995-04-01
System identification for the purpose of robust control design involves estimating a nominal model of a physical system and the uncertainty bounds of that nominal model via the use of experimentally measured input/output data. Although many algorithms have been developed to identify nominal models, little effort has been directed towards identifying uncertainty bounds. Therefore, in this document, a discussion of both nominal model identification and bounded output multiplicative uncertainty identification will be presented. This document is divided into several sections. Background information relevant to system identification and control design will be presented. A derivation of eigensystem realization type algorithms will be presented. An algorithm will be developed for calculating the maximum singular value of output multiplicative uncertainty from measured data. An application will be given involving the identification of a complex system with aliased dynamics, feedback control, and exogenous noise disturbances. And, finally, a short discussion of results will be presented.
Robust Control Design via Linear Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.
1998-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.
Computational methods of robust controller design for aerodynamic flutter suppression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. R.
1981-01-01
The development of Riccati iteration, a tool for the design and analysis of linear control systems is examined. First, Riccati iteration is applied to the problem of pole placement and order reduction in two-time scale control systems. Order reduction, yielding a good approximation to the original system, is demonstrated using a 16th order linear model of a turbofan engine. Next, a numerical method for solving the Riccati equation is presented and demonstrated for a set of eighth order random examples. A literature review of robust controller design methods follows which includes a number of methods for reducing the trajectory and performance index sensitivity in linear regulators. Lastly, robust controller design for large parameter variations is discussed.
Robust control systems design by H-infinity optimization theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, B. C.; Li, X. P.; Banda, S. S.; Yeh, H. H.
1991-01-01
In this paper, step-by-step procedures of applying the H-infinity theory to robust control systems design are given. The objective of the paper is to eliminate the possible difficulties a control engineer may encounter in applying H-infinity control theory and to clear up some misconceptions about H-infinity theory like high-gain controller and numerical obstacles, etc. An efficient algorithm is used to compute the optimal H-infinity norm. The Glover and Doyle (1988) controller formulas are slightly modified and used to construct an optimal controller without any numerical difficulties.
Designing robust sensing matrix for image compression.
Li, Gang; Li, Xiao; Li, Sheng; Bai, Huang; Jiang, Qianru; He, Xiongxiong
2015-12-01
This paper deals with designing sensing matrix for compressive sensing systems. Traditionally, the optimal sensing matrix is designed so that the Gram of the equivalent dictionary is as close as possible to a target Gram with small mutual coherence. A novel design strategy is proposed, in which, unlike the traditional approaches, the measure considers of mutual coherence behavior of the equivalent dictionary as well as sparse representation errors of the signals. The optimal sensing matrix is defined as the one that minimizes this measure and hence is expected to be more robust against sparse representation errors. A closed-form solution is derived for the optimal sensing matrix with a given target Gram. An alternating minimization-based algorithm is also proposed for addressing the same problem with the target Gram searched within a set of relaxed equiangular tight frame Grams. The experiments are carried out and the results show that the sensing matrix obtained using the proposed approach outperforms those existing ones using a fixed dictionary in terms of signal reconstruction accuracy for synthetic data and peak signal-to-noise ratio for real images.
Robust Path Planning and Feedback Design Under Stochastic Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackmore, Lars
2008-01-01
Autonomous vehicles require optimal path planning algorithms to achieve mission goals while avoiding obstacles and being robust to uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from exogenous disturbances, modeling errors, and sensor noise, which can be characterized via stochastic models. Previous work defined a notion of robustness in a stochastic setting by using the concept of chance constraints. This requires that mission constraint violation can occur with a probability less than a prescribed value.In this paper we describe a novel method for optimal chance constrained path planning with feedback design. The approach optimizes both the reference trajectory to be followed and the feedback controller used to reject uncertainty. Our method extends recent results in constrained control synthesis based on convex optimization to solve control problems with nonconvex constraints. This extension is essential for path planning problems, which inherently have nonconvex obstacle avoidance constraints. Unlike previous approaches to chance constrained path planning, the new approach optimizes the feedback gain as wellas the reference trajectory.The key idea is to couple a fast, nonconvex solver that does not take into account uncertainty, with existing robust approaches that apply only to convex feasible regions. By alternating between robust and nonrobust solutions, the new algorithm guarantees convergence to a global optimum. We apply the new method to an unmanned aircraft and show simulation results that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.
Robust Path Planning and Feedback Design Under Stochastic Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackmore, Lars
2008-01-01
Autonomous vehicles require optimal path planning algorithms to achieve mission goals while avoiding obstacles and being robust to uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from exogenous disturbances, modeling errors, and sensor noise, which can be characterized via stochastic models. Previous work defined a notion of robustness in a stochastic setting by using the concept of chance constraints. This requires that mission constraint violation can occur with a probability less than a prescribed value.In this paper we describe a novel method for optimal chance constrained path planning with feedback design. The approach optimizes both the reference trajectory to be followed and the feedback controller used to reject uncertainty. Our method extends recent results in constrained control synthesis based on convex optimization to solve control problems with nonconvex constraints. This extension is essential for path planning problems, which inherently have nonconvex obstacle avoidance constraints. Unlike previous approaches to chance constrained path planning, the new approach optimizes the feedback gain as wellas the reference trajectory.The key idea is to couple a fast, nonconvex solver that does not take into account uncertainty, with existing robust approaches that apply only to convex feasible regions. By alternating between robust and nonrobust solutions, the new algorithm guarantees convergence to a global optimum. We apply the new method to an unmanned aircraft and show simulation results that demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.
Two challenges in embedded systems design: predictability and robustness.
Henzinger, Thomas A
2008-10-28
I discuss two main challenges in embedded systems design: the challenge to build predictable systems, and that to build robust systems. I suggest how predictability can be formalized as a form of determinism, and robustness as a form of continuity.
Robust design of polyrhythmic neural circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Neiman, Alexander B.; Shilnikov, Andrey L.
2014-08-01
Neural circuit motifs producing coexistent rhythmic patterns are treated as building blocks of multifunctional neuronal networks. We study the robustness of such a motif of inhibitory model neurons to reliably sustain bursting polyrhythms under random perturbations. Without noise, the exponential stability of each of the coexisting rhythms increases with strengthened synaptic coupling, thus indicating an increased robustness. Conversely, after adding noise we find that noise-induced rhythm switching intensifies if the coupling strength is increased beyond a critical value, indicating a decreased robustness. We analyze this stochastic arrhythmia and develop a generic description of its dynamic mechanism. Based on our mechanistic insight, we show how physiological parameters of neuronal dynamics and network coupling can be balanced to enhance rhythm robustness against noise. Our findings are applicable to a broad class of relaxation-oscillator networks, including Fitzhugh-Nagumo and other Hodgkin-Huxley-type networks.
Robust design of microlenses arrays employing dielectric resonators metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvestri, Fabrizio; Gerini, Giampiero; Bäumer, Stefan M. B.
2017-02-01
In the last years, much interest has grown around the concept of optical surfaces employing high contrast dielectric resonators. However, a systematic approach for the design of this optical surfaces under particular requirements has never been proposed. In this contribution, we describe this approach applied to the robust design of an array of microlenses characterized by a numerical aperture of NA=0.19 with a field of view of FOV = ±60 mrad in a bandwidth of 20 nm. Typically, dielectric resonators are engineered in such a way to have almost full transmissive surfaces with locally tunable phase. However, considering the multiple wavelengths and angles under which the lenses may work, it is difficult to get uniform transmission characteristics for all the dielectric resonators employed. The design strategy, here proposed, uses a particle swarm optimization routine to find the best resonator distribution able to meet the requirements considering the amplitude and phase dispersive characteristics of the resonators surfaces. In the optimization process, also the effects of possible manufacturing inaccuracies, such as variations of resonators radii, are taken into account, allowing a robust design of the structure, within the given manufacturing tolerances. Different designs, operating at 405 nm and 635 nm, are presented and their performances are discussed.
Robust Decision-making Applied to Model Selection
Hemez, Francois M.
2012-08-06
The scientific and engineering communities are relying more and more on numerical models to simulate ever-increasingly complex phenomena. Selecting a model, from among a family of models that meets the simulation requirements, presents a challenge to modern-day analysts. To address this concern, a framework is adopted anchored in info-gap decision theory. The framework proposes to select models by examining the trade-offs between prediction accuracy and sensitivity to epistemic uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on two structural engineering applications by asking the following question: Which model, of several numerical models, approximates the behavior of a structure when parameters that define each of those models are unknown? One observation is that models that are nominally more accurate are not necessarily more robust, and their accuracy can deteriorate greatly depending upon the assumptions made. It is posited that, as reliance on numerical models increases, establishing robustness will become as important as demonstrating accuracy.
A robust methodology for modal parameters estimation applied to SHM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Rharã; Cury, Alexandre; Barbosa, Flávio
2017-10-01
The subject of structural health monitoring is drawing more and more attention over the last years. Many vibration-based techniques aiming at detecting small structural changes or even damage have been developed or enhanced through successive researches. Lately, several studies have focused on the use of raw dynamic data to assess information about structural condition. Despite this trend and much skepticism, many methods still rely on the use of modal parameters as fundamental data for damage detection. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that modal identification procedures are performed with a sufficient level of precision and automation. To fulfill these requirements, this paper presents a novel automated time-domain methodology to identify modal parameters based on a two-step clustering analysis. The first step consists in clustering modes estimates from parametric models of different orders, usually presented in stabilization diagrams. In an automated manner, the first clustering analysis indicates which estimates correspond to physical modes. To circumvent the detection of spurious modes or the loss of physical ones, a second clustering step is then performed. The second step consists in the data mining of information gathered from the first step. To attest the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methodology, numerically generated signals as well as experimental data obtained from a simply supported beam tested in laboratory and from a railway bridge are utilized. The results appeared to be more robust and accurate comparing to those obtained from methods based on one-step clustering analysis.
Noise Robust Speech Recognition Applied to Voice-Driven Wheelchair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasou, Akira; Kojima, Hiroaki
2009-12-01
Conventional voice-driven wheelchairs usually employ headset microphones that are capable of achieving sufficient recognition accuracy, even in the presence of surrounding noise. However, such interfaces require users to wear sensors such as a headset microphone, which can be an impediment, especially for the hand disabled. Conversely, it is also well known that the speech recognition accuracy drastically degrades when the microphone is placed far from the user. In this paper, we develop a noise robust speech recognition system for a voice-driven wheelchair. This system can achieve almost the same recognition accuracy as the headset microphone without wearing sensors. We verified the effectiveness of our system in experiments in different environments, and confirmed that our system can achieve almost the same recognition accuracy as the headset microphone without wearing sensors.
Gearbox design for uncertain load requirements using active robust optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salomon, Shaul; Avigad, Gideon; Purshouse, Robin C.; Fleming, Peter J.
2016-04-01
Design and optimization of gear transmissions have been intensively studied, but surprisingly the robustness of the resulting optimal design to uncertain loads has never been considered. Active Robust (AR) optimization is a methodology to design products that attain robustness to uncertain or changing environmental conditions through adaptation. In this study the AR methodology is utilized to optimize the number of transmissions, as well as their gearing ratios, for an uncertain load demand. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem where the objectives are to satisfy the load demand in the most energy efficient manner and to minimize production cost. The results show that this approach can find a set of robust designs, revealing a trade-off between energy efficiency and production cost. This can serve as a useful decision-making tool for the gearbox design process, as well as for other applications.
Robust control for snake maneuver design of missile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kun, Ya; Chen, Xin; Li, Chuntao
2017-01-01
For the performance of missile with high Mach number and strongly nonlinear dynamics, this paper uses robust control to design maneuver controller. Robust servomechanism linear quadratic regulator (RSLQR) control is used to form the inner loop and proportional-plus-integral (PI) control is used to provide yawing tracking with no error. Contrast simulations under three types of deviation have been done to confirm robustness of the RSLQR-plus-PI control. Simulation results shows that RSLQR-plus-PI control would resist the disturbance and maintain the properties of the controller, guarantee the robustness and stability of missile more effectively than pure PI control.
Robust sliding mode control applied to double Inverted pendulum system
Mahjoub, Sonia; Derbel, Nabil; Mnif, Faical
2009-03-05
A three hierarchical sliding mode control is presented for a class of an underactuated system which can overcome the mismatched perturbations. The considered underactuated system is a double inverted pendulum (DIP), can be modeled by three subsystems. Such structure allows the construction of several designs of hierarchies for the controller. For all hierarchical designs, the asymptotic stability of every layer sliding mode surface and the sliding mode surface of subsystems are proved theoretically by Barbalat's lemma. Simulation results show the validity of these methods.
Designing Robust Hierarchically Textured Oleophobic Fabrics.
Kleingartner, Justin A; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Truong, Quoc T; Sieber, Michael; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H
2015-12-08
Commercially available woven fabrics (e.g., nylon- or PET-based fabrics) possess inherently re-entrant textures in the form of cylindrical yarns and fibers. We analyze the liquid repellency of woven and nanotextured oleophobic fabrics using a nested model with n levels of hierarchy that is constructed from modular units of cylindrical and spherical building blocks. At each level of hierarchy, the density of the topographical features is captured using a dimensionless textural parameter D(n)*. For a plain-woven mesh comprised of chemically treated fiber bundles (n = 2), the tight packing of individual fibers in each bundle (D2* ≈ 1) imposes a geometric constraint on the maximum oleophobicity that can be achieved solely by modifying the surface energy of the coating. For liquid droplets contacting such tightly bundled fabrics with modified surface energies, we show that this model predicts a lower bound on the equilibrium contact angle of θ(E) ≈ 57° below which the Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel wetting transition occurs spontaneously, and this is validated experimentally. We demonstrate how the introduction of an additional higher order micro-/nanotexture onto the fibers (n = 3) is necessary to overcome this limit and create more robustly nonwetting fabrics. Finally, we show a simple experimental realization of the enhanced oleophobicity of fabrics by depositing spherical microbeads of poly(methyl methacrylate)/fluorodecyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (fluorodecyl POSS) onto the fibers of a commercial woven nylon fabric.
In Search for a Robust Design of Environmental Sensor Networks.
Budi, Setia; Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg; Malhotra, Vishv; Turner, Paul
2017-03-22
This paper presents an approach to the design of Environmental Sensor Networks (ESN) which aims at providing a robust, fit-for-purpose network with minimum redundancy. A set of near optimum ESN designs is sought using an Evolutionary Algorithm, which incorporates redundancy and robustness as fitness functions. This work can assist the decision making process when determining the number of sensor nodes and how the nodes are going to be deployed in the region of interest.
Design principles for robust vesiculation in clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hassinger, Julian E.; Oster, George; Drubin, David G.; Rangamani, Padmini
2017-01-01
A critical step in cellular-trafficking pathways is the budding of membranes by protein coats, which recent experiments have demonstrated can be inhibited by elevated membrane tension. The robustness of processes like clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) across a diverse range of organisms and mechanical environments suggests that the protein machinery in this process has evolved to take advantage of some set of physical design principles to ensure robust vesiculation against opposing forces like membrane tension. Using a theoretical model for membrane mechanics and membrane protein interaction, we have systematically investigated the influence of membrane rigidity, curvature induced by the protein coat, area covered by the protein coat, membrane tension, and force from actin polymerization on bud formation. Under low tension, the membrane smoothly evolves from a flat to budded morphology as the coat area or spontaneous curvature increases, whereas the membrane remains essentially flat at high tensions. At intermediate, physiologically relevant, tensions, the membrane undergoes a “snap-through instability” in which small changes in the coat area, spontaneous curvature or membrane tension cause the membrane to “snap” from an open, U-shape to a closed bud. This instability can be smoothed out by increasing the bending rigidity of the coat, allowing for successful budding at higher membrane tensions. Additionally, applied force from actin polymerization can bypass the instability by inducing a smooth transition from an open to a closed bud. Finally, a combination of increased coat rigidity and force from actin polymerization enables robust vesiculation even at high membrane tensions. PMID:28126722
Design of Optimally Robust Control Systems.
1980-01-01
approach is that the optimization framework is an artificial device. While some design constraints can easily be incorporated into a single cost function...indicating that that point was indeed the solution. Also, an intellegent initial guess for k was important in order to avoid being hung up at the double
Robust Control Design for Flight Control
1989-07-01
to achieve desired performance over the full flight envelope when linear feedback is employed. Exact linearization methods [48] provide means for...designing nonlinear feedback laws which satisfy these requirements. However, exact linearization is not always compatible with control authority...specific situations. The most promising approaches appear to be those associated with methods of exact linearization . This procedure is based on some
Robust Control Design for Systems With Probabilistic Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.
2005-01-01
This paper presents a reliability- and robustness-based formulation for robust control synthesis for systems with probabilistic uncertainty. In a reliability-based formulation, the probability of violating design requirements prescribed by inequality constraints is minimized. In a robustness-based formulation, a metric which measures the tendency of a random variable/process to cluster close to a target scalar/function is minimized. A multi-objective optimization procedure, which combines stability and performance requirements in time and frequency domains, is used to search for robustly optimal compensators. Some of the fundamental differences between the proposed strategy and conventional robust control methods are: (i) unnecessary conservatism is eliminated since there is not need for convex supports, (ii) the most likely plants are favored during synthesis allowing for probabilistic robust optimality, (iii) the tradeoff between robust stability and robust performance can be explored numerically, (iv) the uncertainty set is closely related to parameters with clear physical meaning, and (v) compensators with improved robust characteristics for a given control structure can be synthesized.
Robust Network Design - Connectivity and Beyond
2015-01-15
ANALYSIS OF DATA ACCESS PROTOCOL IN DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS While the use of codes for providing improved security and integrity of data in...distributed storage systems, how fast such systems can provide data or how we should optimize data access protocols are not studied. We first studied...performance of distributed storage systems. Then, we designed superior data access protocol , which uses redundant requests to improve data access
Robust and reconfigurable flight control system design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siwakosit, Wichai
2001-07-01
A reconfigurable flight control system is a control system which can automatically adapt itself to maintain the performance of a damaged aircraft to be as close as possible to that of the normal or undamaged one. This research focuses mainly on Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) reconfigurable flight control for an aircraft with damaged actuator(s) which may greatly affect the performance and control of the aircraft, and also pose a challenging flight control problem. The foundation of the control system is a baseline controller and an adaptive module which constitutes a reconfigurable part. The baseline controller ensures that the aircraft has acceptable performance and handling qualities throughout the flight envelope. The combination of a Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Pre-Design Technique (PDT) and a Reduced-order, Linear, Dynamic Inversion (RLDI) control strategy yields a flight control system with good tracking performance and handling qualities with no Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO) tendencies throughout the designated set of flight conditions. In addition, the system is highly immune to large uncertainties in the aircraft dynamics. The modified filtered-ɛ adaptive algorithm is developed and utilized in the adaptive module of the system. This adaptive algorithm performs well with MIMO system with the added advantage of not having to pre-identify the dynamics of the damaged aircraft, provided that the conditions of reconfigurability are met. An example of the proposed control system with the NASA F-18 HARV vehicle model and a damaged actuator demonstrates the effectiveness of the concept.
Robust control design verification using the modular modeling system
Edwards, R.M.; Ben-Abdennour, A.; Lee, K.Y.
1991-01-01
The Modular Modeling System (B W MMS) is being used as a design tool to verify robust controller designs for improving power plant performance while also providing fault-accommodating capabilities. These controllers are designed based on optimal control theory and are thus model based controllers which are targeted for implementation in a computer based digital control environment. The MMS is being successfully used to verify that the controllers are tolerant of uncertainties between the plant model employed in the controller and the actual plant; i.e., that they are robust. The two areas in which the MMS is being used for this purpose is in the design of (1) a reactor power controller with improved reactor temperature response, and (2) the design of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) robust fault-accommodating controller for a deaerator level and pressure control problem.
Existential Design Applied in Universal Design Settings.
Torkildsby, Anne Britt
2016-01-01
The critical design method aims to discuss ways of opening up the (design) brief when planning, designing, building, operating and maintaining the future of the built environment - public as well as private, indoor as well as outdoor. Focusing on "designials" (fundamental forms of design being), the methodology intends to illustrate the fact that objects; including buildings, parks, transportation systems, etc. may directly encroach upon certain "existentials" (fundamental forms of human being) - thus shed light on how a design process is normally conducted, and furthermore, how that affects people's existential well-being.
Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lafleur, Jarret M.
2009-01-01
One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.
Robust crossfeed design for hovering rotorcraft. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Catapang, David R.
1993-01-01
Control law design for rotorcraft fly-by-wire systems normally attempts to decouple angular responses using fixed-gain crossfeeds. This approach can lead to poor decoupling over the frequency range of pilot inputs and increase the load on the feedback loops. In order to improve the decoupling performance, dynamic crossfeeds may be adopted. Moreover, because of the large changes that occur in rotorcraft dynamics due to small changes about the nominal design condition, especially for near-hovering flight, the crossfeed design must be 'robust.' A new low-order matching method is presented here to design robost crossfeed compensators for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The technique identifies degrees-of-freedom that can be decoupled using crossfeeds, given an anticipated set of parameter variations for the range of flight conditions of concern. Cross-coupling is then reduced for degrees-of-freedom that can use crossfeed compensation by minimizing off-axis response magnitude average and variance. Results are presented for the analysis of pitch, roll, yaw, and heave coupling of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in near-hovering flight. Robust crossfeeds are designed that show significant improvement in decoupling performance and robustness over nominal, single design point, compensators. The design method and results are presented in an easily-used graphical format that lends significant physical insight to the design procedure. This plant pre-compensation technique is an appropriate preliminary step to the design of robust feedback control laws for rotorcraft.
Robust Transceiver Design for Multiuser MIMO Downlink with Channel Uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Wei; Li, Yunzhou; Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Shidong; Wang, Jing
This letter addresses the problem of robust transceiver design for the multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) downlink where the channel state information at the base station (BS) is imperfect. A stochastic approach which minimizes the expectation of the total mean square error (MSE) of the downlink conditioned on the channel estimates under a total transmit power constraint is adopted. The iterative algorithm reported in [2] is improved to handle the proposed robust optimization problem. Simulation results show that our proposed robust scheme effectively reduces the performance loss due to channel uncertainties and outperforms existing methods, especially when the channel errors of the users are different.
Designing Flood Management Systems for Joint Economic and Ecological Robustness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spence, C. M.; Grantham, T.; Brown, C. M.; Poff, N. L.
2015-12-01
Freshwater ecosystems across the United States are threatened by hydrologic change caused by water management operations and non-stationary climate trends. Nonstationary hydrology also threatens flood management systems' performance. Ecosystem managers and flood risk managers need tools to design systems that achieve flood risk reduction objectives while sustaining ecosystem functions and services in an uncertain hydrologic future. Robust optimization is used in water resources engineering to guide system design under climate change uncertainty. Using principles introduced by Eco-Engineering Decision Scaling (EEDS), we extend robust optimization techniques to design flood management systems that meet both economic and ecological goals simultaneously across a broad range of future climate conditions. We use three alternative robustness indices to identify flood risk management solutions that preserve critical ecosystem functions in a case study from the Iowa River, where recent severe flooding has tested the limits of the existing flood management system. We seek design modifications to the system that both reduce expected cost of flood damage while increasing ecologically beneficial inundation of riparian floodplains across a wide range of plausible climate futures. The first robustness index measures robustness as the fraction of potential climate scenarios in which both engineering and ecological performance goals are met, implicitly weighting each climate scenario equally. The second index builds on the first by using climate projections to weight each climate scenario, prioritizing acceptable performance in climate scenarios most consistent with climate projections. The last index measures robustness as mean performance across all climate scenarios, but penalizes scenarios with worse performance than average, rewarding consistency. Results stemming from alternate robustness indices reflect implicit assumptions about attitudes toward risk and reveal the
Robust Multivariable Controller Design via Implicit Model-Following Methods.
1983-12-01
HD-Ri38 309 ROBUST MULTIVARIABLE CONTROLLER DESIGN VIA IMPLICIT 1/4 MODEL-FOLLOWING METHODS(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL...aaS. a%. 1 .111 I Q~ 18 0 ROBUST MULTIVARIABLE CONTROLLER DESIGN -~ :VIA IMPLICIT MODEL-FOLLOWING METHODS ’.% THESIS , AFIT/GE/EE/83D-48 William G... CONTROLLER DESIGN VIA IMPLICIT MODEL-FOLLOWING METHODS THESIS AFIT/GE/EE/83D-48 William G. Miller Capt USAF ,. Approved for pubi release; distribution
Stochastic simulation and robust design optimization of integrated photonic filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Tsui-Wei; Melati, Daniele; Melloni, Andrea; Daniel, Luca
2017-01-01
Manufacturing variations are becoming an unavoidable issue in modern fabrication processes; therefore, it is crucial to be able to include stochastic uncertainties in the design phase. In this paper, integrated photonic coupled ring resonator filters are considered as an example of significant interest. The sparsity structure in photonic circuits is exploited to construct a sparse combined generalized polynomial chaos model, which is then used to analyze related statistics and perform robust design optimization. Simulation results show that the optimized circuits are more robust to fabrication process variations and achieve a reduction of 11%-35% in the mean square errors of the 3 dB bandwidth compared to unoptimized nominal designs.
Stochastic simulation and robust design optimization of integrated photonic filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Tsui-Wei; Melati, Daniele; Melloni, Andrea; Daniel, Luca
2016-07-01
Manufacturing variations are becoming an unavoidable issue in modern fabrication processes; therefore, it is crucial to be able to include stochastic uncertainties in the design phase. In this paper, integrated photonic coupled ring resonator filters are considered as an example of significant interest. The sparsity structure in photonic circuits is exploited to construct a sparse combined generalized polynomial chaos model, which is then used to analyze related statistics and perform robust design optimization. Simulation results show that the optimized circuits are more robust to fabrication process variations and achieve a reduction of 11%-35% in the mean square errors of the 3 dB bandwidth compared to unoptimized nominal designs.
Enabling Rapid and Robust Structural Analysis During Conceptual Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldred, Lloyd B.; Padula, Sharon L.; Li, Wu
2015-01-01
This paper describes a multi-year effort to add a structural analysis subprocess to a supersonic aircraft conceptual design process. The desired capabilities include parametric geometry, automatic finite element mesh generation, static and aeroelastic analysis, and structural sizing. The paper discusses implementation details of the new subprocess, captures lessons learned, and suggests future improvements. The subprocess quickly compares concepts and robustly handles large changes in wing or fuselage geometry. The subprocess can rank concepts with regard to their structural feasibility and can identify promising regions of the design space. The automated structural analysis subprocess is deemed robust and rapid enough to be included in multidisciplinary conceptual design and optimization studies.
Applying Software Design Methodology to Instructional Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
East, J. Philip
2004-01-01
The premise of this paper is that computer science has much to offer the endeavor of instructional improvement. Software design processes employed in computer science for developing software can be used for planning instruction and should improve instruction in much the same manner that design processes appear to have improved software. Techniques…
Design for robustness of unique, multi-component engineering systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelton, Kenneth A.
2007-12-01
The purpose of this research is to advance the science of conceptual designing for robustness in unique, multi-component engineering systems. Robustness is herein defined as the ability of an engineering system to operate within a desired performance range even if the actual configuration has differences from specifications within specified tolerances. These differences are caused by three sources, namely manufacturing errors, system degradation (operational wear and tear), and parts availability. Unique, multi-component engineering systems are defined as systems produced in unique or very small production numbers. They typically have design and manufacturing costs on the order of billions of dollars, and have multiple, competing performance objectives. Design time for these systems must be minimized due to competition, high manpower costs, long manufacturing times, technology obsolescence, and limited available manpower expertise. Most importantly, design mistakes cannot be easily corrected after the systems are operational. For all these reasons, robustness of these systems is absolutely critical. This research examines the space satellite industry in particular. Although inherent robustness assurance is absolutely critical, it is difficult to achieve in practice. The current state of the art for robustness in the industry is to overdesign components and subsystems with redundancy and margin. The shortfall is that it is not known if the added margins were either necessary or sufficient given the risk management preferences of the designer or engineering system customer. To address this shortcoming, new assessment criteria to evaluate robustness in design concepts have been developed. The criteria are comprised of the "Value Distance", addressing manufacturing errors and system degradation, and "Component Distance", addressing parts availability. They are based on an evolutionary computation format that uses a string of alleles to describe the components in the
Robust enzyme design: bioinformatic tools for improved protein stability.
Suplatov, Dmitry; Voevodin, Vladimir; Švedas, Vytas
2015-03-01
The ability of proteins and enzymes to maintain a functionally active conformation under adverse environmental conditions is an important feature of biocatalysts, vaccines, and biopharmaceutical proteins. From an evolutionary perspective, robust stability of proteins improves their biological fitness and allows for further optimization. Viewed from an industrial perspective, enzyme stability is crucial for the practical application of enzymes under the required reaction conditions. In this review, we analyze bioinformatic-driven strategies that are used to predict structural changes that can be applied to wild type proteins in order to produce more stable variants. The most commonly employed techniques can be classified into stochastic approaches, empirical or systematic rational design strategies, and design of chimeric proteins. We conclude that bioinformatic analysis can be efficiently used to study large protein superfamilies systematically as well as to predict particular structural changes which increase enzyme stability. Evolution has created a diversity of protein properties that are encoded in genomic sequences and structural data. Bioinformatics has the power to uncover this evolutionary code and provide a reproducible selection of hotspots - key residues to be mutated in order to produce more stable and functionally diverse proteins and enzymes. Further development of systematic bioinformatic procedures is needed to organize and analyze sequences and structures of proteins within large superfamilies and to link them to function, as well as to provide knowledge-based predictions for experimental evaluation.
Robust Control Design for Uncertain Nonlinear Dynamic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis G.; Andrews, Lindsey; Giesy, Daniel P.
2012-01-01
Robustness to parametric uncertainty is fundamental to successful control system design and as such it has been at the core of many design methods developed over the decades. Despite its prominence, most of the work on robust control design has focused on linear models and uncertainties that are non-probabilistic in nature. Recently, researchers have acknowledged this disparity and have been developing theory to address a broader class of uncertainties. This paper presents an experimental application of robust control design for a hybrid class of probabilistic and non-probabilistic parametric uncertainties. The experimental apparatus is based upon the classic inverted pendulum on a cart. The physical uncertainty is realized by a known additional lumped mass at an unknown location on the pendulum. This unknown location has the effect of substantially altering the nominal frequency and controllability of the nonlinear system, and in the limit has the capability to make the system neutrally stable and uncontrollable. Another uncertainty to be considered is a direct current motor parameter. The control design objective is to design a controller that satisfies stability, tracking error, control power, and transient behavior requirements for the largest range of parametric uncertainties. This paper presents an overview of the theory behind the robust control design methodology and the experimental results.
A Fusion Chamber for the 2002 Robust Point Design
Abbott, R P
2003-10-01
A top-level overview of the mechanical design for the 2002 Robust Point Design (RPD-2002) fusion chamber is introduced. It is based on the HYLIFE-II design and includes modifications to the liquid pocket configuration and first structural wall (FSW), facilitates periodic maintenance or replacement of internal components, and is compliant with all other RPD-2002 parameters. This work has been carried out by constructing a parametric computer model capable of being updated as future changes become necessary.
Robust flight design for an advanced launch system vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhand, Sanjeev K.; Wong, Kelvin K.
1991-01-01
Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies are generally based on maximizing payload capability. This approach results in an expensive trajectory design process for each mission. Two concepts of robust flight design have been developed to significantly reduce this cost: Standardized Trajectories and Command Multiplier Steering (CMS). These concepts were analyzed for an Advanced Launch System (ALS) vehicle, although their applicability is not restricted to any particular vehicle. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of these concepts at minimal loss in payload capability.
Towards Robust Designs Via Multiple-Objective Optimization Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Man Mohan, Rai
2006-01-01
Fabricating and operating complex systems involves dealing with uncertainty in the relevant variables. In the case of aircraft, flow conditions are subject to change during operation. Efficiency and engine noise may be different from the expected values because of manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. Engine components may have a shorter life than expected because of manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the important effect of operating- and manufacturing-uncertainty on the performance and expected life of the component or system, traditional aerodynamic shape optimization has focused on obtaining the best design given a set of deterministic flow conditions. Clearly it is important to both maintain near-optimal performance levels at off-design operating conditions, and, ensure that performance does not degrade appreciably when the component shape differs from the optimal shape due to manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. These requirements naturally lead to the idea of robust optimal design wherein the concept of robustness to various perturbations is built into the design optimization procedure. The basic ideas involved in robust optimal design will be included in this lecture. The imposition of the additional requirement of robustness results in a multiple-objective optimization problem requiring appropriate solution procedures. Typically the costs associated with multiple-objective optimization are substantial. Therefore efficient multiple-objective optimization procedures are crucial to the rapid deployment of the principles of robust design in industry. Hence the companion set of lecture notes (Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks ) deals with methodology for solving multiple-objective Optimization problems efficiently, reliably and with little user intervention. Applications of the methodologies presented in the companion lecture to robust design will be included here. The
Designing Interference-Robust Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Defender-Attacker-Defender Model
2015-02-01
game theory. We apply the game theoretic defender-attacker- defender ( DAD ) methodology to the simultaneous routing, resource allocation, and coverage...knowledge, we are the first to use an algorithm with proven global convergence to design jamming-robust WMNs, and the first to apply the DAD framework...to the problem of WMN design. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Wireless mesh networks, interference, jamming, game theory, defender-attacker-defender ( DAD ) model
Design and tuning of robust PID controller for HVAC systems
Kasahara, Masato; Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kuzuu, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Takanori; Hashimoto, Yukihiro; Kamimura, Kazuyuki; Kurosu, Shigeru
1999-07-01
This paper concerns the development of a new design and tuning method for use with robust proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) controllers that are commonly used in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) fields. The robust PID controller is designed for temperature control of a single-zone environmental space. Although the dynamics of environmental space are described by higher-order transfer functions, most HVAC plants are approximated by first-order lag plus deadtime systems. Its control performance is examined for this commonly approximated controlled plant. Since most HVAC plants are complex with nonlinearity, distributed parameters, and multivariables, a single set of PID gains does not necessarily yield a satisfactory control performance. For this reason, the PID controller must be designed as a robust control system considering model uncertainty caused by changes in characteristics of the plant. The PID gains obtained by solving a two-disk type of mixed sensitivity problem can be modified by contrast to those tuned by the traditional Ziegler-Nichols rule. The results, which are surprisingly simple, are given as linear functions of ratio of deadtime to time constant for robustness. The numerical simulation and the experiments on a commercial-size test plant for air conditioning suggest that the robust PID controller proposed in this paper is effective enough for practical applications.
Robust Kalman filter design for predictive wind shear detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stratton, Alexander D.; Stengel, Robert F.
1991-01-01
Severe, low-altitude wind shear is a threat to aviation safety. Airborne sensors under development measure the radial component of wind along a line directly in front of an aircraft. In this paper, optimal estimation theory is used to define a detection algorithm to warn of hazardous wind shear from these sensors. To achieve robustness, a wind shear detection algorithm must distinguish threatening wind shear from less hazardous gustiness, despite variations in wind shear structure. This paper presents statistical analysis methods to refine wind shear detection algorithm robustness. Computational methods predict the ability to warn of severe wind shear and avoid false warning. Comparative capability of the detection algorithm as a function of its design parameters is determined, identifying designs that provide robust detection of severe wind shear.
Robust fast controller design via nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Zhou, Xi; Wei, Yiheng; Liang, Shu; Wang, Yong
2017-07-01
A new method for linear system controller design is proposed whereby the closed-loop system achieves both robustness and fast response. The robustness performance considered here means the damping ratio of closed-loop system can keep its desired value under system parameter perturbation, while the fast response, represented by rise time of system output, can be improved by tuning the controller parameter. We exploit techniques from both the nonlinear systems control and the fractional order systems control to derive a novel nonlinear fractional order controller. For theoretical analysis of the closed-loop system performance, two comparison theorems are developed for a class of fractional differential equations. Moreover, the rise time of the closed-loop system can be estimated, which facilitates our controller design to satisfy the fast response performance and maintain the robustness. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Towards robust optimal design of storm water systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquez Calvo, Oscar; Solomatine, Dimitri
2015-04-01
In this study the focus is on the design of a storm water or a combined sewer system. Such a system should be capable to handle properly most of the storm to minimize the damages caused by flooding due to the lack of capacity of the system to cope with rain water at peak times. This problem is a multi-objective optimization problem: we have to take into account the minimization of the construction costs, the minimization of damage costs due to flooding, and possibly other criteria. One of the most important factors influencing the design of storm water systems is the expected amount of water to deal with. It is common that this infrastructure is developed with the capacity to cope with events that occur once in, say 10 or 20 years - so-called design rainfall events. However, rainfall is a random variable and such uncertainty typically is not taken explicitly into account in optimization. Rainfall design data is based on historical information of rainfalls, but many times this data is based on unreliable measures; or in not enough historical information; or as we know, the patterns of rainfall are changing regardless of historical information. There are also other sources of uncertainty influencing design, for example, leakages in the pipes and accumulation of sediments in pipes. In the context of storm water or combined sewer systems design or rehabilitation, robust optimization technique should be able to find the best design (or rehabilitation plan) within the available budget but taking into account uncertainty in those variables that were used to design the system. In this work we consider various approaches to robust optimization proposed by various authors (Gabrel, Murat, Thiele 2013; Beyer, Sendhoff 2007) and test a novel method ROPAR (Solomatine 2012) to analyze robustness. References Beyer, H.G., & Sendhoff, B. (2007). Robust optimization - A comprehensive survey. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 3190-3218. Gabrel, V.; Murat, C., Thiele, A. (2014
Robust, Decoupled, Flight Control Design with Rate Saturating Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snell, S. A.; Hess, R. A.
1997-01-01
Techniques for the design of control systems for manually controlled, high-performance aircraft must provide the following: (1) multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) solutions, (2) acceptable handling qualities including no tendencies for pilot-induced oscillations, (3) a tractable approach for compensator design, (4) performance and stability robustness in the presence of significant plant uncertainty, and (5) performance and stability robustness in the presence actuator saturation (particularly rate saturation). A design technique built upon Quantitative Feedback Theory is offered as a candidate methodology which can provide flight control systems meeting these requirements, and do so over a considerable part of the flight envelope. An example utilizing a simplified model of a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft demonstrates the proposed design methodology.
Simulation/optimization modeling for robust pumping strategy design.
Kalwij, Ineke M; Peralta, Richard C
2006-01-01
A new simulation/optimization modeling approach is presented for addressing uncertain knowledge of aquifer parameters. The Robustness Enhancing Optimizer (REO) couples genetic algorithm and tabu search as optimizers and incorporates aquifer parameter sensitivity analysis to guide multiple-realization optimization. The REO maximizes strategy robustness for a pumping strategy that is optimal for a primary objective function (OF), such as cost. The more robust a strategy, the more likely it is to achieve management goals in the field, even if the physical system differs from the model. The REO is applied to trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive plumes at Umatilla Chemical Depot in Oregon to develop robust least cost strategies. The REO efficiently develops robust pumping strategies while maintaining the optimal value of the primary OF-differing from the common situation in which a primary OF value degrades as strategy reliability increases. The REO is especially valuable where data to develop realistic probability density functions (PDFs) or statistically derived realizations are unavailable. Because they require much less field data, REO-developed strategies might not achieve as high a mathematical reliability as strategies developed using many realizations based upon real aquifer parameter PDFs. REO-developed strategies might or might not yield a better OF value in the field.
Robust Design of Biological Circuits: Evolutionary Systems Biology Approach
Chen, Bor-Sen; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Liou, Jing-Jia
2011-01-01
Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter fluctuations and environmental molecular noise from the cellular context in the host cell. Based on evolutionary systems biology algorithm, the design parameters of target gene circuits can evolve to specific values in order to robustly track a desired biologic function in spite of intrinsic and environmental noise. The fitness function is selected to be inversely proportional to the tracking error so that the evolutionary biological circuit can achieve the optimal tracking mimicking the evolutionary process of a gene circuit. Finally, several design examples are given in silico with the Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the robust performance of the proposed design method. The result shows that the designed gene circuits can robustly track desired behaviors with minimal errors even with nontrivial intrinsic and external noise. PMID:22187523
Robust design of biological circuits: evolutionary systems biology approach.
Chen, Bor-Sen; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Liou, Jing-Jia
2011-01-01
Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter fluctuations and environmental molecular noise from the cellular context in the host cell. Based on evolutionary systems biology algorithm, the design parameters of target gene circuits can evolve to specific values in order to robustly track a desired biologic function in spite of intrinsic and environmental noise. The fitness function is selected to be inversely proportional to the tracking error so that the evolutionary biological circuit can achieve the optimal tracking mimicking the evolutionary process of a gene circuit. Finally, several design examples are given in silico with the Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the robust performance of the proposed design method. The result shows that the designed gene circuits can robustly track desired behaviors with minimal errors even with nontrivial intrinsic and external noise.
Robustness-Based Design Optimization Under Data Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, Kais; McDonald, Mark; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Green, Lawrence
2010-01-01
This paper proposes formulations and algorithms for design optimization under both aleatory (i.e., natural or physical variability) and epistemic uncertainty (i.e., imprecise probabilistic information), from the perspective of system robustness. The proposed formulations deal with epistemic uncertainty arising from both sparse and interval data without any assumption about the probability distributions of the random variables. A decoupled approach is proposed in this paper to un-nest the robustness-based design from the analysis of non-design epistemic variables to achieve computational efficiency. The proposed methods are illustrated for the upper stage design problem of a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle, where the information on the random design inputs are only available as sparse point and/or interval data. As collecting more data reduces uncertainty but increases cost, the effect of sample size on the optimality and robustness of the solution is also studied. A method is developed to determine the optimal sample size for sparse point data that leads to the solutions of the design problem that are least sensitive to variations in the input random variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhen; Du, Xiaoping; Kolekar, Nitin S.; Banerjee, Arindam
2014-03-01
In robust design, uncertainty is commonly modelled with precise probability distributions. In reality, the distribution types and distribution parameters may not always be available owing to limited data. This research develops a robust design methodology to accommodate the mixture of both precise and imprecise random variables. By incorporating the Taguchi quality loss function and the minimax regret criterion, the methodology mitigates the effects of not only uncertain parameters but also uncertainties in the models of the uncertain parameters. Hydrokinetic turbine systems are a relatively new alternative energy technology, and both precise and imprecise random variables exist in the design of such systems. The developed methodology is applied to the robust design optimization of a hydrokinetic turbine system. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Robust measurement selection for biochemical pathway experimental design.
