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Sample records for appraisal band ligation

  1. Rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids: A guide for complications

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Rubber band ligation is one of the most important, cost-effective and commonly used treatments for internal hemorrhoids. Different technical approaches were developed mainly to improve efficacy and safety. The technique can be employed using an endoscope with forward-view or retroflexion or without an endoscope, using a suction elastic band ligator or a forceps ligator. Single or multiple ligations can be performed in a single session. Local anaesthetic after ligation can also be used to reduce the post-procedure pain. Mild bleeding, pain, vaso-vagal symptoms, slippage of bands, priapism, difficulty in urination, anal fissure, and chronic longitudinal ulcers are normally considered minor complications, more frequently encountered. Massive bleeding, thrombosed hemorrhoids, severe pain, urinary retention needing catheterization, pelvic sepsis and death are uncommon major complications. Mild pain after rubber band ligation is the most common complication with a high frequency in some studies. Secondary bleeding normally occurs 10 to 14 d after banding and patients taking anti-platelet and/or anti-coagulant medication have a higher risk, with some reports of massive life-threatening haemorrhage. Several infectious complications have also been reported including pelvic sepsis, Fournier’s gangrene, liver abscesses, tetanus and bacterial endocarditis. To date, seven deaths due to these infectious complications were described. Early recognition and immediate treatment of complications are fundamental for a favourable prognosis. PMID:27721924

  2. Endoscopic band ligation: Beyond prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is the preferred endoscopic technique for the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. EBL has also been used to treat nonvariceal bleeding. Recently, Han et al demonstrated that EBL can be a feasible and safe alternate technique for the management of iatrogenic gastric perforation especially in cases in which closure with endoclips is difficult. EBL is technically simpler to perform than other methods and provides a good view of the lesions under direct pressure and suction from the transparent ligation cap. EBL can be used even if the diameter of the perforation is greater than 10 mm or if there is a severe tangential angle. In this commentary, we discuss the efficacy and safety of EBL for the closure of iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforation. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of EBL for the treatment of nonvariceal bleeding. PMID:23885137

  3. Endoscopic band ligation for bleeding lesions in the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Ikeya, Takashi; Ishii, Naoki; Shimamura, Yuto; Nakano, Kaoru; Ego, Mai; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for bleeding lesions in the small bowel. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating EBL in six consecutive patients (three males, three females, 46-86 years of age) treated between May 2009 and February 2014: duodenal vascular ectasia; 1, jejunal bleeding diverticulum; 1, ileal Dieulafoy’s lesion; 1 and ileal bleeding diverticula; 3. The success of the initial hemostasis was evaluated, and patients were observed for early rebleeding (within 30 d after EBL), and complications such as perforation and abscess formation. Follow-up endoscopies were performed in four patients. RESULTS: Initial hemostasis was successfully achieved with EBL in all six patients. Eversion was not sufficient in four diverticular lesions. Early rebleeding occurred three days after EBL in one ileal diverticulum, and a repeat endoscopy revealed dislodgement of the O-band and ulcer formation at the banded site. This rebleeding was managed conservatively. Late rebleeding occurred in this case (13 and 21 mo after initial EBL), and re-EBL was performed. Follow-up endoscopies revealed scar formation and the disappearance of vascular lesions at the banded site in the case with a duodenal bleeding lesion, and unresolved ileal diverticula in three cases. Surgery or transarterial embolization was not required without any complications during the median follow-up period of 45 (range, 2-83) mo. CONCLUSION: EBL is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the small bowel. PMID:25324920

  4. A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakhi; Arya, Ramesh C.; Minhas, Satinder S.; Dutt, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patients were randomly allotted to two groups of 10 patients each. Group I patients underwent RBL, whereas patients of group II underwent KSL. Guggul-based Apamarga Kshar Sutra was prepared according to the principles laid down in ancient Ayurvedic texts and methodology standardized by IIIM, Jammu and CDRI, Lucknow. Comparative assessment of RBL and KSL was done according to 16 criteria. Although the two procedures were compared on 15 criteria, treatment outcome of grade II and grade III hemorrhoids was decided chiefly on the basis of patient satisfaction index (subjective criterion) and ability of each procedure to deal with prolapse of internal hemorrhoidal masses (objective criterion): Findings in each case were recorded over a follow-up of four weeks (postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30). Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test for parametric data and Chi square test & Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RBL had the advantages of being an OPD procedure requiring no anesthesia and was attended by significantly lesser postoperative recumbency (P < 0.001 ) and significantly lesser pain (P < 0.005 on day 1) as compared to KSL. However, Group II (KSL) scored better in terms of treatment outcome. In Group II, there was significantly high (P < 0.05) patient satisfaction index as compared to Group I. Group II reported 100% 'cure' (absence of hemorrhoidal masses even on proctoscopy) of internal hemorrhoidal prolapse as against 80