Brown, Martin; He, Fei; Yeung, Lam Fat
2008-01-01
As a general lack of quantitative measurement data for pathway modelling and parameter identification process, time-series experimental design is particularly important in current systems biology research. This paper mainly investigates state measurement/observer selection problem when parametric uncertainties are considered. Based on the extension of optimal design criteria, two robust experimental design strategies are investigated, one is the regularisation-based design method, and the other is Taguchi-based design approach. By implementing to a simplified IkappaBalpha - NF - kappaB signalling pathway system, two design approaches are comparatively studied. When large parametric uncertainty is present, by assuming that different parametric uncertainties are identical in scale, two methods tend to provide a similar uniform design result.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Sibin; Ai, Jianliang; Luo, Changhang; Wang, Peng
2006-11-01
Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) is a technique for control law design, which is based on the feedback linearization and achieving desired dynamic response characteristics. NDI requires an ideal and precise model, however, there must be some errors due to the modeling error or actuator faults, therefore the control law designed by NDI has less robustness. Combining with structured singular value μ synthesis method, the system's robustness can be improved notably. The designed controller, which uses the structured singular value μ synthesis method, has high dimensions, and the dimensions must be reduced when we calculate it. This paper presents a new method for the design of robust flight control, which uses structured singular value μ synthesis based on genetic algorithm. The designed controller, which uses this method, can reduce the dimensions obviously compared with the normal method of structured singular value synthesis, so it is easier for application. The presented method is applied to robustness controller design of some super maneuverable fighter. The simulation results show that the dynamic inversion control law achieves a high level of performance in post-stall maneuver condition, and the whole control system has perfect robustness and anti-disturbance ability.
Optimal robust motion controller design using multiobjective genetic algorithm.
Sarjaš, Andrej; Svečko, Rajko; Chowdhury, Amor
2014-01-01
This paper describes the use of a multiobjective genetic algorithm for robust motion controller design. Motion controller structure is based on a disturbance observer in an RIC framework. The RIC approach is presented in the form with internal and external feedback loops, in which an internal disturbance rejection controller and an external performance controller must be synthesised. This paper involves novel objectives for robustness and performance assessments for such an approach. Objective functions for the robustness property of RIC are based on simple even polynomials with nonnegativity conditions. Regional pole placement method is presented with the aims of controllers' structures simplification and their additional arbitrary selection. Regional pole placement involves arbitrary selection of central polynomials for both loops, with additional admissible region of the optimized pole location. Polynomial deviation between selected and optimized polynomials is measured with derived performance objective functions. A multiobjective function is composed of different unrelated criteria such as robust stability, controllers' stability, and time-performance indexes of closed loops. The design of controllers and multiobjective optimization procedure involve a set of the objectives, which are optimized simultaneously with a genetic algorithm-differential evolution.
Optimal Robust Motion Controller Design Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm
Svečko, Rajko
2014-01-01
This paper describes the use of a multiobjective genetic algorithm for robust motion controller design. Motion controller structure is based on a disturbance observer in an RIC framework. The RIC approach is presented in the form with internal and external feedback loops, in which an internal disturbance rejection controller and an external performance controller must be synthesised. This paper involves novel objectives for robustness and performance assessments for such an approach. Objective functions for the robustness property of RIC are based on simple even polynomials with nonnegativity conditions. Regional pole placement method is presented with the aims of controllers' structures simplification and their additional arbitrary selection. Regional pole placement involves arbitrary selection of central polynomials for both loops, with additional admissible region of the optimized pole location. Polynomial deviation between selected and optimized polynomials is measured with derived performance objective functions. A multiobjective function is composed of different unrelated criteria such as robust stability, controllers' stability, and time-performance indexes of closed loops. The design of controllers and multiobjective optimization procedure involve a set of the objectives, which are optimized simultaneously with a genetic algorithm—differential evolution. PMID:24987749
Robust design of configurations and parameters of adaptable products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongliang; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua
2014-03-01
An adaptable product can satisfy different customer requirements by changing its configuration and parameter values during the operation stage. Design of adaptable products aims at reducing the environment impact through replacement of multiple different products with single adaptable ones. Due to the complex architecture, multiple functional requirements, and changes of product configurations and parameter values in operation, impact of uncertainties to the functional performance measures needs to be considered in design of adaptable products. In this paper, a robust design approach is introduced to identify the optimal design configuration and parameters of an adaptable product whose functional performance measures are the least sensitive to uncertainties. An adaptable product in this paper is modeled by both configurations and parameters. At the configuration level, methods to model different product configuration candidates in design and different product configuration states in operation to satisfy design requirements are introduced. At the parameter level, four types of product/operating parameters and relations among these parameters are discussed. A two-level optimization approach is developed to identify the optimal design configuration and its parameter values of the adaptable product. A case study is implemented to illustrate the effectiveness of the newly developed robust adaptable design method.
Robust decentralized controller design for UPFC using μ-synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taher, Seyed Abbas; Akbari, Shahabeddin; Abdolalipour, Ali; Hematti, Reza
2010-08-01
In this paper a new method based on structured singular value ( μ-synthesis) is proposed for the robust decentralized unified power flow controller (UPFC) design. To achieve decentralization, using the Schauder fixed point theorem the synthesis and analysis of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control system is transformed into a set of equivalent multi-input single-output (MISO) control system. To cope with power system uncertainties μ-synthesis technique is being used for designing of UPFC controllers. The proposed μ-based controller has a decentralized scheme which has the advantage of reduction in the controller complexity and suitability for practical implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy on damping low frequency oscillations is evaluated under different operating conditions and compared with the conventional controller to demonstrate its robust performance through nonlinear simulation and some performance indices.
Design principles for the analysis and construction of robustly homeostatic biological networks.
Tang, Zhe F; McMillen, David R
2016-11-07
Homeostatic biological systems resist external disturbances, allowing cells and organisms to maintain a constant internal state despite perturbations from their surroundings. Many biological regulatory networks are known to act homeostatically, with examples including thermal adaptation, osmoregulation, and chemotaxis. Understanding the network topologies (sets of regulatory interactions) and biological parameter regimes that can yield homeostasis in a biological system is of interest both for the study of natural biological system, and in the context of designing new biological control schemes for use in synthetic biology. Here, we examine the mathematical properties of a function that maps a biological system's inputs to its outputs, we have formulated a novel criterion (the "cofactor condition") that compactly describes the conditions for homeostasis. We further analyze the problem of robust homeostasis, wherein the system is required to maintain homeostatic behavior when its parameter values are slightly altered. We use the cofactor condition to examine previously reported examples of robust homeostasis, showing that it is a useful way to unify a number of seemingly different analyses into a single framework. Based on the observation that all previous robustly homeostatic examples fall into one of three classes, we propose a "strong cofactor condition" and use it to provide an algorithm for designing new robustly homeostatic biological networks, giving both their topologies and constraints on their parameter values. Applying the design algorithm to a three-node biological network, we construct several robustly homeostatic genetic networks, uncovering network topologies not previously identified as candidates for exhibiting robust homeostasis.
Optimizing Hyperspectral Imagery Anomaly Detection through Robust Parameter Design
2011-10-01
THROUGH ROBUST PARAMETER DESIGN DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology...Air University Air Education and Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Francis M. Mindrup...Graduate School of Engineering and Management For my loving wife, daughter and sons iv AFIT/DS/ENS/11-04 Abstract Advances in sensor technology
Robust spherical direct-drive design for NI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masse, Laurent; Hurricane, O.; Michel, P.; Nora, R.; Tabak, M.; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team
2016-10-01
Achieving ignition in a direct-drive or indirect-drive cryogenic implosion is a tremendous challenge. Both approaches need to deal with physic and technologic issues. During the past years, the indirect drive effort on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has revealed unpredicted lost of performances that force to think to more robust designs and to dig into detailed physics aspects. Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of CH ablator ignition capsules. These ``high-foot'' implosion results in a significantly lower ablation Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth than that of the NIC point design capsule. The trade-off with this design is a higher fuel adiabat that limits both fuel compression and theoretical capsule yield. The purpose of designing this capsule is to recover a more ideal one-dimensional implosion that is in closer agreement to simulation predictions. In the same spirit of spending energy on margin, at the coast of decreased performance, we are presenting here a study on ``robust'' spherical direct drive design for NIF. This 2-Shock direct drive pulse shape results in a high adiabat (>3) and low convergence (<17) implosion designed to produce a near 1D-like implosion. We take a particular attention to design a robust implosion with respect to long-wavelength non uniformity seeded by power imbalance and target offset. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Performance Analysis of Intelligent Robust Facility Layout Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moslemipour, G.; Lee, T. S.; Loong, Y. T.
2017-03-01
Design of a robust production facility layout with minimum handling cost (MHC) presents an appropriate approach to tackle facility layout problems in a dynamic volatile environment, in which product demands randomly change in each planning period. The objective of the design is to find the robust facility layout with minimum total material handling cost over the entire multi-period planning horizon. This paper proposes a new mathematical model for designing robust machine layout in the stochastic dynamic environment of manufacturing systems using quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. In this investigation, product demands are assumed to be normally distributed random variables with known expected value, variance, and covariance that randomly change from period to period. The proposed model was verified and validated using randomly generated numerical data and benchmark examples. The effect of dependent product demands and varying interest rate on the total cost function of the proposed model has also been investigated. Sensitivity analysis on the proposed model has been performed. Dynamic programming and simulated annealing optimization algorithms were used in solving the modeled example problems.
Performance Analysis of Intelligent Robust Facility Layout Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moslemipour, G.; Lee, T. S.; Loong, Y. T.
2017-03-01
Design of a robust production facility layout with minimum handling cost (MHC) presents an appropriate approach to tackle facility layout problems in a dynamic volatile environment, in which product demands randomly change in each planning period. The objective of the design is to find the robust facility layout with minimum total material handling cost over the entire multi-period planning horizon. This paper proposes a new mathematical model for designing robust machine layout in the stochastic dynamic environment of manufacturing systems using quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. In this investigation, product demands are assumed to be normally distributed random variables with known expected value, variance, and covariance that randomly change from period to period. The proposed model was verified and validated using randomly generated numerical data and benchmark examples. The effect of dependent product demands and varying interest rate on the total cost function of the proposed model has also been investigated. Sensitivity analysis on the proposed model has been performed. Dynamic programming and simulated annealing optimization algorithms were used in solving the modeled example problems.
Degeneracy: a design principle for achieving robustness and evolvability.
Whitacre, James; Bender, Axel
2010-03-07
Robustness, the insensitivity of some of a biological system's functionalities to a set of distinct conditions, is intimately linked to fitness. Recent studies suggest that it may also play a vital role in enabling the evolution of species. Increasing robustness, so is proposed, can lead to the emergence of evolvability if evolution proceeds over a neutral network that extends far throughout the fitness landscape. Here, we show that the design principles used to achieve robustness dramatically influence whether robustness leads to evolvability. In simulation experiments, we find that purely redundant systems have remarkably low evolvability while degenerate, i.e. partially redundant, systems tend to be orders of magnitude more evolvable. Surprisingly, the magnitude of observed variation in evolvability can neither be explained by differences in the size nor the topology of the neutral networks. This suggests that degeneracy, a ubiquitous characteristic in biological systems, may be an important enabler of natural evolution. More generally, our study provides valuable new clues about the origin of innovations in complex adaptive systems. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Research Design and Statistics for Applied Linguistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hatch, Evelyn; Farhady, Hossein
An introduction to the conventions of research design and statistical analysis is presented for graduate students of applied linguistics. The chapters cover such concepts as the definition of research, variables, research designs, research report formats, sorting and displaying data, probability and hypothesis testing, comparing means,…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, Patrick C.; Davidson, John B.
1998-01-01
A multi-input, multi-output control law design methodology, named "CRAFT", is presented. CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs. The methodology makes use of control law design metrics from each of the four design objective areas. It combines eigenspace assignment, which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with a graphical approach for representing the metrics that captures numerous design goals in one composite illustration. Sensitivity of the metrics to eigenspace choice is clearly displayed, enabling the designer to assess the cost of design tradeoffs. This approach enhances the designer's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and to reach effective final designs. An example of the CRAFT methodology applied to an advanced experimental fighter and discussion of associated design issues are provided.
Robust design of binary countercurrent adsorption separation processes
Storti, G. ); Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. )
1993-03-01
The separation of a binary mixture, using a third component having intermediate adsorptivity as desorbent, in a four section countercurrent adsorption separation unit is considered. A procedure for the optimal and robust design of the unit is developed in the frame of Equilibrium Theory, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while mass-transfer resistances and axial mixing are neglected. By requiring that the unit achieves complete separation, it is possible to identify a set of implicity constraints on the operating parameters, that is, the flow rate ratios in the four sections of the unit. From these constraints explicit bounds on the operating parameters are obtained, thus yielding a region in the operating parameters space, which can be drawn a priori in terms of the adsorption equilibrium constants and the feed composition. This result provides a very convenient tool to determine both optimal and robust operating conditions. The latter issue is addressed by first analyzing the various possible sources of disturbances, as well as their effect on the separation performance. Next, the criteria for the robust design of the unit are discussed. Finally, these theoretical findings are compared with a set of experimental results obtained in a six port simulated moving bed adsorption separation unit operated in the vapor phase.
Optimal flexible sample size design with robust power.
Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu; Yang, Bo
2016-08-30
It is well recognized that sample size determination is challenging because of the uncertainty on the treatment effect size. Several remedies are available in the literature. Group sequential designs start with a sample size based on a conservative (smaller) effect size and allow early stop at interim looks. Sample size re-estimation designs start with a sample size based on an optimistic (larger) effect size and allow sample size increase if the observed effect size is smaller than planned. Different opinions favoring one type over the other exist. We propose an optimal approach using an appropriate optimality criterion to select the best design among all the candidate designs. Our results show that (1) for the same type of designs, for example, group sequential designs, there is room for significant improvement through our optimization approach; (2) optimal promising zone designs appear to have no advantages over optimal group sequential designs; and (3) optimal designs with sample size re-estimation deliver the best adaptive performance. We conclude that to deal with the challenge of sample size determination due to effect size uncertainty, an optimal approach can help to select the best design that provides most robust power across the effect size range of interest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The yeast cell-cycle network is robustly designed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fangting; Long, Tao; Lu, Ying; Ouyang, Qi; Tang, Chao
2004-04-01
The interactions between proteins, DNA, and RNA in living cells constitute molecular networks that govern various cellular functions. To investigate the global dynamical properties and stabilities of such networks, we studied the cell-cycle regulatory network of the budding yeast. With the use of a simple dynamical model, it was demonstrated that the cell-cycle network is extremely stable and robust for its function. The biological stationary state, the G1 state, is a global attractor of the dynamics. The biological pathway, the cell-cycle sequence of protein states, is a globally attracting trajectory of the dynamics. These properties are largely preserved with respect to small perturbations to the network. These results suggest that cellular regulatory networks are robustly designed for their functions.
Frequency domain identification for robust large space structure control design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yam, Y.; Bayard, D. S.; Scheid, R. E.
1991-01-01
A methodology is demonstrated for frequency domain identification of large space structures which systematically transforms experimental raw data into a form required for synthesizing H(infinity) controllers using modern robust control design software (e.g., Matlab Toolboxes). A unique feature of this approach is that the additive uncertainty is characterized to a specified statistic confidence rather than with hard bounds. In this study, the difference in robust performance is minimal between the two levels of confidence. In general cases, the present methodology provides a tool for performance/confidence level tradeoff studies. For simplicity, the additive uncertainty on a frequency grid is considered and the interpolation error in between grid points is neglected.
Frequency domain identification for robust large space structure control design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yam, Y.; Bayard, D. S.; Scheid, R. E.
1991-01-01
A methodology is demonstrated for frequency domain identification of large space structures which systematically transforms experimental raw data into a form required for synthesizing H(infinity) controllers using modern robust control design software (e.g., Matlab Toolboxes). A unique feature of this approach is that the additive uncertainty is characterized to a specified statistic confidence rather than with hard bounds. In this study, the difference in robust performance is minimal between the two levels of confidence. In general cases, the present methodology provides a tool for performance/confidence level tradeoff studies. For simplicity, the additive uncertainty on a frequency grid is considered and the interpolation error in between grid points is neglected.
Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems
Schoenwald, D.A.
1993-07-01
Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.
A Robust Adaptive Autonomous Approach to Optimal Experimental Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Hairong
Experimentation is the fundamental tool of scientific inquiries to understand the laws governing the nature and human behaviors. Many complex real-world experimental scenarios, particularly in quest of prediction accuracy, often encounter difficulties to conduct experiments using an existing experimental procedure for the following two reasons. First, the existing experimental procedures require a parametric model to serve as the proxy of the latent data structure or data-generating mechanism at the beginning of an experiment. However, for those experimental scenarios of concern, a sound model is often unavailable before an experiment. Second, those experimental scenarios usually contain a large number of design variables, which potentially leads to a lengthy and costly data collection cycle. Incompetently, the existing experimental procedures are unable to optimize large-scale experiments so as to minimize the experimental length and cost. Facing the two challenges in those experimental scenarios, the aim of the present study is to develop a new experimental procedure that allows an experiment to be conducted without the assumption of a parametric model while still achieving satisfactory prediction, and performs optimization of experimental designs to improve the efficiency of an experiment. The new experimental procedure developed in the present study is named robust adaptive autonomous system (RAAS). RAAS is a procedure for sequential experiments composed of multiple experimental trials, which performs function estimation, variable selection, reverse prediction and design optimization on each trial. Directly addressing the challenges in those experimental scenarios of concern, function estimation and variable selection are performed by data-driven modeling methods to generate a predictive model from data collected during the course of an experiment, thus exempting the requirement of a parametric model at the beginning of an experiment; design optimization is
Robust integrated autopilot/autothrottle design using constrained parameter optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher; Sanjay, Swamy
1990-01-01
A multivariable control design method based on constrained parameter optimization was applied to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the following: (1) direct synthesis of a multivariable 'inner-loop' feedback control system based on total energy control principles; (2) synthesis of speed/altitude-hold designs as 'outer-loop' feedback/feedforward control systems around the above inner loop; and (3) direct synthesis of a combined 'inner-loop' and 'outer-loop' multivariable control system. The design procedure offers a direct and structured approach for the determination of a set of controller gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The presented approach may be applied to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by this method following careful problem formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Performance characteristics of the optimization design were improved over the current autopilot design on the B737-100 Transport Research Vehicle (TSRV) at the landing approach and cruise flight conditions; particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping, command responses, and control activity in the presence of turbulence.
Quantum theory as plausible reasoning applied to data obtained by robust experiments.
De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K
2016-05-28
We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data.
Statistical robust technique procedures for fractional factorial design with non constant variance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunus, Nadia Mohd; Muda, Nora
2017-04-01
Fractional factorial design (FFD) has been widely used in engineering, agricultural, biology and social sciences. Although FFD is considered a conventional design, there still occurs a basic problem such as nonconstant variance may affect parameter estimation. Several parameter estimation methods that can be used are least squares, weighted least squares and more. The common method in estimation which is least squares method is applied initially to estimate the parameter. Then, the data was transformed to get the better result with generalized linear model. The estimator is finally calculated by applying robust method when it comes the problem of outlier to compare the performance of the model.
Narasimhan, Seetharam; Chiel, Hillel J; Bhunia, Swarup
2009-01-01
For implantable neural interface applications, it is important to compress data and analyze spike patterns across multiple channels in real time. Such a computational task for online neural data processing requires an innovative circuit-architecture level design approach for low-power, robust and area-efficient hardware implementation. Conventional microprocessor or Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips would dissipate too much power and are too large in size for an implantable system. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware design approach, referred to as "Preferential Design" that exploits the nature of the neural signal processing algorithm to achieve a low-voltage, robust and area-efficient implementation using nanoscale process technology. The basic idea is to isolate the critical components with respect to system performance and design them more conservatively compared to the noncritical ones. This allows aggressive voltage scaling for low power operation while ensuring robustness and area efficiency. We have applied the proposed approach to a neural signal processing algorithm using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and observed significant improvement in power and robustness over conventional design.
Robust Feedback Linearization Applied to a Separation Column for {sup 13}C
Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Pop, Cristina-Ioana; Festila, Clement; Dulf, Francisc
2009-03-05
In the present developing plan to apply the cryogenic technology for the production of the {sup 13}C, an efficient and safe operation is a strong reason to conceive and to apply a modern computer based control strategy. The authors are concerned with the problem of developing effective and readily implemental techniques for modelling and control of the isotope separation plant. These columns are characterized by complex nonlinearities, with large time-delays. Furthermore, are subject to external disturbances, which are difficult to model. The present paper presents two models of the plant: a nonlinear model and a linear system obtained by robust feedback linearization.
Hiding the weakness: structural robustness using origami design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Santangelo, Christian; Cohen, Itai
2015-03-01
A non-deformable structure is typically associated with infinitely stiff materials that resist distortion. In this work, we designed a structure with a region that will not deform even though it is made of arbitrarily compliant materials. More specifically, we show that a foldable sheet with a circular hole in the middle can be deformed externally with the internal geometry of the hole unaffected. Instead of strengthening the local stiffness, we fine tune the crease patterns so that all the soft modes that can potentially deform the internal geometry are not accessible through strain on the external boundary. The inner structure is thus protected by the topological mechanics, based on the detailed geometry of how the vertices in the foldable sheet are connected. In this way, we isolate the structural robustness from the mechanical properties of the materials, which introduces an extra degree of freedom for structural design.
Preliminary demonstration of a robust controller design method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, L. R.
1980-01-01
Alternative computational procedures for obtaining a feedback control law which yields a control signal based on measurable quantitites are evaluated. The three methods evaluated are: (1) the standard linear quadratic regulator design model; (2) minimization of the norm of the feedback matrix, k via nonlinear programming subject to the constraint that the closed loop eigenvalues be in a specified domain in the complex plane; and (3) maximize the angles between the closed loop eigenvectors in combination with minimizing the norm of K also via the constrained nonlinear programming. The third or robust design method was chosen to yield a closed loop system whose eigenvalues are insensitive to small changes in the A and B matrices. The relationship between orthogonality of closed loop eigenvectors and the sensitivity of closed loop eigenvalues is described. Computer programs are described.
Robust control design for a wheel loader using Hinfinity and feedback linearization based methods.
Fales, Roger; Kelkar, Atul
2009-07-01
The heavy equipment industry is building more and more equipment with electro-hydraulic control systems. The existing industry practices for the design of control systems in construction machines primarily rely on classical designs coupled with ad-hoc synthesis procedures. Such practices produce desirable results, but lack a systematic procedure to account for invariably present plant uncertainties in the design process as well as coupled dynamics of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) configuration. In this paper, two H(infinity) based robust control designs are presented for an automatic bucket leveling mechanism of a wheel loader. In one case, the controller is designed for the base plant model. In another case, the controller is designed for the plant with a feedback linearization control law applied yielding improved stability robustness. A MIMO nonlinear model for an electro-hydraulically actuated wheel loader linkage is considered. The robustness of the controller designs are validated by using analysis and by simulation using a complete nonlinear model of the wheel loader linkage and hydraulic system.
Lin, Yuqun
2014-01-01
The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system. PMID:24683334
Cheng, Xianfu; Lin, Yuqun
2014-01-01
The performance of the suspension system is one of the most important factors in the vehicle design. For the double wishbone suspension system, the conventional deterministic optimization does not consider any deviations of design parameters, so design sensitivity analysis and robust optimization design are proposed. In this study, the design parameters of the robust optimization are the positions of the key points, and the random factors are the uncertainties in manufacturing. A simplified model of the double wishbone suspension is established by software ADAMS. The sensitivity analysis is utilized to determine main design variables. Then, the simulation experiment is arranged and the Latin hypercube design is adopted to find the initial points. The Kriging model is employed for fitting the mean and variance of the quality characteristics according to the simulation results. Further, a particle swarm optimization method based on simple PSO is applied and the tradeoff between the mean and deviation of performance is made to solve the robust optimization problem of the double wishbone suspension system.
Robust surface reconstruction by design-guided SEM photometric stereo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyamoto, Atsushi; Matsuse, Hiroki; Koutaki, Gou
2017-04-01
We present a novel approach that addresses the blind reconstruction problem in scanning electron microscope (SEM) photometric stereo for complicated semiconductor patterns to be measured. In our previous work, we developed a bootstrapping de-shadowing and self-calibration (BDS) method, which automatically calibrates the parameter of the gradient measurement formulas and resolves shadowing errors for estimating an accurate three-dimensional (3D) shape and underlying shadowless images. Experimental results on 3D surface reconstruction demonstrated the significance of the BDS method for simple shapes, such as an isolated line pattern. However, we found that complicated shapes, such as line-and-space (L&S) and multilayered patterns, produce deformed and inaccurate measurement results. This problem is due to brightness fluctuations in the SEM images, which are mainly caused by the energy fluctuations of the primary electron beam, variations in the electronic expanse inside a specimen, and electrical charging of specimens. Despite these being essential difficulties encountered in SEM photometric stereo, it is difficult to model accurately all the complicated physical phenomena of electronic behavior. We improved the robustness of the surface reconstruction in order to deal with these practical difficulties with complicated shapes. Here, design data are useful clues as to the pattern layout and layer information of integrated semiconductors. We used the design data as a guide of the measured shape and incorporated a geometrical constraint term to evaluate the difference between the measured and designed shapes into the objective function of the BDS method. Because the true shape does not necessarily correspond to the designed one, we use an iterative scheme to develop proper guide patterns and a 3D surface that provides both a less distorted and more accurate 3D shape after convergence. Extensive experiments on real image data demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness
Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasgupta, Tirthankar
2007-12-01
This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor
Sliding-Mode Control Applied for Robust Control of a Highly Unstable Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vetter, Travis Kenneth
2002-01-01
An investigation into the application of an observer based sliding mode controller for robust control of a highly unstable aircraft and methods of compensating for actuator dynamics is performed. After a brief overview of some reconfigurable controllers, sliding mode control (SMC) is selected because of its invariance properties and lack of need for parameter identification. SMC is reviewed and issues with parasitic dynamics, which cause system instability, are addressed. Utilizing sliding manifold boundary layers, the nonlinear control is converted to a linear control and sliding manifold design is performed in the frequency domain. An additional feedback form of model reference hedging is employed which is similar to a prefilter and has large benefits to system performance. The effects of inclusion of actuator dynamics into the designed plant is heavily investigated. Multiple Simulink models of the full longitudinal dynamics and wing deflection modes of the forward swept aero elastic vehicle (FSAV) are constructed. Additionally a linear state space models to analyze effects from various system parameters. The FSAV has a pole at +7 rad/sec and is non-minimum phase. The use of 'model actuators' in the feedback path, and varying there design, is heavily investigated for the resulting effects on plant robustness and tolerance to actuator failure. The use of redundant actuators is also explored and improved robustness is shown. All models are simulated with severe failure and excellent tracking, and task dependent handling qualities, and low pilot induced oscillation tendency is shown.
Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, James B.
2005-01-01
The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.
Albert, Cécile H; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Dumitru, Maria; Gonzalez, Andrew
2017-04-06
Designing connected landscapes is among the most widespread strategies for achieving biodiversity conservation targets. The challenge lies in simultaneously satisfying the connectivity needs of multiple species at multiple spatial scales under uncertain climate and land-use change. To evaluate the contribution of remnant habitat fragments to the connectivity of regional habitat networks, we developed a method to integrate uncertainty in climate and land-use change projections with the latest developments in network-connectivity research and spatial, multipurpose conservation prioritization. We used land-use change simulations to explore robustness of species' habitat networks to alternative development scenarios. We applied our method to 14 vertebrate focal species of periurban Montreal, Canada. Accounting for connectivity in spatial prioritization strongly modified conservation priorities and the modified priorities were robust to uncertain climate change. Setting conservation priorities based on habitat quality and connectivity maintained a large proportion of the region's connectivity, despite anticipated habitat loss due to climate and land-use change. The application of connectivity criteria alongside habitat-quality criteria for protected-area design was efficient with respect to the amount of area that needs protection and did not necessarily amplify trade-offs among conservation criteria. Our approach and results are being applied in and around Montreal and are well suited to the design of ecological networks and green infrastructure for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in other regions, in particular regions around large cities, where connectivity is critically low. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoyama, Koji; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru
A new approach for multi-objective robust design optimization was proposed and applied to a real-world design problem with a large number of objective functions. The present approach is assisted by response surface approximation and visual data-mining, and resulted in two major gains regarding computational time and data interpretation. The Kriging model for response surface approximation can markedly reduce the computational time for predictions of robustness. In addition, the use of self-organizing maps as a data-mining technique allows visualization of complicated design information between optimality and robustness in a comprehensible two-dimensional form. Therefore, the extraction and interpretation of trade-off relations between optimality and robustness of design, and also the location of sweet spots in the design space, can be performed in a comprehensive manner.
Reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components, Part I: Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yimin
2015-06-01
The reliability-based design optimization, the reliability sensitivity analysis and robust design method are employed to present a practical and effective approach for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components. A procedure for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components is proposed. Application of the method is illustrated by reliability-based robust design optimization of axle and spring. Numerical results have shown that the proposed method can be trusted to perform reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components.
Robust Design of Sheet Metal Forming Process Based on Kriging Metamodel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yanmin
2011-08-01
Nowadays, sheet metal forming processes design is not a trivial task due to the complex issues to be taken into account (conflicting design goals, complex shapes forming and so on). Optimization methods have also been widely applied in sheet metal forming. Therefore, proper design methods to reduce time and costs have to be developed mostly based on computer aided procedures. At the same time, the existence of variations during manufacturing processes significantly may influence final product quality, rendering non-robust optimal solutions. In this paper, a small size of design of experiments is conducted to investigate how a stochastic behavior of noise factors affects drawing quality. The finite element software (LS_DYNA) is used to simulate the complex sheet metal stamping processes. The Kriging metamodel is adopted to map the relation between input process parameters and part quality. Robust design models for sheet metal forming process integrate adaptive importance sampling with Kriging model, in order to minimize impact of the variations and achieve reliable process parameters. In the adaptive sample, an improved criterion is used to provide direction in which additional training samples can be added to better the Kriging model. Nonlinear functions as test functions and a square stamping example (NUMISHEET'93) are employed to verify the proposed method. Final results indicate application feasibility of the aforesaid method proposed for multi-response robust design.
Rational drug design applied to myeloperoxidase inhibition.
Van Antwerpen, P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K
2015-06-01
Rational drug design is a general approach using protein-structure technique in which the discovery of a ligand can be driven either by chance, screening, or rational theory. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was rapidly identified as a therapeutical target because of its involvement in chronic inflammatory syndromes. In this context, the research of MPO inhibitors was intensified and development of new chemical entities was rationally driven by the research of ligands that enter into the MPO catalytic pocket. Actually, as soon as crystallography data of MPO have become available and its structure was virtually designed, the rational drug design has been applied to this peroxidase. Pharmaceutical industries and academic laboratories apply rational drug design on MPO by either optimizing known inhibitors or searching new molecules by high-throughput virtual screening. By these ways, they were able to find efficient MPO inhibitors and understand their interactions with the enzyme. During this quest of MPO inhibition, it appears that Glu268 is a crucial residue in order to optimize ligand-target interaction. This amino acid should be carefully considered by medicinal chemist when they design inhibitors interfering with MPO activity.
Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher
2015-07-01
We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.
Systems approach to developmental biology--designs for robust patterning.
Morishita, Yoshihiro; Hironaka, Ken-Ichi
2013-04-01
Patterning is an important step in animal development that generates spatially non-uniform gene expression patterns or spatially heterogeneous cellular responses. Patterning is realised by the generation and reading of positional information provided by spatial gradients of morphogens, diffusive chemicals in the extracellular environment. To achieve normal development, accurate patterning that is robust against noise is necessary. Here the authors describe how morphogen gradient formation and gradient interpretation processes are designed to achieve highly reproducible patterning. Furthermore, recent advancements in measurement and imaging techniques have enabled researchers to obtain quantitative dynamic and multi-physical data, not only for chemical events, but also for the geometrical and mechanical properties of cells in vivo. The authors briefly review some recent studies on the effects of such non-chemical events on patterning.
Robust Optimization Design Algorithm for High-Frequency TWTs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Chevalier, Christine T.
2010-01-01
Traveling-wave tubes (TWTs), such as the Ka-band (26-GHz) model recently developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, are essential as communication amplifiers in spacecraft for virtually all near- and deep-space missions. This innovation is a computational design algorithm that, for the first time, optimizes the efficiency and output power of a TWT while taking into account the effects of dimensional tolerance variations. Because they are primary power consumers and power generation is very expensive in space, much effort has been exerted over the last 30 years to increase the power efficiency of TWTs. However, at frequencies higher than about 60 GHz, efficiencies of TWTs are still quite low. A major reason is that at higher frequencies, dimensional tolerance variations from conventional micromachining techniques become relatively large with respect to the circuit dimensions. When this is the case, conventional design- optimization procedures, which ignore dimensional variations, provide inaccurate designs for which the actual amplifier performance substantially under-performs that of the design. Thus, this new, robust TWT optimization design algorithm was created to take account of and ameliorate the deleterious effects of dimensional variations and to increase efficiency, power, and yield of high-frequency TWTs. This design algorithm can help extend the use of TWTs into the terahertz frequency regime of 300-3000 GHz. Currently, these frequencies are under-utilized because of the lack of efficient amplifiers, thus this regime is known as the "terahertz gap." The development of an efficient terahertz TWT amplifier could enable breakthrough applications in space science molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, nondestructive testing, high-resolution "through-the-wall" imaging, biomedical imaging, and detection of explosives and toxic biochemical agents.
Sliding Mode Control Applied to Reconfigurable Flight Control Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, R. A.; Wells, S. R.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Sliding mode control is applied to the design of a flight control system capable of operating with limited bandwidth actuators and in the presence of significant damage to the airframe and/or control effector actuators. Although inherently robust, sliding mode control algorithms have been hampered by their sensitivity to the effects of parasitic unmodeled dynamics, such as those associated with actuators and structural modes. It is known that asymptotic observers can alleviate this sensitivity while still allowing the system to exhibit significant robustness. This approach is demonstrated. The selection of the sliding manifold as well as the interpretation of the linear design that results after introduction of a boundary layer is accomplished in the frequency domain. The design technique is exercised on a pitch-axis controller for a simple short-period model of the High Angle of Attack F-18 vehicle via computer simulation. Stability and performance is compared to that of a system incorporating a controller designed by classical loop-shaping techniques.
Designing robust watermark barcodes for multiplex long-read sequencing.
Ezpeleta, Joaquín; Krsticevic, Flavia J; Bulacio, Pilar; Tapia, Elizabeth
2017-03-15
To attain acceptable sample misassignment rates, current approaches to multiplex single-molecule real-time sequencing require upstream quality improvement, which is obtained from multiple passes over the sequenced insert and significantly reduces the effective read length. In order to fully exploit the raw read length on multiplex applications, robust barcodes capable of dealing with the full single-pass error rates are needed. We present a method for designing sequencing barcodes that can withstand a large number of insertion, deletion and substitution errors and are suitable for use in multiplex single-molecule real-time sequencing. The manuscript focuses on the design of barcodes for full-length single-pass reads, impaired by challenging error rates in the order of 11%. The proposed barcodes can multiplex hundreds or thousands of samples while achieving sample misassignment probabilities as low as 10-7 under the above conditions, and are designed to be compatible with chemical constraints imposed by the sequencing process. Software tools for constructing watermark barcode sets and demultiplexing barcoded reads, together with example sets of barcodes and synthetic barcoded reads, are freely available at www.cifasis-conicet.gov.ar/ezpeleta/NS-watermark . ezpeleta@cifasis-conicet.gov.ar.
Coding design of positional information for robust morphogenesis.
Morishita, Yoshihiro; Iwasa, Yoh
2011-11-16
Robust positioning of cells in a tissue against unavoidable noises is important for achieving normal and reproducible morphogenesis. The position in a tissue is represented by morphogen concentrations, and cells read them to recognize their spatial coordinates. From the engineering viewpoint, these positioning processes can be regarded as an information coding. Organisms are conjectured to adopt good coding designs with high reliability for a given number of available morphogen species and their chemical properties. To answer, quantitatively, the questions of how good coding is adopted, and subsequently when, where, and to what extent each morphogen contributes to positioning, we need a way to evaluate the goodness of coding. In this article, by introducing basic concepts of computer science, we mathematically formulate coding processes in morphogen-dependent positioning, and define some key concepts such as encoding, decoding, and positional information and its precision. We demonstrate the best designs for pairs of encoding and decoding rules, and show how those designs can be biologically implemented by using some examples. We also propose a possible procedure of data analysis to validate the coding optimality formulated here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tao; Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Yang; Tang, Ting
2015-01-01
The current research of complex nonlinear system robust optimization mainly focuses on the features of design parameters, such as probability density functions, boundary conditions, etc. After parameters study, high-dimensional curve or robust control design is used to find an accurate robust solution. However, there may exist complex interaction between parameters and practical engineering system. With the increase of the number of parameters, it is getting hard to determine high-dimensional curves and robust control methods, thus it's difficult to get the robust design solutions. In this paper, a method of global sensitivity analysis based on divided variables in groups is proposed. By making relevant variables in one group and keeping each other independent among sets of variables, global sensitivity analysis is conducted in grouped variables and the importance of parameters is evaluated by calculating the contribution value of each parameter to the total variance of system response. By ranking the importance of input parameters, relatively important parameters are chosen to conduct robust design analysis of the system. By applying this method to the robust optimization design of a real complex nonlinear system-a vehicle occupant restraint system with multi-parameter, good solution is gained and the response variance of the objective function is reduced to 0.01, which indicates that the robustness of the occupant restraint system is improved in a great degree and the method is effective and valuable for the robust design of complex nonlinear system. This research proposes a new method which can be used to obtain solutions for complex nonlinear system robust design.
Salinas, Cristian; Muzic, Raymond F. Jr.; Ernsberger, Paul; Saidel, Gerald M.
2007-01-15
Myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor ({beta}-AR) concentration can substantially decrease in congestive heart failure and significantly increase in chronic volume overload, such as in severe aortic valve regurgitation. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate ligand-receptor model can be used for noninvasive estimation of myocardial {beta}-AR concentration in vivo. An optimal design of the experiment protocol, however, is needed for sufficiently precise estimates of {beta}-AR concentration in a heterogeneous population. Standard methods of optimal design do not account for a heterogeneous population with a wide range of {beta}-AR concentrations and other physiological parameters and consequently are inadequate. To address this, we have developed a methodology to design a robust two-injection protocol that provides reliable estimates of myocardial {beta}-AR concentration in normal and pathologic states. A two-injection protocol of the high affinity {beta}-AR antagonist [{sup 18}F]-(S)-fluorocarazolol was designed based on a computer-generated (or synthetic) population incorporating a wide range of {beta}-AR concentrations. Timing and dosage of the ligand injections were optimally designed with minimax criterion to provide the least bad {beta}-AR estimates for the worst case in the synthetic population. This robust experiment design for PET was applied to experiments with pigs before and after {beta}-AR upregulation by chemical sympathectomy. Estimates of {beta}-AR concentration were found by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted and experimental PET data. With this robust protocol, estimates of {beta}-AR concentration showed high precision in both normal and pathologic states. The increase in {beta}-AR concentration after sympathectomy predicted noninvasively with PET is consistent with the increase shown by in vitro assays in pig myocardium. A robust experiment protocol was designed for PET that yields reliable estimates of {beta
Intergration of system identification and robust controller designs for flexible structures in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Lew, Jiann-Shiun
1990-01-01
An approach is developed using experimental data to identify a reduced-order model and its model error for a robust controller design. There are three steps involved in the approach. First, an approximately balanced model is identified using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm, which is an identification algorithm. Second, the model error is calculated and described in frequency domain in terms of the H(infinity) norm. Third, a pole placement technique in combination with a H(infinity) control method is applied to design a controller for the considered system. A set experimental data from an existing setup, namely the Mini-Mast system, is used to illustrate and verify the approach.
Applying vision feedback to crane controller design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Lun-Hui; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Pan, Shing-Tai; Wijaya Lie, Handra; Chiang, Tung-Chien; Chang, Cheng-Yuan
2015-01-01
Encoders are generally used to track the motion of industrial mechanisms. However, the information obtained by encoders may have errors due to encoder aging or mechanism-design problem. Therefore, information by visual feedback is a better way to track the movement of industrial mechanisms. However, image information costs lots of computing effort so it is not easy to be used in real-time control applications. This manuscript derives a simple but effective visual feedback method to follow the target and the image information is obtained only by a general handy camcorder. Besides, the proposed method can track multi-locations in a meantime. Fast image pattern recognition and localisation of the colour histogram by using a moving tracking block is applied to increase the calculation speed. Finally, the obtained locations information by the proposed visual feedback method is applied in an industrial crane control system to verify the effectiveness.
Design of a robust SHM system for composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beard, Shawn; Liu, Ching-Chao; Chang, Fu-Kuo
2007-04-01
Composites are becoming increasingly popular materials used in a wide range of applications on large-scale structures such as windmill blades, rocket motor cases, and aircraft fuselage and wings. For these large structures, using composites greatly enhances the operation and performance of the application, but also introduces extraordinary inspection challenges that push the limits of traditional NDE in terms of time and cost. Recent advances in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies offer a promising solution to these inspection challenges. But efficient design methodologies and implementation procedures are needed to ensure the reliability and robustness of SHM technologies for use in real-world applications. This paper introduces the essential elements of the design and implementation process by way of example. State-of-the-art techniques to optimize sensor placement, perform self-diagnostics, compensate for environmental conditions, and generate probability of detection (POD) curves for any application are discussed. The techniques are presented in relation to Acellent's recently developed SmartComposite System that is used to monitor the integrity of large composite structures. The system builds on the active sensor network technology of Acellent that is analogous to a built-in acousto-ultrasonic NDE system. Key features of the system include new miniaturized lightweight hardware, self-diagnostics and adaptive algorithm to automatically compensate for damaged sensors, reliable damage detection under different environmental conditions, and generation of POD curves. This paper will provide an overview of the system and demonstrate its key features.
Robust tests for multivariate factorial designs under heteroscedasticity.
Vallejo, Guillermo; Ato, Manuel
2012-06-01
The question of how to analyze several multivariate normal mean vectors when normality and covariance homogeneity assumptions are violated is considered in this article. For the two-way MANOVA layout, we address this problem adapting results presented by Brunner, Dette, and Munk (BDM; 1997) and Vallejo and Ato (modified Brown-Forsythe [MBF]; 2006) in the context of univariate factorial and split-plot designs and a multivariate version of the linear model (MLM) to accommodate heterogeneous data. Furthermore, we compare these procedures with the Welch-James (WJ) approximate degrees of freedom multivariate statistics based on ordinary least squares via Monte Carlo simulation. Our numerical studies show that of the methods evaluated, only the modified versions of the BDM and MBF procedures were robust to violations of underlying assumptions. The MLM approach was only occasionally liberal, and then by only a small amount, whereas the WJ procedure was often liberal if the interactive effects were involved in the design, particularly when the number of dependent variables increased and total sample size was small. On the other hand, it was also found that the MLM procedure was uniformly more powerful than its most direct competitors. The overall success rate was 22.4% for the BDM, 36.3% for the MBF, and 45.0% for the MLM.
Designing for Damage: Robust Flight Control Design using Sliding Mode Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.; Hess, Ronald A.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor); Davidson, John (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A brief review of sliding model control is undertaken, with particular emphasis upon the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. Sliding model control design is interpreted in the frequency domain. The inclusion of asymptotic observers and control 'hedging' is shown to reduce the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. An investigation into the application of observer-based sliding mode control to the robust longitudinal control of a highly unstable is described. The sliding mode controller is shown to exhibit stability and performance robustness superior to that of a classical loop-shaped design when significant changes in vehicle and actuator dynamics are employed to model airframe damage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stocki, R.; Szolc, T.; Tauzowski, P.; Knabel, J.
2012-05-01
The commonly observed nowadays tendency to weight minimization of rotor-shafts of the rotating machinery leads to a decrease of shaft bending rigidity making a risk of dangerous stress concentrations and rubbing effects more probable. Thus, a determination of the optimal balance between reducing the rotor-shaft weight and assuring its admissible bending flexibility is a major goal of this study. The random nature of residual unbalances of the rotor-shaft as well as randomness of journal-bearing stiffness have been taken into account in the framework of robust design optimization. Such a formulation of the optimization problem leads to the optimal design that combines an acceptable structural weight with the robustness with respect to uncertainties of residual unbalances - the main source of bending vibrations causing the rubbing effects. The applied robust optimization technique is based on using Latin hypercubes in scatter analysis of the vibration response. The so-called optimal Latin hypercubes are used as experimental plans for building kriging approximations of the objective and constraint functions. The proposed method has been applied for the optimization of the typical single-span rotor-shaft of the 8-stage centrifugal compressor.
Robust Engineering Designs for Infrastructure Adaptation to a Changing Climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samaras, C.; Cook, L.
2015-12-01
Infrastructure systems are expected to be functional, durable and safe over long service lives - 50 to over 100 years. Observations and models of climate science show that greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities have changed climate, weather and extreme events. Projections of future changes (albeit with uncertainties caused by inadequacies of current climate/weather models) can be made based on scenarios for future emissions, but actual future emissions are themselves uncertain. Most current engineering standards and practices for infrastructure assume that the probabilities of future extreme climate and weather events will match those of the past. Climate science shows that this assumption is invalid, but is unable, at present, to define these probabilities over the service lives of existing and new infrastructure systems. Engineering designs, plans, and institutions and regulations will need to be adaptable for a range of future conditions (conditions of climate, weather and extreme events, as well as changing societal demands for infrastructure services). For their current and future projects, engineers should: Involve all stakeholders (owners, financers, insurance, regulators, affected public, climate/weather scientists, etc.) in key decisions; Use low regret, adaptive strategies, such as robust decision making and the observational method, comply with relevant standards and regulations, and exceed their requirements where appropriate; Publish design studies and performance/failure investigations to extend the body of knowledge for advancement of practice. The engineering community should conduct observational and modeling research with climate/weather/social scientists and the concerned communities and account rationally for climate change in revised engineering standards and codes. This presentation presents initial research on decisionmaking under uncertainty for climate resilient infrastructure design.
Optimal design of stimulus experiments for robust discrimination of biochemical reaction networks
Flassig, R. J.; Sundmacher, K.
2012-01-01
Motivation: Biochemical reaction networks in the form of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) provide a powerful modeling tool for understanding the dynamics of biochemical processes. During the early phase of modeling, scientists have to deal with a large pool of competing nonlinear models. At this point, discrimination experiments can be designed and conducted to obtain optimal data for selecting the most plausible model. Since biological ODE models have widely distributed parameters due to, e.g. biologic variability or experimental variations, model responses become distributed. Therefore, a robust optimal experimental design (OED) for model discrimination can be used to discriminate models based on their response probability distribution functions (PDFs). Results: In this work, we present an optimal control-based methodology for designing optimal stimulus experiments aimed at robust model discrimination. For estimating the time-varying model response PDF, which results from the nonlinear propagation of the parameter PDF under the ODE dynamics, we suggest using the sigma-point approach. Using the model overlap (expected likelihood) as a robust discrimination criterion to measure dissimilarities between expected model response PDFs, we benchmark the proposed nonlinear design approach against linearization with respect to prediction accuracy and design quality for two nonlinear biological reaction networks. As shown, the sigma-point outperforms the linearization approach in the case of widely distributed parameter sets and/or existing multiple steady states. Since the sigma-point approach scales linearly with the number of model parameter, it can be applied to large systems for robust experimental planning. Availability: An implementation of the method in MATLAB/AMPL is available at http://www.uni-magdeburg.de/ivt/svt/person/rf/roed.html. Contact: flassig@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are are available at
Robustness results in LQG based multivariable control designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehtomaki, N. A.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.
1980-01-01
The robustness of control systems with respect to model uncertainty is considered using simple frequency domain criteria. Results are derived under a common framework in which the minimum singular value of the return difference transfer matrix is the key quantity. In particular, the LQ and LQG robustness results are discussed.
Robust Stability Analysis of the Space Launch System Control Design: A Singular Value Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pei, Jing; Newsome, Jerry R.
2015-01-01
Classical stability analysis consists of breaking the feedback loops one at a time and determining separately how much gain or phase variations would destabilize the stable nominal feedback system. For typical launch vehicle control design, classical control techniques are generally employed. In addition to stability margins, frequency domain Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the robustness of the design. However, such techniques were developed for Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) systems and do not take into consideration the off-diagonal terms in the transfer function matrix of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Robust stability analysis techniques such as H(sub infinity) and mu are applicable to MIMO systems but have not been adopted as standard practices within the launch vehicle controls community. This paper took advantage of a simple singular-value-based MIMO stability margin evaluation method based on work done by Mukhopadhyay and Newsom and applied it to the SLS high-fidelity dynamics model. The method computes a simultaneous multi-loop gain and phase margin that could be related back to classical margins. The results presented in this paper suggest that for the SLS system, traditional SISO stability margins are similar to the MIMO margins. This additional level of verification provides confidence in the robustness of the control design.
Robust controller design of four wheel steering systems using mu synthesis techniques
Gao, X.; McVey, B.D.; Tokar, R.L.
1995-02-27
In this paper, a linearized four wheel steering (4WS) system model is deduced and then modified into a form which is appropriate for applying Matlab {mu} Toolbox to design robust controller. Several important topics are discussed in detail, such as (1) how to make system set-up match Matlab {mu} Toolbox requirement, (2) how to select weights based on plant`s uncertainty, (3) how to solve controller discretization problem, and (4) how to adjust the system so that the conditions necessary for using a state-space formula to solve H{infinity} optimal (sub-optimal) problem and performing the Matlab {mu} Toolbox D--K iteration procedure are satisfied. Finally simulation results of robust controller and a PID controller are compared.
Student design projects in applied acoustics.
Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger
2012-03-01
This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques.
Robustness in linear quadratic feedback design with application to an aircraft control problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, R. V.; Sridhar, B.; Toda, M.
1977-01-01
Some new results concerning robustness and asymptotic properties of error bounds of a linear quadratic feedback design are applied to an aircraft control problem. An autopilot for the flare control of the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA) is designed based on Linear Quadratic (LQ) theory and the results developed in this paper. The variation of the error bounds to changes in the weighting matrices in the LQ design is studied by computer simulations, and appropriate weighting matrices are chosen to obtain a reasonable error bound for variations in the system matrix and at the same time meet the practical constraints for the flare maneuver of the AWJSRA. Results from the computer simulation of a satisfactory autopilot design for the flare control of the AWJSRA are presented.
Design and Evaluation of a Robust PID Controller for a Fully Implantable Artificial Pancreas.
Huyett, Lauren M; Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard C; Doyle, Francis J
2015-10-28
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus could be greatly improved by applying a closed-loop control strategy to insulin delivery, also known as an artificial pancreas (AP). In this work, we outline the design of a fully implantable AP using intraperitoneal (IP) insulin delivery and glucose sensing. The design process utilizes the rapid glucose sensing and insulin action offered by the IP space to tune a PID controller with insulin feedback to provide safe and effective insulin delivery. The controller was tuned to meet robust performance and stability specifications. An anti-reset windup strategy was introduced to prevent dangerous undershoot toward hypoglycemia after a large meal disturbance. The final controller design achieved 78% of time within the tight glycemic range of 80-140 mg/dL, with no time spent in hypoglycemia. The next step is to test this controller design in an animal model to evaluate the in vivo performance.
Design and Evaluation of a Robust PID Controller for a Fully Implantable Artificial Pancreas
2015-01-01
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus could be greatly improved by applying a closed-loop control strategy to insulin delivery, also known as an artificial pancreas (AP). In this work, we outline the design of a fully implantable AP using intraperitoneal (IP) insulin delivery and glucose sensing. The design process utilizes the rapid glucose sensing and insulin action offered by the IP space to tune a PID controller with insulin feedback to provide safe and effective insulin delivery. The controller was tuned to meet robust performance and stability specifications. An anti-reset windup strategy was introduced to prevent dangerous undershoot toward hypoglycemia after a large meal disturbance. The final controller design achieved 78% of time within the tight glycemic range of 80–140 mg/dL, with no time spent in hypoglycemia. The next step is to test this controller design in an animal model to evaluate the in vivo performance. PMID:26538805
A design method for robust stabilizing simple repetitive control systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Kou; Takenaga, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi
2007-12-01
The modified repetitive control system is a type of servomechanism for the periodic reference input. That is, the modified repetitive control system follows the periodic reference input with small steady state error, even if a periodic disturbance or uncertainty exists in the plant. Using previously proposed modified repetitive controllers, even if the plants does not includes time-delay, the transfer function from the periodic reference input to the output and that from the disturbance to the output have an infinite number of poles. When the transfer function from the periodic reference input to the output and that from the disturbance to the output have an infinite number of poles, it is difficult to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic. From the practical point of view, it is desirable that the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic are easily specified. In order to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic easily, the transfer function from the periodic reference input to the output and that from the disturbance to the output are desirable to have a finite number of poles. Yamada et al. proposed the concept of simple repetitive control systems such that the controller works as a modified repetitive controller and the transfer function from the periodic reference input to the output and that from the disturbance to the output have a finite number of poles. In addition, Yamada et al. clarified the parametrization of all stabilizing simple repetitive controllers. However the method by Yamada et al. cannot be applied for the plant with uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to propose the parametrization of all robust stabilizing simple repetitive controllers for the plant with uncertainty.
Simulation Assisted Risk Assessment Applied to Launch Vehicle Conceptual Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathias, Donovan L.; Go, Susie; Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott
2008-01-01
A simulation-based risk assessment approach is presented and is applied to the analysis of abort during the ascent phase of a space exploration mission. The approach utilizes groupings of launch vehicle failures, referred to as failure bins, which are mapped to corresponding failure environments. Physical models are used to characterize the failure environments in terms of the risk due to blast overpressure, resulting debris field, and the thermal radiation due to a fireball. The resulting risk to the crew is dynamically modeled by combining the likelihood of each failure, the severity of the failure environments as a function of initiator and time of the failure, the robustness of the crew module, and the warning time available due to early detection. The approach is shown to support the launch vehicle design process by characterizing the risk drivers and identifying regions where failure detection would significantly reduce the risk to the crew.
Robustness and modular design of the Drosophila segment polarity network
Ma, Wenzhe; Lai, Luhua; Ouyang, Qi; Tang, Chao
2006-01-01
Biomolecular networks have to perform their functions robustly. A robust function may have preferences in the topological structures of the underlying network. We carried out an exhaustive computational analysis on network topologies in relation to a patterning function in Drosophila embryogenesis. We found that whereas the vast majority of topologies can either not perform the required function or only do so very fragilely, a small fraction of topologies emerges as particularly robust for the function. The topology adopted by Drosophila, that of the segment polarity network, is a top ranking one among all topologies with no direct autoregulation. Furthermore, we found that all robust topologies are modular—each being a combination of three kinds of modules. These modules can be traced back to three subfunctions of the patterning function, and their combinations provide a combinatorial variability for the robust topologies. Our results suggest that the requirement of functional robustness drastically reduces the choices of viable topology to a limited set of modular combinations among which nature optimizes its choice under evolutionary and other biological constraints. PMID:17170765
Design of a robust EMG sensing interface for pattern classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, He; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Yan L.; He, Haibo
2010-10-01
Electromyographic (EMG) pattern classification has been widely investigated for neural control of external devices in order to assist with movements of patients with motor deficits. Classification performance deteriorates due to inevitable disturbances to the sensor interface, which significantly challenges the clinical value of this technique. This study aimed to design a sensor fault detection (SFD) module in the sensor interface to provide reliable EMG pattern classification. This module monitored the recorded signals from individual EMG electrodes and performed a self-recovery strategy to recover the classification performance when one or more sensors were disturbed. To evaluate this design, we applied synthetic disturbances to EMG signals collected from leg muscles of able-bodied subjects and a subject with a transfemoral amputation and compared the accuracies for classifying transitions between different locomotion modes with and without the SFD module. The results showed that the SFD module maintained classification performance when one signal was distorted and recovered about 20% of classification accuracy when four signals were distorted simultaneously. The method was simple to implement. Additionally, these outcomes were observed for all subjects, including the leg amputee, which implies the promise of the designed sensor interface for providing a reliable neural-machine interface for artificial legs.
Design of a robust EMG sensing interface for pattern classification.
Huang, He; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Yan L; He, Haibo
2010-10-01
Electromyographic (EMG) pattern classification has been widely investigated for neural control of external devices in order to assist with movements of patients with motor deficits. Classification performance deteriorates due to inevitable disturbances to the sensor interface, which significantly challenges the clinical value of this technique. This study aimed to design a sensor fault detection (SFD) module in the sensor interface to provide reliable EMG pattern classification. This module monitored the recorded signals from individual EMG electrodes and performed a self-recovery strategy to recover the classification performance when one or more sensors were disturbed. To evaluate this design, we applied synthetic disturbances to EMG signals collected from leg muscles of able-bodied subjects and a subject with a transfemoral amputation and compared the accuracies for classifying transitions between different locomotion modes with and without the SFD module. The results showed that the SFD module maintained classification performance when one signal was distorted and recovered about 20% of classification accuracy when four signals were distorted simultaneously. The method was simple to implement. Additionally, these outcomes were observed for all subjects, including the leg amputee, which implies the promise of the designed sensor interface for providing a reliable neural-machine interface for artificial legs.
Reducing Design Risk Using Robust Design Methods: A Dual Response Surface Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Resit; Yeniay, Ozgur; Lepsch, Roger A. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
Space transportation system conceptual design is a multidisciplinary process containing considerable element of risk. Risk here is defined as the variability in the estimated (output) performance characteristic of interest resulting from the uncertainties in the values of several disciplinary design and/or operational parameters. Uncertainties from one discipline (and/or subsystem) may propagate to another, through linking parameters and the final system output may have a significant accumulation of risk. This variability can result in significant deviations from the expected performance. Therefore, an estimate of variability (which is called design risk in this study) together with the expected performance characteristic value (e.g. mean empty weight) is necessary for multidisciplinary optimization for a robust design. Robust design in this study is defined as a solution that minimizes variability subject to a constraint on mean performance characteristics. Even though multidisciplinary design optimization has gained wide attention and applications, the treatment of uncertainties to quantify and analyze design risk has received little attention. This research effort explores the dual response surface approach to quantify variability (risk) in critical performance characteristics (such as weight) during conceptual design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martowicz, Adam; Uhl, Tadeusz
2012-10-01
The paper discusses the applicability of a reliability- and performance-based multi-criteria robust design optimization technique for micro-electromechanical systems, considering their technological uncertainties. Nowadays, micro-devices are commonly applied systems, especially in the automotive industry, taking advantage of utilizing both the mechanical structure and electronic control circuit on one board. Their frequent use motivates the elaboration of virtual prototyping tools that can be applied in design optimization with the introduction of technological uncertainties and reliability. The authors present a procedure for the optimization of micro-devices, which is based on the theory of reliability-based robust design optimization. This takes into consideration the performance of a micro-device and its reliability assessed by means of uncertainty analysis. The procedure assumes that, for each checked design configuration, the assessment of uncertainty propagation is performed with the meta-modeling technique. The described procedure is illustrated with an example of the optimization carried out for a finite element model of a micro-mirror. The multi-physics approach allowed the introduction of several physical phenomena to correctly model the electrostatic actuation and the squeezing effect present between electrodes. The optimization was preceded by sensitivity analysis to establish the design and uncertain domains. The genetic algorithms fulfilled the defined optimization task effectively. The best discovered individuals are characterized by a minimized value of the multi-criteria objective function, simultaneously satisfying the constraint on material strength. The restriction of the maximum equivalent stresses was introduced with the conditionally formulated objective function with a penalty component. The yielded results were successfully verified with a global uniform search through the input design domain.
Ignition target design and robustness studies for the National Ignition Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauser, William J.; Hoffman, Nelson M.; Wilson, Douglas C.; Wilde, Bernhard H.; Varnum, William S.; Harris, David B.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Bradley, Paul A.; Haan, Steven W.; Pollaine, Stephen M.; Wan, Alan S.; Moreno, Juan C.; Amendt, Peter A.
1996-05-01
Recent results are presented from two-dimensional LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasmas Phys. Controlled Thermonucl. Fusion 2, 51 (1975)] calculations of the indirectly driven hohlraum and ignition capsules proposed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The calculations concentrate on two capsule designs, the baseline design that has a bromine-doped plastic ablator, and the beryllium design that has a copper-doped beryllium ablator. Both capsules have a cryogenic fuel layer. Primary emphasis in these calculations is placed upon robustness studies detailing various sensitivities. Because of computer modeling limitations these studies fall into two categories: those performed with integrated modeling where the capsule, hohlraum, and laser rays all are modeled simultaneously with the laser power levels as the only energy input; and those performed in a capsule-only mode where an externally imposed radiative flux is applied to the exterior of the capsule, and only the capsule performance is modeled. Integrated modeling calculations address sensitivities to, e.g., the laser pointing; among other things, capsule-only calculations address yield degradation due to the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by initial surface roughnesses on the capsules. Limitations of the calculational models and directions for future research are discussed. The results of the robustness studies performed to date enhance the authors' confidence that the NIF can achieve ignition and produce 10-15 MJ of capsule yield with one or more capsule designs.
An advancing front Delaunay triangulation algorithm designed for robustness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1993-01-01
A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting triangulation constitutes the Delaunay triangulation of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay triangulation algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.
An advancing front Delaunay triangulation algorithm designed for robustness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1992-01-01
A new algorithm is described for generating an unstructured mesh about an arbitrary two-dimensional configuration. Mesh points are generated automatically by the algorithm in a manner which ensures a smooth variation of elements, and the resulting triangulation constitutes the Delaunay triangulation of these points. The algorithm combines the mathematical elegance and efficiency of Delaunay triangulation algorithms with the desirable point placement features, boundary integrity, and robustness traditionally associated with advancing-front-type mesh generation strategies. The method offers increased robustness over previous algorithms in that it cannot fail regardless of the initial boundary point distribution and the prescribed cell size distribution throughout the flow-field.
A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorder, Peter James
1993-01-01
Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.
A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations
2014-07-14
Resources Energy Technology Basics Electricity Grid Basics Costs Renewable Technologies Biomass Geothermal Solar Concentrators Solar Photovoltaics Wind...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 14 July 2014...SUBTITLE A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.
2009-01-01
This paper studies and analyses fundamental trade-offs between positioning resolution, tracking bandwidth, and robustness to modeling uncertainties in two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control designs for nanopositioning systems. The analysis of these systems is done in optimal control setting with various architectural constraints imposed on the 2DOF framework. In terms of these trade-offs, our analysis shows that the primary role of feedback is providing robustness to the closed-loop device whereas the feedforward component is mainly effective in overcoming fundamental algebraic constraints that limit the feedback-only designs. This paper presents (1) an optimal prefilter model matching design for a system with an existing feedback controller, (2) a simultaneous feedforward and feedback control design in an optimal mixed sensitivity framework, and (3) a 2DOF optimal robust model matching design. The experimental results on applying these controllers show a significant improvement, as high as 330% increase in bandwidth for similar robustness and resolution over optimal feedback-only designs. Other performance objectives can be improved similarly. We demonstrate that the 2DOF freedom design achieves performance specifications that are analytically impossible for feedback-only designs.
Decentralized adaptive control of robot manipulators with robust stabilization design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Bau-San; Book, Wayne J.
1988-01-01
Due to geometric nonlinearities and complex dynamics, a decentralized technique for adaptive control for multilink robot arms is attractive. Lyapunov-function theory for stability analysis provides an approach to robust stabilization. Each joint of the arm is treated as a component subsystem. The adaptive controller is made locally stable with servo signals including proportional and integral gains. This results in the bound on the dynamical interactions with other subsystems. A nonlinear controller which stabilizes the system with uniform boundedness is used to improve the robustness properties of the overall system. As a result, the robot tracks the reference trajectories with convergence. This strategy makes computation simple and therefore facilitates real-time implementation.
Robust control design techniques for active flutter suppression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ozbay, Hitay; Bachmann, Glen R.
1994-01-01
In this paper, an active flutter suppression problem is studied for a thin airfoil in unsteady aerodynamics. The mathematical model of this system is infinite dimensional because of Theodorsen's function which is irrational. Several second order approximations of Theodorsen's function are compared. A finite dimensional model is obtained from such an approximation. We use H infinity control techniques to find a robustly stabilizing controller for active flutter suppression.
Optimal and Robust Design Method for Two-Chip Out-of-Plane Microaccelerometers
Lee, Sangmin; Ko, Hyoungho; Choi, Byoungdoo; Cho, Dong-il Dan
2010-01-01
In this paper, an optimal and robust design method to implement a two-chip out-of-plane microaccelerometer system is presented. The two-chip microsystem consists of a MEMS chip for sensing the external acceleration and a CMOS chip for signal processing. An optimized design method to determine the device thickness, the sacrificial gap, and the vertical gap length of the M EMS sensing element is applied to minimize the fundamental noise level and also to achieve the robustness to the fabrication variations. In order to cancel out the offset and gain variations due to parasitic capacitances and process variations, a digitally trimmable architecture consisting of an 11 bit capacitor array is adopted in the analog front-end of the CMOS capacitive readout circuit. The out-of-plane microaccelerometer has the scale factor of 372 mV/g∼389 mV/g, the output nonlinearity of 0.43% FSO∼0.60% FSO, the input range of ±2 g and a bias instability of 122 μg∼229 μg. The signal-to-noise ratio and the noise equivalent resolution are measured to be 74.00 dB∼75.23 dB and 180 μg/rtHz∼190 μg/rtHz, respectively. The in-plane cross-axis sensitivities are measured to be 1.1%∼1.9% and 0.3%∼0.7% of the out-of-plane sensitivity, respectively. The results show that the optimal and robust design method for the MEMS sensing element and the highly trimmable capacity of the CMOS capacitive readout circuit are suitable to enhance the die-to-die uniformity of the packaged microsystem, without compromising the performance characteristics. PMID:22163484
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen
1990-01-01
One well known deficiency of LQG compensators is that they do not guarantee any measure of robustness. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control design for complex systems such as flexible structures. There has thus been a need to generalize LQG theory to incorporate robustness constraints. Here we describe the maximum entropy approach to robust control design for flexible structures, a generalization of LQG theory, pioneered by Hyland, which has proved useful in practice. The design equations consist of a set of coupled Riccati and Lyapunov equations. A homotopy algorithm that is used to solve these design equations is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yedavalli, R. K.
1992-01-01
The aspect of controller design for improving the ride quality of aircraft in terms of damping ratio and natural frequency specifications on the short period dynamics is addressed. The controller is designed to be robust with respect to uncertainties in the real parameters of the control design model such as uncertainties in the dimensional stability derivatives, imperfections in actuator/sensor locations and possibly variations in flight conditions, etc. The design is based on a new robust root clustering theory developed by the author by extending the nominal root clustering theory of Gutman and Jury to perturbed matrices. The proposed methodology allows to get an explicit relationship between the parameters of the root clustering region and the uncertainty radius of the parameter space. The current literature available for robust stability becomes a special case of this unified theory. The bounds derived on the parameter perturbation for robust root clustering are then used in selecting the robust controller.
Applying Knowledge of Qualitative Design and Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baskas, Richard S.
2011-01-01
This study compared and contrasted two qualitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing qualitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…
Applying Knowledge of Quantitative Design and Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baskas, Richard S.
2011-01-01
This study compared and contrasted two quantitative scholarly articles in relation to their research designs. Their designs were analyzed by the comparison of research references and research specific vocabulary to describe how various research methods were used. When researching and analyzing quantitative scholarly articles, it is imperative to…
Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.
1983-01-01
The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.
Analytical quality by design: a tool for regulatory flexibility and robust analytics.
Peraman, Ramalingam; Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy
2015-01-01
Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT).
Analytical Quality by Design: A Tool for Regulatory Flexibility and Robust Analytics
Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy
2015-01-01
Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT). PMID:25722723
Computational Methods Applied to Rational Drug Design.
Ramírez, David
2016-01-01
Due to the synergic relationship between medical chemistry, bioinformatics and molecular simulation, the development of new accurate computational tools for small molecules drug design has been rising over the last years. The main result is the increased number of publications where computational techniques such as molecular docking, de novo design as well as virtual screening have been used to estimate the binding mode, site and energy of novel small molecules. In this work I review some tools, which enable the study of biological systems at the atomistic level, providing relevant information and thereby, enhancing the process of rational drug design.
Computational Methods Applied to Rational Drug Design
Ramírez, David
2016-01-01
Due to the synergic relationship between medical chemistry, bioinformatics and molecular simulation, the development of new accurate computational tools for small molecules drug design has been rising over the last years. The main result is the increased number of publications where computational techniques such as molecular docking, de novo design as well as virtual screening have been used to estimate the binding mode, site and energy of novel small molecules. In this work I review some tools, which enable the study of biological systems at the atomistic level, providing relevant information and thereby, enhancing the process of rational drug design. PMID:27708723
Robustness of fuzzy logic power system stabilizers applied to multimachine power system
Hiyama, Takashi . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)
1994-09-01
This paper investigates the robustness of fuzzy logic stabilizers using the information of speed and acceleration states of a study unit. The input signals are the real power output and/or the speed of the study unit. Non-linear simulations show the robustness of the fuzzy logic power system stabilizers. Experiments are also performed by using a micro-machine system. The results show the feasibility of proposed fuzzy logic stabilizer.
Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.
1993-01-01
As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.
Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.
1993-01-01
As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.
Applying colour science in colour design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ming Ronnier
2006-06-01
Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.
Robustness of controllers designed using Galerkin type approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, K. A.
1990-01-01
One of the difficulties in designing controllers for infinite-dimensional systems arises from attempting to calculate a state for the system. It is shown that Galerkin type approximations can be used to design controllers which will perform as designed when implemented on the original infinite-dimensional system. No assumptions, other than those typically employed in numerical analysis, are made on the approximating scheme.
Applied Integrated Design in Composite UAV Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasić, Zoran; Maksimović, Stevan; Georgijević, Dragutin
2017-06-01
This paper presents a modern approach to integrated development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle made of laminated composite materials from conceptual design, through detail design, strength and stiffness analyses, definition and management of design and production data, detailed tests results and other activities related to development of laminated composite structures with main of its particularities in comparison to metal structures. Special attention in this work is focused to management processes of product data during life cycle of an UAV and experimental tests of its composite wing. Experience shows that the automation management processes of product data during life cycle, as well as processes of manufacturing, are inevitable if a company wants to get cheaper and quality composite aircraft structures. One of the most effective ways of successful management of product data today is Product Life cycle Management (PLM). In terms of the PLM, a spectrum of special measures and provisions has to be implemented when defining fiber-reinforced composite material structures in comparison to designing with metals which is elaborated in the paper.
A Robust Design Methodology for Optimal Microscale Secondary Flow Control in Compact Inlet Diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.
2001-01-01
It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five Fourier harmonic amplitudes, i.e., 'collectively' reduced all the harmonic 1/2 amplitudes of engine face distortion. Each of the mission strategies was subject to a low engine face distortion constraint, i.e., DC60<0.10, which is a level acceptable for commercial engines. For each of these missions strategies, an 'Optimal Robust' (open loop control) and an 'Optimal Adaptive' (closed loop control) installation was designed over a twenty degree angle-of-incidence range. The Optimal Robust installation used economical Robust Design methodology to arrive at a single design which operated over the entire angle-of-incident range (open loop control). The Optimal Adaptive installation optimized all the design parameters at each angle-of-incidence. Thus, the Optimal Adaptive installation would require a closed loop control system to sense a proper signal for each effector and modify that effector device, whether mechanical or fluidic, for optimal inlet performance. In general, the performance differences between the Optimal Adaptive and Optimal Robust installation designs were found to be marginal. This suggests, however, that Optimal Robust open loop installation designs can be very competitive with Optimal Adaptive close loop designs. Secondary flow control in inlets is inherently robust, provided it is optimally designed. Therefore, the new methodology presented in this paper, combined array 'Lower Order' approach to Robust DOE, offers the aerodynamicist a very viable and
Using open robust design models to estimate temporary emigration from capture-recapture data
Kendall, W.L.; Bjorkland, R.
2001-01-01
Capture-recapture studies are crucial in many circumstances for estimating demographic parameters for wildlife and fish populations. Pollock's robust design, involving multiple sampling occasions per period of interest, provides several advantages over classical approaches. This includes the ability to estimate the probability of being present and available for detection, which in some situations is equivalent to breeding probability. We present a model for estimating availability for detection that relaxes two assumptions required in previous approaches. The first is that the sampled population is closed to additions and deletions across samples within a period of interest. The second is that each member of the population has the same probability of being available for detection in a given period. We apply our model to estimate survival and breeding probability in a study of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), where previous approaches are not appropriate.
Using open robust design models to estimate temporary emigration from capture-recapture data.
Kendall, W L; Bjorkland, R
2001-12-01
Capture-recapture studies are crucial in many circumstances for estimating demographic parameters for wildlife and fish populations. Pollock's robust design, involving multiple sampling occasions per period of interest, provides several advantages over classical approaches. This includes the ability to estimate the probability of being present and available for detection, which in some situations is equivalent to breeding probability. We present a model for estimating availability for detection that relaxes two assumptions required in previous approaches. The first is that the sampled population is closed to additions and deletions across samples within a period of interest. The second is that each member of the population has the same probability of being available for detection in a given period. We apply our model to estimate survival and breeding probability in a study of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), where previous approaches are not appropriate.
Two Reconfigurable Flight-Control Design Methods: Robust Servomechanism and Control Allocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.; Lu, Ping; Wu, Zheng-Lu; Bahm, Cathy
2001-01-01
Two methods for control system reconfiguration have been investigated. The first method is a robust servomechanism control approach (optimal tracking problem) that is a generalization of the classical proportional-plus-integral control to multiple input-multiple output systems. The second method is a control-allocation approach based on a quadratic programming formulation. A globally convergent fixed-point iteration algorithm has been developed to make onboard implementation of this method feasible. These methods have been applied to reconfigurable entry flight control design for the X-33 vehicle. Examples presented demonstrate simultaneous tracking of angle-of-attack and roll angle commands during failures of the fight body flap actuator. Although simulations demonstrate success of the first method in most cases, the control-allocation method appears to provide uniformly better performance in all cases.
Optimization of wire Electrical Discharge turning operations using robust design of experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, Aminollah; Fadaei Tehrani, Alireza; Safari, Mahdi
2011-01-01
In the present study a multi response optimization method using Taguchi's robust design approach is proposed for wire electrical discharge turning (WEDT) operations. Experimentation was planned as per Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment has been performed under different machining conditions of power, servo, voltage, pulse off time, wire tension, wire feed speed, and rotational speed. Three responses namely material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness, and roundness have been considered for each experiment. The machining parameters are optimized with the multi response characteristics of the material removal rate, surface roughness, and roundness. Multi response S/N (MRSN) ratio is applied to measure the performance characteristics deviating from the actual value. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to identify the level of importance of the machining parameters on the multiple performance considered characteristics. Finally experimental confirmation was carried out to identify the effectiveness of this proposed method.
Applied virtual reality in aerospace design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hale, Joseph P.
1995-01-01
A virtual reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, VR must be validated for that class of applications. For that reason, specific validation studies for selected classes of applications have been proposed and are currently underway. These include macro-ergonomic 'control room class' design analysis, Spacelab stowage reconfiguration training, a full-body microgravity functional reach simulator, a gross anatomy teaching simulator, and micro-ergonomic design analysis. This paper describes the MSFC VR Applications Program and the validation studies.
Applied virtual reality in aerospace design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hale, Joseph P.
1995-09-01
A virtual reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, VR must be validated for that class of applications. For that reason, specific validation studies for selected classes of applications have been proposed and are currently underway. These include macro-ergonomic 'control room class' design analysis, Spacelab stowage reconfiguration training, a full-body microgravity functional reach simulator, a gross anatomy teaching simulator, and micro-ergonomic design analysis. This paper describes the MSFC VR Applications Program and the validation studies.
Yiamsawas, Doungporn; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong
2011-05-15
Research highlights: {yields} Taguchi robust design can be applied to study ZnO nanocrystal growth. {yields} Spherical-like and rod-like shaped of ZnO nanocrystals can be obtained from solvothermal method. {yields} [NaOH]/[Zn{sup 2+}] ratio plays the most important factor on the aspect ratio of prepared ZnO. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and nanorods were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process. Taguchi robust design was applied to study the factors which result in stronger ZnO nanocrystal growth. The factors which have been studied are molar concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate, amount of polymer templates and molecular weight of polymer templates. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results show that the concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate ratio has the greatest effect on ZnO nanocrystal growth.
Robust fault detection observer design for linear uncertain systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiukun; Verhaegen, Michel
2011-01-01
This article addresses the fault detection observer design issue for linear time invariant (LTI) systems with additive or multiplicative uncertainties, which are also subject to unknown disturbances. The observer design is investigated under the ℋ∞/ℋ- index framework using the generalised KYP lemma in the finite-frequency domain. Sufficient conditions for the existence of such a fault detection observer are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The threshold design issue is discussed and a method for estimating the worst undetectable fault size is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by numerical simulation examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.
1993-01-01
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are
Jumbo squid beaks: inspiration for design of robust organic composites.
Miserez, Ali; Li, Youli; Waite, J Herbert; Zok, Frank
2007-01-01
The hard tissues found in some invertebrate marine organisms represent intriguing paradigms for robust, lightweight materials. The present study focuses on one such tissue: that comprising the beak of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). Its main constituents are chitin fibers (15-20wt.%) and histidine- and glycine-rich proteins (40-45%). Notably absent are mineral phases, metals and halogens. Despite being fully organic, beak hardness and stiffness are at least twice those of the most competitive synthetic organic materials (notably engineering polymers) and comparable to those of Glycera and Nereis jaws. Furthermore, the combination of hardness and stiffness makes the beaks more resistant to plastic deformation when in contact with blunt abrasives than virtually all metals and polymers. The 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and abundant histidine content in the beak proteins as well as the pigmented hydrolysis-resistant residue are suggestive of aromatic cross-linking. A high cross-linking density between the proteins and chitin may be the single most important determinant of hardness and stiffness in the beak. Beak microstructure is characterized by a lamellar arrangement of the constituents, with a weak interface that promotes crack deflection and endows the structure with high fracture toughness. The susceptibility of this microstructure to cracking along these interfaces from contact stresses at the external surface is mitigated by the presence of a protective coating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharibnezhad, Fahit; Mujica, Luis E.; Rodellar, José
2015-01-01
Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has received considerable attention over the past few years. PCA has been used not only as a direct method to identify, classify and localize damages but also as a significant primary step for other methods. Despite several positive specifications that PCA conveys, it is very sensitive to outliers. Outliers are anomalous observations that can affect the variance and the covariance as vital parts of PCA method. Therefore, the results based on PCA in the presence of outliers are not fully satisfactory. As a main contribution, this work suggests the use of robust variant of PCA not sensitive to outliers, as an effective way to deal with this problem in SHM field. In addition, the robust PCA is compared with the classical PCA in the sense of detecting probable damages. The comparison between the results shows that robust PCA can distinguish the damages much better than using classical one, and even in many cases allows the detection where classic PCA is not able to discern between damaged and non-damaged structures. Moreover, different types of robust PCA are compared with each other as well as with classical counterpart in the term of damage detection. All the results are obtained through experiments with an aircraft turbine blade using piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators and adding simulated damages.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.
2005-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of a Robust Servo Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and a Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network in reconfigurable flight control designs in adaptation to a aircraft part failure. The method uses a robust LQR servomechanism design with model Reference adaptive control, and RBF neural networks. During the failure the LQR servomechanism behaved well, and using the neural networks improved the tracking.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert
1989-01-01
In the design and analysis of robust control systems for uncertain plants, the technique of formulating what is termed an M-delta model has become widely accepted and applied in the robust control literature. The M represents the transfer function matrix M(s) of the nominal system, and delta represents an uncertainty matrix acting on M(s). The uncertainty can arise from various sources, such as structured uncertainty from parameter variations or multiple unstructured uncertainties from unmodeled dynamics and other neglected phenomena. In general, delta is a block diagonal matrix, and for real parameter variations the diagonal elements are real. As stated in the literature, this structure can always be formed for any linear interconnection of inputs, outputs, transfer functions, parameter variations, and perturbations. However, very little of the literature addresses methods for obtaining this structure, and none of this literature addresses a general methodology for obtaining a minimal M-delta model for a wide class of uncertainty. Since have a delta matrix of minimum order would improve the efficiency of structured singular value (or multivariable stability margin) computations, a method of obtaining a minimal M-delta model would be useful. A generalized method of obtaining a minimal M-delta structure for systems with real parameter variations is given.
Applying the miniaturization technologies for biosensor design.
Derkus, Burak
2016-05-15
Microengineering technologies give us some opportunities in developing high-tech sensing systems that operate with low volumes of samples, integrates one or more laboratory functions on a single substrate, and enables automation. These millimetric sized devices can be produced for only a few dollars, which makes them promising candidates for mass-production. Besides electron beam lithography, stencil lithography, nano-imprint lithography or dip pen lithography, basic photolithography is the technique which is extensively used for the design of microengineered sensing systems. This technique has some advantages such as easy-to-manufacture, do not require expensive instrumentation, and allow creation of lower micron-sized patterns. In this review, it has been focused on three different type of microengineered sensing devices which are developed using micro/nano-patterning techniques, microfluidic technology, and microelectromechanics system based technology.
Robust Coordinated AVR-PSS Design Using H∞ Static Output Feedback Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bevrani, Hassan; Hiyama, Takashi
This paper addresses a new robust control methodology to enhance the power system stability and voltage regulation as an integrated design approach. The automatic voltage regulation (AVR) and power system stabilizer (PSS) design problems are reduced to solve a single H∞ based static output feedback control problem. To determine the optimal gains, an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) algorithm is used. A four-machine infinite-bus system example is given to demonstrate the efficiency of developed approach. The proposed robust technique is shown to maintain the robust performance and minimize the effects of disturbances, properly.
Optimisation in the Design of Environmental Sensor Networks with Robustness Consideration
Budi, Setia; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg; Malhotra, Vishv; Turner, Paul
2015-01-01
This work proposes the design of Environmental Sensor Networks (ESN) through balancing robustness and redundancy. An Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) is employed to find the optimal placement of sensor nodes in the Region of Interest (RoI). Data quality issues are introduced to simulate their impact on the performance of the ESN. Spatial Regression Test (SRT) is also utilised to promote robustness in data quality of the designed ESN. The proposed method provides high network representativeness (fit for purpose) with minimum sensor redundancy (cost), and ensures robustness by enabling the network to continue to achieve its objectives when some sensors fail. PMID:26633392
Design of robust differential microphone arrays with orthogonal polynomials.
Pan, Chao; Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong
2015-08-01
Differential microphone arrays have the potential to be widely deployed in hands-free communication systems thanks to their frequency-invariant beampatterns, high directivity factors, and small apertures. Traditionally, they are designed and implemented in a multistage way with uniform linear geometries. This paper presents an approach to the design of differential microphone arrays with orthogonal polynomials, more specifically with Jacobi polynomials. It first shows how to express the beampatterns as a function of orthogonal polynomials. Then several differential beamformers are derived and their performance depends on the parameters of the Jacobi polynomials. Simulations show the great flexibility of the proposed method in terms of designing any order differential microphone arrays with different beampatterns and controlling white noise gain.
An framework for robust flight control design using constrained optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palazoglu, A.; Yousefpor, M.; Hess, R. A.
1992-01-01
An analytical framework is described for the design of feedback control systems to meet specified performance criteria in the presence of structured and unstructured uncertainty. Attention is focused upon the linear time invariant, single-input, single-output problem for the purposes of exposition. The framework provides for control of the degree of the stabilizing compensator or controller.
Robust Controller Design: Minimizing Peak-to-Peak Gain
1992-09-01
Optimality of Feedback Control Systems: The SISO Discrete-Time Case", IEEE Trans. A-C, 35, 1082- 1085, 1990. [18] C.A. Desoer and M. Vidyasagar, Feedback...Systems: Input-Output Properties, Aca- demic Press, Inc, N.Y., 1975. [19] C.A. Desoer , R-W. Liu, J. Murray and R. Saeks. "Feedback System Design: The
Parameter Space Techniques for Robust Control System Design.