  5. A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakhi; Arya, Ramesh C; Minhas, Satinder S; Dutt, Anil

    2010-04-01

    Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patients were randomly allotted to two groups of 10 patients each. Group I patients underwent RBL, whereas patients of group II underwent KSL. Guggul-based Apamarga Kshar Sutra was prepared according to the principles laid down in ancient Ayurvedic texts and methodology standardized by IIIM, Jammu and CDRI, Lucknow. Comparative assessment of RBL and KSL was done according to 16 criteria. Although the two procedures were compared on 15 criteria, treatment outcome of grade II and grade III hemorrhoids was decided chiefly on the basis of patient satisfaction index (subjective criterion) and ability of each procedure to deal with prolapse of internal hemorrhoidal masses (objective criterion): Findings in each case were recorded over a follow-up of four weeks (postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30). Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test for parametric data and Chi square test & Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RBL had the advantages of being an OPD procedure requiring no anesthesia and was attended by significantly lesser postoperative recumbency (P < 0.001 ) and significantly lesser pain (P < 0.005 on day 1) as compared to KSL. However, Group II (KSL) scored better in terms of treatment outcome. In Group II, there was significantly high (P < 0.05) patient satisfaction index as compared to Group I. Group II reported 100% 'cure' (absence of hemorrhoidal masses even on proctoscopy) of internal hemorrhoidal prolapse as against 80

  6. Comparison between Ultroid and rubber band ligation in treatment of internal hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Rasoul; Rabani-Karizi, Behzad; Taghipour, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Hemorrhoid is one of the most common surgical diseases and different methods are available for its treatment. This study is a comparison between two methods of treatment of internal hemorrhoid, Monopolar low voltage instrument (Ultroid) and Rubber Band Ligation. This method has been carried out prospectively in which 50 patients who were treated with rubber band ligation and 50 patients with Ultroid were compared according to the incidence of complications, post-operative pain and treatment response. According to this study complete success rate with Ultroid was 82% and partial success rate was 10% and no response to treatment was seen in 8%. In Rubber Band method the complete response rate was 94% (P=0.2). With Ultroid, 74% of patient reported no postoperative pain, 24% reported mild and moderate pain and 2% of patients complained of severe pain. With Rubber band ligation, 72% of patients reported no post-operative pain, 26% reported mild and moderate pain and 1% complained of severe pain (P=0.00). Rubber Band ligation and Ultroid are both considered as outpatient procedures for treatment of hemorrhoids. Both methods are mostly used for grade 1, 2 and sometime grade 3 hemorrhoids. In Ultroid method the operator is required to hold the probe for a period of time, and in most cases, the surgeon should spend between 20-25 minutes for the coagulation of three piles. Some surgeons do not have patience for this modality of internal hemorrhoid treatment. In this study we achieved acceptable results comparable with those of other techniques.

  7. Rubber band ligation for 750 cases of symptomatic hemorrhoids out of 2200 cases

    PubMed Central

    Nakeeb, Ayman M El; Fikry, Amir A; Omar, Waleed H; Fouda, Elyamani M; Metwally, Tito A El; Ghazy, Hosam E; Badr, Sabry A; Elkhar, Mohmed Y Abu; Elawady, Salih M; Elmoniam, Hisham H Abd; Khafagy, Waiel W; Morshed, Mosaad M; Lithy, Ramadan E El; Farid, Mohamed E

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the results for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids using rubber band ligation (RBL) method. METHODS: A retrospective study for 750 patients who came to the colorectal unit from June, 1998 to September, 2006, data was retrieved from archived files. RBL was performed using the Mc Gown applicator on an outpatient basis. The patients were asked to return to out-patient clinic for follow up at 2 wk, 1 mo, 6 mo and through telephone call every 6 mo for 2 years). RESULTS: After RBL, 696 patients (92.8%) were cured with no difference in outcome for second or third degree hemorrhoids (P = 0.31). Symptomatic recurrence was detected in 11.04% after 2 years. A total of 52 patients (6.93%) had 77 complications from RBL which required no hospitalization. Complications were pain, rectal bleeding and vaso-vagal symptoms (4.13%, 4.13% and 1.33% of patients, respectively). At 1 mo there were a significant improvement in mean SF-36 scores over baseline in five items, while after 2 years there were improvement in all items over baseline, but not significant. No significant manometric changes after band ligation. CONCLUSION: RBL is a simple, safe and effective method for treating symptomatic second and third degree hemorrhoids as an out patient procedure with significant improvement in quality of life. RBL doesn’t alter ano-rectal functions. PMID:19030206

  8. Local anaesthetic infiltration for the rubber band ligation of early symptomatic haemorrhoids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sajid, M S; Bhatti, M I; Caswell, J; Sains, P; Baig, M K

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of local anaesthetic infiltration prior to the rubber band ligation of early symptomatic haemorrhoids. Published randomized, controlled trials comparing the use of local anaesthetic (LA) versus no-local anaesthetic (NLA) for the rubber band ligation of early symptomatic haemorrhoids were analysed using RevMan®, and the combined outcomes were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD). Four randomized, controlled trials evaluating 387 patients were retrieved from the standard electronic databases. The risk of treatment failure (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.07, 2.79; z = 0.87; p = 0.39) and post-procedure complications (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.08, 2.76; z = 0.83; p = 0.41) was similar between two techniques. However, the post-procedure pain score (SMD -5.19; 95% CI -9.08, -1.30; z = 2.62; p < 0.009) was significantly lower in the group of patients undergoing rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids under local anaesthetic injection. The use of LA appears to have clinically measurable advantages over NLA in the rubber band ligation of early symptomatic haemorrhoids to lessen post-procedure pain.

  9. Changes in Cardiac Varices and Their Clinical Significance after Eradication of Esophageal Varices by Band Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Woon; Lee, Han Ah; Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Jae Min; Suh, Sang Jun; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jung, Young Kul; An, Hyonggin; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Yeon, Jong Eun; Lee, Hong Sik; Chun, Hoon Jai; Byun, Kwan Soo; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Cardiac varices (CVs) in patients with type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1s) usually disappear with treatment for esophageal varices (EVs) by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). However, whether this applies to patients treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for EVs remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of EVs eradication by EBL on CVs. Methods. We included cirrhotic patients whose EVs had been eradicated using EBL and excluded those who had been treated using EIS, those who had received endoscopic therapy for CVs, and those who were combined with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results. A total of 123 patients were enrolled. The age was 59.7 ± 11.7 years, and 96 patients (78.0%) were men. Thirty-eight patients (30.9%) had EVs only, while 85 (69.1%) had GOV1s. After EVs eradication, the CVs disappeared in 55 patients (64.7%). EVs recurred in 40 patients, with recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years of 16.0%, 29.6%, and 35.6%, respectively, the recurrence being more frequent in patients who had undergone EBL for secondary prophylaxis and in those with persisting CVs after EVs eradication (P = 0.003). Conclusions. CVs frequently disappeared when EVs were eradicated using EBL in patients with GOV1s. Persistence of CVs after EVs eradication by EBL was associated with EVs recurrence. PMID:28116285

  10. Feasibility appraisal of an elastic band exercise program for older adults in wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Tseng, Wei-Shyuan; Chang, Ya-Hui; Huang, Hsin-Ting; Li, Chun-Huw

    2013-01-01

    This study appraised the feasibility of an elastic band exercise program for older adults in wheelchairs. A descriptive program review survey was used. A wheelchair-bound senior elastic band (WSEB) exercise program tailored to older adults in wheelchairs was initially developed by a group of 12 experts. A feasibility appraisal survey was administered to 10 older adults in wheelchairs through individual interviews after 4 weeks of the WSEB program. Study participants revealed that the WSEB program was feasible, safe, appropriate, and helpful to them. Participants further suggested practicing the WSEB program 3 times/week for 40 min/session in a group of 15-20 people. The finalized WSEB program has 2 levels: the basic and the advanced WSEB program. It is suggested that the basic level to be taught first with practice until participants are familiar with those exercises before proceeding to the advanced level.