1980-07-01
been further investi- gated by Cruz [2] and Desoer and Wang [3]. In frequency design methods the concept to compensate the loop, such that high gains...of Feedback Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972. 3. C. A. Desoer and Y. T. Wang, "Foundations of Feedback Theory for Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
Design in Operations Hazard Controls-Proposal for Design Criteria Assuring Robust Feedback to Crew
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herd, Andrew; Favia, Vezio; Maas, Gerard; Boehme, Matthias
2010-09-01
Activities on the International Space Station(ISS) form part of the emergent safety system, imparted by on-orbit hardware(and associated configurations), defined operational process and the crew as a dynamic and interactive interface. The interaction between design and operations, and the influence on the crew’s ability to successfully perform the operational process is paramount to safety. The assurance of Safety of Flight(SoF), defined as the compliance to requirements that assure the safety of ISS or visiting vehicle crew and of the ISS or visiting vehicle infrastructure, is achieved through the sympathetic introduction of flight hardware into an active ISS environment. The hardware design alone may not provide for SoF in all hardware configurations required to achieve the required mission outcome(known as mission success). In these aspects the crew then provide local safety verification that SoF is maintained. In the crew’s role of assuring SoF, the design capability to provide robust feedback to the crew on the absolute or relative status of hardware configurations during operations is a key part of the assurance of the overall safety system. The crew are dependent on design features, and predefined criteria(such as inspection, or “end-state” criteria) being provided in the crew procedures that guide them through hardware operations. As such for safety-related operational constraints(known as operations hazard controls) defined during the hardware development phase, there are also design features that are specific to and essential for the assurance of SoF. Examples drawn from successful ISS operations undertaken by the European Space Agency may provide insight into best practice principles for crew feedback. Hardware feedback measures(at the human-machine interface) have been shown to demonstrate common features, in that they assure robust feedback which is “tolerant” of the ISS operational environment. It is concluded that specific criteria can be
Eco-inspired robust control design for linear dynamical systems with applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devarakonda, Nagini
Recently, the idea of using Ecological Sign Stability approach for designing robust controllers for engineering systems has attracted attention with promising results. In this work, continued research on this topic is presented. It is well known that, in the field of control systems, key to a good controller design is the choice of the appropriate nominal system. Since it is assumed that the perturbations are about this nominal, the extent of allowed perturbation to maintain the stability and/or performance very much depends on this 'nominal' system. Therefore, it is evident that this nominal system must have superior robustness properties. Incorporating certain robustness measures proposed in the literature, control design techniques have been realized in state space framework. However, the variety of controllers in state space framework is not as large as that of robust control design methods in frequency domain. Even these very few methods tend to be complex and demand some specific structure to the real parameter uncertainty (such as matching conditions). Overall, the success of all these methods for application to complex aerospace systems is still a subject of debate. Hence, there is still significant interest in designing robust controllers which can perform better than the existing controllers. Addressing these issues, current research proposes that the stability robustness measures for parameter perturbation are considerably improved if the 'nominal' system is taken (or driven) to be a 'sign stable' system. Motivated by this observation, a new method for designing a robust controller for linear uncertain state space systems is proposed. The novelty of this research lies in the incorporation of ecological principles in order to design robust controllers for engineering systems. It is observed that an ecological perspective gives better understanding of the dynamics of the open and closed loop system (nominal) matrices. One of the attractive features of this
Hierarchical robust nonlinear switching control design for propulsion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonessa, Alexander
1999-09-01
The desire for developing an integrated control system- design methodology for advanced propulsion systems has led to significant activity in modeling and control of flow compression systems in recent years. In this dissertation we develop a novel hierarchical switching control framework for addressing the compressor aerodynamic instabilities of rotating stall and surge. The proposed control framework accounts for the coupling between higher-order modes while explicitly addressing actuator rate saturation constraints and system modeling uncertainty. To develop a hierarchical nonlinear switching control framework, first we develop generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems for nonlinear dynamical systems wherein all regularity assumptions on the Lyapunov function and the system dynamics are removed. In particular, local and global stability theorems are given using lower semicontinuous Lyapunov functions. Furthermore, generalized invariant set theorems are derived wherein system trajectories converge to a union of largest invariant sets contained in intersections over finite intervals of the closure of generalized Lyapunov level surfaces. The proposed results provide transparent generalizations to standard Lyapunov and invariant set theorems. Using the generalized Lyapunov and invariant set theorems, a nonlinear control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria- dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear control strategy is developed that stabilizes a given nonlinear system by stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled subsystems. The switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized system equilibria. The proposed framework provides a
Robust THP Transceiver Designs for Multiuser MIMO Downlink with Imperfect CSIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubaidulla, P.; Chockalingam, A.
2009-12-01
We present robust joint nonlinear transceiver designs for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink in the presence of imperfections in the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). The base station (BS) is equipped with multiple transmit antennas, and each user terminal is equipped with one or more receive antennas. The BS employs Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for interuser interference precancellation at the transmitter. We consider robust transceiver designs that jointly optimize the transmit THP filters and receive filter for two models of CSIT errors. The first model is a stochastic error (SE) model, where the CSIT error is Gaussian-distributed. This model is applicable when the CSIT error is dominated by channel estimation error. In this case, the proposed robust transceiver design seeks to minimize a stochastic function of the sum mean square error (SMSE) under a constraint on the total BS transmit power. We propose an iterative algorithm to solve this problem. The other model we consider is a norm-bounded error (NBE) model, where the CSIT error can be specified by an uncertainty set. This model is applicable when the CSIT error is dominated by quantization errors. In this case, we consider a worst-case design. For this model, we consider robust (i) minimum SMSE, (ii) MSE-constrained, and (iii) MSE-balancing transceiver designs. We propose iterative algorithms to solve these problems, wherein each iteration involves a pair of semidefinite programs (SDPs). Further, we consider an extension of the proposed algorithm to the case with per-antenna power constraints. We evaluate the robustness of the proposed algorithms to imperfections in CSIT through simulation, and show that the proposed robust designs outperform nonrobust designs as well as robust linear transceiver designs reported in the recent literature.
Reliability Assessment of a Robust Design Under Uncertainty for a 3-D Flexible Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J. -W.; Newman, Perry A.
2003-01-01
The paper presents reliability assessment results for the robust designs under uncertainty of a 3-D flexible wing previously reported by the authors. Reliability assessments (additional optimization problems) of the active constraints at the various probabilistic robust design points are obtained and compared with the constraint values or target constraint probabilities specified in the robust design. In addition, reliability-based sensitivity derivatives with respect to design variable mean values are also obtained and shown to agree with finite difference values. These derivatives allow one to perform reliability based design without having to obtain second-order sensitivity derivatives. However, an inner-loop optimization problem must be solved for each active constraint to find the most probable point on that constraint failure surface.
Robust Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation using Fixed Order, Mixed H2/Mu Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whorton, Mark
2003-01-01
Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent microgravity environment. Modern control methods provide the potential for both high-performance and robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H(infinity) methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/H(infinity), controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure, for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, R. V.; Toda, M.; Sridhar, B.
1977-01-01
The paper deals with the problem of expressing the robustness (stability) property of a linear quadratic state feedback (LQSF) design quantitatively in terms of bounds on the perturbations (modeling errors or parameter variations) in the system matrices so that the closed-loop system remains stable. Nonlinear time-varying and linear time-invariant perturbations are considered. The only computation required in obtaining a measure of the robustness of an LQSF design is to determine the eigenvalues of two symmetric matrices determined when solving the algebraic Riccati equation corresponding to the LQSF design problem. Results are applied to a complex dynamic system consisting of the flare control of a STOL aircraft. The design of the flare control is formulated as an LQSF tracking problem.
Robust design of distributed controllers for large flexible space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Charles C.
1988-01-01
Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) method avoids control spillover generated by conventional control schemes such as Coupled Modal Control by decoupling the large flexible space structure into independent subsystems of second order and controlling each mode independently. The IMSC implementation requires that the number of actuators be equal to that of modeled modes, which is in general very huge. Consequently the number of required actuators is unrealizable. Two methods are proposed for the implementation of IMSC with reduced number of actuators. In the first method, the first m modes are optimized, leaving the last (n-m) modes unchanged. In the second method, generalized inverse matrices are employed to design the feedback controller so that the control scheme is suboptimal with respect to IMSC. The performance of the proposed methods is tested by performing computer simulation on a simply support beam. Simulation results are presented and discussed.
A robust Feasible Directions algorithm for design synthesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanderplaats, G. N.
1983-01-01
A nonlinear optimization algorithm is developed which combines the best features of the Method of Feasible Directions and the Generalized Reduced Gradient Method. This algorithm utilizes the direction-finding sub-problem from the Method of Feasible Directions to find a search direction which is equivalent to that of the Generalized Reduced Gradient Method, but does not require the addition of a large number of slack variables associated with inequality constraints. This method provides a core-efficient algorithm for the solution of optimization problems with a large number of inequality constraints. Further optimization efficiency is derived by introducing the concept of infrequent gradient calculations. In addition, it is found that the sensitivity of the optimum design to changes in the problem parameters can be obtained using this method without the need for second derivatives or Lagrange multipliers. A numerical example is given in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm and the sensitivity analysis.
Duchesne, Thierry; Fortin, Daniel
2017-01-01
Conditional logistic regression (CLR) is widely used to analyze habitat selection and movement of animals when resource availability changes over space and time. Observations used for these analyses are typically autocorrelated, which biases model-based variance estimation of CLR parameters. This bias can be corrected using generalized estimating equations (GEE), an approach that requires partitioning the data into independent clusters. Here we establish the link between clustering rules in GEE and their effectiveness to remove statistical biases in variance estimation of CLR parameters. The current lack of guidelines is such that broad variation in clustering rules can be found among studies (e.g., 14–450 clusters) with unknown consequences on the robustness of statistical inference. We simulated datasets reflecting conditions typical of field studies. Longitudinal data were generated based on several parameters of habitat selection with varying strength of autocorrelation and some individuals having more observations than others. We then evaluated how changing the number of clusters impacted the effectiveness of variance estimators. Simulations revealed that 30 clusters were sufficient to get unbiased and relatively precise estimates of variance of parameter estimates. The use of destructive sampling to increase the number of independent clusters was successful at removing statistical bias, but only when observations were temporally autocorrelated and the strength of inter-individual heterogeneity was weak. GEE also provided robust estimates of variance for different magnitudes of unbalanced datasets. Our simulations demonstrate that GEE should be estimated by assigning each individual to a cluster when at least 30 animals are followed, or by using destructive sampling for studies with fewer individuals having intermediate level of behavioural plasticity in selection and temporally autocorrelated observations. The simulations provide valuable information to
Robust Design of Reliability Test Plans Using Degradation Measures.
Lane, Jonathan Wesley; Lane, Jonathan Wesley; Crowder, Stephen V.; Crowder, Stephen V.
2014-10-01
With short production development times, there is an increased need to demonstrate product reliability relatively quickly with minimal testing. In such cases there may be few if any observed failures. Thus, it may be difficult to assess reliability using the traditional reliability test plans that measure only time (or cycles) to failure. For many components, degradation measures will contain important information about performance and reliability. These measures can be used to design a minimal test plan, in terms of number of units placed on test and duration of the test, necessary to demonstrate a reliability goal. Generally, the assumption is made that the error associated with a degradation measure follows a known distribution, usually normal, although in practice cases may arise where that assumption is not valid. In this paper, we examine such degradation measures, both simulated and real, and present non-parametric methods to demonstrate reliability and to develop reliability test plans for the future production of components with this form of degradation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xiang-Qin; Qu, Jing-Yuan; Yan, Zhe-Ping; Bian, Xin-Qian
2010-03-01
In order to improve the security and reliability for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) navigation, an H∞ robust fault-tolerant controller was designed after analyzing variations in state-feedback gain. Operating conditions and the design method were then analyzed so that the control problem could be expressed as a mathematical optimization problem. This permitted the use of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) to solve for the H∞ controller for the system. When considering different actuator failures, these conditions were then also mathematically expressed, allowing the H∞ robust controller to solve for these events and thus be fault-tolerant. Finally, simulation results showed that the H∞ robust fault-tolerant controller could provide precise AUV navigation control with strong robustness.
Robust controller design for fuzzy parametric uncertain systems: an optimal control approach.
Patre, Balasaheb M; Bhiwani, R J
2013-03-01
A new approach of designing a robust controller for fuzzy parametric uncertain systems is proposed. A linear time invariant (LTI) system with fuzzy coefficients is called as fuzzy parametric uncertain system (FPUS). The proposed method envisages conversion of the FPUS into an uncertain (interval) state space controllable canonical form system in terms of its alpha cut. Further, the problem of designing a robust controller is translated into an optimal control problem minimizing a cost function. For matched uncertainty, it is shown that the optimal control problem is a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem, which can be solved to obtain a robust controller for FPUS. The numerical examples and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of robustness of the controller. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Mingcong; Bi, Shuhui
2010-09-01
In this article, operator-based robust nonlinear control system design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) plants with unknown coupling effects is considered. That is, by using operator-based robust nonlinear control design, coupling effects existing in the MIMO nonlinear plants can be decoupled based on a feedback design and robust right coprime factorisation approach, the coupling effects caused by controllers and plant outputs can be stabilised by using definition of Lipschitz operator and contraction mapping theorem, and output tracking performance can be realised by a tracking design scheme. Finally, a simulation example about temperature control process of 3-input/3-output aluminum plate is given to support the theoretical analysis.
Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod
2009-04-01
The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.
Stochastic Satbility and Performance Robustness of Linear Multivariable Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Laurie E.; Stengel, Robert F.
1990-01-01
Stochastic robustness, a simple technique used to estimate the robustness of linear, time invariant systems, is applied to a single-link robot arm control system. Concepts behind stochastic stability robustness are extended to systems with estimators and to stochastic performance robustness. Stochastic performance robustness measures based on classical design specifications are introduced, and the relationship between stochastic robustness measures and control system design parameters are discussed. The application of stochastic performance robustness, and the relationship between performance objectives and design parameters are demonstrated by means of example. The results prove stochastic robustness to be a good overall robustness analysis method that can relate robustness characteristics to control system design parameters.
Applying Learning Design to Work-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Heinz Ulrich
2011-01-01
Learning design is currently slanted to reflect a course-based approach to learning. This article explores whether the concept of learning design could be applied to support the informal aspects of work-based learning (WBL). It also discusses the characteristics of WBL and presents a WBL-specific learning design that highlights the key features…
Universal Design for Online Courses: Applying Principles to Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rao, Kavita; Edelen-Smith, Patricia; Wailehua, Cat-Uyen
2015-01-01
Universal design (UD) educational frameworks provide useful guidelines for designing accessible learning environments with the intention of supporting students with and without disabilities. This article describes how one university instructor defined and applied the principles of Universal Instructional Design (UID) to pedagogy, while designing…
Universal Design for Online Courses: Applying Principles to Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rao, Kavita; Edelen-Smith, Patricia; Wailehua, Cat-Uyen
2015-01-01
Universal design (UD) educational frameworks provide useful guidelines for designing accessible learning environments with the intention of supporting students with and without disabilities. This article describes how one university instructor defined and applied the principles of Universal Instructional Design (UID) to pedagogy, while designing…
Applying Learning Design to Work-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miao, Yongwu; Hoppe, Heinz Ulrich
2011-01-01
Learning design is currently slanted to reflect a course-based approach to learning. This article explores whether the concept of learning design could be applied to support the informal aspects of work-based learning (WBL). It also discusses the characteristics of WBL and presents a WBL-specific learning design that highlights the key features…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, Yaping; Zhang, Chuhua
2016-03-01
Blade fouling has been proved to be a great threat to compressor performance in operating stage. The current researches on fouling-induced performance degradations of centrifugal compressors are based mainly on simplified roughness models without taking into account the realistic factors such as spatial non-uniformity and randomness of the fouling-induced surface roughness. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the robust design optimization of centrifugal compressor impellers with considerations of blade fouling. In this paper, a multi-objective robust design optimization method is developed for centrifugal impellers under surface roughness uncertainties due to blade fouling. A three-dimensional surface roughness map is proposed to describe the nonuniformity and randomness of realistic fouling accumulations on blades. To lower computational cost in robust design optimization, the support vector regression (SVR) metamodel is combined with the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method to conduct the uncertainty analysis of fouled impeller performance. The analyzed results show that the critical fouled region associated with impeller performance degradations lies at the leading edge of blade tip. The SVR metamodel has been proved to be an efficient and accurate means in the detection of impeller performance variations caused by roughness uncertainties. After design optimization, the robust optimal design is found to be more efficient and less sensitive to fouling uncertainties while maintaining good impeller performance in the clean condition. This research proposes a systematic design optimization method for centrifugal compressors with considerations of blade fouling, providing a practical guidance to the design of advanced centrifugal compressors.
A Robust and Reliability-Based Optimization Framework for Conceptual Aircraft Wing Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paiva, Ricardo Miguel
A robustness and reliability based multidisciplinary analysis and optimization framework for aircraft design is presented. Robust design optimization and Reliability Based Design Optimization are merged into a unified formulation which streamlines the setup of optimization problems and aims at preventing foreseeable implementation issues in uncertainty based design. Surrogate models are evaluated to circumvent the intensive computations resulting from using direct evaluation in nondeterministic optimization. Three types of models are implemented in the framework: quadratic interpolation, regression Kriging and artificial neural networks. Regression Kriging presents the best compromise between performance and accuracy in deterministic wing design problems. The performance of the simultaneous implementation of robustness and reliability is evaluated using simple analytic problems and more complex wing design problems, revealing that performance benefits can still be achieved while satisfying probabilistic constraints rather than the simpler (and not as computationally intensive) robust constraints. The latter are proven to to be unable to follow a reliability constraint as uncertainty in the input variables increases. The computational effort of the reliability analysis is further reduced through the implementation of a coordinate change in the respective optimization sub-problem. The computational tool developed is a stand-alone application and it presents a user-friendly graphical user interface. The multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization tool includes modules for aerodynamics, structural, aeroelastic and cost analysis, that can be used either individually or coupled.
Design Method of ILQ Robust Current Control System for Synchronous Reluctance Electrical Motors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amano, Yoko; Takami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takao
In this paper, a robust current control system for a synchronous reluctance electrical motor by an ILQ (Inverse Linear Quadratic) design method is proposed newly. First, for performing simultaneously decouple and large region linearization of an d-q axes system in the synchronous reluctance electrical motor using nonlinear state feedback, it is derived that a linear current-voltage state equation linearized model by the d-q axes decouple of the synchronous reluctance electrical motor. Next, according to the ILQ design method, an optimum solution and an optimal condition that achieve the robust current control system for the synchronous reluctance electrical motor are analytically derived, then the robust current control system can be designed. Finally, in practical experiments, we compare the proposed method with the PI (Proportional Integral) control method, the creativity and the usefulness of the proposed method are confirmed by experimental results.
Control design for robust stability in linear regulators: Application to aerospace flight control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yedavalli, R. K.
1986-01-01
Time domain stability robustness analysis and design for linear multivariable uncertain systems with bounded uncertainties is the central theme of the research. After reviewing the recently developed upper bounds on the linear elemental (structured), time varying perturbation of an asymptotically stable linear time invariant regulator, it is shown that it is possible to further improve these bounds by employing state transformations. Then introducing a quantitative measure called the stability robustness index, a state feedback conrol design algorithm is presented for a general linear regulator problem and then specialized to the case of modal systems as well as matched systems. The extension of the algorithm to stochastic systems with Kalman filter as the state estimator is presented. Finally an algorithm for robust dynamic compensator design is presented using Parameter Optimization (PO) procedure. Applications in a aircraft control and flexible structure control are presented along with a comparison with other existing methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oladyshkin, S.; Class, H.; Helmig, R.; Nowak, W.
2010-12-01
CO2 storage in geological formations is currently being discussed intensively as an interim technology with a high potential for mitigating CO2 emissions. Uncertainty analysis using model-based stochastic approaches can help to better judge its potentials and hazards. Such approaches usually require to specify the probability distribution of all model parameters. This poses a huge demand on data availability or requires highly subjective assumptions to compensate for missing data, which can severely bias the results. The current work presents a data-driven approach for probabilistic risk assessment, applied to CO2 storage. We work with a new and purely data-driven version of polynomial chaos expansion that does not require exact knowledge of probability density functions for input parameters. Instead, we can directly employ raw data sets and all other available background information without further modifications or assumptions, thus minimizing both subjectivity and bias. The model response is expended by higher-order polynomials to approximate dependence on uncertain parameters (porosity, permeability etc.) and design parameters (injection rate, depth etc.). This allows for a non-linear propagation of model uncertainty and ensures fast computation. We combine both design and uncertain variables within a single approach based on an integrative response surface. Thus, the design task (e.g. finding optimal injection regimes) explicitly includes uncertainty. This leads to robust designs that minimize the failure probability and provide valuable support for risk-informed management decisions. We verify the accuracy of our proposed stochastic approach by comparison to Monte Carlo simulation. In our case study, the proposed approach yields a significant computational speed-up when compared to Monte Carlo and is accurate even for small order of the polynomial expansion. We demonstrate that uncertainty has a larger impact on prediction than refinement of the physical
LMI-Based 2-Degrees-of-Freedom Controller Design for Robust Vibration Suppression Positioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Takanori; Maeda, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Makoto; Hirai, Hiromu
This paper presents a novel 2-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) controller design for the robust vibration suppression positioning of mechatronic systems against the frequency perturbation in mechanical vibration modes. The authors have already proposed an linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based feedforward (FF) compensator design method to provide the robust properties in positioning against the perturbation, while the feedback (FB) controller has been independently designed to ensure the robust stability on the basis of the 2-DOF controller design concept. However, a problem still remains in the conventional design that the FB characteristic causes the deterioration of the FF control performance because the undesired response in the FB system due to the perturbation affects the ideal response by the FF compensation. The proposed controller design in this paper, therefore, includes the FB control system with the perturbation in the FF design model to solve the problem in the conventional design. In addition, the FB controller is optimally designed to improve the positioning performance as a cooperated design between FB and FF controllers. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified by numerical simulations and experiments using a prototype.
Designing a robust minimum variance controller using discrete slide mode controller approach.
Alipouri, Yousef; Poshtan, Javad
2013-03-01
Designing minimum variance controllers (MVC) for nonlinear systems is confronted with many difficulties. The methods able to identify MIMO nonlinear systems are scarce. Harsh control signals produced by MVC are among other disadvantages of this controller. Besides, MVC is not a robust controller. In this article, the Vector ARX (VARX) model is used for simultaneously modeling the system and disturbance in order to tackle these disadvantages. For ensuring the robustness of the control loop, the discrete slide mode controller design approach is used in designing MVC and generalized MVC (GMVC). The proposed method for controller design is tested on a nonlinear experimental Four-Tank benchmark process and is compared with nonlinear MVCs designed by neural networks. In spite of the simplicity of designing GMVCs for the VARX models with uncertainty, the results show that the proposed method is accurate and implementable.
Methodology for the conceptual design of a robust and opportunistic system-of-systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talley, Diana Noonan
Systems are becoming more complicated, complex, and interrelated. Designers have recognized the need to develop systems from a holistic perspective and design them as Systems-of-Systems (SoS). The design of the SoS, especially in the conceptual design phase, is generally characterized by significant uncertainty. As a result, it is possible for all three types of uncertainty (aleatory, epistemic, and error) and the associated factors of uncertainty (randomness, sampling, confusion, conflict, inaccuracy, ambiguity, vagueness, coarseness, and simplification) to affect the design process. While there are a number of existing SoS design methods, several gaps have been identified: the ability to modeling all of the factors of uncertainty at varying levels of knowledge; the ability to consider both the pernicious and propitious aspects of uncertainty; and, the ability to determine the value of reducing the uncertainty in the design process. While there are numerous uncertainty modeling theories, no one theory can effectively model every kind of uncertainty. This research presents a Hybrid Uncertainty Modeling Method (HUMM) that integrates techniques from the following theories: Probability Theory, Evidence Theory, Fuzzy Set Theory, and Info-Gap theory. The HUMM is capable of modeling all of the different factors of uncertainty and can model the uncertainty for multiple levels of knowledge. In the design process, there are both pernicious and propitious characteristics associated with the uncertainty. Existing design methods typically focus on developing robust designs that are insensitive to the associated uncertainty. These methods do not capitalize on the possibility of maximizing the potential benefit associated with the uncertainty. This research demonstrates how these deficiencies can be overcome by identifying the most robust and opportunistic design. In a design process it is possible that the most robust and opportunistic design will not be selected from the set
Kutle, Leonida; Pavlović, Nediljko; Dorotić, Marko; Zadro, Ivana; Kapustić, Marijana; Halassy, Beata
2010-07-26
The potency assay for the freeze-dried live attenuated rubella vaccine is a cell culture based biological assay. The aim of our study was to perform the robustness testing of the rubella vaccine potency assay prior to validation. Seven intra-assay operating conditions that could have an effect on the assay performance were identified and their influence on the overall assay variability investigated by fractional factorial design of experiments (DoE). The robustness testing through DoE showed that the rubella vaccine potency assay is a robust assay. Critical operating conditions can be identified using DoE, which indicates that it is a suitable approach in bioassay robustness studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robust polygon recognition method with similarity invariants applied to star identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández, E. Antonio; Alonso, Miguel A.; Chávez, Edgar; Covarrubias, David H.; Conte, Roberto
2017-02-01
In the star identification process the goal is to recognize a star by using the celestial bodies in its vicinity as context. An additional requirement is to avoid having to perform an exhaustive scan of the star database. In this paper we present a novel approach to star identification using similarity invariants. More specifically, the proposed algorithm defines a polygon for each star, using the neighboring celestial bodies in the field of view as vertices. The mapping is insensitive to similarity transformation; that is, the image of the polygon under the transformation is not affected by rotation, scaling or translations. Each polygon is associated with an essentially unique complex number. We perform an exhaustive experimental validation of the proposed algorithm using synthetic data generated from the star catalog with uniformly-distributed positional noise introduced to each star. The star identification method that we present is proven to be robust, achieving a recognition rate of 99.68% when noise levels of up to ± 424 μ radians are introduced to the location of the stars. In our tests the proposed algorithm proves that if a polygon match is found, it always corresponds to the star under analysis; no mismatches are found. In its present form our method cannot identify polygons in cases where there exist missing or false stars in the analyzed images, in those situations it only indicates that no match was found.
Multivariable robust controller design of ACLS using loop-shaping approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Chaoyang; Cui, Haihua; Wang, Qing
2008-10-01
In this paper a multivariable robust controller design approach of the ACLS is accomplished by using robust loop-shaping techniques. In order to avoid the inefficient way of choosing the weight functions by trial-and-error method, the structured genetic algorithm (SGA) approach is introduced, which is capable of simultaneously searching the orders and coefficients of the pre- and post-compensator for weight matrices. According to this approach, engineers can achieve an ideal loop-shape which lies in an appropriate region relating to the desired performance specifications. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the longitudinal equations of a carrier-based aircraft's motion design example.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Troudet, T.; Garg, S.; Merrill, W.
1992-01-01
The design of a dynamic neurocontroller with good robustness properties is presented for a multivariable aircraft control problem. The internal dynamics of the neurocontroller are synthesized by a state estimator feedback loop. The neurocontrol is generated by a multilayer feedforward neural network which is trained through backpropagation to minimize an objective function that is a weighted sum of tracking errors, and control input commands and rates. The neurocontroller exhibits good robustness through stability margins in phase and vehicle output gains. By maintaining performance and stability in the presence of sensor failures in the error loops, the structure of the neurocontroller is also consistent with the classical approach of flight control design.
Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers
Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.
1998-02-01
This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Haimin; Gao, Huajian
2006-06-01
Gecko and many insects have evolved specialized adhesive tissues with bottom-up designed (from nanoscale and up) hierarchical structures that allow them to maneuver on vertical walls and ceilings. The adhesion mechanisms of gecko must be robust enough to function on unknown rough surfaces and also easily releasable upon animal movement. How does nature design such macroscopic sized robust and releasable adhesion devices? How can an adhesion system designed for robust attachment simultaneously allow easy detachment? These questions have motivated the present investigation on mechanics of robust and releasable adhesion in biology. On the question of robust adhesion, we introduce a fractal gecko hairs model, which assumes self-similar fibrillar structures at multiple hierarchical levels mimicking gecko's spatula ultrastructure, to show that structural hierarchy plays a key role in robust adhesion: it allows the work of adhesion to be exponentially enhanced with each added level of hierarchy. We demonstrate that, barring fiber fracture, the fractal gecko hairs can be designed from nanoscale and up to achieve flaw tolerant adhesion at any length scales. However, consideration of crack-like flaws in the hairs themselves results in an upper size limit for flaw tolerant design. On the question of releasable adhesion, we hypothesize that the asymmetrically aligned seta hairs of gecko form a strongly anisotropic material with adhesion strength strongly varying with the direction of pulling. We use analytical solutions to show that a strongly anisotropic elastic solid indeed exhibits a strongly anisotropic adhesion strength when sticking on a rough surface. Furthermore, we perform finite element calculations to show that the adhesion strength of a strongly anisotropic attachment pad exhibits essentially two levels of adhesion strength depending on the direction of pulling, resulting in an orientation-controlled switch between attachment and detachment. These findings not only
Asmus, Josefine; Müller, Christian L; Sbalzarini, Ivo F
2017-07-27
The design of systems or models that work robustly under uncertainty and environmental fluctuations is a key challenge in both engineering and science. This is formalized in the design-centering problem, which is defined as finding a design that fulfills given specifications and has a high probability of still doing so if the system parameters or the specifications fluctuate randomly. Design centering is often accompanied by the problem of quantifying the robustness of a system. Here we present a novel adaptive statistical method to simultaneously address both problems. Our method, L p -Adaptation, is inspired by the evolution of robustness in biological systems and by randomized schemes for convex volume computation. It is able to address both problems in the general, non-convex case and at low computational cost. We describe the concept and the algorithm, test it on known benchmarks, and demonstrate its real-world applicability in electronic and biological systems. In all cases, the present method outperforms the previous state of the art. This enables re-formulating optimization problems in engineering and biology as design centering problems, taking global system robustness into account.
Multi-point objective-oriented sequential sampling strategy for constrained robust design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Siliang; Chen, Wei
2015-03-01
Metamodelling techniques are widely used to approximate system responses of expensive simulation models. In association with the use of metamodels, objective-oriented sequential sampling methods have been demonstrated to be effective in balancing the need for searching an optimal solution versus reducing the metamodelling uncertainty. However, existing infilling criteria are developed for deterministic problems and restricted to one sampling point in one iteration. To exploit the use of multiple samples and identify the true robust solution in fewer iterations, a multi-point objective-oriented sequential sampling strategy is proposed for constrained robust design problems. In this article, earlier development of objective-oriented sequential sampling strategy for unconstrained robust design is first extended to constrained problems. Next, a double-loop multi-point sequential sampling strategy is developed. The proposed methods are validated using two mathematical examples followed by a highly nonlinear automotive crashworthiness design example. The results show that the proposed method can mitigate the effect of both metamodelling uncertainty and design uncertainty, and identify the robust design solution more efficiently than the single-point sequential sampling approach.
Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.
1999-01-01
Several papers have demonstrated the advantages of collecting capture-recapture data using subsamples (i.e., Pollock?s robust design). Compared to a standard design (i.e., one sample per period), this approach (1) permits the estimation of more demographic parameters and (2) in many cases produces more efficient estimators. Program SURVIV is a powerful tool for computing parameter estimates under the robust design. However, multinomial models developed for the robust design require cells for each possible capture history that occurs across the subsamples within a period. This makes the process of entering cell probabilities in SURVIV very tedious and subject to errors. Program RDSURVIV combines SURVIV with a front end that converts capture histories taken under the robust design to the proper input format for estimating parameters under a general model, and builds that model. This model permits Markovian temporary emigration, trap response in capture probabilities, and time variation in all parameters. Program RDSURVIV also automatically computes estimates under a series of submodels, but also permits the user to specify other submodels.
Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.
1999-01-01
Several papers have demonstrated the advantages of collecting capture-recapture data using subsamples (i.e. Pollock's robust design). Compared with a standard design (i.e. one sample per period), this approach (1) permits the estimation of more demographic parameters and (2) in many cases produces more efficient estimators. Program SURVIV is a powerful tool for computing parameter estimates under the robust design. However, multinomial models developed for the robust design require cells for each possible capture history that occurs across the subsamples within a period. This makes the process of entering cell probabilities in SURVIV very tedious and subject to errors. Program RDSURVIV combines SURVIV with a front end that converts capture histories taken under the robust design to the proper input format for estimating parameters under a general model, and builds that model. This model permits Markovian temporary emigration, trap response in capture probabilities and time variation in all parameters. Program RDSURVIV also automatically computes estimates under a series of submodels, but also permits the user to specify other submodels.
HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN
While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...
HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN
While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falcoz, Alexandre; Pittet, Christelle; Bennani, Samir; Guignard, Anne; Bayart, Cedric; Frapard, Benoit
2015-09-01
In this paper, the capability of nonsmooth optimisation techniques to solve complex control problems with implementation issues is addressed. {H}_{∞}/ μ design methods are analysed to enhance the current Airbus Defence and Space industrial development process. In the first instance, a reference μ-synthesis controller that achieves the desired robust performance level is designed. Second, a controller obeying the same initial design objectives is synthesized using a predefined fixed structure and order. This time, the controller is realised using a fixed-structure-based μ-synthesis approach involving a nonsmooth optimisation algorithm provided in the Matlab R2011b Robust Control Toolbox. Finally, a practical structured {H}_{∞} multi-model approach closer to Airbus Defence and Space development practices is proposed. The different methodologies are applied to synthesize the Chemical Station Keeping controllers of a flexible Eurostar E3000 satellite and a comparative performance robustness analysis is provided. Hinfstruct has now been established in the Airbus Defence and Space industrial process. Recently, it has been successfully used to rapidly refine the orbit controller of Rosetta Space Probe before the critical rendezvous with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A specific section will be devoted on this point and in-flight data will be presented.
Robust adaptive self-structuring fuzzy control design for nonaffine, nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Pin-Cheng; Wang, Chi-Hsu; Lee, Tsu-Tian
2011-01-01
In this article, a robust adaptive self-structuring fuzzy control (RASFC) scheme for the uncertain or ill-defined nonlinear, nonaffine systems is proposed. The RASFC scheme is composed of a robust adaptive controller and a self-structuring fuzzy controller. In the self-structuring fuzzy controller design, a novel self-structuring fuzzy system (SFS) is used to approximate the unknown plant nonlinearity, and the SFS can automatically grow and prune fuzzy rules to realise a compact fuzzy rule base. The robust adaptive controller is designed to achieve an L 2 tracking performance to stabilise the closed-loop system. This L 2 tracking performance can provide a clear expression of tracking error in terms of the sum of lumped uncertainty and external disturbance, which has not been shown in previous works. Finally, five examples are presented to show that the proposed RASFC scheme can achieve favourable tracking performance, yet heavy computational burden is relieved.
Robust, nonlinear, high angle-of-attack control design for a supermaneuverable vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Richard J.
1993-01-01
High angle-of-attack flight control laws are developed for a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft. The methods of dynamic inversion and structured singular value synthesis are combined into an approach which addresses both the nonlinearity and robustness problems of flight at extreme operating conditions. The primary purpose of the dynamic inversion control elements is to linearize the vehicle response across the flight envelope. Structured singular value synthesis is used to design a dynamic controller which provides robust tracking to pilot commands. The resulting control system achieves desired flying qualities and guarantees a large margin of robustness to uncertainties for high angle-of-attack flight conditions. The results of linear simulation and structured singular value stability analysis are presented to demonstrate satisfaction of the design criteria. High fidelity nonlinear simulation results show that the combined dynamics inversion/structured singular value synthesis control law achieves a high level of performance in a realistic environment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, M.
1999-01-01
Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being designed, fabricated, and tested for a number of high temperature, high performance applications in aerospace and ground based systems. The critical need for and the role of reliable and robust databases for the design and manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites are presented. A number of issues related to engineering design, manufacturing technologies, joining, and attachment technologies, are also discussed. Examples of various ongoing activities in the area of composite databases. designing to codes and standards, and design for manufacturing are given.
A robust design mark-resight abundance estimator allowing heterogeneity in resighting probabilities
McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.
2006-01-01
This article introduces the beta-binomial estimator (BBE), a closed-population abundance mark-resight model combining the favorable qualities of maximum likelihood theory and the allowance of individual heterogeneity in sighting probability (p). The model may be parameterized for a robust sampling design consisting of multiple primary sampling occasions where closure need not be met between primary occasions. We applied the model to brown bear data from three study areas in Alaska and compared its performance to the joint hypergeometric estimator (JHE) and Bowden's estimator (BOWE). BBE estimates suggest heterogeneity levels were non-negligible and discourage the use of JHE for these data. Compared to JHE and BOWE, confidence intervals were considerably shorter for the AICc model-averaged BBE. To evaluate the properties of BBE relative to JHE and BOWE when sample sizes are small, simulations were performed with data from three primary occasions generated under both individual heterogeneity and temporal variation in p. All models remained consistent regardless of levels of variation in p. In terms of precision, the AICc model-averaged BBE showed advantages over JHE and BOWE when heterogeneity was present and mean sighting probabilities were similar between primary occasions. Based on the conditions examined, BBE is a reliable alternative to JHE or BOWE and provides a framework for further advances in mark-resight abundance estimation. ?? 2006 American Statistical Association and the International Biometric Society.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vafaeinezhad, Moghadaseh; Kia, Reza; Shahnazari-Shahrezaei, Parisa
2016-11-01
Cell formation (CF) problem is one of the most important decision problems in designing a cellular manufacturing system includes grouping machines into machine cells and parts into part families. Several factors should be considered in a cell formation problem. In this work, robust optimization of a mathematical model of a dynamic cell formation problem integrating CF, production planning and worker assignment is implemented with uncertain scenario-based data. The robust approach is used to reduce the effects of fluctuations of the uncertain parameters with regards to all possible future scenarios. In this research, miscellaneous cost parameters of the cell formation and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty and a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed to formulate the related robust dynamic cell formation problem. The objective function seeks to minimize total costs including machine constant, machine procurement, machine relocation, machine operation, inter-cell and intra-cell movement, overtime, shifting labors between cells and inventory holding. Finally, a case study is carried out to display the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed model. The tradeoff between solution robustness and model robustness is also analyzed in the obtained results.
Applying axiomatic design to a medication distribution system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raguini, Pepito B.
As the need to minimize medication errors drives many medical facilities to come up with robust solutions to the most common error that affects patient's safety, these hospitals would be wise to put a concerted effort into finding methodologies that can facilitate an optimized medical distribution system. If the hospitals' upper management is looking for an optimization method that is an ideal fit, it is just as important that the right tool be selected for the application at hand. In the present work, we propose the application of Axiomatic Design (AD), which is a process that focuses on the generation and selection of functional requirements to meet the customer needs for product and/or process design. The appeal of the axiomatic approach is to provide both a formal design process and a set of technical coefficients for meeting the customer's needs. Thus, AD offers a strategy for the effective integration of people, design methods, design tools and design data. Therefore, we propose the AD methodology to medical applications with the main objective of allowing nurses the opportunity to provide cost effective delivery of medications to inpatients, thereby improving quality patient care. The AD methodology will be implemented through the use of focused stores, where medications can be readily stored and can be conveniently located near patients, as well as a mobile apparatus that can also store medications and is commonly used by hospitals, the medication cart. Moreover, a robust methodology called the focused store methodology will be introduced and developed for both the uncapacitated and capacitated case studies, which will set up an appropriate AD framework and design problem for a medication distribution case study.
Applying the ID Process to the Guided Design Teaching Strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coscarelli, William C.; White, Gregory P.
1982-01-01
Describes the application of the instructional development process to a teaching technique called Guided Design in a Production-Operations Management course. In Guided Design, students are self-instructed in course content and use class time to apply this knowledge to self-instruction; in-class problem-solving is stressed. (JJD)
Application of a robust linear control design to a truss structure with nonlinear joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webster, Mark; Vander Velde, Wallace
1991-01-01
An efficient nonlinear equivalent beam finite-element method for the application of a full state feedback design is described, which is robust to plant uncertainties to a beamlike truss structure with nonlinear elements. The method may be extended to model nonlinear structures with other types of control systems, such as model-based compensators.
Enhancing Functional Robustness of Gene Regulatory Networks Based on Fitness Landscape Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung
We aim to develop design principles for enhancing functional robustness of engineered cells using gene-network topology. We observed the effect of genetic regulation types (inhibition and activation) on robustness. Inhibition was much more stable than activation in E. coli. In the case of activation, if the upstream activator expression is shutdown by mutation, then its downstream expression is shut down as well. Without activation, the activator shutdown due to mutation will make its downstream expression ``remains`` turned off. Thus, the change in the metabolic load is higher in the activation case. Therefore, the stronger activation, the less robust the circuits are. In the inhibition case, we found that the story becomes opposite. When an inhibitor expression is shut down by mutation, the downstream expression turns on because the inhibitor is not expressed. This compensates changes in the metabolic load that might have been decreased without the inhibition. This result presents potential significant roles of network topology on the robustness of engineered cellular networks. This also emphasizes that the concept of fitness landscape, where the local slope corresponds to the fitness difference between different genotypes, can be useful to design robust gene circuits. We acknowledge the support of the NSF (MCB Award # 1515280).
Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials.
Falcone, F; Lopetegi, T; Laso, M A G; Baena, J D; Bonache, J; Beruete, M; Marqués, R; Martín, F; Sorolla, M
2004-11-05
The electromagnetic theory of diffraction and the Babinet principle are applied to the design of artificial metasurfaces and metamaterials. A new particle, the complementary split rings resonator, is proposed for the design of metasurfaces with high frequency selectivity and planar metamaterials with a negative dielectric permittivity. Applications in the fields of frequency selective surfaces and polarizers, as well as in microwave antennas and filter design, can be envisaged. The tunability of all these devices by an applied dc voltage is also achievable if these particles are etched on the appropriate substrate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Kazuaki; Nagata, Ryo; Iwasaki, Makoto; Matsui, Nobuyuki
This paper presents a novel Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based autonomous compensator design and position command shaping considering the stand vibration suppression for the fast-response and high-precision positioning of mechatronic systems. The positioning system is mainly composed of a robust 2-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) controller based on the coprime factorization description. The feedback compensator based on H∞ design framework in the 2DOF controller ensures the robustness against the variations of resonant vibration mode. The feedforward compensator and position command, on the other hand, can be autonomously designed by the optimization capability of GA, in order to achieve the desired positioning performance and to suppress the machine stand vibration. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal design has been verified by experiments using a table drive system with ball screw.
Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design
Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.
2004-01-01
Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).
Coffey, Todd
2015-01-01
Cell-based potency assays play an important role in the characterization of biopharmaceuticals but they can be challenging to develop in part because of greater inherent variability than other analytical methods. Our objective is to select concentrations on a dose-response curve that will enhance assay robustness. We apply the maximin D-optimal design concept to the four-parameter logistic (4 PL) model and then derive and compute the maximin D-optimal design for a challenging bioassay using curves representative of assay variation. The selected concentration points from this 'best worst case' design adequately fit a variety of 4 PL shapes and demonstrate improved robustness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi
2017-10-01
This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.
Ray, Chad A; Patel, Vimal; Shih, Judy; Macaraeg, Chris; Wu, Yuling; Thway, Theingi; Ma, Mark; Lee, Jean W; Desilva, Binodh
2009-02-20
Developing a process that generates robust immunoassays that can be used to support studies with tight timelines is a common challenge for bioanalytical laboratories. Design of experiments (DOEs) is a tool that has been used by many industries for the purpose of optimizing processes. The approach is capable of identifying critical factors and their interactions with a minimal number of experiments. The challenge for implementing this tool in the bioanalytical laboratory is to develop a user-friendly approach that scientists can understand and apply. We have successfully addressed these challenges by eliminating the screening design, introducing automation, and applying a simple mathematical approach for the output parameter. A modified central composite design (CCD) was applied to three ligand binding assays. The intra-plate factors selected were coating, detection antibody concentration, and streptavidin-HRP concentrations. The inter-plate factors included incubation times for each step. The objective was to maximize the logS/B (S/B) of the low standard to the blank. The maximum desirable conditions were determined using JMP 7.0. To verify the validity of the predictions, the logS/B prediction was compared against the observed logS/B during pre-study validation experiments. The three assays were optimized using the multi-factorial DOE. The total error for all three methods was less than 20% which indicated method robustness. DOE identified interactions in one of the methods. The model predictions for logS/B were within 25% of the observed pre-study validation values for all methods tested. The comparison between the CCD and hybrid screening design yielded comparable parameter estimates. The user-friendly design enables effective application of multi-factorial DOE to optimize ligand binding assays for therapeutic proteins. The approach allows for identification of interactions between factors, consistency in optimal parameter determination, and reduced method
Design of PTX RF Pulses Robust Against Respiration in Cardiac MRI at 7 Tesla
Schmitter, Sebastian; Wu, Xiaoping; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François
2015-01-01
Purpose Two-spoke parallel transmission (pTX) RF pulses have been demonstrated in cardiac MRI at 7T. However, current pulse designs rely on a single set of B1+/B0 maps that may not be valid for subsequent scans acquired at another phase of the respiration cycle, because of organs displacement. Such mismatches may yield severe excitation profile degradation. Methods B1+/B0 maps were obtained, using 16 transmit channels at 7T, at three breath-hold positions: exhale, half-inhale and inhale. Standard and robust RF pulses were designed using maps obtained at exhale only, and at multiple respiratory positions, respectively. Excitation patterns were analyzed for all positions using Bloch simulations. Flip-angle homogeneity was compared in-vivo in cardiac CINE acquisitions. Results Standard 1- and 2-spoke pTX RF pulses are sensitive to breath-hold position, primarily due to B1+ alterations, with high dependency on excitation trajectory for 2-spokes. In-vivo excitation inhomogeneity varied from nRMSE=8.2% (exhale) up to 32.5% (inhale) with the standard design; much more stable results were obtained with the robust design with nRMSE=9.1% (exhale) and 10.6% (inhale). Conclusion A new pTX RF pulse design robust against respiration induced variations of B1+/B0 maps is demonstrated and is expected to positively impact cardiac MRI in breath-hold, free-breathing and real-time acquisitions. PMID:25411131
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarjaš, Andrej; Chowdhury, Amor; Svečko, Rajko
2016-09-01
This paper presents the synthesis of an optimal robust controller design using the polynomial pole placement technique and multi-criteria optimisation procedure via an evolutionary computation algorithm - differential evolution. The main idea of the design is to provide a reliable fixed-order robust controller structure and an efficient closed-loop performance with a preselected nominally characteristic polynomial. The multi-criteria objective functions have quasi-convex properties that significantly improve convergence and the regularity of the optimal/sub-optimal solution. The fundamental aim of the proposed design is to optimise those quasi-convex functions with fixed closed-loop characteristic polynomials, the properties of which are unrelated and hard to present within formal algebraic frameworks. The objective functions are derived from different closed-loop criteria, such as robustness with metric ?∞, time performance indexes, controller structures, stability properties, etc. Finally, the design results from the example verify the efficiency of the controller design and also indicate broader possibilities for different optimisation criteria and control structures.
Applying complexity theory: a review to inform evaluation design.
Walton, Mat
2014-08-01
Complexity theory has increasingly been discussed and applied within evaluation literature over the past decade. This article reviews the discussion and use of complexity theory within academic journal literature. The aim is to identify the issues to be considered when applying complexity theory to evaluation. Reviewing 46 articles, two groups of themes are identified. The first group considers implications of applying complexity theory concepts for defining evaluation purpose, scope and units of analysis. The second group of themes consider methodology and method. Results provide a starting point for a configuration of an evaluation approach consistent with complexity theory, whilst also identifying a number of design considerations to be resolved within evaluation planning.
Robust controller designs for second-order dynamic system: A virtual passive approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh
1990-01-01
A robust controller design is presented for second-order dynamic systems. The controller is model-independent and itself is a virtual second-order dynamic system. Conditions on actuator and sensor placements are identified for controller designs that guarantee overall closed-loop stability. The dynamic controller can be viewed as a virtual passive damping system that serves to stabilize the actual dynamic system. The control gains are interpreted as virtual mass, spring, and dashpot elements that play the same roles as actual physical elements in stability analysis. Position, velocity, and acceleration feedback are considered. Simple examples are provided to illustrate the physical meaning of this controller design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucz, Štefan; Marič, Ladislav; Harsányi, Ladislav; Veselý, Vojtech
2010-05-01
The paper deals with the development and application of a new simple empirical approach to the design of robust PID controllers for technological processes in industrial practice. The main advantage of the proposed approach is the possibility to specify the required performance before the design algorithm implementation. Identification of characteristic data of the black-box type plant with varying parameters is carried out using the sine wave excitation signal, thus allowing to design the controller without necessarily knowing the mathematical model of the plant. The proposed approach has been verified on a real-world physical process.
Converse, S.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; Naughton, M.B.; Hines, J.E.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.
2009-01-01
For many animal populations, one or more life stages are not accessible to sampling, and therefore an unobservable state is created. For colonially-breeding populations, this unobservable state could represent the subset of adult breeders that have foregone breeding in a given year. This situation applies to many seabird populations, notably albatrosses, where skipped breeders are either absent from the colony, or are present but difficult to capture or correctly assign to breeding state. Kendall et al. have proposed design strategies for investigations of seabird demography where such temporary emigration occurs, suggesting the use of the robust design to permit the estimation of time-dependent parameters and to increase the precision of estimates from multi-state models. A traditional robust design, where animals are subject to capture multiple times in a sampling season, is feasible in many cases. However, due to concerns that multiple captures per season could cause undue disturbance to animals, Kendall et al. developed a less-invasive robust design (LIRD), where initial captures are followed by an assessment of the ratio of marked-to-unmarked birds in the population or sampled plot. This approach has recently been applied in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to populations of Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses. In this paper, we outline the LIRD and its application to seabird population studies. We then describe an approach to determining optimal allocation of sampling effort in which we consider a non-robust design option (nRD), and variations of both the traditional robust design (RD), and the LIRD. Variations we considered included the number of secondary sampling occasions for the RD and the amount of total effort allocated to the marked-to-unmarked ratio assessment for the LIRD. We used simulations, informed by early data from the Hawaiian study, to address optimal study design for our example cases. We found that
Design of a nonlinear robust controller for a complete unmanned aerial vehicle mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadraey, Mohammad Hashem
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control systems must be capable of delivering the required performance while handling nonlinearities and uncertainties in the vehicle model, the atmosphere, and ambient wind. These factors necessitate the development of nonlinear flight control system design methods that can handle large nonlinearities and uncertainties. Variable approaches to the linear control of UAVs have been discussed in the recent literature. However, the development of a nonlinear robust autopilot has not been addressed to any significant degree. The development of a nonlinear autopilot based on robust control methods will be discussed in this dissertation. In this design technique, the nonlinear UAV model is not linearized. The control law is designed using the Hinfinity technique. This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study to examine robust autopilot nonlinear design methods for the UAV and compare this new approach with existing PID, LQR, and linear Hinfinity techniques. Since the method must then be verified, its flight simulation will be done using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Verification, validation and robustness tests are documented at the end of this dissertation. The airplane examined is called the Hawkeye. It was designed and built by KU students in the fall of 2004. It is a small, 14 foot wingspan, remotely controlled airplane made from composite materials with a maximum takeoff weight of 90 lbs. It will be used in the future as a small UAV for research programs at KU. The mission includes take-off, climb, cruise, a one and a half circle accomplished in a level turn, and a return back to its original airfield accomplished by cruising back, descending, and completing an approach and landing. After take-off, the airplane is required to climb to 1,000 ft altitude, and then it travels 5,000 ft over the ground into the target area. It will then take some photos of that target using its camera. The complete mission for the UAV lasts about
Design of inner coupling matrix for robustly self-synchronizing networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gequn, Liu; Zhiguo, Zhan; Knowles, Gareth
2015-12-01
A self-synchronizing network may undergo change of scale and topology during its functioning, thus adjustment of parameters is necessary to enable the synchronization. The adjustment cost and runtime-break demand a method to maintain continuous operation of the network. To address these issues, this paper presents an analytical method for the design of the inner coupling matrix. The proposed method renders the synchronization robust to change of network scale and topology. It is usual in network models that scale and topology are represented by outer coupling matrix. In this paper we only consider diffusively coupled networks. For these networks, the eigenvalues of the outer coupling matrix are all non-positive. By utilizing this property, the designed inner coupling matrix can cover the entire left half of complex plane within the synchronized region to underlie robustness of synchronization. After elaborating the applicability of several types of synchronization state for a robustly self-synchronizing network, the analytical design method is given for the stable equilibrium point case. Sometimes the Jacobian matrix of the node dynamical equation may lead to an unrealizable complex inner coupling matrix in the method. We then introduce a lemma of matrix transformation to prevent this possibility. Additionally, we investigated the choice of inner coupling matrix to get a desirable self-synchronization speed. The corresponding condition in the design procedure is given to drive the network synchronization faster than convergence of each node. Finally, the article includes examples that show effectiveness and soundness of the method.
Hierarchical Modeling and Robust Synthesis for the Preliminary Design of Large Scale Complex Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, Patrick N.
1997-01-01
Large-scale complex systems are characterized by multiple interacting subsystems and the analysis of multiple disciplines. The design and development of such systems inevitably requires the resolution of multiple conflicting objectives. The size of complex systems, however, prohibits the development of comprehensive system models, and thus these systems must be partitioned into their constituent parts. Because simultaneous solution of individual subsystem models is often not manageable iteration is inevitable and often excessive. In this dissertation these issues are addressed through the development of a method for hierarchical robust preliminary design exploration to facilitate concurrent system and subsystem design exploration, for the concurrent generation of robust system and subsystem specifications for the preliminary design of multi-level, multi-objective, large-scale complex systems. This method is developed through the integration and expansion of current design techniques: Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques for partitioning large-scale complex systems into more tractable parts, and allowing integration of subproblems for system synthesis; Statistical experimentation and approximation techniques for increasing both the efficiency and the comprehensiveness of preliminary design exploration; and Noise modeling techniques for implementing robust preliminary design when approximate models are employed. Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques including intermediate responses, linking variables, and compatibility constraints are incorporated within a hierarchical compromise decision support problem formulation for synthesizing subproblem solutions for a partitioned system. Experimentation and approximation techniques are employed for concurrent investigations and modeling of partitioned subproblems. A modified composite experiment is introduced for fitting better predictive models across the ranges of the factors, and an approach for
Engagement over Exposure: Designing Applied Research Projects for Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hahn, Hilary; Marquez, Joy; Reznik, Vivian; Hoyt, David; Daley, Sandra
2002-01-01
Describes how the University of California San Diego (UCSD), the San Diego Housing Commission, and San Diego State University worked together through the UCSD Community Outreach Partnership Center to engage students in the design and implementation of an applied research project in City Heights, a low-income neighborhood in San Diego. (EV)
Application of Taguchi robust design method to SAW mass sensing device.
Wu, Der Ho; Chen, Hsin Hua
2005-12-01
It is essential that measurement systems provide an accurate and robust performance over a wide range of input conditions. This paper adopts Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis to develop a robust design for the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensing device operated in a conventional delay-line configuration. The goal of the present Taguchi design activity is to increase the sensitivity of this sensor while simultaneously reducing its variability. A time- and cost-efficient finite-element analysis method is used to investigate the effects on the sensor's response output of variations in the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas deposited mass. The simulation results for the resonant frequency and wave mode analysis are all shown to be in good agreement with the values predicted theoretically.
Bionic Concept Applied to Flow Slab Design of PEMFC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C. T.; Chang, C. P.
A character of fuel cell with high potency and low pollution was known well and considered as a new generation of power technology. In this study a novel design of flow slab addressed and originated from bionic concept will be applied to improve the performance of PEMFC. Simulation results executed at Re = 100 show that the bionic flow type will possess a better uniformity of velocity and lower pressure drop. Besides, the integral performance concerned at SDR and PDR will also show the bionic flow type to be an outstanding design. Hence, this novel flow design addressed will be useful to promotion of PEMFC.
Mina, Marco; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram
2014-01-01
The analysis of protein behavior at the network level had been applied to elucidate the mechanisms of protein interaction that are similar in different species. Published network alignment algorithms proved to be able to recapitulate known conserved modules and protein complexes, and infer new conserved interactions confirmed by wet lab experiments. In the meantime, however, a plethora of continuously evolving protein-protein interaction (PPI) data sets have been developed, each featuring different levels of completeness and reliability. For instance, algorithms performance may vary significantly when changing the data set used in their assessment. Moreover, existing papers did not deeply investigate the robustness of alignment algorithms. For instance, some algorithms performances vary significantly when changing the data set used in their assessment. In this work, we design an extensive assessment of current algorithms discussing the robustness of the results on the basis of input networks. We also present AlignMCL, a local network alignment algorithm based on an improved model of alignment graph and Markov Clustering. AlignMCL performs better than other state-of-the-art local alignment algorithms over different updated data sets. In addition, AlignMCL features high levels of robustness, producing similar results regardless the selected data set.
Probabilistic Methods for Uncertainty Propagation Applied to Aircraft Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Lawrence L.; Lin, Hong-Zong; Khalessi, Mohammad R.
2002-01-01
Three methods of probabilistic uncertainty propagation and quantification (the method of moments, Monte Carlo simulation, and a nongradient simulation search method) are applied to an aircraft analysis and conceptual design program to demonstrate design under uncertainty. The chosen example problems appear to have discontinuous design spaces and thus these examples pose difficulties for many popular methods of uncertainty propagation and quantification. However, specific implementation features of the first and third methods chosen for use in this study enable successful propagation of small uncertainties through the program. Input uncertainties in two configuration design variables are considered. Uncertainties in aircraft weight are computed. The effects of specifying required levels of constraint satisfaction with specified levels of input uncertainty are also demonstrated. The results show, as expected, that the designs under uncertainty are typically heavier and more conservative than those in which no input uncertainties exist.
Applying riding-posture optimization on bicycle frame design.
Hsiao, Shih-Wen; Chen, Rong-Qi; Leng, Wan-Lee
2015-11-01
Customization design is a trend for developing a bicycle in recent years. Thus, the comfort of riding a bike is an important factor that should be paid much attention to while developing a bicycle. From the viewpoint of ergonomics, the concept of "fitting object to the human body" is designed into the bicycle frame in this study. Firstly, the important feature points of riding posture were automatically detected by the image processing method. In the measurement process, the best riding posture was identified experimentally, thus the positions of feature points and joint angles of human body were obtained. Afterwards, according to the measurement data, three key points: the handlebar, the saddle and the crank center, were identified and applied to the frame design of various bicycle types. Lastly, this study further proposed a frame size table for common bicycle types, which is helpful for the designer to design a bicycle.
Robust controller design for flexible structures using normalized coprime factor plant descriptions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, Ernest S.
1993-01-01
Stabilization is a fundamental requirement in the design of feedback compensators for flexible structures. The search for the largest neighborhood around a given design plant for which a single controller produces closed-loop stability can be formulated as an H(sub infinity) control problem. The use of normalized coprime factor plant descriptions, in which the plant perturbations are defined as additive modifications to the coprime factors, leads to a closed-form expression for the maximum neighborhood boundary allowing optimal and suboptimal H(sub infinity) compensators to be computed directly without the usual gamma iteration. A summary of the theory on robust stabilization using normalized coprime factor plant descriptions is presented, and the application of the theory to the computation of robustly stable compensators for the phase version of the Control-Structures Interaction (CSI) Evolutionary Model is described. Results from the application indicate that the suboptimal version of the theory has the potential of providing the bases for the computation of low-authority compensators that are robustly stable to expected variations in design model parameters and additive unmodeled dynamics.
The 'robust' capture-recapture design allows components of recruitment to be estimated
Pollock, K.H.; Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Lebreton, J.-D.; North, P.M.
1993-01-01
The 'robust' capture-recapture design (Pollock 1982) allows analyses which combine features of closed population model analyses (Otis et aI., 1978, White et aI., 1982) and open population model analyses (Pollock et aI., 1990). Estimators obtained under these analyses are more robust to unequal catch ability than traditional Jolly-Seber estimators (Pollock, 1982; Pollock et al., 1990; Kendall, 1992). The robust design also allows estimation of parameters for population size, survival rate and recruitment numbers for all periods of the study unlike under Jolly-Seber type models. The major advantage of this design that we emphasize in this short review paper is that it allows separate estimation of immigration and in situ recruitment numbers for a two or more age class model (Nichols and Pollock, 1990). This is contrasted with the age-dependent Jolly-Seber model (Pollock, 1981; Stokes, 1984; Pollock et L, 1990) which provides separate estimates for immigration and in situ recruitment for all but the first two age classes where there is at least a three age class model. The ability to achieve this separation of recruitment components can be very important to population modelers and wildlife managers as many species can only be separated into two easily identified age classes in the field.
Robust design of spot welds in automotive structures: A decision-making methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouisse, M.; Cogan, S.
2010-05-01
Automotive structures include thousands of spot welds whose design must allow the assembled vehicle to satisfy a wide variety of performance constraints including static, dynamic and crash criteria. The objective of a standard optimization strategy is to reduce the number of spot welds as much as possible while satisfying all the design objectives. However, a classical optimization of the spot weld distribution using an exhaustive search approach is simply not feasible due to the very high order of the design space and the subsequently prohibitive calculation costs. Moreover, even if this calculation could be done, the result would not necessarily be very informative with respect to the design robustness to manufacturing uncertainties (location of welds and defective welds) and to the degradation of spot welds due to fatigue effects over the lifetime of the vehicle. In this paper, a decision-making methodology is presented which allows some aspects of the robustness issues to be integrated into the spot weld design process. The starting point is a given distribution of spot welds on the structure, which is based on both engineering know-how and preliminary critical numerical results, in particular criteria such as crash behavior. An over-populated spot weld distribution is then built in order to satisfy the remaining design criteria, such as static torsion angle and modal behavior. Then, an efficient optimization procedure based on energy considerations is used to eliminate redundant spot welds while preserving as far as possible the nominal structural behavior. The resulting sub-optimal solution is then used to provide a decision indicator for defining effective quality control procedures (e.g. visual post-assembly inspection of a small number of critical spot welds) as well as designing redundancy into critical zones. The final part of the paper is related to comparing the robustness of competing designs. Some decision-making indicators are presented to help the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Okello, Nickens N.
1995-07-01
A robust constant false alarm rate (CFAR) distributed detection system that operates in heavy clutter with unknown distribution is presented. The system is designed to provide CFARness under clutter power fluctuations and robustness under unknown clutter and noise distributions. The system is also designed to operate successfully under unbalanced power distributions among sensors, and exhibits fault-tolerance in the presence of sensor power fluctuations. The test statistic at each sensor is a robust (in terms of signal-to-noise ratio distribution across sensors) CFAR t-statistic. In addition to the primary binary decisions, confidence levels are generated with each decision and used in the fusion logic to robustify the fusion performance and eliminate weaknesses of the Boolean fusion logic. The test statistic and the fusion logic are analyzed theoretically for Weibull and lognormal clutter. The theoretical performance is compared against Monte-Carlo simulations that verify that the system exhibits the desired characteristics of CFARness, robustness, insensitivity to power fluctuations, and fault- tolerance. The system is tested with experimental target-in-clear and target-in-clutter data. The experimental performance agrees with the theoretically predicted behavior when the target is visible by all three radars. When the target is not visible in two out of the three radars, due to a possible undetected misalignment, the fusion performance is compromised. Robustification of the fusion performance against unpredictable and undetectable degradation of data quality in the majority of the sensors is then achieved using geometric filtering. Geometrical filtering is accomplished by using the Hough transform and additional information in the fusion design about the shape of the target trajectory(ies).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faller, Lisa-Marie; Zangl, Hubert; Leitzke, Juliana P.
2016-11-01
In the design of measurement systems we face the fact that parameters are subject to (measurement-) uncertainties. Additionally, components may behave entirely different from what is specified, which is then considered a fault. Consequently, both uncertainty as well as probability of failure should be considered in education on robust design and reliability. In this paper we present a teaching concept based on hardware fault injection using a simple level sensor system as an example. Learning objectives are faults, errors, failures, false alarms versus misses as well as advantages and disadvantages of redundancy.
LQG/LTR Design of a Robust Flight Controller for the STOL F-15.
1985-12-01
BUREAU OF STANDARDSI 963-A IA ’uOF LQG/LTR DESIGN OF ROBSTFLIGHT CONTROLLERFOR THE STOL F-15 THESIS Gregory L. Gross Captain, USAF DT IC ~E.ECTEM...fpuic~ rt~t, ftrbuo 8:6 2 1.2 AFIT/GAE/ENG/85D-1 S LQG/LTR DESIGN OF A ROBUST FLIGHT CONTROLLER FOR THE STOL F-15 THESIS Gregory L. Gross Captain, USAF...FOR THE STOL F-I5 THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University in Partial
Joelsson, Daniel; Moravec, Phil; Troutman, Matthew; Pigeon, Joseph; DePhillips, Pete
2008-08-20
Transferring manual ELISAs to automated platforms requires optimizing the assays for each particular robotic platform. These optimization experiments are often time consuming and difficult to perform using a traditional one-factor-at-a-time strategy. In this manuscript we describe the development of an automated process using statistical design of experiments (DOE) to quickly optimize immunoassays for precision and robustness on the Tecan EVO liquid handler. By using fractional factorials and a split-plot design, five incubation time variables and four reagent concentration variables can be optimized in a short period of time.
Pfister, A.; Goossen, C.; Coogler, K.; Gorgemans, J.
2012-07-01
Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require existing and new nuclear power plants to conduct plant assessments to demonstrate the unit's ability to withstand external hazards. The events that occurred at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi nuclear power station demonstrated the importance of designing a nuclear power plant with the ability to protect the plant against extreme external hazards. The innovative design of the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant provides unparalleled protection against catastrophic external events which can lead to extensive infrastructure damage and place the plant in an extended abnormal situation. The AP1000 plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. The plant's compact safety related footprint and protection provided by its robust nuclear island structures prevent significant damage to systems, structures, and components required to safely shutdown the plant and maintain core and spent fuel pool cooling and containment integrity following extreme external events. The AP1000 nuclear power plant has been extensively analyzed and reviewed to demonstrate that it's nuclear island design and plant layout provide protection against both design basis and extreme beyond design basis external hazards such as extreme seismic events, external flooding that exceeds the maximum probable flood limit, and malicious aircraft impact. The AP1000 nuclear power plant uses fail safe passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems (such as AC power, component cooling water, service water, compressed air or HVAC). The plant has been designed to protect systems, structures, and components critical to placing the reactor in a safe shutdown condition within the steel containment vessel
On Robustness of Non-Inferiority Clinical Trial Designs against Bias, Variability, and Non-Constancy
Liu, Qing; Li, Yulan; Odem-Davis, Katherine
2014-01-01
The regulatory guidelines on non-inferiority trials emphasize constancy not only in the treatment effect over time but also in the trial design, clinical practice, and quality of the trial conduct and execution. In practice, the constancy assumption is generally impossible to justify; often there are clear reasons to expect a loss of efficacy over time. There are also concerns about the inherent and publication bias in the historical data, and various sources of selection bias in the non-inferiority trial design. Thus, a conservative non-inferiority margin is often considered. However, different non-inferiority margin approaches are largely evaluated under the assumption of constancy and absence of bias, and therefore, controversies arise and are unresolved on the necessary degree of conservativeness. We develop a framework to quantify the robustness of any non-inferiority margin approach against inherent and publication bias in historical data, selection bias in trial design, non-constancy in reference effects. We introduce a consistency principle to address variability in the historical data. We control across-trial conditional error rates given a final non-inferiority trial design over a design specific robust range for reference effects. Following a conditionality principle, we provide a theoretical justification of the framework and the conditions for controlling across-trial unconditional type 1 error rates. We raise the issue of inherent bias in historical data with an illustrative example. PMID:24918326
Schmitter, Sebastian; Wu, Xiaoping; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François
2015-11-01
Two-spoke parallel transmission (pTX) radiofrequency (RF) pulses have been demonstrated in cardiac MRI at 7T. However, current pulse designs rely on a single set of B1(+)/B0 maps that may not be valid for subsequent scans acquired at another phase of the respiration cycle because of organ displacement. Such mismatches may yield severe excitation profile degradation. B1(+)/B0 maps were obtained, using 16 transmit channels at 7T, at three breath-hold positions: exhale, half-inhale, and inhale. Standard and robust RF pulses were designed using maps obtained at exhale only, and at multiple respiratory positions, respectively. Excitation patterns were analyzed for all positions using Bloch simulations. Flip-angle homogeneity was compared in vivo in cardiac CINE acquisitions. Standard one- and two-spoke pTX RF pulses are sensitive to breath-hold position, primarily due to B1(+) alterations, with high dependency on excitation trajectory for two spokes. In vivo excitation inhomogeneity varied from nRMSE = 8.2% (exhale) up to 32.5% (inhale) with the standard design; much more stable results were obtained with the robust design with nRMSE = 9.1% (exhale) and 10.6% (inhale). A new pTX RF pulse design robust against respiration induced variations of B1(+)/B0 maps is demonstrated and is expected to have a positive impact on cardiac MRI in breath-hold, free-breathing, and real-time acquisitions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.
Evolutionary algorithms applied to reliable communication network design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesmachnow, Sergio; Cancela, Hector; Alba, Enrique
2007-10-01
Several evolutionary algorithms (EAs) applied to a wide class of communication network design problems modelled under the generalized Steiner problem (GSP) are evaluated. In order to provide a fault-tolerant design, a solution to this problem consists of a preset number of independent paths linking each pair of potentially communicating terminal nodes. This usually requires considering intermediate non-terminal nodes (Steiner nodes), which are used to ensure path redundancy, while trying to minimize the overall cost. The GSP is an NP-hard problem for which few algorithms have been proposed. This article presents a comparative study of pure and hybrid EAs applied to the GSP, codified over MALLBA, a general purpose library for combinatorial optimization. The algorithms were tested on several GSPs, and asset efficient numerical results are reported for both serial and distributed models of the evaluated algorithms.
Robust SDRE filter design for nonlinear uncertain systems with an H∞ performance criterion.
Beikzadeh, Hossein; Taghirad, Hamid D
2012-01-01
In order to remedy the effects of modeling uncertainty, measurement noise and input disturbance on the performance of the standard state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) filter, a new robust H(∞) SDRE filter design is developed in this paper. Based on the infinity-norm minimization criterion, the proposed filter effectively estimates the states of nonlinear uncertain system exposed to unknown disturbance inputs. Moreover, by assuming a mild Lipschitz condition on the chosen state-dependent coefficient form, fulfillment of a modified H(∞) performance index is guaranteed in the proposed filter. The effectiveness of the robust SDRE filter is demonstrated through numerical simulations where it brilliantly outperforms the conventional SDRE filter in presence of model uncertainties, disturbance and measurement noise, in terms of estimation error and region of convergence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.
2004-01-01
A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.
Design of Robust PI Controllers and their Application to a Nonlinear Electronic System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matušů, Radek; Vaneková, Katarína; Prokop, Roman; Bakošová, Monika
2010-01-01
The principal aim of the paper is to present a possible approach to the design of simple Proportional-Integral (PI) robust controllers and subsequently to demonstrate their applicability during control of a laboratory model with uncertain parameters through the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) SIMATIC S7-300 by Siemens Company. The proposed and utilized synthesis consists of two steps. The former one is determination of controller parameters area, which ensures the robustly stable control loop and is based on computing/plotting the stability boundary locus while the latter one lies in the final choice of the controller itself relying on algebraic techniques. The basic theoretical parts are followed by laboratory experiments in which the 3rd order nonlinear electronic model has been successfully controlled in various working points.
An Incentivized Capstone Design Team Applying the System Engineering Process
2015-01-02
Original Fast Ascender Design The next solution was to simulate the Atlas APA – 5 Lightweight Powered Ascender (Figure 28) using the SP-CW Winch...Figure 28 - Atlas APA - 5 Figure 29 - SP - CW Winch 3.6 Carrying and Organizing Gear Subassembly Purpose: The gear subassembly is...operates the machine using the jog button while the other manually applies pressure on the axial yarns and checks to make sure the braid is correctly
Designing Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways using Many-Objective Robust Decision Making
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn
2017-04-01
Dealing with climate risks in water management requires confronting a wide variety of deeply uncertain factors, while navigating a many dimensional space of trade-offs amongst objectives. There is an emerging body of literature on supporting this type of decision problem, under the label of decision making under deep uncertainty. Two approaches within this literature are Many-Objective Robust Decision Making, and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. In recent work, these approaches have been compared. One of the main conclusions of this comparison was that they are highly complementary. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making is a model based decision support approach, while Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is primarily a conceptual framework for the design of flexible strategies that can be adapted over time in response to how the future is actually unfolding. In this research we explore this complementarity in more detail. Specifically, we demonstrate how Many-Objective Robust Decision Making can be used to design adaptation pathways. We demonstrate this combined approach using a water management problem, in the Netherlands. The water level of Lake IJselmeer, the main fresh water resource of the Netherlands, is currently managed through discharge by gravity. Due to climate change, this won't be possible in the future, unless water levels are changed. Changing the water level has undesirable flood risk and spatial planning consequences. The challenge is to find promising adaptation pathways that balance objectives related to fresh water supply, flood risk, and spatial issues, while accounting for uncertain climatic and land use change. We conclude that the combination of Many-Objective Robust Decision Making and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is particularly suited for dealing with deeply uncertain climate risks.
Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Silva, Ricardo J S; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Mota, José P B
2015-11-10
A simple, yet efficient, two-column simulated moving-bed (2CSMB) process for purifying adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is presented and validated experimentally, and a general procedure for its robust design under parameter uncertainty is described. The pilot-scale run yielded a virus recovery of 86 percent and DNA and HCP clearances of 90 and 89 percent, respectively, without any fine tuning of the operating parameters. This performance compares very favorably against that of single-column batch chromatography for the same volume of size-exclusion resin. To improve the robustness of the 2CSMB-SEC process the best set of operating parameters is selected only among candidate solutions that are robust feasible, that is, remain feasible for all parameter perturbations within their uncertainty intervals. This robust approach to optimal design replaces the nominal problem by a worst case problem. Computational tractability is ensured by formulating the robust design problem with only the vertices of the uncertainty region that have the worst effect on the product purity and recovery. The robust design is exemplified on the case where the column volume and interparticle porosity are subject to uncertainty. As expected, to increase the robustness of the 2CSMB-SEC process it is necessary to reduce its productivity and increase its solvent consumption. Nevertheless, the design solution given by our robust approach is the least detrimental of all feasible operating conditions for the 2CSMB-SEC process.
Robust optimal design of experiments for model discrimination using an interactive software tool.
Stegmaier, Johannes; Skanda, Dominik; Lebiedz, Dirk
2013-01-01
Mathematical modeling of biochemical processes significantly contributes to a better understanding of biological functionality and underlying dynamic mechanisms. To support time consuming and costly lab experiments, kinetic reaction equations can be formulated as a set of ordinary differential equations, which in turn allows to simulate and compare hypothetical models in silico. To identify new experimental designs that are able to discriminate between investigated models, the approach used in this work solves a semi-infinite constrained nonlinear optimization problem using derivative based numerical algorithms. The method takes into account parameter variabilities such that new experimental designs are robust against parameter changes while maintaining the optimal potential to discriminate between hypothetical models. In this contribution we present a newly developed software tool that offers a convenient graphical user interface for model discrimination. We demonstrate the beneficial operation of the discrimination approach and the usefulness of the software tool by analyzing a realistic benchmark experiment from literature. New robust optimal designs that allow to discriminate between the investigated model hypotheses of the benchmark experiment are successfully calculated and yield promising results. The involved robustification approach provides maximally discriminating experiments for the worst parameter configurations, which can be used to estimate the meaningfulness of upcoming experiments. A major benefit of the graphical user interface is the ability to interactively investigate the model behavior and the clear arrangement of numerous variables. In addition to a brief theoretical overview of the discrimination method and the functionality of the software tool, the importance of robustness of experimental designs against parameter variability is demonstrated on a biochemical benchmark problem. The software is licensed under the GNU General Public License
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea
2017-04-01
Over the past years, many studies have looked at the planning and management of water infrastructure systems as two separate problems, where the dynamic component (i.e., operations) is considered only after the static problem (i.e., planning) has been resolved. Most recent works have started to investigate planning and management as two strictly interconnected faces of the same problem, where the former is solved jointly with the latter in an integrated framework. This brings advantages to multi-purpose water reservoir systems, where several optimal operating strategies exist and similar system designs might perform differently on the long term depending on the considered short-term operating tradeoff. An operationally robust design will be therefore one performing well across multiple feasible tradeoff operating policies. This work aims at studying the interaction between short-term operating strategies and their impacts on long-term structural decisions, when long-lived infrastructures with complex ecological impacts and multi-sectoral demands to satisfy (i.e., reservoirs) are considered. A parametric reinforcement learning approach is adopted for nesting optimization and control yielding to both optimal reservoir design and optimal operational policies for water reservoir systems. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic reservoir that must be designed and operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. At first, the optimal design capacity derived is compared with the 'no-fail storage' computed through Rippl, a capacity design function that returns the minimum storage needed to satisfy specified water demands without allowing supply shortfall. Then, the optimal reservoir volume is used to simulate the simplified case study under other operating objectives than water supply, in order to assess whether and how the system performance changes. The more robust the infrastructural design, the smaller the difference between the performances of
Design of the optocoupler applied to medical lighting systems.
Yang, Xibin; Lit, Rui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Xiong, Daxi
2012-12-01
A new type of optocoupler applied to medical lighting system is proposed, and the principle, Etendue and design process is introduced. With the help of Tracrpro, modeling and simulation of the optocoupler is conducted and the parameters are optimized. Analysis of factors affecting the energy coupling efficiency is done. With a view towards the development of Ultra High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes (UHB-LEDs), which play an important role a new sources of lighting in various biomedical devices, including those used in diagnosis and treatment, a series of simulations are executed and a variety of solutions are achieved. According to simulation results, the design target of coupling efficiency is achieved and the optical uniformity is also significantly improved. According to the result of theoretical analysis, verification experiments are designed and simulation results are verified. The optocoupler, which has simple structure, compact size and low cost, is suitable for applications in the field of low-cost medical domain.
Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan
2005-01-01
Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the
Robust optimal design of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance experiments for skin microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, J.; Raguin, L. G.
2010-10-01
Skin microcirculation plays an important role in several diseases including chronic venous insufficiency and diabetes. Magnetic resonance (MR) has the potential to provide quantitative information and a better penetration depth compared with other non-invasive methods such as laser Doppler flowmetry or optical coherence tomography. The continuous progress in hardware resulting in higher sensitivity must be coupled with advances in data acquisition schemes. In this article, we first introduce a physical model for quantifying skin microcirculation using diffusion-weighted MR (DWMR) based on an effective dispersion model for skin leading to a q-space model of the DWMR complex signal, and then design the corresponding robust optimal experiments. The resulting robust optimal DWMR protocols improve the worst-case quality of parameter estimates using nonlinear least squares optimization by exploiting available a priori knowledge of model parameters. Hence, our approach optimizes the gradient strengths and directions used in DWMR experiments to robustly minimize the size of the parameter estimation error with respect to model parameter uncertainty. Numerical evaluations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach as compared to conventional DWMR protocols.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badri, Pouya; Amini, Amir; Sojoodi, Mahdi
2016-12-01
This paper deals with designing a robust fixed-order non-fragile dynamic output feedback controller for active suspension system of a quarter-car, by means of convex optimization and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Our purpose is to design a low-order controller that keeps the desired design specifications besides the simplicity of the implementation. The proposed controller is capable of asymptotically stabilizing the closed-loop system and developing H∞ control, despite model uncertainties and nonlinear dynamics of the quarter-car as well as the norm bounded perturbations of controller parameters. Furthermore, controller parameters are prevented from taking very large and undesirable amounts through appropriate LMI constraints. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing it with similar works.
A Robust Variable Sampling Time BLDC Motor Control Design Based upon μ-Synthesis
Yen, Jia-Yush
2013-01-01
The variable sampling rate system is encountered in many applications. When the speed information is derived from the position marks along the trajectory, one would have a speed dependent sampling rate system. The conventional fixed or multisampling rate system theory may not work in these cases because the system dynamics include the uncertainties which resulted from the variable sampling rate. This paper derived a convenient expression for the speed dependent sampling rate system. The varying sampling rate effect is then translated into multiplicative uncertainties to the system. The design then uses the popular μ-synthesis process to achieve a robust performance controller design. The implementation on a BLDC motor demonstrates the effectiveness of the design approach. PMID:24327804
A robust variable sampling time BLDC motor control design based upon μ-synthesis.
Hung, Chung-Wen; Yen, Jia-Yush
2013-01-01
The variable sampling rate system is encountered in many applications. When the speed information is derived from the position marks along the trajectory, one would have a speed dependent sampling rate system. The conventional fixed or multisampling rate system theory may not work in these cases because the system dynamics include the uncertainties which resulted from the variable sampling rate. This paper derived a convenient expression for the speed dependent sampling rate system. The varying sampling rate effect is then translated into multiplicative uncertainties to the system. The design then uses the popular μ-synthesis process to achieve a robust performance controller design. The implementation on a BLDC motor demonstrates the effectiveness of the design approach.
A robust approach to optimal matched filter design in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon
2017-02-01
The matched filter was demonstrated to be a powerful yet efficient technique to enhance defect detection and imaging in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of coarse grain materials, provided that the filter was properly designed and optimized. In the literature, in order to accurately approximate the defect echoes, the design utilized the real excitation signals, which made it time consuming and less straightforward to implement in practice. In this paper, we present a more robust and flexible approach to optimal matched filter design using the simulated excitation signals, and the control parameters are chosen and optimized based on the real scenario of array transducer, transmitter-receiver system response, and the test sample, as a result, the filter response is optimized and depends on the material characteristics. Experiments on industrial samples are conducted and the results confirm the great benefits of the method.
Faircloth, Brant C; Glenn, Travis C
2012-01-01
Ligating adapters with unique synthetic oligonucleotide sequences (sequence tags) onto individual DNA samples before massively parallel sequencing is a popular and efficient way to obtain sequence data from many individual samples. Tag sequences should be numerous and sufficiently different to ensure sequencing, replication, and oligonucleotide synthesis errors do not cause tags to be unrecoverable or confused. However, many design approaches only protect against substitution errors during sequencing and extant tag sets contain too few tag sequences. We developed an open-source software package to validate sequence tags for conformance to two distance metrics and design sequence tags robust to indel and substitution errors. We use this software package to evaluate several commercial and non-commercial sequence tag sets, design several large sets (max(count) = 7,198) of edit metric sequence tags having different lengths and degrees of error correction, and integrate a subset of these edit metric tags to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and sequencing adapters. We validate a subset of these edit metric tagged PCR primers and sequencing adapters by sequencing on several platforms and subsequent comparison to commercially available alternatives. We find that several commonly used sets of sequence tags or design methodologies used to produce sequence tags do not meet the minimum expectations of their underlying distance metric, and we find that PCR primers and sequencing adapters incorporating edit metric sequence tags designed by our software package perform as well as their commercial counterparts. We suggest that researchers evaluate sequence tags prior to use or evaluate tags that they have been using. The sequence tag sets we design improve on extant sets because they are large, valid across the set, and robust to the suite of substitution, insertion, and deletion errors affecting massively parallel sequencing workflows on all currently used platforms.
Design and Implementation of Hybrid MAC-Based Robust Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shon, Taeshik; Kim, Eui-Jik; in, Jeongsik; Park, Yongsuk
In this letter, we propose an energy efficient hybrid architecture, the Hybrid MAC-based Robust Architecture (HMR), for wireless sensor networks focusing on MAC layer's scheduling and adaptive security suite as a security sub layer. A hybrid MAC layer with TDMA and CSMA scheduling is designed to prolong network life time, and the multi-channel TDMA based active/sleep scheduling is presented. We also present the security related functionalities needed to employ a flexible security suite to packets dynamically. Implementation and testbed of the proposed framework based on IEEE 802.15.4 are shown as well.
Multivariable output feedback robust adaptive tracking control design for a class of delayed systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirkin, Boris; Gutman, Per-Olof
2015-02-01
In this paper, we develop a model reference adaptive control scheme for a class of multi-input multi-output nonlinearly perturbed dynamic systems with unknown time-varying state delays which is also robust with respect to an external disturbance with unknown bounds. The output feedback adaptive control scheme uses feedback actions only, and thus does not require a direct measurement of the command or disturbance signals. A suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii type functional is introduced to design the adaptation algorithms and to prove stability.
Design and Implementation of a Robust Sensor Data Fusion System for Unknown Signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Younghun; Schmid, Thomas; Srivastava, Mani B.
In this work, we present a robust sensor fusion system for exploratory data collection, exploiting the spatial redundancy in sensor networks. Unlike prior work, our system design criteria considers a heterogeneous correlated noise model and packet loss, but no prior knowledge of signal characteristics. The former two assumptions are both common signal degradation sources in sensor networks, while the latter allows exploratory data collection of unknown signals. Through both a numerical example and an experimental study on a large military site, we show that our proposed system reduces the noise in an unknown signal by 58.2% better than a comparable algorithm.
Applying multimedia design principles enhances learning in medical education.
Issa, Nabil; Schuller, Mary; Santacaterina, Susan; Shapiro, Michael; Wang, Edward; Mayer, Richard E; DaRosa, Debra A
2011-08-01
The Association of American Medical Colleges' Institute for Improving Medical Education's report entitled 'Effective Use of Educational Technology' called on researchers to study the effectiveness of multimedia design principles. These principles were empirically shown to result in superior learning when used with college students in laboratory studies, but have not been studied with undergraduate medical students as participants. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used, in which the traditional-learning group received a lecture on shock using traditionally designed slides and the modified-design group received the same lecture using slides modified in accord with Mayer's principles of multimedia design. Participants included Year 3 medical students at a private, midwestern medical school progressing through their surgery clerkship during the academic year 2009-2010. The medical school divides students into four groups; each group attends the surgery clerkship during one of the four quarters of the academic year. Students in the second and third quarters served as the modified-design group (n=91) and students in the fourth-quarter clerkship served as the traditional-design group (n=39). Both student cohorts had similar levels of pre-lecture knowledge. Both groups showed significant improvements in retention (p<0.0001), transfer (p<0.05) and total scores (p<0.0001) between the pre- and post-tests. Repeated-measures anova analysis showed statistically significant greater improvements in retention (F=10.2, p=0.0016) and total scores (F=7.13, p=0.0081) for those students instructed using principles of multimedia design compared with those instructed using the traditional design. Multimedia design principles are easy to implement and result in improved short-term retention among medical students, but empirical research is still needed to determine how these principles affect transfer of learning. Further research on applying the principles of multimedia
Sontag, Eduardo; Davidsohn, Noah; Subramanian, Sairam; Purnick, Priscilla E. M.; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Weiss, Ron
2012-01-01
Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of β-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation) are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for ‘synthetic cellular heterogeneity’ that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism), demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a ‘phenotypic sensitivity analysis’ method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in isolation
Miller, Miles; Hafner, Marc; Sontag, Eduardo; Davidsohn, Noah; Subramanian, Sairam; Purnick, Priscilla E M; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Weiss, Ron
2012-01-01
Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of β-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation) are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism), demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in isolation, and
Flight control system design factors for applying automated testing techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.