  11. Should we add beta-blockers to band ligation for secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Cotoras, Petre; Faúndez, Jorge; Candia, Roberto

    2017-02-23

    Cirrhotic patients who have had an episode of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices are at high risk of rebleeding, despite treatment with endoscopic variceal ligation. Adding beta-blockers could reduce this risk, but it is associated with adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified seven systematic reviews including 21 randomized controlled trials addressing the question of this article. We extracted data, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the addition of beta-blockers to endoscopic variceal ligation as secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding reduces the risk of rebleeding, but probably does not lead to any difference in terms of mortality. Even though it is associated to frequent adverse effects, these would be mild and generally do not lead to discontinuation of treatment.

  12. Complete Esophageal Obstruction after Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation in a Patient with a Sliding Hiatal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Munthir; Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Awadh, Hesham; Shah, Nihar

    2017-01-01

    Complete esophageal obstruction is a rare complication of endoscopic variceal banding, with only 6 cases in the English literature since the introduction of endoscopic variceal banding in 1986. We report a case of complete esophageal obstruction following esophageal banding due to entrapment of part of a sliding hiatal hernia. To our knowledge, our case is one of few with esophageal obstruction post-banding, and the first associated with a hiatal hernia. We recommend caution when performing esophageal banding on patients with a hiatal hernia. PMID:28144613

  13. Tubal ligation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tying; Tying the tubes; Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion procedure; Contraception - tubal ligation; Family planning - tubal ligation ... Tubal ligation is considered a permanent form of birth control. It is NOT recommended as a short-term ...

  14. Cyanoacrylate injection versus band ligation for bleeding from cardiac varices along the lesser curvature of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Yong Kwon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Seung Woon; Lee, Han Ah; Kim, Tae Hyung; Suh, Sang Jun; Jung, Young Kul; Kim, Ji Hoon; An, Hyunggin; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jang, Jae Young; Yeon, Jong Eun; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Practice guidelines recommend endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) for bleeding from esophageal varices and fundal varices, respectively. However, the optimal treatment for bleeding from cardiac varices along the lesser curvature of the stomach (GOV1) remains undefined. This retrospective study compared the efficacy between EBL and EVO for bleeding from GOV1. Methods Patients treated by EBL or EVO via cyanoacrylate injection for bleeding from GOV1 were enrolled. Patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma or treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy were excluded. Results The study included 91 patients treated for bleeding from GOV1. The mean age was 56.3±10.9 years (mean±SD), and 78 of them (85.7%) were men. Overall, 51 and 40 patients were treated with EBL and EVO, respectively. A trend for a higher hemostasis rate was noted in the EVO group (100%) than in the EBL group (82.6%, P=0.078). Varices rebled in 15 patients during follow-up. The rebleeding rate was significantly higher in the EBL group than in the EVO group (P=0.004). During follow-up, 13 patients died (11 in the EBL group and 2 in the EVO group); the survival rate was marginally significant between two groups (P=0.050). The rebleeding-free survival rate was significantly higher in the EVO group than in the EBL group (P=0.001). Conclusion Compared to EBL, EVO offered significantly lower rebleeding rates, significantly higher rebleeding-free survival rates, and a trend for higher hemostasis and survival rates. EVO appears to be the better therapeutic option for bleeding from GOV1. PMID:28081588

  15. Comparative study of hemorrhoidectomy and rubber band ligation in treatment of second and third degree hemorrhoids in kashmir.

    PubMed

    Gagloo, Mushtaq A; Hijaz, S Wardul; Nasir, S Aijaz; Reyaz, Arjmand; Bakshi, I H; Chowdary, Nisar A; Naqash, Sameer A; Sharief, Banday M

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of hemorrhoids is primarily based on the proctoscopic examination. The study evaluates comparative results of rubber band ligation (RBL) and hemorrhoidectomy. This study was conducted over a period of 1½ year from Jan 2003 to June 2004. It includes 100 patients having second- or third-degree primary hemorrhoids who attended surgical OPD of SMHS Hospital Srinagar, Kashmir. These 100 patients were selected randomly and divided into two groups of 50 patients each (hemorrhoidectomy group and RBL group). Each patient was subjected to sigmoidoscopy to exclude other lesion higher up in rectosigmoid. Patients of fissure, fistulae, and malignancy were excluded. All parameters were recorded and finally analysed. The statistical analysis of the study was done using SPSS statistical package in which we used descriptive statistics and correlation analysis for the final evaluation. Hemorrhoidectomy and RBL are equally effective especially in second-degree hemorrhoids. However, RBL should be considered the first-line treatment in second-degree hemorrhoids because being an outpatient procedure, it is cost effective for the patients, saves many a hospital beds for more sick patients, and takes the pressure off the surgical waiting list. Although RBL is not as effective as hemorrhoidectomy in third-degree hemorrhoid, it does improve bleeding and prolapse and is highly recommended for patients who are unfit for surgery or have concurrent disease that contraindicates anesthesia. RBL should be considered as the first-line treatment for second-degree hemorrhoid. However, in the third-degree hemorrhoids, hemorrhoidectomy achieves better results, and RBL is recommend as the first-line treatment for those patients in whom there is contraindication for surgery or anesthesia.

  16. Tubal Ligation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The insert causes scar tissue to form and seal off the tubes. Tubal ligation is an abdominal ... instruments passed through the abdominal wall, your doctor seals the fallopian tubes by destroying segments of the ...

  17. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay identifies additional copy number changes compared with R-band karyotype and provide more accuracy prognostic information in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zefeng; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Jinqin; Li, Bing; Fang, Liwei; Zhang, Hongli; Pan, Lijuan; Hu, Naibo; Qu, Shiqiang; Cai, Wenyu; Ru, Kun; Jia, Yujiao; Huang, Gang; Xiao, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis provides important diagnostic and prognostic information for patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and plays an essential role in the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is a recently developed technique to identify targeted cytogenetic aberrations in MDS patients. In the present study, we evaluated the results obtained using an MLPA assay in 437 patients with MDS to determine the efficacy of MLPA analysis. Using R-banding karyotyping, 45% (197/437) of MDS patients had chromosomal abnormalities, whereas MLPA analysis detected that 35% (153/437) of MDS cases contained at least one copy-number variations (CNVs) .2/5 individuals (40%) with R-band karyotype failures had trisomy 8 detected using only MLPA. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 20/235 (8.5%) MDS patients with a normal R-band karyotype, and 12/20 (60%) of those patients were reclassified into a higher-risk IPSS-R prognostic category. When sequencing and cytogenetics were combined, the fraction of patients with MDS-related oncogenic lesions increased to 87.3% (233/267 cases). MLPA analysis determined that the median OS of patients with a normal karyotype (n=218) was 65 months compared with 27 months in cases with an aberrant karyotype (P=0.002) in 240 patients with normal or failed karyotypes by R-banding karyotyping. The high-resolution MPLA assay is an efficient and reliable method that can be used in conjunction with R-band karyotyping to detect chromosomal abnormalities in patients with suspected MDS. MLPA may also provide more accurate prognostic information. PMID:27906673

  18. Appraisal of broadband acoustic impedances from first principles and band-limited seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, A.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic derived acoustic impedance is an essential output for the quantitative interpretation of seismic data. However, the band limitation of seismic data leads to a nonunique estimate of the acoustic impedance profile. The prevalent methods counter the nonuniqueness either by stabilizing the answer with respect to an initial model or by resorting to an assumption of certain criterion such as sparsity of the reflection coefficients. Making a nominal assumption of a homogeneous layered earth model, we formulate a set of linear equations where the reflection coefficients are the unknowns and the recursively integrated seismic trace constitutes the data. The approach makes a frontal assault on the problem of reconstructing reflection coefficients from band-limited data and stems from first principles, i.e., Zöppritz's equation in this case. Nonuniqueness is countered in part by the layercake assumption, and in part by the adoption of the singular value decomposition (SVD) method of finding an optimal solution to the set of linear equations, provided the objective is to reconstruct a smoothed version of the impedance profile that includes only its coarser structures. The efficacy of the method has been tested with synthetic data added with significant noise and generated from rudimentary earth models as well as from measured logs of acoustic impedance. Emergence of consistent estimates of impedance from synthetic data generated for several frequency bands increases the confidence in the method. The study also proves the successfulness of the method for (a) an accurate estimate of the impedance mean, (b) an accurate reconstruction of the direct-current (dc) frequency of the reflectivity, and (c) an acceptable reconstruction of the broad trend of the original impedance profile. All these outputs can serve as significant constraints for either more refined inversions or geological interpretations. (Keywords: Reflection data, Acoustic impedance, Broadband, Linear