1990-01-01
Automated validation of flight-critical embedded systems is being done at ARC Dryden Flight Research Facility. The automated testing techniques are being used to perform closed-loop validation of man-rated flight control systems. The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. Operationally applying automated testing techniques has accentuated flight control system features that either help or hinder the application of these techniques. The paper also discusses flight control system features which foster the use of automated testing techniques.
A New Differential Evolution Algorithm for Minimax Optimization in Robust Design.
Qiu, Xin; Xu, Jian-Xin; Xu, Yinghao; Tan, Kay Chen
2017-04-24
Minimax optimization, which is actively involved in numerous robust design problems, aims at pursuing the solutions with best worst-case performances. Although considerable research has been devoted to the development of minimax optimization algorithms, there still exist several fundamental limitations for existing approaches, e.g., restriction on problem types, excessively high computational cost, and low optimization efficiency. To address these issues, a minimax differential evolution algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, a novel bottom-boosting scheme enables the algorithm to identify the promising solutions in a reliable yet efficient manner. After that, a partial-regeneration strategy together with a new mutation operator contribute to an in-depth exploration over solution space. Finally, a proper integration of these newly proposed mechanisms leads to an algorithmic structure that can appropriately handle various types of problems. Empirical comparison with seven famous methods demonstrates the statistical superiority of the proposed algorithm. Successful applications in two open problems of robust design further validate the effectiveness of the new approach.
A robust approach to the design of an electromagnetic shield based on pyrolitic carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamberti, Patrizia; Kuzhir, Polina; Tucci, Vincenzo
2016-07-01
A robust approach to the design of an electromagnetic shield based on ultra-thin pyrolytic carbon (PyC, 5 ÷ 110 nm) films is proposed. Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations and Monte Carlo based tolerance analysis are used to show that even a deviation of 15 ÷ 20% from the nominal values of the most important design parameters of the PyC film, i.e. its thickness and sheet resistance, does not significantly affect the wanted level of electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE). The ranges of the SE show that EMI shield based on PyC film is characterized by a robust behavior with respect to the variation of such parameters due to the production processes. Therefore, since the PyC can be produced on a scalable basis, is chemically inert, significantly transparent in the visible range and can be deposited onto both metal and dielectric substrates, including flexible polymers, it may be appropriate for the highly demanding technological needs associated to the graphene revolution and can be developed from laboratory to mass production applications.
Porel, A.; Sanyal, Y.; Kundu, A.
2014-01-01
The aim of the present study was the development and validation of a simple, precise and specific reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 22 components present in different essential oils namely cinnamon bark oil, caraway oil and cardamom fruit oil. The chromatographic separation of all the components was achieved on Wakosil–II C18 column with mixture of 30 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.7), methanol and acetonitrile in different ratio as mobile phase in a ternary linear gradient mode. The calibration graphs plotted with five different concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R2 >0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the components. Effect on analytical responses by small and deliberate variation of critical factors was examined by robustness testing with Design of Experiment employing Central Composite Design and established that this method was robust. The method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the ingredients in commercial sample of essential oil. PMID:24799735
Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.
2001-01-01
Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)
Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.
2001-01-01
Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)
Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.
Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie
2016-12-01
Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.
Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change
Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821
Flight control design using a blend of modern nonlinear adaptive and robust techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaolong
In this dissertation, the modern control techniques of feedback linearization, mu synthesis, and neural network based adaptation are used to design novel control laws for two specific applications: F/A-18 flight control and reusable launch vehicle (an X-33 derivative) entry guidance. For both applications, the performance of the controllers is assessed. As a part of a NASA Dryden program to develop and flight test experimental controllers for an F/A-18 aircraft, a novel method of combining mu synthesis and feedback linearization is developed to design longitudinal and lateral-directional controllers. First of all, the open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of F/A-18 are investigated. The production F/A-18 controller as well as the control distribution mechanism are studied. The open-loop and closed-loop handling qualities of the F/A-18 are evaluated using low order transfer functions. Based on this information, a blend of robust mu synthesis and feedback linearization is used to design controllers for a low dynamic pressure envelope of flight conditions. For both the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes, a robust linear controller is designed for a trim point in the center of the envelope. Then by including terms to cancel kinematic nonlinearities and variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments over the flight envelope, a complete nonlinear controller is developed. In addition, to compensate for the model uncertainty, linearization error and variations between operating points, neural network based adaptation is added to the designed longitudinal controller. The nonlinear simulations, robustness and handling qualities analysis indicate that the performance is similar to or better than that for the production F/A-18 controllers. When the dynamic pressure is very low, the performance of both the experimental and the production flight controllers is degraded, but Level I handling qualities are still achieved. A new generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles
Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl
2012-01-01
The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies.
A new smooth robust control design for uncertain nonlinear systems with non-vanishing disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xian, Bin; Zhang, Yao
2016-06-01
In this paper, we consider the control problem for a general class of nonlinear system subjected to uncertain dynamics and non-varnishing disturbances. A smooth nonlinear control algorithm is presented to tackle these uncertainties and disturbances. The proposed control design employs the integral of a nonlinear sigmoid function to compensate the uncertain dynamics, and achieve a uniformly semi-global practical asymptotic stable tracking control of the system outputs. A novel Lyapunov-based stability analysis is employed to prove the convergence of the tracking errors and the stability of the closed-loop system. Numerical simulation results on a two-link robot manipulator are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed control algorithm comparing with the layer-boundary sliding mode controller and the robust of integration of sign of error control design. Furthermore, real-time experiment results for the attitude control of a quadrotor helicopter are also included to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hot, Aurélien; Weisser, Thomas; Cogan, Scott
2017-07-01
Uncertainty quantification is an integral part of the model validation process and is important to take into account during the design of mechanical systems. Sources of uncertainty are diverse but generally fall into two categories: aleatory due to random process and epistemic resulting from a lack of knowledge. This work focuses on the behavior of solar arrays in their stowed configuration. To avoid impacts during launch, snubbers are used to prestress the panels. Since the mechanical properties of the snubbers and the associated preload configurations are difficult to characterize precisely, an info-gap approach is proposed to investigate the influence of such uncertainties on design configurations obtained for different values of safety factors. This eventually allows to revise the typical values of these factors and to reevaluate them with respect to a targeted robustness level. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a simplified finite element model of a solar array.
Min, H. Jason; Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Laura M.
2008-01-01
Background The US government proposes pandemic influenza mitigation guidance that includes isolation and antiviral treatment of ill persons, voluntary household member quarantine and antiviral prophylaxis, social distancing of individuals, school closure, reduction of contacts at work, and prioritized vaccination. Is this the best strategy combination? Is choice of this strategy robust to pandemic uncertainties? What are critical enablers of community resilience? Methods and Findings We systematically simulate a broad range of pandemic scenarios and mitigation strategies using a networked, agent-based model of a community of explicit, multiply-overlapping social contact networks. We evaluate illness and societal burden for alterations in social networks, illness parameters, or intervention implementation. For a 1918-like pandemic, the best strategy minimizes illness to <1% of the population and combines network-based (e.g. school closure, social distancing of all with adults' contacts at work reduced), and case-based measures (e.g. antiviral treatment of the ill and prophylaxis of household members). We find choice of this best strategy robust to removal of enhanced transmission by the young, additional complexity in contact networks, and altered influenza natural history including extended viral shedding. Administration of age-group or randomly targeted 50% effective pre-pandemic vaccine with 7% population coverage (current US H5N1 vaccine stockpile) had minimal effect on outcomes. In order, mitigation success depends on rapid strategy implementation, high compliance, regional mitigation, and rigorous rescinding criteria; these are the critical enablers for community resilience. Conclusions Systematic evaluation of feasible, recommended pandemic influenza interventions generally confirms the US community mitigation guidance yields best strategy choices for pandemic planning that are robust to a wide range of uncertainty. The best strategy combines network- and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents a study on the optimization of systems with structured uncertainties, whose inputs and outputs can be exhaustively described in the probabilistic sense. By propagating the uncertainty from the input to the output in the space of the probability density functions and the moments, optimization problems that pursue performance, robustness and reliability based designs are studied. Be specifying the desired outputs in terms of desired probability density functions and then in terms of meaningful probabilistic indices, we settle a computationally viable framework for solving practical optimization problems. Applications to static optimization and stability control are used to illustrate the relevance of incorporating uncertainty in the early stages of the design. Several examples that admit a full probabilistic description of the output in terms of the design variables and the uncertain inputs are used to elucidate the main features of the generic problem and its solution. Extensions to problems that do not admit closed form solutions are also evaluated. Concrete evidence of the importance of using a consistent probabilistic formulation of the optimization problem and a meaningful probabilistic description of its solution is provided in the examples. In the stability control problem the analysis shows that standard deterministic approaches lead to designs with high probability of running into instability. The implementation of such designs can indeed have catastrophic consequences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanan, Lu; Qiushi, Li; Shaobin, Li
2016-12-01
This paper presents an integrated optimization design method in which uniform design, response surface methodology and genetic algorithm are used in combination. In detail, uniform design is used to select the experimental sampling points in the experimental domain and the system performance is evaluated by means of computational fluid dynamics to construct a database. After that, response surface methodology is employed to generate a surrogate mathematical model relating the optimization objective and the design variables. Subsequently, genetic algorithm is adopted and applied to the surrogate model to acquire the optimal solution in the case of satisfying some constraints. The method has been applied to the optimization design of an axisymmetric diverging duct, dealing with three design variables including one qualitative variable and two quantitative variables. The method of modeling and optimization design performs well in improving the duct aerodynamic performance and can be also applied to wider fields of mechanical design and seen as a useful tool for engineering designers, by reducing the design time and computation consumption.
Combining band recovery data and Pollock's robust design to model temporary and permanent emigration
Lindberg, M.S.; Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Anderson, M.G.
2001-01-01
Capture-recapture models are widely used to estimate demographic parameters of marked populations. Recently, this statistical theory has been extended to modeling dispersal of open populations. Multistate models can be used to estimate movement probabilities among subdivided populations if multiple sites are sampled. Frequently, however, sampling is limited to a single site. Models described by Burnham (1993, in Marked Individuals in the Study of Bird Populations, 199-213), which combined open population capture-recapture and band-recovery models, can be used to estimate permanent emigration when sampling is limited to a single population. Similarly, Kendall, Nichols, and Hines (1997, Ecology 51, 563-578) developed models to estimate temporary emigration under Pollock's (1982, Journal of Wildlife Management 46, 757-760) robust design. We describe a likelihood-based approach to simultaneously estimate temporary and permanent emigration when sampling is limited to a single population. We use a sampling design that combines the robust design and recoveries of individuals obtained immediately following each sampling period. We present a general form for our model where temporary emigration is a first-order Markov process, and we discuss more restrictive models. We illustrate these models with analysis of data on marked Canvasback ducks. Our analysis indicates that probability of permanent emigration for adult female Canvasbacks was 0.193 (SE = 0.082) and that birds that were present at the study area in year i - 1 had a higher probability of presence in year i than birds that were not present in year i - 1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dores, Delfim Zambujo Das
2005-11-01
Engineering research over the last few years has successfully demonstrated the potential of thrust vector control using counterflow at conditions up to Mach 2. Flow configurations that include the pitch vectoring of rectangular jets and multi-axis vector control in diamond and axisymmetric nozzle geometries have been studied. Although bistable (on-off) fluid-based control has been around for some time, the present counterflow thrust vector control is unique because proportional and continuous jet response can be achieved in the absence of moving parts, while avoiding jet attachment, which renders most fluidic approaches unacceptable for aircraft and missile control applications. However, before this study, research had been limited to open-loop studies of counterflow thrust vectoring. For practical implementation it was vital that the counterflow scheme be used in conjunction with feedback control. Hence, the focus of this research was to develop and experimentally demonstrate a feedback control design methodology for counterflow thrust vectoring. This research focused on 2-D (pitch) thrust vectoring and addresses four key modeling issues. The first issue is to determine the measured variable to be commanded since the thrust vector angle is not measurable in real time. The second related issue is to determine the static mapping from the thrust vector angle to this measured variable. The third issue is to determine the dynamic relationship between the measured variable and the thrust vector angle. The fourth issue is to develop dynamic models with uncertainty characterizations. The final and main goal was the design and implementation of robust controllers that yield closed-loop systems with fast response times, and avoid overshoot in order to aid in the avoidance of attachment. These controllers should be simple and easy to implement in real applications. Hence, PID design has been chosen. Robust control design is accomplished by using ℓ1 control theory in
Monks, K; Molnár, I; Rieger, H-J; Bogáti, B; Szabó, E
2012-04-06
Robust HPLC separations lead to fewer analysis failures and better method transfer as well as providing an assurance of quality. This work presents the systematic development of an optimal, robust, fast UHPLC method for the simultaneous assay of two APIs of an eye drop sample and their impurities, in accordance with Quality by Design principles. Chromatography software is employed to effectively generate design spaces (Method Operable Design Regions), which are subsequently employed to determine the final method conditions and to evaluate robustness prior to validation.
Data-Division-Specific Robustness and Power of Randomization Tests for ABAB Designs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manolov, Rumen; Solanas, Antonio; Bulte, Isis; Onghena, Patrick
2010-01-01
This study deals with the statistical properties of a randomization test applied to an ABAB design in cases where the desirable random assignment of the points of change in phase is not possible. To obtain information about each possible data division, the authors carried out a conditional Monte Carlo simulation with 100,000 samples for each…
Data-Division-Specific Robustness and Power of Randomization Tests for ABAB Designs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manolov, Rumen; Solanas, Antonio; Bulte, Isis; Onghena, Patrick
2010-01-01
This study deals with the statistical properties of a randomization test applied to an ABAB design in cases where the desirable random assignment of the points of change in phase is not possible. To obtain information about each possible data division, the authors carried out a conditional Monte Carlo simulation with 100,000 samples for each…
Design of Robust Adaptive Unbalance Response Controllers for Rotors with Magnetic Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knospe, Carl R.; Tamer, Samir M.; Fedigan, Stephen J.
1996-01-01
Experimental results have recently demonstrated that an adaptive open loop control strategy can be highly effective in the suppression of unbalance induced vibration on rotors supported in active magnetic bearings. This algorithm, however, relies upon a predetermined gain matrix. Typically, this matrix is determined by an optimal control formulation resulting in the choice of the pseudo-inverse of the nominal influence coefficient matrix as the gain matrix. This solution may result in problems with stability and performance robustness since the estimated influence coefficient matrix is not equal to the actual influence coefficient matrix. Recently, analysis tools have been developed to examine the robustness of this control algorithm with respect to structured uncertainty. Herein, these tools are extended to produce a design procedure for determining the adaptive law's gain matrix. The resulting control algorithm has a guaranteed convergence rate and steady state performance in spite of the uncertainty in the rotor system. Several examples are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its advantages over the standard optimal control formulation.
Silva, Marta M.; Rodrigues, Ana F.; Correia, Cláudia; Sousa, Marcos F.Q.; Brito, Catarina; Coroadinha, Ana S.
2015-01-01
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have an enormous potential as a source for cell replacement therapies, tissue engineering, and in vitro toxicology applications. The lack of standardized and robust bioprocesses for hESC expansion has hindered the application of hESCs and their derivatives in clinical settings. We developed a robust and well-characterized bioprocess for hESC expansion under fully defined conditions and explored the potential of transcriptomic and metabolomic tools for a more comprehensive assessment of culture system impact on cell proliferation, metabolism, and phenotype. Two different hESC lines (feeder-dependent and feeder-free lines) were efficiently expanded on xeno-free microcarriers in stirred culture systems. Both hESC lines maintained the expression of stemness markers such as Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-4, and TRA1-60 and the ability to spontaneously differentiate into the three germ layers. Whole-genome transcriptome profiling revealed a phenotypic convergence between both hESC lines along the expansion process in stirred-tank bioreactor cultures, providing strong evidence of the robustness of the cultivation process to homogenize cellular phenotype. Under low-oxygen tension, results showed metabolic rearrangement with upregulation of the glycolytic machinery favoring an anaerobic glycolysis Warburg-effect-like phenotype, with no evidence of hypoxic stress response, in contrast to two-dimensional culture. Overall, we report a standardized expansion bioprocess that can guarantee maximal product quality. Furthermore, the “omics” tools used provided relevant findings on the physiological and metabolic changes during hESC expansion in environmentally controlled stirred-tank bioreactors, which can contribute to improved scale-up production systems. Significance The clinical application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has been hindered by the lack of robust protocols able to sustain production of high cell numbers, as required for
Use of Taguchi design of experiments to optimize and increase robustness of preliminary designs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrasco, Hector R.
1992-12-01
The research performed this summer includes the completion of work begun last summer in support of the Air Launched Personnel Launch System parametric study, providing support on the development of the test matrices for the plume experiments in the Plume Model Investigation Team Project, and aiding in the conceptual design of a lunar habitat. After the conclusion of last years Summer Program, the Systems Definition Branch continued with the Air Launched Personnel Launch System (ALPLS) study by running three experiments defined by L27 Orthogonal Arrays. Although the data was evaluated during the academic year, the analysis of variance and the final project review were completed this summer. The Plume Model Investigation Team (PLUMMIT) was formed by the Engineering Directorate to develop a consensus position on plume impingement loads and to validate plume flowfield models. In order to obtain a large number of individual correlated data sets for model validation, a series of plume experiments was planned. A preliminary 'full factorial' test matrix indicated that 73,024 jet firings would be necessary to obtain all of the information requested. As this was approximately 100 times more firings than the scheduled use of Vacuum Chamber A would permit, considerable effort was needed to reduce the test matrix and optimize it with respect to the specific objectives of the program. Part of the First Lunar Outpost Project deals with Lunar Habitat. Requirements for the habitat include radiation protection, a safe haven for occasional solar flare storms, an airlock module as well as consumables to support 34 extra vehicular activities during a 45 day mission. The objective for the proposed work was to collaborate with the Habitat Team on the development and reusability of the Logistics Modules.
Internal Model-Based Robust Tracking Control Design for the MEMS Electromagnetic Micromirror.
Tan, Jiazheng; Sun, Weijie; Yeow, John T W
2017-05-26
The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately. The proposed controller relies little on the accuracy of the model. Further, the proposed controller is implemented, and its effectiveness is examined by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfying.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velhal, Sulbha Girish; Kulkarni, S. D.; Latpate, R. V.
2016-09-01
Among the different methods employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the biological method is most favorable and quite well established. In microorganisms, use of fungi in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has a greater advantage over other microbial mediators. In this study, intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus terrerus (Thom) MTCC632 was carried out. We observed that synthesis of silver nanoparticles depended on factors such as temperature, amount of biomass and concentration of silver ions in the reaction mixture. Hence, optimization of biosynthesis using these parameters was carried out using statistical tool `robust experimental design'. Size and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were determined using X-ray diffraction technique, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Nano-embedded cotton fabric was further prepared and studied for its antibacterial properties.
Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela
2017-04-12
When there are constraints on resources, an unreplicated factorial or fractional factorial design can allow efficient exploration of numerous factor and interaction effects. A half-normal plot is a common graphical tool used to compare the relative magnitude of effects and to identify important effects from these experiments when no estimate of error from the experiment is available. An alternative is to use a least absolute shrinkage and selection operation plot to examine the pattern of model selection terms from an experiment. We examine how both the half-normal and least absolute shrinkage and selection operation plots are impacted by the absencemore » of individual observations or an outlier, and the robustness of conclusions obtained from these 2 techniques for identifying important effects from factorial experiments. As a result, the methods are illustrated with 2 examples from the literature.« less
Robust constrained waveform design for MIMO radar with uncertain steering vectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xianxiang; Cui, Guolong; Piezzo, Marco; Iommelli, Salvatore; Kong, Lingjiang
2017-01-01
This paper considers the robust waveform design of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to enhance targets detection in the presence of signal-dependent interferences assuming the knowledge of steering vectors is imprecise. Specifically, resorting to semidefinite programming (SDP)-related technique, we first maximize the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) over uncertain region to optimize waveform covariance matrix forcing a uniform elemental power requirement. Then, based on least square (LS) approach, we devise the waveform accounting for constant modulus and similarity constraints by the obtained waveform covariance matrix using cyclic algorithm (CA). Finally, we assess the effectiveness of the proposed technique through numerical simulations in terms of non-uniform point-like clutter and uniform clutter.
The robust design for capture-recapture studies: analysis using program MARK
Kendall, W.L.; Field, Rebecca; Warren, Robert J.; Okarma, Henryk; Sievert, Paul R.
2001-01-01
Collecting capture-recapture data under Pollock?s robust design provides an additional source of information on capture probability that can be used to provide less biased and more efficient estimates of population dynamics parameters. In addition, it can be used to estimate the probability of being available for capture, which in some cases (e.g., breeding proportion) has ecological significance. This phenomenon can be modeled as a completely random process, Markovian, or with temporary trap dependence. Analysis of this type of data is one of the options in program MARK. By using MARK the relationship between parameters and covariates can be modeled, and various approaches to goodness of fit, model selection, and model averaging can be implemented.
Internal Model-Based Robust Tracking Control Design for the MEMS Electromagnetic Micromirror
Tan, Jiazheng; Sun, Weijie; Yeow, John T. W.
2017-01-01
The micromirror based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology is widely employed in different areas, such as scanning, imaging and optical switching. This paper studies the MEMS electromagnetic micromirror for scanning or imaging application. In these application scenarios, the micromirror is required to track the command sinusoidal signal, which can be converted to an output regulation problem theoretically. In this paper, based on the internal model principle, the output regulation problem is solved by designing a robust controller that is able to force the micromirror to track the command signal accurately. The proposed controller relies little on the accuracy of the model. Further, the proposed controller is implemented, and its effectiveness is examined by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed controller is satisfying. PMID:28587105
A methodology for designing robust multivariable nonlinear control systems. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grunberg, D. B.
1986-01-01
A new methodology is described for the design of nonlinear dynamic controllers for nonlinear multivariable systems providing guarantees of closed-loop stability, performance, and robustness. The methodology is an extension of the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian with Loop-Transfer-Recovery (LQG/LTR) methodology for linear systems, thus hinging upon the idea of constructing an approximate inverse operator for the plant. A major feature of the methodology is a unification of both the state-space and input-output formulations. In addition, new results on stability theory, nonlinear state estimation, and optimal nonlinear regulator theory are presented, including the guaranteed global properties of the extended Kalman filter and optimal nonlinear regulators.
Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.
1997-01-01
Statistical inference for capture-recapture studies of open animal populations typically relies on the assumption that all emigration from the studied population is permanent. However, there are many instances in which this assumption is unlikely to be met. We define two general models for the process of temporary emigration, completely random and Markovian. We then consider effects of these two types of temporary emigration on Jolly-Seber (Seber 1982) estimators and on estimators arising from the full-likelihood approach of Kendall et al. (1995) to robust design data. Capture-recapture data arising from Pollock's (1982) robust design provide the basis for obtaining unbiased estimates of demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration and for estimating the probability of temporary emigration. We present a likelihood-based approach to dealing with temporary emigration that permits estimation under different models of temporary emigration and yields tests for completely random and Markovian emigration. In addition, we use the relationship between capture probability estimates based on closed and open models under completely random temporary emigration to derive three ad hoc estimators for the probability of temporary emigration, two of which should be especially useful in situations where capture probabilities are heterogeneous among individual animals. Ad hoc and full-likelihood estimators are illustrated for small mammal capture-recapture data sets. We believe that these models and estimators will be useful for testing hypotheses about the process of temporary emigration, for estimating demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration, and for estimating probabilities of temporary emigration. These latter estimates are frequently of ecological interest as indicators of animal movement and, in some sampling situations, as direct estimates of breeding probabilities and proportions.
Hierarchical design of an electro-hydraulic actuator based on robust LPV methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Németh, Balázs; Varga, Balázs; Gáspár, Péter
2015-08-01
The paper proposes a hierarchical control design of an electro-hydraulic actuator, which is used to improve the roll stability of vehicles. The purpose of the control system is to generate a reference torque, which is required by the vehicle dynamic control. The control-oriented model of the actuator is formulated in two subsystems. The high-level hydromotor is described in a linear form, while the low-level spool valve is a polynomial system. These subsystems require different control strategies. At the high level, a linear parameter-varying control is used to guarantee performance specifications. At the low level, a control Lyapunov-function-based algorithm, which creates discrete control input values of the valve, is proposed. The interaction between the two subsystems is guaranteed by the spool displacement, which is control input at the high level and must be tracked at the low-level control. The spool displacement has physical constraints, which must also be incorporated into the control design. The robust design of the high-level control incorporates the imprecision of the low-level control as an uncertainty of the system.
Single- and Multidimensional Robustness Studies of the NIF Ignition Point Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, K. S.; Betti, R.; Chang, P. Y.; Nora, R.; Shvarts, D.; Fatenejad, M.
2009-11-01
A robustness study of the NIF ignition point-design target is carried out using hydrodynamically equivalent, all-DT direct-drive targets. The direct-drive targets have similar final mass, kinetic energy, implosion velocity, and adiabat of the indirect-drive point design. The direct-drive target has an equivalent one-dimensional ignition-threshold factor [ITF (1-D)] to the indirect-drive point design. A 1-D sensitivity study of ignition is carried out for various hot-spot conditions, gas pressures, and preheat levels. The hot-spot conditions are varied by changing the thermal conductivity. Two-dimensional studies were performed relating the yield over clean (YOC) of a hydro-equivalent THD surrogate target to fusion gain in the DT ignition target. From these studies is found the minimum THD YOC required to demonstrate ignition in the DT campaign. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC02-ER54789 and DE-FC52-08NA28302.
High Fidelity Springback Simulation and Compensation with Robust Forming Process Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Intaek; Carleer, B. D.; Haage, S.
2011-08-01
For the efficient virtual try-out loop, geometric change and bending angles have been compensated during last 20 years. This approach was based on some restrictions like pure bending, plane strain state and isotropic behavior. For more complex forming processes, this has been applied without reviewing this limitation. Analytical force consideration to reduce the amount of springback is also another idea to compensate geometrical displacement adjustment efficiently. In other view, the springback prediction accuracy is also one major topic with various material model developments. All these topics are absolutely of high importance in order to increase springback accuracy and effective compensation to help reduce the trials efforts. But the focus should not only be on these advances issues since the basics must be right as well. Based on our long term experiences in simulation and several project outcomes covered 20 different parts during last 2 years, we will present our experience and investigations in order to geometrically compensate forming process. It is emphasized that we did not just simulate the springback but the compensated surfaces where brought into the real tools. So, the experiences are not only based on numerical analysis but of all this part a physical tryout has been performed as well. The experiences are consolidated in a set of principles of robust springback compensation. These principles will be illustrated and explained at an example part, a B-pillar upper reinforcement. Indeed, it is can be seen that that compensation is a straight forward activity. However, our experiences have shown that it is only a straight forward activity in case certain `boundary conditions are fulfilled. We will discuss some of this boundary condition using the B-pillar upper example. Through this study, basic requirements for successful springabck compensation, the full scope of simulation range, set-up the nominal springback simulation and robustness of forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Kazuhiro; Obayashi, Masanao; Kuremoto, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kunikazu
We propose a robust control system which has robustness for disturbance and can deal with a nonlinear system with partially unknown structure by fusing reinforcement learning and robust control theory. First, we solved an optimal control problem without using unknown part of functions of the system, using neural network and the repetition learning of reinforcement learning algorithm. Second, we built the robust reinforcement learning control system which permits uncertainty and has robustness for disturbance by fusing the idea of H infinity control theory with above system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo, M.; Becerra, V. M.; Hadjiloucas, S.
2014-03-01
Biological models of an apoptotic process are studied using models describing a system of differential equations derived from reaction kinetics information. The mathematical model is re-formulated in a state-space robust control theory framework where parametric and dynamic uncertainty can be modelled to account for variations naturally occurring in biological processes. We propose to handle the nonlinearities using neural networks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Wei; Tsui, Kwok-Leung; Allen, Janet K.; Mistree, Farrokh
1994-01-01
In this paper we introduce a comprehensive and rigorous robust design procedure to overcome some limitations of the current approaches. A comprehensive approach is general enough to model the two major types of robust design applications, namely, robust design associated with the minimization of the deviation of performance caused by the deviation of noise factors (uncontrollable parameters), and robust design due to the minimization of the deviation of performance caused by the deviation of control factors (design variables). We achieve mathematical rigor by using, as a foundation, principles from the design of experiments and optimization. Specifically, we integrate the Response Surface Method (RSM) with the compromise Decision Support Problem (DSP). Our approach is especially useful for design problems where there are no closed-form solutions and system performance is computationally expensive to evaluate. The design of a solar powered irrigation system is used as an example. Our focus in this paper is on illustrating our approach rather than on the results per se.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Ji; Yuan, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihuan; Li, Yuanzheng
2017-02-01
The safety and stability of hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS) in hydropower plants become increasingly important since the rapid development and the broad application of hydro energy technology. In this paper, a novel mathematical model of Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank based on a few state-space equations is introduced to study the dynamic behaviors of the HTRS system, where the existence of possible unstable oscillations of this model is studied extensively and presented in the forms of the bifurcation diagram, time waveform plot, phase trajectories, and power spectrum. To eliminate these undesirable behaviors, a specified fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed. In this hybrid controller, the sliding mode control law makes full use of the proposed model to guarantee the robust control in the presence of system uncertainties, while the fuzzy system is applied to approximate the proper gains of the switching control in sliding mode technique to reduce the chattering effect, and particle swarm optimization is developed to search the optimal gains of the controller. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the designed controller, and the results show that the performances of the nonlinear HTRS system assisted with the proposed controller is much better than that with the commonly used optimal PID controller.
Parametric Design within an Atomic Design Process (ADP) applied to Spacecraft Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos Alarcon, Rafael
This thesis describes research investigating the development of a model for the initial design of complex systems, with application to spacecraft design. The design model is called an atomic design process (ADP) and contains four fundamental stages (specifications, configurations, trade studies and drivers) that constitute the minimum steps of an iterative process that helps designers find a feasible solution. Representative design models from the aerospace industry are reviewed and are compared with the proposed model. The design model's relevance, adaptability and scalability features are evaluated through a focused design task exercise with two undergraduate teams and a long-term design exercise performed by a spacecraft payload team. The implementation of the design model is explained in the context in which the model has been researched. This context includes the organization (a student-run research laboratory at the University of Michigan), its culture (academically oriented), members that have used the design model and the description of the information technology elements meant to provide support while using the model. This support includes a custom-built information management system that consolidates relevant information that is currently being used in the organization. The information is divided in three domains: personnel development history, technical knowledge base and laboratory operations. The focused study with teams making use of the design model to complete an engineering design exercise consists of the conceptual design of an autonomous system, including a carrier and a deployable lander that form the payload of a rocket with an altitude range of over 1000 meters. Detailed results from each of the stages of the design process while implementing the model are presented, and an increase in awareness of good design practices in the teams while using the model are explained. A long-term investigation using the design model consisting of the
Generation After Next Propulsor Research: Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arend, David J.; Tillman, Gregory; O'Brien, Walter F.
2012-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United Technologies Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic and State University have contracted to pursue multi-disciplinary research into boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsors for generation after next environmentally responsible subsonic fixed wing aircraft. This Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems project first conducted a high-level vehicle system study based on a large commercial transport class hybrid wing body aircraft, which determined that a 3 to 5 percent reduction in fuel burn could be achieved over a 7,500 nanometer mission. Both pylon-mounted baseline and BLI propulsion systems were based on a low-pressure-ratio fan (1.35) in an ultra-high-bypass ratio engine (16), consistent with the next generation of advanced commercial turbofans. An optimized, coupled BLI inlet and fan system was subsequently designed to achieve performance targets identified in the system study. The resulting system possesses an inlet with total pressure losses less than 0.5%, and a fan stage with an efficiency debit of less than 1.5 percent relative to the pylon-mounted, clean-inflow baseline. The subject research project has identified tools and methodologies necessary for the design of next-generation, highly-airframe-integrated propulsion systems. These tools will be validated in future large-scale testing of the BLI inlet / fan system in NASA's 8 foot x 6 foot transonic wind tunnel. In addition, fan unsteady response to screen-generated total pressure distortion is being characterized experimentally in a JT15D engine test rig. These data will document engine sensitivities to distortion magnitude and spatial distribution, providing early insight into key physical processes that will control BLI propulsor design.
Temperature switch PCR (TSP): Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs.
Tabone, Tania; Mather, Diane E; Hayden, Matthew J
2009-12-03
Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP), a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.
Object Design: Twelve Concepts to Know, Understand and Apply
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marschalek, Douglas G.
2005-01-01
Some art teachers say that art is all around us when they actually mean that "design" is all around us. The everyday objects we view, purchase, and use are designed. Some are well designed, others are poorly designed, and many are in-between. Teachers need to develop learning strategies that enable their students to understand how design is part…
Object Design: Twelve Concepts to Know, Understand and Apply
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marschalek, Douglas G.
2005-01-01
Some art teachers say that art is all around us when they actually mean that "design" is all around us. The everyday objects we view, purchase, and use are designed. Some are well designed, others are poorly designed, and many are in-between. Teachers need to develop learning strategies that enable their students to understand how design is part…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whyte, D. G.; Bonoli, P.; Barnard, H.; Haakonsen, C.; Hartwig, Z.; Kasten, C.; Palmer, T.; Sung, C.; Sutherland, D.; Bromberg, L.; Mangiarotti, F.; Goh, J.; Sorbom, B.; Sierchio, J.; Ball, J.; Greenwald, M.; Olynyk, G.; Minervini, J.
2012-10-01
Two of the greatest challenges to tokamak reactors are 1) large single-unit cost of each reactor's construction and 2) their susceptibility to disruptions from operation at or above operational limits. We present an attractive tokamak reactor design that substantially lessens these issues by exploiting recent advancements in superconductor (SC) tapes allowing peak field on SC coil > 20 Tesla. A R˜3.3 m, B˜9.2 T, ˜ 500 MW fusion power tokamak provides high fusion gain while avoiding all disruptive operating boundaries (no-wall beta, kink, and density limits). Robust steady-state core scenarios are obtained by exploiting the synergy of high field, compact size and ideal efficiency current drive using high-field side launch of Lower Hybrid waves. The design features a completely modular replacement of internal solid components enabled by the demountability of the coils/tapes and the use of an immersion liquid blanket. This modularity opens up the possibility of using the device as a nuclear component test facility.
Bai, Mingsian R; Tung, Chih-Wei; Lee, Chih-Chung
2005-05-01
An optimal design technique of loudspeaker arrays for cross-talk cancellation with application in three-dimensional audio is presented. An array focusing scheme is presented on the basis of the inverse propagation that relates the transducers to a set of chosen control points. Tikhonov regularization is employed in designing the inverse cancellation filters. An extensive analysis is conducted to explore the cancellation performance and robustness issues. To best compromise the performance and robustness of the cross-talk cancellation system, optimal configurations are obtained with the aid of the Taguchi method and the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed systems are further justified by physical as well as subjective experiments. The results reveal that large number of loudspeakers, closely spaced configuration, and optimal control point design all contribute to the robustness of cross-talk cancellation systems (CCS) against head misalignment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Postma, Barry Dirk
2005-01-01
This thesis discusses application of a robust constrained optimization approach to control design to develop an Auto Balancing Controller (ABC) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants. The Performance objective is to minimize the translational response of the centrifuge rotor due to a fixed worst-case rotor imbalance. The robustness constraints are posed with respect to parametric uncertainty in the plant. The proposed approach to control design allows for both of these objectives to be handled within the framework of constrained optimization. The resulting controller achieves acceptable performance and robustness characteristics.
1985-12-01
schemes involving more general perturbations. Also Desoer et al [8] have established conditions for stability robustness of linear multivarible...address regulators with quadratic performance indices. Desoer et al [8] have established conditions for stability robust- ness of linear...p. 45-46. 8. Desoer , C.A., Callier, F.M. and Chan, W.S., "Robustness of Stability Conditions for Linear Time Invariant Feedback Systems," IEEE
Design, synthesis, and characterization of ultra-thin robust films with molecular control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohli, Punit
The work reported in this dissertation has demonstrated new ways to design, synthesize and characterize robust thin films with controlled molecular dimensions. The central point of this work is to provide the fundamental knowledge and understanding of layered-material assemblies to advance the field. We are especially interested in controlled layer-by-layer multilayer assemblies in which the properties of these films such as film thickness, linear and non-linear optical response, electrical and electronic behavior, and porosity can be controlled. Ultimately, these ultra-thin films may find applications in the areas of controlled released delivery systems, nonlinear optical devices, chemical interfaces and interfacial sciences, separation science, nanoelectronics, biocatalysis, and biotechnology. There are some requirements for successful films and coatings. For example, the films must be stable in their surrounding environment in which are used. Furthermore, the control of the properties of the films is also an important issue. Keeping these requirements in mind, we used maleimide-vinyl ether (MVE) copolymers to deposit coatings where we have ability to change the pendant groups on the maleimide monomers. We used MVE polymers because they form strictly alternating polymers and their structure and properties are well studied by others. They also possess excellent thermal and chemical resistant. Since changing the pendant groups on the succinimide groups gives us a great ability to control various properties makes MVE copolymers ideal candidates. We have used zirconium phosphonate (ZP) interlayer linking chemistry which is robust and allows for exquisite control over layered material assembly. Thus the use of polymer chains and ZP complexation led to quasi-2-dimensional films where we can control the properties of each layer of the films. These films are found to be robust to both chemical and thermal treatments. Although these coatings may find uses in various
Design and application of robust rf pulses for toroid cavity NMR spectroscopy.
Skinner, Thomas E; Braun, Michael; Woelk, Klaus; Gershenzon, Naum I; Glaser, Steffen J
2011-04-01
We present robust radio frequency (rf) pulses that tolerate a factor of six inhomogeneity in the B₁ field, significantly enhancing the potential of toroid cavity resonators for NMR spectroscopic applications. Both point-to-point (PP) and unitary rotation (UR) pulses were optimized for excitation, inversion, and refocusing using the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm based on optimal control theory. In addition, the optimized parameterization (OP) algorithm applied to the adiabatic BIR-4 UR pulse scheme enabled ultra-short (50 μs) pulses with acceptable performance compared to standard implementations. OP also discovered a new class of non-adiabatic pulse shapes with improved performance within the BIR-4 framework. However, none of the OP-BIR4 pulses are competitive with the more generally optimized UR pulses. The advantages of the new pulses are demonstrated in simulations and experiments. In particular, the DQF COSY result presented here represents the first implementation of 2D NMR spectroscopy using a toroid probe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Ming; Tang, Shao-Qiang
2009-11-01
We propose an efficient and robust way to design absorbing boundary conditions in atomistic computations. An optimal discrete boundary condition is obtained by minimizing a functional of a reflection coefficient integral over a range of wave numbers. The minimization is performed with respect to a set of wave numbers, at which transparent absorption is reached. Compared with the optimization with respect to the boundary condition coefficients suggested by E and Huang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 133501], we reduce considerably the number of independent variables and the computing cost. We further demonstrate with numerical examples that both the optimization and the wave absorption are more robust in the proposed design.
SU-E-T-266: Proton PBS Plan Design and Robustness Evaluation for Head and Neck Cancers
Liang, X; Tang, S; Zhai, H; Kirk, M; Kalbasi, A; Lin, A; Ahn, P; Tochner, Z; McDonough, J; Both, S
2014-06-01
Purpose: To describe a newly designed proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) planning technique for radiotherapy of patients with bilateral oropharyngeal cancer, and to assess plan robustness. Methods: We treated 10 patients with proton PBS plans using 2 posterior oblique field (2F PBS) comprised of 80% single-field uniform dose (SFUD) and 20% intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). All patients underwent weekly CT scans for verification. Using dosimetric indicators for both targets and organs at risk (OARs), we quantitatively compared initial plans and verification plans using student t-tests. We created a second proton PBS plan for each patient using 2 posterior oblique plus 1 anterior field comprised of 100% SFUD (3F PBS). We assessed plan robustness for both proton plan groups, as well as a photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan group by comparing initial and verification plans. Results: The 2F PBS plans were not robust in target coverage. D98% for clinical target volume (CTV) degraded from 100% to 96% on average, with maximum change Δ D98% of −24%. Two patients were moved to photon VMAT treatment due to insufficient CTV coverage on verification plans. Plan robustness was especially weak in the low-anterior neck. The 3F PBS plans, however, demonstrated robust target coverage, which was comparable to the VMAT photon plan group. Doses to oral cavity were lower in the Proton PBS plans compared to photon VMAT plans due to no lower exit dose to the oral cavity. Conclusion: Proton PBS plans using 2 posterior oblique fields were not robust for CTV coverage, due to variable positioning of redundant soft tissue in the posterior neck. We designed 3-field proton PBS plans using an anterior field to avoid long heterogeneous paths in the low neck. These 3-field proton PBS plans had significantly improved plan robustness, and the robustness is comparable to VMAT photon plans.
Reduced-Order Blade Mistuning Analysis Techniques Developed for the Robust Design of Engine Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, James B.
2004-01-01
The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo-Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using eigenfrequency curve veerings to identify "danger zones" in the operating conditions--ranges of rotational speeds and engine orders in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued. Several methods will be investigated, including the use of intentional mistuning patterns to mitigate the harmful effects of random mistuning, and the modification of disk stiffness to avoid reaching critical values of interblade coupling in the desired operating range. Recent research progress is summarized in the following paragraphs. First, significant progress was made in the development of the component mode mistuning (CMM) and static mode compensation (SMC) methods for reduced-order modeling of mistuned bladed disks (see the following figure). The CMM method has been formalized and extended to allow a general treatment of mistuning. In addition, CMM allows individual mode
Design of diode-pumped solid-state laser applied in laser fuses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, FangLin; Zhang, YiFei
2005-04-01
The function of laser fuzes which are parts of certain weapon systems is to control the blasting height of warheads. Commonly the battle environment these weapon systems are confronted with is very complicated and the tactical demand for them is very rigor, so laser fuzes equipped for them must fulfill some special technical requirements, such as high repetition rate, long ranging scope, etc. Lasers are one of key components which constitute fuze systems. Whether designed lasers are advanced and reasonable will determine whether laser fuzes can be applied in these weapon systems or not. So we adopt the novel technology of diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) to design lasers applied in fuzes. Nd:YVO4 crystal is accepted as gain material, which has wide absorption band and large absorption efficient for 808nm pumping laser. As warhead's temperature is usually very high, wider absorption band is beneficial to reduce the influence of temperature fluctuation. Passive Q-switching with Cr4+:YAG is used to reduce the power consumption farthest. Design the end-pumped microchip sandwich-architecture to decrease lasers' size and increase the reliability, further it's advantageous to produce short pulses and increase peak power of lasers. The designed DPSSL features small size and weight, high repetition rate and peak power, robustness, etc. The repetition rate is expected to reach 1 kHz; peak power will exceed 300 kW; pulse width is only 5 ns; and divergence angle of laser beams is less than 5 mrad. So DPSSL is suitable for laser fuzes as an emitter.
Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. PMID:23983640
Lee, Ji Min; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
A robust control scheme is proposed for the position control of the electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) when considering hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities. To reduce overshoot due to a saturation of electric motor and to realize robustness against load disturbance and lumped system uncertainties such as varying parameters and modeling error, this paper proposes an adaptive antiwindup PID sliding mode scheme as a robust position controller for the EHA system. An optimal PID controller and an optimal anti-windup PID controller are also designed to compare control performance. An EHA prototype is developed, carrying out system modeling and parameter identification in designing the position controller. The simply identified linear model serves as the basis for the design of the position controllers, while the robustness of the control systems is compared by experiments. The adaptive anti-windup PID sliding mode controller has been found to have the desired performance and become robust against hardware saturation, load disturbance, and lumped system uncertainties and nonlinearities.
Robust System and Cross-Layer Design for H.264/AVC-Based Wireless Video Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stockhammer, Thomas
2006-12-01
H.264/AVC is an essential component in emerging wireless video applications, thanks to its excellent compression efficiency and network-friendly design. However, a video coding standard itself is only a single component within a complex system. Its effectiveness strongly depends on the appropriate configuration of encoders, decoders, as well as transport and network features. The applicability of different features depends on application constraints, the availability and quality of feedback and cross-layer information, and the accessible quality-of-service (QoS) tools in modern wireless networks. We discuss robust integration of H.264/AVC in wireless real-time video applications. Specifically, the use of different coding and transport-related features for different application types is elaborated. Guidelines for the selection of appropriate coding tools, encoder and decoder settings, as well as transport and network parameters are provided and justified. Selected simulation results show the superiority of lower layer error control over application layer error control and video error resilience features.
A less field-intensive robust design for estimating demographic parameters with Mark-resight data
McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.
2009-01-01
The robust design has become popular among animal ecologists as a means for estimating population abundance and related demographic parameters with mark-recapture data. However, two drawbacks of traditional mark-recapture are financial cost and repeated disturbance to animals. Mark-resight methodology may in many circumstances be a less expensive and less invasive alternative to mark-recapture, but the models developed to date for these data have overwhelmingly concentrated only on the estimation of abundance. Here we introduce a mark-resight model analogous to that used in mark-recapture for the simultaneous estimation of abundance, apparent survival, and transition probabilities between observable and unobservable states. The model may be implemented using standard statistical computing software, but it has also been incorporated into the freeware package Program MARK. We illustrate the use of our model with mainland New Zealand Robin (Petroica australis) data collected to ascertain whether this methodology may be a reliable alternative for monitoring endangered populations of a closely related species inhabiting the Chatham Islands. We found this method to be a viable alternative to traditional mark-recapture when cost or disturbance to species is of particular concern in long-term population monitoring programs. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.
The Study of an Optimal Robust Design and Adjustable Ordering Strategies in the HSCM
Liao, Hung-Chang; Chen, Yan-Kwang; Wang, Ya-huei
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to establish a hospital supply chain management (HSCM) model in which three kinds of drugs in the same class and with the same indications were used in creating an optimal robust design and adjustable ordering strategies to deal with a drug shortage. The main assumption was that although each doctor has his/her own prescription pattern, when there is a shortage of a particular drug, the doctor may choose a similar drug with the same indications as a replacement. Four steps were used to construct and analyze the HSCM model. The computation technology used included a simulation, a neural network (NN), and a genetic algorithm (GA). The mathematical methods of the simulation and the NN were used to construct a relationship between the factor levels and performance, while the GA was used to obtain the optimal combination of factor levels from the NN. A sensitivity analysis was also used to assess the change in the optimal factor levels. Adjustable ordering strategies were also developed to prevent drug shortages. PMID:26451162
Quantifying disturbance resistance in an ecologically dominant species: a robust design analysis.
Plavsic, Militsa Justine
2011-08-01
Disturbance is now recognized as a key ecosystem process but few studies have examined its indirect effects on individuals in a population or its relationship to ecological dominance in a community. Using an ecologically dominant small mammal population in experimentally burned habitat as a model, I empirically tested the effect of disturbance on survival, abundance and fecundity and investigated whether recently burned habitat is a population sink. I also examined the effect of fire on community diversity, particularly how fire influenced dominance by bushveld gerbils Tatera leucogaster (Peters 1852). Live trapping in the first year post-fire yielded a total of 4,774 captures of 1,076 individual bushveld gerbils in a tropical savanna in southern Africa. The robust design allowed for an investigation of the effects of fire, sex and temporal variation on survival while controlling for potential differences in detection and temporary emigration. Although there were fewer individuals in burned savanna during the first 6 months post-fire, their apparent monthly survival was not significantly lowered compared with the control, with males and females surviving equally well. Fecundity, represented by proportion of females lactating, was unaffected by fire and, overall, recently burned habitat does not appear to be sink habitat. The disturbance resistance exhibited by this species is likely a contributing factor to its ecological dominance in the area, which is subject to relatively frequent fires. Results of this study highlight the need to consider disturbance regimes when evaluating patterns of species richness and evenness in an ecosystem.
Design of a robust underwater acoustic communication system over multipath fading channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jangeun; Shim, Taebo
2012-11-01
Due to the surface and bottom constraints of the underwater acoustic channel (UAC) in shallow waters, multipath fading occurs and causes degradation of the signal for the UAC system. To overcome these problems, a robust underwater acoustic communication system was designed over multipath fading channels by employing both decision feedback equalization with the RLS algorithm and convolutional coding with interleaving+shuffling block data sequence. The dual use of these two methods simultaneously can reduce the intersymbol interference (ISI) and the adjacent bit and burst errors. The system will retransmit the same signal if the system fails to estimate the channel due to severe multipath fading. To verify the performance of the system, the transmission of an image was tested using a 524,288bit gray-scaled image through the multipath fading channel. The test results showed that the number of bit errors was reduced from 86,824 to 5,106 when the reference SNR was 12 dB.
Rational Design of a Polymer with Robust Efficacy for Intracellular Protein and Peptide Delivery.
Chang, Hong; Lv, Jia; Gao, Xin; Wang, Xing; Wang, Hui; Chen, Hui; He, Xu; Li, Lei; Cheng, Yiyun
2017-03-08
The efficient delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs such as proteins and peptides into the cytosol of target cells poses substantial challenges owing to their large size and susceptibility to degradation. Current protein delivery vehicles have limitations such as the need for protein modification, insufficient delivery of large-size proteins or small peptides, and loss of protein function after the delivery. Here, we adopted a rational approach to design a polymer with robust efficacy for intracellular protein and peptide delivery. The polymer is composed of a dendrimer scaffold, a hydrophobic membrane-disruptive region, and a multivalent protein binding surface. It allows efficient protein/peptide binding, endocytosis, and endosomal disruption and is capable of efficiently delivering various biomacromolecules including bovine serum albumin, R-phycoerythrin, p53, saporin, β-galactosidase, and peptides into the cytosol of living cells. Transduction of apoptotic proteins and peptides successfully induces apoptosis in cancer cells, suggesting that the activities of proteins and peptides are maintained during the delivery. This technology represents an efficient and useful tool for intracellular protein and peptide delivery and has broad applicability for basic research and clinical applications.
Younkin, James R; Rowe, Nathan C; Garner, James R
2012-01-01
An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended
Applying Quality Function Deployment in Industrial Design Curriculum Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long; Lin, Yi-Zhi; Tseng, Chien-Feng
2013-01-01
Industrial design is a discipline that combines multiple professional fields. Enterprise demands for industrial design competencies also change over time; thus, the curriculum of industrial design education should be compatible with the current demands of the industry. However, scientific approaches have not been previously employed to plan…
Applying Quality Function Deployment in Industrial Design Curriculum Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long; Lin, Yi-Zhi; Tseng, Chien-Feng
2013-01-01
Industrial design is a discipline that combines multiple professional fields. Enterprise demands for industrial design competencies also change over time; thus, the curriculum of industrial design education should be compatible with the current demands of the industry. However, scientific approaches have not been previously employed to plan…
Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare
2007-01-01
Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…
Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare
2007-01-01
Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…
Uncertainty in hyperthermia treatment planning: the need for robust system design.
de Greef, M; Kok, H P; Correia, D; Borsboom, P-P; Bel, A; Crezee, J
2011-06-07
Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is an important tool to improve the quality of hyperthermia treatment. It is a practical way of designing new hyperthermia systems and can be used to optimize the phase and amplitude settings to achieve optimal heating. One of the main challenges to be dealt with however is the uncertainty in the modeling parameters. The role of dielectric and combined dielectric and perfusion uncertainty on optimization was investigated by means of HTP for six different systems: the 70 MHz AMC-4 (AMC: Academic Medical Center) and AMC-8 system, a 130 MHz version of the AMC-8 system, a three-ring AMC-12 system operating at 130 MHz, the BSD SigmaEye applicator and a dipole applicator with three rings each containing six dipole pairs operated at 150 MHz. For five patients with cervix uteri carcinoma, a patient model was created based on a hyperthermia planning CT. Variation of tissue parameters resulted in 16 dielectric models for every patient. In addition, four thermal models were created to study the combined effect of perfusion and dielectric uncertainty. The impact of dielectric uncertainty on optimization is found to be clearly dependent on the number of channels and increased from 0.5 °C for four channels to 1.5 °C for the 18-channel system. As a result, the potential gain relative to the AMC-4 system for the 70 MHz AMC-8 system was found to be largely compromised, while for the remaining systems a robust improvement in T(90) was observed. The dipole applicator showed the best target heating for two out of five patients, while for three others heating efficacy was comparable to the 130 MHz AMC-12 system or the 130 MHz AMC-8 system (one patient). Considering the increase in complexity when the number of channels is increased from 12 to 18, the AMC-12 system is considered as a good compromise between heating efficacy and robustness while still being a manageable heating system in clinical practice.
Carmena, Jose M.
2016-01-01
Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain’s behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user’s motor intention during CLDA—a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to
Uncertainty in hyperthermia treatment planning: the need for robust system design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Greef, M.; Kok, H. P.; Correia, D.; Borsboom, P.-P.; Bel, A.; Crezee, J.
2011-06-01
Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is an important tool to improve the quality of hyperthermia treatment. It is a practical way of designing new hyperthermia systems and can be used to optimize the phase and amplitude settings to achieve optimal heating. One of the main challenges to be dealt with however is the uncertainty in the modeling parameters. The role of dielectric and combined dielectric and perfusion uncertainty on optimization was investigated by means of HTP for six different systems: the 70 MHz AMC-4 (AMC: Academic Medical Center) and AMC-8 system, a 130 MHz version of the AMC-8 system, a three-ring AMC-12 system operating at 130 MHz, the BSD SigmaEye applicator and a dipole applicator with three rings each containing six dipole pairs operated at 150 MHz. For five patients with cervix uteri carcinoma, a patient model was created based on a hyperthermia planning CT. Variation of tissue parameters resulted in 16 dielectric models for every patient. In addition, four thermal models were created to study the combined effect of perfusion and dielectric uncertainty. The impact of dielectric uncertainty on optimization is found to be clearly dependent on the number of channels and increased from 0.5 °C for four channels to 1.5 °C for the 18-channel system. As a result, the potential gain relative to the AMC-4 system for the 70 MHz AMC-8 system was found to be largely compromised, while for the remaining systems a robust improvement in T90 was observed. The dipole applicator showed the best target heating for two out of five patients, while for three others heating efficacy was comparable to the 130 MHz AMC-12 system or the 130 MHz AMC-8 system (one patient). Considering the increase in complexity when the number of channels is increased from 12 to 18, the AMC-12 system is considered as a good compromise between heating efficacy and robustness while still being a manageable heating system in clinical practice.
Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M
2016-04-01
Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Gary; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Moore, Ryan T.; Lakin, Jason; Vargas, Manett; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Avila, Juan Eugenio Hernandez; Avila, Mauricio Hernandez; Llamas, Hector Hernandez
2007-01-01
We develop an approach to conducting large-scale randomized public policy experiments intended to be more robust to the political interventions that have ruined some or all parts of many similar previous efforts. Our proposed design is insulated from selection bias in some circumstances even if we lose observations; our inferences can still be…
Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...
Our objective was to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. Of particular focus to this research project is whether an environmentally relevant mixture of four PFAAs with long half-liv...
Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...
Our objective was to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. Of particular focus to this research project is whether an environmentally relevant mixture of four PFAAs with long half-liv...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Gary; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Moore, Ryan T.; Lakin, Jason; Vargas, Manett; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Avila, Juan Eugenio Hernandez; Avila, Mauricio Hernandez; Llamas, Hector Hernandez
2007-01-01
We develop an approach to conducting large-scale randomized public policy experiments intended to be more robust to the political interventions that have ruined some or all parts of many similar previous efforts. Our proposed design is insulated from selection bias in some circumstances even if we lose observations; our inferences can still be…
Chen, Bor-Sen; Chen, Po-Wei
2010-01-01
In the past decade, the development of synthetic gene networks has attracted much attention from many researchers. In particular, the genetic oscillator known as the repressilator has become a paradigm for how to design a gene network with a desired dynamic behaviour. Even though the repressilator can show oscillatory properties in its protein concentrations, their amplitudes, frequencies and phases are perturbed by the kinetic parametric fluctuations (intrinsic molecular perturbations) and external disturbances (extrinsic molecular noises) of the environment. Therefore, how to design a robust genetic oscillator with desired amplitude, frequency and phase under stochastic intrinsic and extrinsic molecular noises is an important topic for synthetic biology. In this study, based on periodic reference signals with arbitrary amplitudes, frequencies and phases, a robust synthetic gene oscillator is designed by tuning the kinetic parameters of repressilator via a genetic algorithm (GA) so that the protein concentrations can track the desired periodic reference signals under intrinsic and extrinsic molecular noises. GA is a stochastic optimization algorithm which was inspired by the mechanisms of natural selection and evolution genetics. By the proposed GA-based design algorithm, the repressilator can track the desired amplitude, frequency and phase of oscillation under intrinsic and extrinsic noises through the optimization of fitness function. The proposed GA-based design algorithm can mimic the natural selection in evolutionary process to select adequate kinetic parameters for robust genetic oscillators. The design method can be easily extended to any synthetic gene network design with prescribed behaviours. PMID:20535234
Applying a User-Centered Approach to Interactive Visualisation Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wassink, Ingo; Kulyk, Olga; van Dijk, Betsy; van der Veer, Gerrit; van der Vet, Paul
Analysing users in their context of work and finding out how and why they use different information resources is essential to provide interactive visualisation systems that match their goals and needs. Designers should actively involve the intended users throughout the whole process. This chapter presents a user-centered approach for the design of interactive visualisation systems. We describe three phases of the iterative visualisation design process: the early envisioning phase, the global specification phase, and the detailed specification phase. The whole design cycle is repeated until some criterion of success is reached. We discuss different techniques for the analysis of users, their tasks and domain. Subsequently, the design of prototypes and evaluation methods in visualisation practice are presented. Finally, we discuss the practical challenges in design and evaluation of collaborative visualisation environments. Our own case studies and those of others are used throughout the whole chapter to illustrate various approaches.
Siuly, Siuly; Li, Yan
2015-04-01
The aim of this study is to design a robust feature extraction method for the classification of multiclass EEG signals to determine valuable features from original epileptic EEG data and to discover an efficient classifier for the features. An optimum allocation based principal component analysis method named as OA_PCA is developed for the feature extraction from epileptic EEG data. As EEG data from different channels are correlated and huge in number, the optimum allocation (OA) scheme is used to discover the most favorable representatives with minimal variability from a large number of EEG data. The principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to construct uncorrelated components and also to reduce the dimensionality of the OA samples for an enhanced recognition. In order to choose a suitable classifier for the OA_PCA feature set, four popular classifiers: least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), naive bayes classifier (NB), k-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are applied and tested. Furthermore, our approaches are also compared with some recent research work. The experimental results show that the LS-SVM_1v1 approach yields 100% of the overall classification accuracy (OCA), improving up to 7.10% over the existing algorithms for the epileptic EEG data. The major finding of this research is that the LS-SVM with the 1v1 system is the best technique for the OA_PCA features in the epileptic EEG signal classification that outperforms all the recent reported existing methods in the literature.
Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond
2017-01-01
In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also
Approach for Input Uncertainty Propagation and Robust Design in CFD Using Sensitivity Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putko, Michele M.; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, Perry A.; Green, Lawrence L.
2002-01-01
An implementation of the approximate statistical moment method for uncertainty propagation and robust optimization for quasi 3-D Euler CFD code is presented. Given uncertainties in statistically independent, random, normally distributed input variables, first- and second-order statistical moment procedures are performed to approximate the uncertainty in the CFD output. Efficient calculation of both first- and second-order sensitivity derivatives is required. In order to assess the validity of the approximations, these moments are compared with statistical moments generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainties in the CFD input variables are also incorporated into a robust optimization procedure. For this optimization, statistical moments involving first-order sensitivity derivatives appear in the objective function and system constraints. Second-order sensitivity derivatives are used in a gradient-based search to successfully execute a robust optimization. The approximate methods used throughout the analyses are found to be valid when considering robustness about input parameter mean values.
Robust reliable control design for networked control system with sampling communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakthivel, R.; Santra, Srimanta; Mathiyalagan, K.; Su, Hongye
2015-12-01
In this article, the problem of robust exponential stability and reliable stabilisation for a class of continuous-time networked control systems (NCSs) with a sample-data controller and unknown time-varying sampling rate is considered. The analysis is based on average dwell-time, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. The delay-dependent criteria are developed for ensuring the robust exponential stability of the considered NCSs. The obtained conditions are formulated in terms of LMIs that can easily be solved by using standard software packages. Furthermore, the result is extended to study the robust stabilisation for NCS with parameter uncertainties. A state feedback controller is constructed in terms of the solution to a set of LMIs, which guarantee the robust exponential stabilisation of NCS and the controller. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
Applying Universal Design for Learning to Instructional Lesson Planning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Sung, Andrew N.
2013-01-01
Universal Design for Learning is a framework for developing inclusive instructional lesson plans. The effects of introducing Universal Design for Learning Principles and Guidelines in a university teacher education program with pre-service and practicing teachers were explored in a mixed methods approach. The results indicate that the study…
Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
2016-06-01
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Identifying a robust design space for glycosylation during monoclonal antibody production.
St Amand, Melissa M; Hayes, James; Radhakrishnan, Devesh; Fernandez, Janice; Meyer, Bill; Robinson, Anne S; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A
2016-09-01
Glycan distribution has been identified as a "critical quality attribute" for many biopharmaceutical products, including monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, determining quantitatively how process variables affect glycan distribution is important during process development to control antibody glycosylation. In this work, we assess the effect of six bioreactor process variables on the glycan distribution of an IgG1 produced in CHO cells. Our analysis established that glucose and glutamine media concentration, temperature, pH, agitation rate, and dissolved oxygen (DO) had small but significant effects on the relative percentage of various glycans. In addition, we assessed glycosylation enzyme transcript levels and intracellular sugar nucleotide concentrations within the CHO cells to provide a biological explanation for the observed effects on glycan distributions. From these results we identified a robust operating region, or design space, in which the IgG1 could be produced with a consistent glycan distribution. Since our results indicate that perturbations to bioreactor process variables will cause only small (even if significant) changes to the relative percentage of various glycans (<±1.5%)-changes that are too small to affect the bioactivity and efficacy of this IgG1 significantly-it follows that the glycan distribution obtained will be consistent even with relatively large variations in bioreactor process variables. However, for therapeutic proteins where bioactivity and efficacy are affected by small changes to the relative percentage of glycans, the same analysis would identify the manipulated variables capable of changing glycan distribution, and hence can be used to implement a glycosylation control strategy. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1149-1162, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Managing Uncertainty in Water Infrastructure Design Using Info-gap Robustness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irias, X.; Cicala, D.
2013-12-01
Info-gap theory, a tool for managing deep uncertainty, can be of tremendous value for design of water systems in areas of high seismic risk. Maintaining reliable water service in those areas is subject to significant uncertainties including uncertainty of seismic loading, unknown seismic performance of infrastructure, uncertain costs of innovative seismic-resistant construction, unknown costs to repair seismic damage, unknown societal impacts from downtime, and more. Practically every major earthquake that strikes a population center reveals additional knowledge gaps. In situations of such deep uncertainty, info-gap can offer advantages over traditional approaches, whether deterministic approaches that use empirical safety factors to address the uncertainties involved, or probabilistic methods that attempt to characterize various stochastic properties and target a compromise between cost and reliability. The reason is that in situations of deep uncertainty, it may not be clear what safety factor would be reasonable, or even if any safety factor is sufficient to address the uncertainties, and we may lack data to characterize the situation probabilistically. Info-gap is a tool that recognizes up front that our best projection of the future may be wrong. Thus, rather than seeking a solution that is optimal for that projection, info-gap seeks a solution that works reasonably well for all plausible conditions. In other words, info-gap seeks solutions that are robust in the face of uncertainty. Info-gap has been used successfully across a wide range of disciplines including climate change science, project management, and structural design. EBMUD is currently using info-gap to help it gain insight into possible solutions for providing reliable water service to an island community within its service area. The island, containing about 75,000 customers, is particularly vulnerable to water supply disruption from earthquakes, since it has negligible water storage and is
Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
O’Neal, T. Derek
2016-01-01
A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. This paper discusses the impacts of the DMLS fabrication technique on the design of the turbopump and lessons learned during DMLS hardware fabrication and material testing.
Digital geometry processing applied in customized medical implant design.
Xiao-Feng, Zhu; Cheng-Tao, Wang
2005-01-01
Standard medical implants are used in most implantation cases, but in some special cases, only those implants conforming to individual patient's skeletal morphology can serve the purpose. This paper proposes a new approach to design and fabricate customized exact-fit medical implants. With a real surgical case as the example, technical design details are presented; and two algorithms are given respectively for segmentation based on object features and triangular mesh defragmentation.
Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.
2009-01-01
Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…
Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.
2009-01-01
Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi Movahed, Kamran; Zhang, Zhi-Hai
2015-09-01
Demand and lead time uncertainties have significant effects on supply chain behaviour. In this paper, we present a single-product three-level multi-period supply chain with uncertain demands and lead times by using robust techniques to study the managerial insights of the supply chain inventory system under uncertainty. We formulate this problem as a robust mixed-integer linear program with minimised expected cost and total cost variation to determine the optimal (s, S) values of the inventory parameters. Several numerical studies are performed to investigate the supply chain behaviour. Useful guidelines for the design of a robust supply chain are also provided. Results show that the order variance and the expected cost in a supply chain significantly increase when the manufacturer's review period is an integer ratio of the distributor's and the retailer's review periods.
Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.
1984-01-01
The robust design of Pollock (1982) was used to estimate parameters of a Maryland M. pennsylvanicus population. Closed model tests provided strong evidence of heterogeneity of capture probability, and model M eta (Otis et al., 1978) was selected as the most appropriate model for estimating population size. The Jolly-Seber model goodness-of-fit test indicated rejection of the model for this data set, and the M eta estimates of population size were all higher than the Jolly-Seber estimates. Both of these results are consistent with the evidence of heterogeneous capture probabilities. The authors thus used M eta estimates of population size, Jolly-Seber estimates of survival rate, and estimates of birth-immigration based on a combination of the population size and survival rate estimates. Advantages of the robust design estimates for certain inference procedures are discussed, and the design is recommended for future small mammal capture-recapture studies directed at estimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngamroo, Issarachai
2010-12-01
It is well known that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to quickly exchange active and reactive power with the power system. The SMES is expected to be the smart storage device for power system stabilization. Although the stabilizing effect of SMES is significant, the SMES is quite costly. Particularly, the superconducting magnetic coil size which is the essence of the SMES, must be carefully selected. On the other hand, various generation and load changes, unpredictable network structure, etc., cause system uncertainties. The power controller of SMES which is designed without considering such uncertainties, may not tolerate and loses stabilizing effect. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes the new design of robust SMES controller taking coil size and system uncertainties into account. The structure of the active and reactive power controllers is the 1st-order lead-lag compensator. No need for the exact mathematical representation, system uncertainties are modeled by the inverse input multiplicative perturbation. Without the difficulty of the trade-off of damping performance and robustness, the optimization problem of control parameters is formulated. The particle swarm optimization is used for solving the optimal parameters at each coil size automatically. Based on the normalized integral square error index and the consideration of coil current constraint, the robust SMES with the smallest coil size which still provides the satisfactory stabilizing effect, can be achieved. Simulation studies in the two-area four-machine interconnected power system show the superior robustness of the proposed robust SMES with the smallest coil size under various operating conditions over the non-robust SMES with large coil size.
Use of a qualitative methodological scaffolding process to design robust interprofessional studies.
Wener, Pamela; Woodgate, Roberta L
2013-07-01
Increasingly, researchers are using qualitative methodology to study interprofessional collaboration (IPC). With this increase in use, there seems to be an appreciation for how qualitative studies allow us to understand the unique individual or group experience in more detail and form a basis for policy change and innovative interventions. Furthermore, there is an increased understanding of the potential of studying new or emerging phenomena qualitatively to inform further large-scale studies. Although there is a current trend toward greater acceptance of the value of qualitative studies describing the experiences of IPC, these studies are mostly descriptive in nature. Applying a process suggested by Crotty (1998) may encourage researchers to consider the value in situating research questions within a broader theoretical framework that will inform the overall research approach including methodology and methods. This paper describes the application of a process to a research project and then illustrates how this process encouraged iterative cycles of thinking and doing. The authors describe each step of the process, shares decision-making points, as well as suggests an additional step to the process. Applying this approach to selecting data collection methods may serve to guide and support the qualitative researcher in creating a well-designed study approach.
Robustness Evaluation of H2 and H(Infinity) Control Theory as Applied to a Transport Aircraft
1990-03-01
2.1) where AeCmxn and A is the complex conjugate transpose of the matrix A. The largest singular value, *,max is denoted 0. The smallest singular value...roll modes. The spiral and roll modes have real I roots and the Dutch roll is a complex conjugate pair. The roots for the three modes for Flight...34 V. Anlyis 5.1 General A02roach The goal of this thesis was to design one controller that meets all the design requirements for all flight
Applying a user centered design methodology in a clinical context.
Kashfi, Hajar
2010-01-01
A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is an interactive application that is used to facilitate the process of decisionmaking in a clinical context. Developing a usable CDSS is a challenging process; mostly because of the complex nature of domain knowledge and the context of use of those systems. This paper describes how a user centered design (UCD) approach can be used in a clinical context for developing a CDSS. In our effort, a design-based research methodology has been used. The outcomes of this work are as follow; a customized UCD approach is suggested that combines UCD and openEHR. Moreover, the GUI developed in the design phase and the result of the GUI evaluation is briefly presented.
Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.
2016-12-01
Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.
Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
O'Neal, Derek
2016-01-01
A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.
Ergonomics and design: its principles applied in the industry.
Tavares, Ademario Santos; Silva, Francisco Nilson da
2012-01-01
Industrial Design encompasses both product development and optimization of production process. In this sense, Ergonomics plays a fundamental role, because its principles, methods and techniques can help operators to carry out their tasks most successfully. A case study carried out in an industry shows that the interaction among Design, Production Engineering and Materials Engineering departments may improve some aspects concerned security, comfort, efficiency and performance. In this process, Ergonomics had shown to be of essential importance to strategic decision making to the improvement of production section.
Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model
Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A.; Orr, Barron J.; Gimblett, Randy H.; Chalfoun, Nader V.; Guertin, David P.; Marsh, Stuart E.
2017-01-01
Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities. PMID:28098785
Applying Minimalist Design Principles to the Problem of Computer Anxiety.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reznich, Christopher B.
1996-01-01
Minimalist design principles were used to test whether instructional intervention could decrease computer anxiety of subjects learning basic word-processing skills. Subjects were pre- and posttested on anxiety during each session. Findings indicated that the method as well as increased computer use decreased anxiety. (Author/AEF)
Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
2016-01-01
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
Visual Design Principles Applied To World Wide Web Construction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luck, Donald D.; Hunter, J. Mark
This paper describes basic types of World Wide Web pages and presents design criteria for page layout based on principles of visual literacy. Discussion focuses on pages that present information in the following styles: billboard; directory/index; textual; and graphics. Problems and solutions in Web page construction are explored according to…
A Probabilistic Design Method Applied to Smart Composite Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiao, Michael C.; Chamis, Christos C.
1995-01-01
A probabilistic design method is described and demonstrated using a smart composite wing. Probabilistic structural design incorporates naturally occurring uncertainties including those in constituent (fiber/matrix) material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry and control-related parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity factors are computed to identify those parameters that have a great influence on a specific structural reliability. Two performance criteria are used to demonstrate this design methodology. The first criterion requires that the actuated angle at the wing tip be bounded by upper and lower limits at a specified reliability. The second criterion requires that the probability of ply damage due to random impact load be smaller than an assigned value. When the relationship between reliability improvement and the sensitivity factors is assessed, the results show that a reduction in the scatter of the random variable with the largest sensitivity factor (absolute value) provides the lowest failure probability. An increase in the mean of the random variable with a negative sensitivity factor will reduce the failure probability. Therefore, the design can be improved by controlling or selecting distribution parameters associated with random variables. This can be implemented during the manufacturing process to obtain maximum benefit with minimum alterations.
Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model.
Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E
2017-01-13
Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.
Nonlinear robust controller design for multi-robot systems with unknown payloads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Y. D.; Anderson, J. N.; Homaifar, A.; Lai, H. Y.
1992-01-01
This work is concerned with the control problem of a multi-robot system handling a payload with unknown mass properties. Force constraints at the grasp points are considered. Robust control schemes are proposed that cope with the model uncertainty and achieve asymptotic path tracking. To deal with the force constraints, a strategy for optimally sharing the task is suggested. This strategy basically consists of two steps. The first detects the robots that need help and the second arranges that help. It is shown that the overall system is not only robust to uncertain payload parameters, but also satisfies the force constraints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang
2017-05-01
This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.
Approach for Uncertainty Propagation and Robust Design in CFD Using Sensitivity Derivatives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putko, Michele M.; Newman, Perry A.; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.
2001-01-01
This paper presents an implementation of the approximate statistical moment method for uncertainty propagation and robust optimization for a quasi 1-D Euler CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code. Given uncertainties in statistically independent, random, normally distributed input variables, a first- and second-order statistical moment matching procedure is performed to approximate the uncertainty in the CFD output. Efficient calculation of both first- and second-order sensitivity derivatives is required. In order to assess the validity of the approximations, the moments are compared with statistical moments generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainties in the CFD input variables are also incorporated into a robust optimization procedure. For this optimization, statistical moments involving first-order sensitivity derivatives appear in the objective function and system constraints. Second-order sensitivity derivatives are used in a gradient-based search to successfully execute a robust optimization. The approximate methods used throughout the analyses are found to be valid when considering robustness about input parameter mean values.
Comparative Robustness of Recent Methods for Analyzing Multivariate Repeated Measures Designs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Gras, Jaime Arnau; Garcia, Manuel Ato
2007-01-01
This study evaluated the robustness of two recent methods for analyzing multivariate repeated measures when the assumptions of covariance homogeneity and multivariate normality are violated. Specifically, the authors' work compares the performance of the modified Brown-Forsythe (MBF) procedure and the mixed-model procedure adjusted by the…
Laitaoja, Mikko; Isoniemi, Sari; Valjakka, Jarkko; Mándity, István M; Jänis, Janne
2017-02-01
Small zinc finger (ZnF) motifs are promising molecular scaffolds for protein design owing to their structural robustness and versatility. Moreover, their characterization provides important insights into protein folding in general. ZnF motifs usually possess an exceptional specificity and high affinity towards Zn(II) ion to drive folding. While the Zn(II) ion is canonically coordinated by two cysteine and two histidine residues, many other coordination spheres also exist in small ZnFs, all having four amino acid ligands. Here we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to study metal ion binding specificity and primary coordination sphere robustness of a designed zinc finger, named MM1. Based on the results, MM1 possesses high specificity for zinc with sub-micromolar binding affinity. Surprisingly, MM1 retains metal ion binding affinity even in the presence of selective alanine mutations of the primary zinc coordinating amino acid residues. © 2016 The Protein Society.
Hou, Shibing; Wu, Jiang; Qin, Yufei; Xu, Zhenming
2010-07-01
Electrostatic separation is an effective and environmentally friendly method for recycling waste printed circuit board (PCB) by several kinds of electrostatic separators. However, some notable problems have been detected in its applications and cannot be efficiently resolved by optimizing the separation process. Instead of the separator itself, these problems are mainly caused by some external factors such as the nonconductive powder (NP) and the superficial moisture of feeding granule mixture. These problems finally lead to an inefficient separation. In the present research, the impacts of these external factors were investigated and a robust design was built to optimize the process and to weaken the adverse impact. A most robust parameter setting (25 kv, 80 rpm) was concluded from the experimental design. In addition, some theoretical methods, including cyclone separation, were presented to eliminate these problems substantially. This will contribute to efficient electrostatic separation of waste PCB and make remarkable progress for industrial applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Do Wan; Lee, Ho Jae
2016-01-01
This paper addresses a direct discrete-time design methodology for a robust ? sampled-data observer-based output-feedback stabilisation problem for a class of non-linear systems suffering from parametric uncertainties and disturbances that is identically modelled as a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model at least locally. The primary features in the current development are that (1) we are based on an exact (rather than approximate) discrete-time model in an integral (rather than closed) form while (2) the ? control performance is characterised with respect to an ? (rather than l2) norm. It is shown that the uncertain sampled-data non-linear control system is robustly asymptotically stable if the employed discrete-time model is so. Design conditions are investigated in the discrete-time Lyapunov sense and concretised in the format of linear matrix inequalities.
Designing Crane Controls with Applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.
2002-01-01
The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable
Designing Crane Controls with applied Mechanical and Electrical Safety Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, Bradford P.; Walczak, Thomas A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The use of overhead traveling bridge cranes in many varied applications is common practice. In particular, the use of cranes in the nuclear, military, commercial, aerospace, and other industries can involve safety critical situations. Considerations for Human Injury or Casualty, Loss of Assets, Endangering the Environment, or Economic Reduction must be addressed. Traditionally, in order to achieve additional safety in these applications, mechanical systems have been augmented with a variety of devices. These devices assure that a mechanical component failure shall reduce the risk of a catastrophic loss of the correct and/or safe load carrying capability. ASME NOG-1-1998, (Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes, Top Running Bridge, and Multiple Girder), provides design standards for cranes in safety critical areas. Over and above the minimum safety requirements of todays design standards, users struggle with obtaining a higher degree of reliability through more precise functional specifications while attempting to provide "smart" safety systems. Electrical control systems also may be equipped with protective devices similar to the mechanical design features. Demands for improvement of the cranes "control system" is often recognized, but difficult to quantify for this traditionally "mechanically" oriented market. Finite details for each operation must be examined and understood. As an example, load drift (or small motions) at close tolerances can be unacceptable (and considered critical). To meet these high functional demands encoders and other devices are independently added to control systems to provide motion and velocity feedback to the control drive. This paper will examine the implementation of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES). PES is a term this paper will use to describe any control system utilizing any programmable electronic device such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), or an Adjustable Frequency Drive (AID) 'smart' programmable
Elastohydrodynamic principles applied to the design of helicopter components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, D. P.
1973-01-01
Elastohydrodynamic principles affecting the lubrication of transmission components are presented and discussed. Surface temperature of the transmission bearings and gears affect elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Traction forces and sliding as well as the inlet temperature determine surface temperatures. High contact ratio gears cause increased sliding and may run at higher surface temperatures. Component life is a function of the ratio of elastohydrodynamic film thickness to composite surface roughness. Lubricant starvation reduces elastrohydrodynamic film thickness and increases surface temperatures. Methods are presented which allow for the application of elastohydrodynamic principles to transmission design in order to increase system life and reliability.
Optical design of low glare luminaire applied for tunnel light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, M. S.; Lee, X. H.; Lo, Y. C.; Sun, C. C.
2014-09-01
In this study, a low glare and high-efficient tunnel lighting design which consists of a cluster light-emitting diode and a free-form lens is presented. Most of the energy emitted from the proposed luminaire is transmitted onto the surface of the road in front of drivers, and the probability that the energy is emitted directly into drivers' eyes is low. Compared with traditional fluorescent lamps, the proposed luminaire, of which the optical utilization factor, optical efficiency, and uniformity are, respectively, 44%, 92.5%, and 0.72, performs favorably in traffic safety, energy saving, and glare reduction.
Damage Tolerance Applied to Design of Mid-Size Aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Carlos Eduardo
Most of the mid-size aircraft are certified according to FAA Part 25 requirements, and in order to comply with these requirements the majority of the aircraft structure must be damage tolerant. To assure damage tolerance, despite the overall structural behavior, one should look at the details. There is a great amount of analysis tasks and tests that must be carried out in order to guarantee the aircraft structural integrity. This paper presents an overview of Embraer experience with design and analysis for damage tolerance during the last 30 years. Aspects like DT analysis for metallic and composite structures, selection of appropriate materials, loads, definition of limits of validity and definition of inspection intervals will be addressed along this work. Selected structural tests that have been performed for validation of modeling predictions will be presented. Some aspects to be discussed are related to the design differences between commercial jets, which are usually subjected to high usage conditions, business jets and military aircraft. Further, the application of future technologies, such as structural health monitoring, and also of new materials and manufacturing processes that have been evaluated in order to improve the damage tolerance capability of the aircraft structures will be discussed.
Bettotti, P; Mancinelli, M; Guider, R; Masi, M; Vanacharla, M Rao; Pavesi, L
2011-04-15
A novel (to our knowledge) scheme of an optical router/switch element, composed of a tapered side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of optical resonators, is proposed. It is based on a modified design of the ring sequence in which the resonance conditions are set by the single ring resonance and by the coherent feedback of the sequence of rings. This double condition yields robustness against fabrication defects, dense routing capability, and high switching efficiency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avis, L. M.; Green, R. N.; Suttles, J. T.; Gupta, S. K.
1984-01-01
Computer simulations of a least squares estimator operating on the ERBE scanning channels are discussed. The estimator is designed to minimize the errors produced by nonideal spectral response to spectrally varying and uncertain radiant input. The three ERBE scanning channels cover a shortwave band a longwave band and a ""total'' band from which the pseudo inverse spectral filter estimates the radiance components in the shortwave band and a longwave band. The radiance estimator draws on instantaneous field of view (IFOV) scene type information supplied by another algorithm of the ERBE software, and on a priori probabilistic models of the responses of the scanning channels to the IFOV scene types for given Sun scene spacecraft geometry. It is found that the pseudoinverse spectral filter is stable, tolerant of errors in scene identification and in channel response modeling, and, in the absence of such errors, yields minimum variance and essentially unbiased radiance estimates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Rongyan; Wang, Hongyan
2016-07-01
In this work, the issue of robust waveform optimization is addressed in the presence of clutter to improve the worst-case estimation accuracy for collocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Robust design is necessary due to the fact that waveform design may be sensitive to uncertainties in the initial parameter estimates. Following the min-max approach, the robust waveform covariance matrix design is formulated here on the basis of Cramér-Rao Bound to ease this sensitivity systematically for improving the worst-case accuracy. To tackle the resultant complicated and nonlinear problem, a new diagonal loading (DL)-based iterative approach is developed, in which the inner optimization problem can first be decomposed to some independent subproblems by using the Hadamard's inequality, and then these subproblems can be reformulated into convex issues by using DL method, as well as the outer optimization problem can also be relaxed to a convex issue by translating the nonlinear function into a linear one, and, hence, both of them can be solved very effectively. An optimal solution to the original problem can be obtained via the least-squares fitting of the solution acquired by the iterative approach. Numerical simulations show the efficiency of the proposed method.
Applying Contamination Modelling to Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Designs and Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Philip T.; Thomson, Shaun; Woronowicz, Michael S.
2000-01-01
Molecular and particulate contaminants generated from the operations of a propulsion system may impinge on spacecraft critical surfaces. Plume depositions or clouds may hinder the spacecraft and instruments from performing normal operations. Firing thrusters will generate both molecular and particulate contaminants. How to minimize the contamination impact from the plume becomes very critical for a successful mission. The resulting effect from either molecular or particulate contamination of the thruster firing is very distinct. This paper will discuss the interconnection between the functions of spacecraft contamination modeling and propulsion system implementation. The paper will address an innovative contamination engineering approach implemented from the spacecraft concept design, manufacturing, integration and test (I&T), launch, to on- orbit operations. This paper will also summarize the implementation on several successful missions. Despite other contamination sources, only molecular contamination will be considered here.
APPLYING INSIGHTS FROM BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS TO POLICY DESIGN
Madrian, Brigitte C.
2014-01-01
The premise of this article is that an understanding of psychology and other social science disciplines can inform the effectiveness of the economic tools traditionally deployed in carrying out the functions of government, which include remedying market failures, redistributing income, and collecting tax revenue. An understanding of psychology can also lead to the development of different policy tools that better motivate desired behavior change or that are more cost-effective than traditional policy tools. The article outlines a framework for thinking about the psychology of behavior change in the context of market failures. It then describes the research on the effects of a variety of interventions rooted in an understanding of psychology that have policy-relevant applications. The article concludes by discussing how an understanding of psychology can also inform the use and design of traditional policy tools for behavior change, such as financial incentives. PMID:25520759
Design of a robust model predictive controller with reduced computational complexity.
Razi, M; Haeri, M
2014-11-01
The practicality of robust model predictive control of systems with model uncertainties depends on the time consumed for solving a defined optimization problem. This paper presents a method for the computational complexity reduction in a robust model predictive control. First a scaled state vector is defined such that the objective function contours in the defined optimization problem become vertical or horizontal ellipses or circles, and then the control input is determined at each sampling time as a state feedback that minimizes the infinite horizon objective function by solving some linear matrix inequalities. The simulation results show that the number of iterations to solve the problem at each sampling interval is reduced while the control performance does not alter noticeably.
Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colón, Diego; Balthazar, José M.; dos Reis, Célia A.; Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; de S. R. F. Rosa, Suelia
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.
Control design and robustness analysis of a ball and plate system by using polynomial chaos
Colón, Diego; Balthazar, José M.; Reis, Célia A. dos; Bueno, Átila M.; Diniz, Ivando S.; Rosa, Suelia de S. R. F.
2014-12-10
In this paper, we present a mathematical model of a ball and plate system, a control law and analyze its robustness properties by using the polynomial chaos method. The ball rolls without slipping. There is an auxiliary robot vision system that determines the bodies' positions and velocities, and is used for control purposes. The actuators are to orthogonal DC motors, that changes the plate's angles with the ground. The model is a extension of the ball and beam system and is highly nonlinear. The system is decoupled in two independent equations for coordinates x and y. Finally, the resulting nonlinear closed loop systems are analyzed by the polynomial chaos methodology, which considers that some system parameters are random variables, and generates statistical data that can be used in the robustness analysis.
H-infinity control design specifications applied to the Hubble Space Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irwin, R. Dennis; Lawrence, Douglas A.; Glenn, Russell D.; Frazier, W. Garth
Preliminary redesign efforts for the Hubble Space Telescope Pointing Control System are presented. These and previous efforts by NASA and Lockheed are motivated by pointing errors caused by the effects of unanticipated thermally induced solar array flexing. The design philosophy for the results presented here is based primarily on the loop shaping approach of traditional H-infinity theory. However, the actual controller designs presented are the results of a hybrid of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) H-infinity specifications and Single Input Single Output (SISO) specifications. This hybrid approach allows the specification of simultaneous robustness (H-infinity) and performance (SISO) design criteria. A numerical approach to calculating controllers that meet these hybrid specifications is taken, due to numerical problems with standard H-infinity design software and the inability of such software to deal with the imposition of additional SISO constraints. The paper includes performance and robustness analyses of two flight controllers and of the controller designed as a result of the present redesign effort. Performance comparisons are made based on the results of NASA-supplied simulations derived from flight data and robustness results are based on MIMO singular value analyses and classical phase and gain margins. It is shown that the present controller exhibits significant improvements in robustness, peak pointing errors in each axis, and root mean square (RMS) pointing errors in each axis. Plans for continuing the redesign efforts are presented. The issues of simulation and model enhancements are addressed, as is that of the need for a reliable and consistent set of performance and robustness specifications that future controllers must meet.
Designing and Applying Proximity-Dependent Hybridization Chain Reaction.
Koos, Björn; Söderberg, Ola
2016-08-01
Proximity-dependent hybridization chain reaction (proxHCR) is a novel technique for detection of protein interaction, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or protein expression. The method is based upon antibodies targeting the proteins of interest that are covalently conjugated to DNA oligonucleotides, which enables the induction of a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to generate a fluorescent signal visible under a microscope. In contrast to the in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), which is another method that utilizes antibody-DNA conjugates to detect protein interactions, proxHCR does not require enzymatic steps. This makes proxHCR an inexpensive alternative to in situ PLA. Another potential advantage might be that proxHCR could more readily be adapted for use in automated staining procedures and in point-of-care devices, as all reagents can be stored at room temperature. This unit describes how the oligonucleotide system for proxHCR can be designed and a protocol for how to perform proxHCR is presented. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Design of a robust thin-film interference filter for erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain equalization.
Verly, Pierre G
2002-06-01
Gain-flattening filters (GFFs) are key wavelength division multiplexing components in fiber-optics telecommunications. Challenging issues in the design of thin-film GFFs were recently the subject of a contest organized at the 2001 Conference on Optical Interference Coatings. The interest and main difficulty of the proposed problem was to minimize the sensitivity of a GFF to simulated fabrication errors. A high-yield solution and its design philosophy are described. The approach used to control the filter robustness is explained and illustrated by numerical results.
Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.
Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L
2000-12-01
The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental
Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.
Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L
2000-01-01
The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental
Applying Universal Instructional Design to Course Websites by Using Course Evaluations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Irene; Leslie, Donald; Kwan, Denise
2012-01-01
The authors explore their use of learner-centred teaching strategies and Universal Instructional Design (UID) on course websites. UID is based on universal design, the design of products and environments intended to be usable by all people to the greatest extent possible (Burgstahler & Cory, 2008). UID applies universal design to instructional…
Design and evaluation of robust matched filters for chemical agent detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Sidi; Golowich, Steven E.; Ingle, Vinay K.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.
2011-11-01
Most chemical gas detection algorithms for hyperspectral imaging applications assume a gas with a perfectly known spectral signature. In practice, the chemical signature is either imperfectly measured and/or exhibits spectral variability due to temperature variations and Beer's law. The objective of this work is to explore robust matched filters that take the uncertainty and/or variability of the target signatures into account. We introduce various techniques that control the selectivity of the matched filter and we evaluate their performance in standoff LWIR hyperspectral chemical gas detection applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, Roberta; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, Rubens
2015-06-01
In this paper, the robust design with an uncertain model of a vibro-impact electro-mechanical system is done. The electro-mechanical system is composed of a cart, whose motion is excited by a DC motor (motor with continuous current), and an embarked hammer into this cart. The hammer is connected to the cart by a nonlinear spring component and by a linear damper, so that a relative motion exists between them. A linear flexible barrier, placed outside of the cart, constrains the hammer movements. Due to the relative movement between the hammer and the barrier, impacts can occur between these two elements. The developed model of the system takes into account the influence of the DC motor in the dynamic behavior of the system. Some system parameters are uncertain, such as the stiffness and the damping coefficients of the flexible barrier. The objective of the paper is to perform an optimization of this electro-mechanical system with respect to design parameters (spring component, and barrier g) in order to maximize the impact power under the constraint that the electric power consumed by the DC motor is lower than a maximum value. This optimization is formulated in the framework of robust design due to the presence of uncertainties in the model. The set of nonlinear equations are presented, and an adapted time domain solver is developed. The stochastic nonlinear constrained design optimization problem is solved for different levels of uncertainties, and also for the deterministic case.
An Economical Multifactor within-Subject Design Robust against Trend and Carryover Effects.
1985-10-17
Bakan , 1966). Nor can we assume that a between-subject design is devoid of sequence effects. Those created by the equipment and the environment can still...CT) trends. within-subject design Design in which a subject is tested serially on all the conditions of an experiment. 50 ;&- N _P REFERENCES Bakan
21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... § 111.20 What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...
Metrology target design simulations for accurate and robust scatterometry overlay measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Dov, Guy; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Gready, David; Ghinovker, Mark; Adel, Mike; Herzel, Eitan; Oh, Soonho; Choi, DongSub; Han, Sang Hyun; El Kodadi, Mohamed; Hwang, Chan; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Seung Yoon; Lee, Kuntack
2016-03-01
Overlay metrology target design is an essential step prior to performing overlay measurements. This step is done through the optimization of target parameters for a given process stack. A simulation tool is therefore used to improve measurement performances. This work shows how our Metrology Target Design (MTD) simulator helps significantly in the target design process. We show the role of film and Optical CD measurements in improving significantly the fidelity of the simulations. We demonstrate that for various target design parameters we are capable of predicting measured performance metrics by simulations and correctly rank various designs performances.
Kovar, Karin; Looser, Verena; Hyka, Petr; Merseburger, Tobias; Meier, Christian
2010-01-01
Health and safety concerns, enhanced quality criteria, and environmental sustainability, have prompted investigations into production using recombinant yeasts as a feasible alternative for isolation of proteins from natural animal or plant sources, as well as for processes utilising either mammalian cell cultures or bacterial systems. An overview of recent research papers and review articles provides readers with a comprehensive insight into the field of next-generation yeast expression systems. Major breakthroughs in recombinant yeast technology linked to Pichia pastoris are (i) the public availability of tools to generate proteins with tailored and highly homogenous N-glycan structures, similar to the forms assembled in humans, (ii) the recent accomplishment of the annotation of its genome sequence, and finally, (iii) the presence of the first few (non-glycosylated) therapeutic proteins in Pichia on the market. The P. pastoris expression platform is now well developed, as proven by multiple products used in human and veterinary medicine and in industry (e.g., enzymes for chemical synthesis and for the modification/synthesis of pharmaceuticals, drug target proteins used for structural analysis or for high throughput screening, proteins for diagnostics, proteinous biomaterials, vaccines, and therapeutic proteins). Nevertheless, the complexity of protein analysis (monitoring) continues to restrict process development for recombinant products. Drawing on combined expertise in molecular biology and process technology, the Institute of Biotechnology (IBT) at the Zurich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) and its international partners have developed solutions which (i) fully eliminate (or partially reduce) the use of methanol, which is undesirable in high-cell-density and high-productivity processes, (ii) match both strain construction and process design with the target protein characteristics to the benefit of the cells' physiological shape, and (iii) allow multi
A minimum cost tolerance allocation method for rocket engines and robust rocket engine design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerth, Richard J.
1993-01-01
Rocket engine design follows three phases: systems design, parameter design, and tolerance design. Systems design and parameter design are most effectively conducted in a concurrent engineering (CE) environment that utilize methods such as Quality Function Deployment and Taguchi methods. However, tolerance allocation remains an art driven by experience, handbooks, and rules of thumb. It was desirable to develop and optimization approach to tolerancing. The case study engine was the STME gas generator cycle. The design of the major components had been completed and the functional relationship between the component tolerances and system performance had been computed using the Generic Power Balance model. The system performance nominals (thrust, MR, and Isp) and tolerances were already specified, as were an initial set of component tolerances. However, the question was whether there existed an optimal combination of tolerances that would result in the minimum cost without any degradation in system performance.
2012-01-01
Background The three layer mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade exhibits different designs of interactions between its kinases and phosphatases. While the sequential interactions between the three kinases of the cascade are tightly preserved, the phosphatases of the cascade, such as MKP3 and PP2A, exhibit relatively diverse interactions with their substrate kinases. Additionally, the kinases of the MAPK cascade can also sequester their phosphatases. Thus, each topologically distinct interaction design of kinases and phosphatases could exhibit unique signal processing characteristics, and the presence of phosphatase sequestration may lead to further fine tuning of the propagated signal. Results We have built four architecturally distinct types of models of the MAPK cascade, each model with identical kinase-kinase interactions but unique kinases-phosphatases interactions. Our simulations unravelled that MAPK cascade’s robustness to external perturbations is a function of nature of interaction between its kinases and phosphatases. The cascade’s output robustness was enhanced when phosphatases were sequestrated by their target kinases. We uncovered a novel implicit/hidden negative feedback loop from the phosphatase MKP3 to its upstream kinase Raf-1, in a cascade resembling the B cell MAPK cascade. Notably, strength of the feedback loop was reciprocal to the strength of phosphatases’ sequestration and stronger sequestration abolished the feedback loop completely. An experimental method to verify the presence of the feedback loop is also proposed. We further showed, when the models were activated by transient signal, memory (total time taken by the cascade output to reach its unstimulated level after removal of signal) of a cascade was determined by the specific designs of interaction among its kinases and phosphatases. Conclusions Differences in interaction designs among the kinases and phosphatases can differentially shape the robustness and
Smith, Holly C; Pollock, Ken; Waples, Kelly; Bradley, Stuart; Bejder, Lars
2013-01-01
As delphinid populations become increasingly exposed to human activities we rely on our capacity to produce accurate abundance estimates upon which to base management decisions. This study applied mark-recapture methods following the Robust Design to estimate abundance, demographic parameters, and temporary emigration rates of an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population off Bunbury, Western Australia. Boat-based photo-identification surveys were conducted year-round over three consecutive years along pre-determined transect lines to create a consistent sampling effort throughout the study period and area. The best fitting capture-recapture model showed a population with a seasonal Markovian temporary emigration with time varying survival and capture probabilities. Abundance estimates were seasonally dependent with consistently lower numbers obtained during winter and higher during summer and autumn across the three-year study period. Specifically, abundance estimates for all adults and juveniles (combined) varied from a low of 63 (95% CI 59 to 73) in winter of 2007 to a high of 139 (95% CI 134 to148) in autumn of 2009. Temporary emigration rates (γ') for animals absent in the previous period ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 (mean = 0.54; ±SE 0.11) with a peak during spring. Temporary emigration rates for animals present during the previous period (γ'') were lower, ranging from 0.00 to 0.29, with a mean of 0.16 (± SE 0.04). This model yielded a mean apparent survival estimate for juveniles and adults (combined) of 0.95 (± SE 0.02) and a capture probability from 0.07 to 0.51 with a mean of 0.30 (± SE 0.04). This study demonstrates the importance of incorporating temporary emigration to accurately estimate abundance of coastal delphinids. Temporary emigration rates were high in this study, despite the large area surveyed, indicating the challenges of sampling highly mobile animals which range over large spatial areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu
2014-12-01
This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shanzhi; Wang, Haoping; Aitouche, Abdel; Tian, Yang; Christov, Nicolai
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a robust unknown input observer for state estimation and fault detection using linear parameter varying model. Since the disturbance and actuator fault is mixed together in the physical system, it is difficult to isolate the fault from the disturbance. Using the state transforation, the estimation of the original state becomes to associate with the transform state. By solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs)and linear matrix equalities (LMEs), the parameters of the UIO can be obtained. The convergence of the UIO is also analysed by the Layapunov theory. Finally, a wind turbine system with disturbance and actuator fault is tested for the proposed method. From the simulations, it demonstrates the effectiveness and performances of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sano, Hiroki; Sato, Kentaro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa
It is desirable for a container crane to operate smoothly and quickly. For this purpose, the control system of a container crane should be capable of anti-sway control for suppressing vibrations. A vision sensor system is often used to detect the sway angle. However, since a control system with a vision sensor has a delay time when determining the angle, it sometimes leads to the deterioration of the control performance owing to the delay time. In order to overcome this problem, this paper proposes a new anti-sway crane control system based on a dual-state observer with sensor-delay correction. However, because of nonlinear friction in the crane, the estimation accuracy achieved by using the observer is poor. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a disturbance observer considering friction disturbance. The control performance and effectiveness of the proposed robust control system based on the estimated information are confirmed to be satisfactory from experimental results.
Minimalist design of a robust real-time quantum random number generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, K. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2015-08-01
We present a simple and robust construction of a real-time quantum random number generator (QRNG). Our minimalist approach ensures stable operation of the device as well as its simple and straightforward hardware implementation as a stand-alone module. As a source of randomness the device uses measurements of time intervals between clicks of a single-photon detector. The obtained raw sequence is then filtered and processed by a deterministic randomness extractor, which is realized as a look-up table. This enables high speed on-the-fly processing without the need of extensive computations. The overall performance of the device is around 1 random bit per detector click, resulting in 1.2 Mbit/s generation rate in our implementation.
Fuzzy robust H ∞ filter design for nonlinear discrete-time systems with interval time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ya-Kun; Chen, Bing; Zhou, Qi; Lin, Chong
2012-08-01
This article deals with the problem of H ∞ filter design for nonlinear discrete-time systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and time-varying delays. A new Lyapunov function and free-weighting matrix method are used for filtering design, consequently, a delay-dependent design method is first proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which produces a less conservative result. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.
Labyrinth Seal Flutter Analysis and Test Validation in Support of Robust Rocket Engine Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Aini, Yehia; Park, John; Frady, Greg; Nesman, Tom
2010-01-01
High energy-density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps, utilize labyrinth seals, also referred to as knife-edge seals, to control leakage flow. The pressure drop for such seals is order of magnitude higher than comparable jet engine seals. This is aggravated by the requirement of tight clearances resulting in possible unfavorable fluid-structure interaction of the seal system (seal flutter). To demonstrate these characteristics, a benchmark case of a High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) outlet Labyrinth seal was studied in detail. First, an analytical assessment of the seal stability was conducted using a Pratt & Whitney legacy seal flutter code. Sensitivity parameters including pressure drop, rotor-to-stator running clearances and cavity volumes were examined and modeling strategies established. Second, a concurrent experimental investigation was undertaken to validate the stability of the seal at the equivalent operating conditions of the pump. Actual pump hardware was used to construct the test rig, also referred to as the (Flutter Rig). The flutter rig did not include rotational effects or temperature. However, the use of Hydrogen gas at high inlet pressure provided good representation of the critical parameters affecting flutter especially the speed of sound. The flutter code predictions showed consistent trends in good agreement with the experimental data. The rig test program produced a stability threshold empirical parameter that separated operation with and without flutter. This empirical parameter was used to establish the seal build clearances to avoid flutter while providing the required cooling flow metering. The calibrated flutter code along with the empirical flutter parameter was used to redesign the baseline seal resulting in a flutter-free robust configuration. Provisions for incorporation of mechanical damping devices were introduced in the redesigned seal to ensure added robustness
Labyrinth Seal Flutter Analysis and Test Validation in Support of Robust Rocket Engine Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Aini, Yehia; Park, John; Frady, Greg; Nesman, Tom
2010-01-01
High energy-density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps, utilize labyrinth seals, also referred to as knife-edge seals, to control leakage flow. The pressure drop for such seals is order of magnitude higher than comparable jet engine seals. This is aggravated by the requirement of tight clearances resulting in possible unfavorable fluid-structure interaction of the seal system (seal flutter). To demonstrate these characteristics, a benchmark case of a High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) outlet Labyrinth seal was studied in detail. First, an analytical assessment of the seal stability was conducted using a Pratt & Whitney legacy seal flutter code. Sensitivity parameters including pressure drop, rotor-to-stator running clearances and cavity volumes were examined and modeling strategies established. Second, a concurrent experimental investigation was undertaken to validate the stability of the seal at the equivalent operating conditions of the pump. Actual pump hardware was used to construct the test rig, also referred to as the (Flutter Rig). The flutter rig did not include rotational effects or temperature. However, the use of Hydrogen gas at high inlet pressure provided good representation of the critical parameters affecting flutter especially the speed of sound. The flutter code predictions showed consistent trends in good agreement with the experimental data. The rig test program produced a stability threshold empirical parameter that separated operation with and without flutter. This empirical parameter was used to establish the seal build clearances to avoid flutter while providing the required cooling flow metering. The calibrated flutter code along with the empirical flutter parameter was used to redesign the baseline seal resulting in a flutter-free robust configuration. Provisions for incorporation of mechanical damping devices were introduced in the redesigned seal to ensure added robustness
Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing
2011-03-01
The work was aimed to develop a robust virtual sensing design methodology for sensing and active control applications of vibro-acoustic systems. The proposed virtual sensor was designed to estimate a broadband acoustic interior sound pressure using structural sensors, with robustness against certain dynamic uncertainties occurring in an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure. A convex combination of Kalman sub-filters was used during the design, accommodating different sets of perturbed dynamic model of the vibro-acoustic enclosure. A minimax optimization problem was set up to determine an optimal convex combination of Kalman sub-filters, ensuring an optimal worst-case virtual sensing performance. The virtual sensing and active noise control performance was numerically investigated on a rectangular panel-cavity system. It was demonstrated that the proposed virtual sensor could accurately estimate the interior sound pressure, particularly the one dominated by cavity-controlled modes, by using a structural sensor. With such a virtual sensing technique, effective active noise control performance was also obtained even for the worst-case dynamics. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Stile, Ranee A; Barber, Thomas A; Castner, David G; Healy, Kevin E
2002-09-05
Sequential Robust Design experiments and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies were performed to examine the immobilization of hyaluronic acid (HA) on glass substrates chemisorbed with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (EDS). Numerous reaction conditions were investigated, including the concentrations of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (Sulfo-NHS), and HA, and the reaction buffer type, concentration, and pH. The elemental surface compositions of carbon and silicon (C/Si ratio) were used to assess the extent of HA immobilization, leading to the identification of critical HA-binding reaction conditions and the determination of an optimum surface chemistry. The optimum chemistry consisted of 200 mM EDC, 50 mM Sulfo-NHS, 10 mM N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (HEPES) buffer at a pH of 7.0, and 3 mg/mL HA. This work emphasizes the advantages of using Robust Design methods over traditional statistical experimental design, particularly when large numbers of variables are examined and costly analytical techniques are employed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
2007-07-18
die underfill caused by material porosity This problem studies the effect of a random voids in the design of flashless closed die forging processes...provides a robust way to estimate the statistics of the extent of die underfill as a result of a random distribution of voids in the billet. The initial...2.38) i=1 where fo = 0.03 is the mean void fraction. A 9x9 grid was used for computing the statistics. The mean underfill was estimated to be
1978-07-01
until propellant exhaustion on 18 April 1975 , exceeding substantially its one-year design life. Experiments with an orbital prediction span of up to two...UWafeinS APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY SDO 1600 -- May 1975 I. 3 Appendix B THE NAVY NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM! One of the earliest programs designed to...SDO-1600 7 (Revised)lCL SARTIFICIAL EARTH SATELLITEStQ DESIGNED AND FABRICATED 9 by I THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY I __CD
Applying Semiotic Theories to Graphic Design Education: An Empirical Study on Poster Design Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan
2015-01-01
The rationales behind design are dissimilar to those behind art. Establishing an adequate theoretical foundation for conducting design education can facilitate scientising design methods. Thus, from the perspectives of the semiotic theories proposed by Saussure and Peirce, we investigated graphic design curricula by performing teaching…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chalhoub, N. G.; Kfoury, G. A.; Bazzi, B. A.
2006-03-01
Two robust nonlinear controllers along with a nonlinear observer have been developed in this study to control the rigid and flexible motions of a single-link robotic manipulator. The controllers and the observer have been designed based on a simplified model of the arm, which only accounts for the first elastic mode of the beam. The controllers consist of a conventional sliding mode controller (CSMC) and a fuzzy-sliding mode controller (FSMC). Moreover, the robust nonlinear observer has been designed based on the sliding mode methodology. The dynamic model, used in assessing the performances of the controllers and the observer, considers the first two elastic modes of the beam. The inclusion of the second elastic mode has been done to investigate the effects of unstructured uncertainties on the overall performance of the closed-loop system. The digital simulations have demonstrated the capability of the observer in yielding accurate estimates of the state variables in the presence of modeling uncertainties. Moreover, they served to prove the viability of using the observer to provide on-line estimates of the state variables for the computation of the control signals. The results have illustrated robust performances of the controllers and the observer in controlling the rigid and flexible motions of the manipulator in the presence of both structured and unstructured uncertainties. This was achieved irrespective of the differences in the initial conditions between the plant and the observer. Furthermore, the structural deformations, incurred by the beam at the onset of its movement, have been shown to be significantly reduced by fuzzy-tuning the η-control parameter. The results have demonstrated the superiority of the FSMC over the CSMC in producing less oscillatory and more accurate response of the angular displacement at the base joint, in damping out the unwanted vibrations of the beam, and in requiring significantly smaller control torques.
Large-scale design of robust genetic circuits with multiple inputs and outputs for mammalian cells.
Weinberg, Benjamin H; Pham, N T Hang; Caraballo, Leidy D; Lozanoski, Thomas; Engel, Adrien; Bhatia, Swapnil; Wong, Wilson W
2017-05-01
Engineered genetic circuits for mammalian cells often require extensive fine-tuning to perform as intended. We present a robust, general, scalable system, called 'Boolean logic and arithmetic through DNA excision' (BLADE), to engineer genetic circuits with multiple inputs and outputs in mammalian cells with minimal optimization. The reliability of BLADE arises from its reliance on recombinases under the control of a single promoter, which integrates circuit signals on a single transcriptional layer. We used BLADE to build 113 circuits in human embryonic kidney and Jurkat T cells and devised a quantitative, vector-proximity metric to evaluate their performance. Of 113 circuits analyzed, 109 functioned (96.5%) as intended without optimization. The circuits, which are available through Addgene, include a 3-input, two-output full adder; a 6-input, one-output Boolean logic look-up table; circuits with small-molecule-inducible control; and circuits that incorporate CRISPR-Cas9 to regulate endogenous genes. BLADE enables execution of sophisticated cellular computation in mammalian cells, with applications in cell and tissue engineering.
Liu, Derong; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai
2015-07-01
The design of stabilizing controller for uncertain nonlinear systems with control constraints is a challenging problem. The constrained-input coupled with the inability to identify accurately the uncertainties motivates the design of stabilizing controller based on reinforcement-learning (RL) methods. In this paper, a novel RL-based robust adaptive control algorithm is developed for a class of continuous-time uncertain nonlinear systems subject to input constraints. The robust control problem is converted to the constrained optimal control problem with appropriately selecting value functions for the nominal system. Distinct from typical action-critic dual networks employed in RL, only one critic neural network (NN) is constructed to derive the approximate optimal control. Meanwhile, unlike initial stabilizing control often indispensable in RL, there is no special requirement imposed on the initial control. By utilizing Lyapunov's direct method, the closed-loop optimal control system and the estimated weights of the critic NN are proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded. In addition, the derived approximate optimal control is verified to guarantee the uncertain nonlinear system to be stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the present approach.
Hasanvand, Hamed; Mozafari, Babak; Arvan, Mohammad R; Amraee, Turaj
2015-11-01
This paper addresses the application of a static Var compensator (SVC) to improve the damping of interarea oscillations. Optimal location and size of SVC are defined using bifurcation and modal analysis to satisfy its primary application. Furthermore, the best-input signal for damping controller is selected using Hankel singular values and right half plane-zeros. The proposed approach is aimed to design a robust PI controller based on interval plants and Kharitonov's theorem. The objective here is to determine the stability region to attain robust stability, the desired phase margin, gain margin, and bandwidth. The intersection of the resulting stability regions yields the set of kp-ki parameters. In addition, optimal multiobjective design of PI controller using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented. The effectiveness of the suggested controllers in damping of local and interarea oscillation modes of a multimachine power system, over a wide range of loading conditions and system configurations, is confirmed through eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time domain simulation. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlander, J.; Englert, C. R.
2012-12-01
The Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) concept has been proposed to measure upper atmospheric winds. The approach is identical to the concept of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) except one interferometer arm exhibits an additional optical path offset which optimizes the instrument for the measurement of atmospheric winds. A DASH interferometer is a field-widened Michelson that utilizes diffraction gratings instead of mirrors to measure an interferogram over a large path difference interval without moving parts. This feature enables the instrument to simultaneously monitor multiple atmospheric lines and calibration lines to track instrumental drifts. The DASH interferometer described in this paper is designed for satellite measurements of thermospheric winds using the upper atmospheric red line at λ=630.0 nm in a limb imaging geometry. The interferometer departs from previous designs in that the fringes are localized on a plane following the interferometer which eliminates the need for exit optics to re-image the interferogram onto the detector. Only one focusing optic is required to form an image of the limb through the interferometer onto the fringe localization plane. The resulting instrument assembly is smaller and lighter than previous designs making it suitable for deployment on a multi-U CubeSat platform. This paper will discuss the design of the real-fringe interferometer, its advantages and limitations when compared to earlier DASH designs and its possible implementation on a CubeSat.
Advanced Vibration Analysis Tools and New Strategies for Robust Design of Turbine Engine Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, James B.
2002-01-01
The adverse effects of small, random structural irregularities among the blades, called mistuning, can result in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses that are much larger than those predicted for a perfectly tuned rotor. Manufacturing tolerances, deviations in material properties, or nonuniform operational wear causes mistuning; therefore, mistuning is unavoidable. Furthermore, even a small mistuning can have a dramatic effect on the vibratory behavior of a rotor because it can lead to spatial localization of the vibration energy (see the following photographs). As a result, certain blades may experience forced response amplitudes and stresses that are substantially larger than those predicted by an analysis of the nominal (tuned) design. Unfortunately, these random uncertainties in blade properties, and the immense computational effort involved in obtaining statistically reliable design data, combine to make this aspect of rotor design cumbersome.
Flat-top MZI filters: a novel robust design based on MMI splitters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherchi, Matteo; Harjanne, Mikko; Ylinen, Sami; Kapulainen, Markku; Vehmas, Tapani; Aalto, Timo
2016-03-01
Multimode Interferometers (MMIs) are an attractive alternative to directional couplers, ensuring more relaxed tolerances to fabrication errors and broader operation bandwidth. The drawback is that only a limited discrete set of splitting ratios is achievable with MMIs of constant cross section. This issue clearly limits their use in flat-top interferometric filters, which design requires, in general, free choice of the splitting ratios. Here we show for the first time that it is possible to design 4-stage flat-top interferometers using only standard MMIs with 50:50 and 85:15 splitting ratios. The design approach is based on the representation of the system on the Bloch sphere. Flat-top interleavers with different free spectral ranges have been designed and fabricated on the silicon photonics platform of VTT, based on 3 μm thick rib and strip waveguides. Two different layouts have been explored: one where all components are collinear and a more compact one which elements have been folded in a spiral shape. All interleavers have been designed for TE polarization, and they work in a wavelength range comparable with the 100 nm bandwidth of the MMI splitters. Even though fabrication imperfections and non-ideal behaviour of both waveguide bends and MMIs led to reduced extinction compared to simulations, most devices show in-band extinction exceeding 15 dB. The in-band losses of the most central channels did not exceed 1.5 dB compared to the reference straight waveguide. The designed interleavers can be employed in cascaded configurations to achieve broadband and fabrication tolerant flat-top wavelength (de)multiplexers.
Non-Linear Metamodeling Extensions to the Robust Parameter Design of Computer Simulations
2016-09-15
minimizing the variability about those responses. Two popular combined-array strategies—the response surface model (RSM) approach and the emulator approach...are limited when applied to simulations. In the former case, the mean and variance models can be inadequate due to a high level of non-linearity...Results show that improved prediction models can be attained through the proposed approach at a reduced computational cost. Additionally, a multi
Supplemental Task A-2,A-2A, Design of robust waste cannister. Semi-annual report
Skaggs, R.
1991-12-31
The original design for High Level Nuclear Waste cannisters anticipated a dry and oxidizing environment and stable geological conditions. For these conditions, a welded light walled cannister of type 316L austenitic stainless steel was adequate. More recently, the possibility of geological activity, has been raised, and with it the occurrence of mechanical loading, water immersion, and reducing conditions. In order to meet these new design conditions, a multi barrier containment system is proposed. An inner shell of Copper base alloy, to resist a wet, reducing environment. An outer shell of a Nickel base Chromium alloy to resist the dry oxidizing conditions. A nonconducting oxide barrier to separate the two metallic barriers.
Supplemental Task A-2,A-2A, Design of robust waste cannister
Skaggs, R.
1991-01-01
The original design for High Level Nuclear Waste cannisters anticipated a dry and oxidizing environment and stable geological conditions. For these conditions, a welded light walled cannister of type 316L austenitic stainless steel was adequate. More recently, the possibility of geological activity, has been raised, and with it the occurrence of mechanical loading, water immersion, and reducing conditions. In order to meet these new design conditions, a multi barrier containment system is proposed. An inner shell of Copper base alloy, to resist a wet, reducing environment. An outer shell of a Nickel base Chromium alloy to resist the dry oxidizing conditions. A nonconducting oxide barrier to separate the two metallic barriers.
Synthesis of robust controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marrison, Chris
1993-01-01
At the 1990 American Controls Conference a benchmark problem was issued as a challenge for designing robust compensators. Many compensators were presented in response to the problem. In previous work Stochastic Robustness Analysis (SRA) was used to compare these compensators. In this work SRA metrics are used as guides to synthesize robust compensators, using the benchmark problem as an example.
Robust control for uncertain structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglas, Joel; Athans, Michael
1991-01-01
Viewgraphs on robust control for uncertain structures are presented. Topics covered include: robust linear quadratic regulator (RLQR) formulas; mismatched LQR design; RLQR design; interpretations of RLQR design; disturbance rejection; and performance comparisons: RLQR vs. mismatched LQR.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
He, Yong
2013-01-01
Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
He, Yong
2013-01-01
Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…
A robust two-stage design identifying the optimal biological dose for phase I/II clinical trials.
Zang, Yong; Lee, J Jack
2017-01-15
We propose a robust two-stage design to identify the optimal biological dose for phase I/II clinical trials evaluating both toxicity and efficacy outcomes. In the first stage of dose finding, we use the Bayesian model averaging continual reassessment method to monitor the toxicity outcomes and adopt an isotonic regression method based on the efficacy outcomes to guide dose escalation. When the first stage ends, we use the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution to jointly model the toxicity and efficacy outcomes and pick the candidate doses based on a three-dimensional volume ratio. The selected candidate doses are then seamlessly advanced to the second stage for dose validation. Both toxicity and efficacy outcomes are continuously monitored so that any overly toxic and/or less efficacious dose can be dropped from the study as the trial continues. When the phase I/II trial ends, we select the optimal biological dose as the dose obtaining the minimal value of the volume ratio within the candidate set. An advantage of the proposed design is that it does not impose a monotonically increasing assumption on the shape of the dose-efficacy curve. We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine the operating characteristics of the proposed design. The simulation results show that the proposed design has desirable operating characteristics across different shapes of the underlying true dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy curves. The software to implement the proposed design is available upon request. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan
2017-01-01
Visual communication design (VCD) is a form of nonverbal communication. The application of relevant linguistic or semiotic theories to VCD education renders graphic design an innovative and scientific discipline. In this study, actual teaching activities were examined to verify the feasibility of applying narrative theory to graphic design…
Design of a Robust Controller for an Unstable Nonminimum Phase Guided Missile
1989-12-01
of the 2- and oo-norms of the system 3 transfer function matrices. Considerable system modification is required to apply these techniques, and a...with %M= -2 .... .................. .. 5-5 5.5. 9M Open-Loop Transfer Function Bode Plots 5-7 3 5.6. Airframe Response to Step Body Rate Command 5-8...Tracker to Target Position Step Command .. ..................... 5-13 5.13. e Open-Loop Transfer Function Bode Plots . 5-14 5.14. Closed-.Loop System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizi, Seyed Naser; Asemi, Neda; Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolrouf
2012-09-01
In this study, perlite was used as a low-cost source of Si and Al to synthesis of nanocrystalline cancrinite zeolite. The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite from perlite by using the alkaline hydrothermal treatment under saturated steam pressure was investigated. A statistical Taguchi design of experiments was employed to evaluate the effects of the process variables such as type of aging, aging time and hydrothermal crystallization time on the crystallnity of synthesized zeolite. The optimum conditions for maximum crystallinity of nanocrystalline cancrinite were obtained as microwave-assisted aging, 60 min aging time and 6 h hydrothermal crystallization time from statistical analysis of the experimental results using Taguchi design. The synthetic samples were characterization by XRD, FT-IR and FE-SEM techniques. The results showed that the microwave-assisted aging can shorten the crystallization time and reduced the crystal size to form nanocrystalline cancrinite zeolite.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak; Monacos, Steve P.; Wright, Malcolm W.; Biswas, Abhijit
2003-07-01
A robust acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) subsystem is being developed for the 2.5 Gigabit per second (Gbps) Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle (UAV) to ground free-space optical communications link project. The demonstration will gather HDTV images of regions of geological interest (e.g. volcanic) and then downlink those images to ground receivers at a range of 50 km while the UAV is at an altitude of 18 km. With a 200 mW downlink laser at 1550 nm for a BER of 1E-9, the pointing requirements on the flight terminal are a jitter error of 19.5 urad and a bias error of 14.5 urad with a probability of pointing induced fades of 0.1 %. In order to mitigate the effect of atmospheric fades and deal with UAV flight and vibration uncertainties (relatively new craft) the ATP subsystem requirements have been set to a stringent level in order to assure success of the communication link. The design, analysis and development of this robust ATP subsystem will be described in this paper. The key innovations that have been developed to make the ATP subsystem robust are i) the application of inertial sensors to make the acquisition and tracking functions tolerant to atmospheric fades, ii) the usage of active exposure control to provide a 16 dB dynamic range on the Focal Plane Array (FPA) tracking window, and iii) the introduction of a second ultra wide field of view camera to assure acquisition of the ground beacon.
Design of Low Order Controllers for Robust Disturbance Rejection in Large Space Structures.
1987-09-01
their contributions to this thesis. Foremost, I 5 would like to thank my advisor. Professor William R. Perkins and also Professor Juraj V. Medanic for...system order before I the observer is designed. Projective controls. as developed by Medanic (1978. 1979). offers a method of implementing an output...Hopkins. et al. (191I) and Medanic . et al. (1985). Discrete-time results are given in Medanic and Uskokovic (1983). 3.2. Static Projective Controls
Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander
2016-06-01
Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134–57.500 gr ethanol kg‑1 Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis.
Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method.
Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander
2016-06-13
Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134-57.500 gr ethanol kg(-1) Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis.
Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method
Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander
2016-01-01
Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134–57.500 gr ethanol kg−1 Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis. PMID:27291594
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenns, N.; Heppell, C. M.; Burt, T. P.; Walden, J.; Foster, I. D. L.
2002-12-01
This paper reports the results of a quantitative source analysis of the contemporary and historical sediments delivered to Slapton Higher Ley (Devon, UK). Contemporary suspended and bedload sediment inputs to the Higher Ley were apportioned successfully using R- and Q-mode analysis and an unmixing model. Pasture topsoil was responsible for 80% of the suspended sediment load during stormflow, but only 50% under baseflow conditions. Channel bank material dominated bedload (70-80%).Dating by 137Cs of three cores from the Higher Ley indicates that rapid sedimentation has occurred since the 1950s and that pasture topsoil has been the dominant source of sediment deposited in the Higher Ley since the early 1980s. Both the unmixing model and R- and Q-mode analysis support this interpretation. However, the robustness and validity of applying such source ascription techniques to the sediment cores of the Higher Ley is debatable, as chemical and mineral magnetic signatures in the cores are diluted in comparison with sediment sources from the Slapton catchment. Particles-size effects, selective transport and post-depositional physical and chemical processes are examined as possible causes of this dilution effect. Post-depositional alteration of the sediment was identified as the most probable explanation, but further analysis of the process was not possible within the scope of this study.
Ferrari, Ricardo J
2013-02-01
Although anisotropic diffusion filters have been used extensively and with great success in medical image denoising, one limitation of this iterative approach, when used on fully automatic medical image processing schemes, is that the quality of the resulting denoised image is highly dependent on the number of iterations of the algorithm. Using many iterations may excessively blur the edges of the anatomical structures, while a few may not be enough to remove the undesirable noise. In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to automatically determine the number of iterations of the robust anisotropic diffusion filter applied to the problem of denoising three common human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images (T1-weighted, T2-weighted and proton density). The model is determined off-line by means of the maximization of the mean structural similarity index, which is used in this work as metric for quantitative assessment of the resulting processed images obtained after each iteration of the algorithm. After determining the model parameters, the optimal number of iterations of the algorithm is easily determined without requiring any extra computation time. The proposed method was tested on 3D synthetic and clinical human brain MR images and the results of qualitative and quantitative evaluation have shown its effectiveness.
Practical Findings from Applying the PSD Model for Evaluating Software Design Specifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räisänen, Teppo; Lehto, Tuomas; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri
This paper presents practical findings from applying the PSD model to evaluating the support for persuasive features in software design specifications for a mobile Internet device. On the one hand, our experiences suggest that the PSD model fits relatively well for evaluating design specifications. On the other hand, the model would benefit from more specific heuristics for evaluating each technique to avoid unnecessary subjectivity. Better distinction between the design principles in the social support category would also make the model easier to use. Practitioners who have no theoretical background can apply the PSD model to increase the persuasiveness of the systems they design. The greatest benefit of the PSD model for researchers designing new systems may be achieved when it is applied together with a sound theory, such as the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Using the ELM together with the PSD model, one may increase the chances for attitude change.
2003-01-01
ag ne tiz at io n (A /m ) Data Model −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 x 10 5 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 x 10 −3 Field (A/m) S tr ai n Data Model (a) (b...31] R.C. Smith, M.J. Dapino and S . Seelecke, “A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Magnetostrictive Transducers,” Journal of Applied Physics, 93(1...of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 11(1), pp. 62-79, 2000. [35] R.C. Smith, S . Seelecke, M.J. Dapino and Z. Ounaies, “A Unified Model
Davidovitch, Lior; Stoklosa, Richard; Majer, Jonathan; Nietrzeba, Alex; Whittle, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Ben-Haim, Yakov
2009-06-01
Surveillance for invasive non-indigenous species (NIS) is an integral part of a quarantine system. Estimating the efficiency of a surveillance strategy relies on many uncertain parameters estimated by experts, such as the efficiency of its components in face of the specific NIS, the ability of the NIS to inhabit different environments, and so on. Due to the importance of detecting an invasive NIS within a critical period of time, it is crucial that these uncertainties be accounted for in the design of the surveillance system. We formulate a detection model that takes into account, in addition to structured sampling for incursive NIS, incidental detection by untrained workers. We use info-gap theory for satisficing (not minimizing) the probability of detection, while at the same time maximizing the robustness to uncertainty. We demonstrate the trade-off between robustness to uncertainty, and an increase in the required probability of detection. An empirical example based on the detection of Pheidole megacephala on Barrow Island demonstrates the use of info-gap analysis to select a surveillance strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beck, Tanja; Diaz del Castillo, Patricia; Fovet, Frederic; Mole, Heather; Noga, Brodie
2014-01-01
This article presents out an outcome analysis of a Universal Design (UD) audit to the various professional facets of a disability service (DS) provider's office on a large North American campus. The context of the audit is a broad campus-wide drive to implement Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in teaching practices. In an effort for consistency…
Macromodeling for analog design and robustness boosting in bio-inspired computing models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuadri, J.; Linan, G.; Roca, E.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, A.
2005-06-01
Setting specifications for the electronic implementation of biological neural-network-like vision systems on-chip is not straightforward, neither it is to simulate the resulting circuit. The structure of these systems leads to a netlist of more than 100.000 nodes for a small array of 100x150 pixels. Moreover, introducing an optical input in the low level simulation is nowadays not feasible with standard electrical simulation environments. Given that, to accomplish the task of integrating those systems in silicon to build compact, low power consuming, and reliable systems, a previous step in the standard analog electronic design flux should be introduced. Here a methodology to make the translation from the biological model to circuit-level specifications for electronic design is proposed. The purpose is to include non ideal effects as mismatching, noise, leakages, supply degradation, feedthrough, and temperature of operation in a high level description of the implementation, in order to accomplish behavioural simulations that require less computational effort and resources. A particular case study is presented, the analog electronic implementation of the locust"s Lobula Giant Movement Detector (LGMD), a neural structure that fires a collision alarm based on visual information. The final goal is a collision threat detection vision system on-chip for automotive applications.
Shi, Peipei; Li, Li; Hua, Li; Qian, Qianqian; Wang, Pengfei; Zhou, Jinyuan; Sun, Gengzhi; Huang, Wei
2017-01-24
Solid-state fiber-based supercapacitors have been considered promising energy storage devices for wearable electronics due to their lightweight and amenability to be woven into textiles. Efforts have been made to fabricate a high performance fiber electrode by depositing pseudocapacitive materials on the outer surface of carbonaceous fiber, for example, crystalline manganese oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MnO2/MWCNTs). However, a key challenge remaining is to achieve high specific capacitance and energy density without compromising the high rate capability and cycling stability. In addition, amorphous MnO2 is actually preferred due to its disordered structure and has been proven to exhibit superior electrochemical performance over the crystalline one. Herein, by incorporating amorphous MnO2 onto a well-aligned MWCNT sheet followed by twisting, we design an amorphous MnO2@MWCNT fiber, in which amorphous MnO2 nanoparticles are distributed in MWCNT fiber uniformly. The proposed structure gives the amorphous MnO2@MWCNT fiber good mechanical reliability, high electrical conductivity, and fast ion-diffusion. Solid-state supercapacitor based on amorphous MnO2@MWCNT fibers exhibits improved energy density, superior rate capability, exceptional cycling stability, and excellent flexibility. This study provides a strategy to design a high performance fiber electrode with microstructure control for wearable energy storage devices.