  19. Cyanoacrylate Injection Compared with Band Ligation for Acute Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jiaping; Chen, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cyanoacrylate injection (GVO) and band ligation (GVL) are effective treatments for gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, data on the optimal treatment are still controversial. Methods. For our overall analysis, relevant studies were identified from several databases. For each outcome, data were pooled using a fixed-effect or random-effects model according to the result of a heterogeneity test. Results. Seven studies were included. Compared with GVL, GVO was associated with increased likelihood of hemostasis of active bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–4.51) and a longer gastric variceal rebleeding-free period (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.24–0.56). No significant differences were observed between GVL and GVO for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.43–1.02), likelihood of variceal obliteration (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.52–1.54), number of treatment sessions required for complete variceal eradication (weighted mean difference = −0.45; 95% CI = −1.14–0.23), or complications (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.48–2.19). Conclusion. GVO may be superior to GVL for achieving hemostasis and preventing recurrence of gastric variceal rebleeding but has no advantage over GVL for mortality and complications. Additional studies are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24868204

  20. The HubBLe Trial: haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) versus rubber band ligation (RBL) for symptomatic second- and third-degree haemorrhoids: a multicentre randomised controlled trial and health-economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Steven; Tiernan, Jim; Biggs, Katie; Hind, Daniel; Shephard, Neil; Bradburn, Mike; Wailoo, Allan; Alshreef, Abualbishr; Swaby, Lizzie; Watson, Angus; Radley, Simon; Jones, Oliver; Skaife, Paul; Agarwal, Anil; Giordano, Pasquale; Lamah, Marc; Cartmell, Mark; Davies, Justin; Faiz, Omar; Nugent, Karen; Clarke, Andrew; MacDonald, Angus; Conaghan, Phillip; Ziprin, Paul; Makhija, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optimal surgical intervention for low-grade haemorrhoids is unknown. Rubber band ligation (RBL) is probably the most common intervention. Haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) is a novel alternative that may be more efficacious. OBJECTIVE The comparison of HAL with RBL for the treatment of grade II/III haemorrhoids. DESIGN A multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. PERSPECTIVE UK NHS and Personal Social Services. SETTING 17 NHS Trusts. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years presenting with grade II/III (second- and third-degree) haemorrhoids, including those who have undergone previous RBL. INTERVENTIONS HAL with Doppler probe compared with RBL. OUTCOMES Primary outcome - recurrence at 1 year post procedure; secondary outcomes - recurrence at 6 weeks; haemorrhoid severity score; European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, 5-level version (EQ-5D-5L); Vaizey incontinence score; pain assessment; complications; and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS A total of 370 participants entered the trial. At 1 year post procedure, 30% of the HAL group had evidence of recurrence compared with 49% after RBL [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42 to 3.51; p = 0.0005]. The main reason for the difference was the number of extra procedures required to achieve improvement/cure. If a single HAL is compared with multiple RBLs then only 37.5% recurred in the RBL arm (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.15; p = 0.20). Persistence of significant symptoms at 6 weeks was lower in both arms than at 1 year (9% HAL and 29% RBL), suggesting significant deterioration in both groups over the year. Symptom score, EQ-5D-5L and Vaizey score improved in both groups compared with baseline, but there was no difference between interventions. Pain was less severe and of shorter duration in the RBL group; most of the HAL group who had pain had mild to moderate pain, resolving by 3 weeks. Complications were low frequency and not significantly different

  1. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth

    2011-12-13

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  2. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2006-10-17

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  3. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth

    2010-11-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  4. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2003-05-27

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  5. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2010-02-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g. on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  6. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-04-12

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  7. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-05-10

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  8. Randomized controlled study of endoscopic band ligation and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of gastric antral and fundal vascular ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mosaad, Samah; Alkhalawany, Walaa; Abo-Ali, Lobna; Enaba, Mohamed; Elsaka, Aymen; Elfert, Asem A

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is characterized by mucosal and submucosal vascular ectasia causing recurrent hemorrhage and thus, chronic anemia, in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective and safe method, but requires multiple sessions of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) was found to be a good alternative for APC as a treatment for GAVE, especially in refractory cases. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EBL, as compared to APC, in the treatment of GAVE and gastric fundal vascular ectasia (GFVE). Patients and methods A total of 88 cirrhotic patients with GAVE were prospectively randomized to endoscopic treatment with either EBL or APC, every 2 weeks until complete obliteration was accomplished; then they were followed up endoscopically after 6 months, plus they had monthly measurement of hemoglobin levels during that period. Results We describe the presence of mucosal and submucosal lesions in the gastric fundal area that were similar to those found in GAVE in 13 patients (29.5%) of the EBL group and 9 patients (20.5%) of the APC group; we named this GFVE. In these cases, we treated the fundal lesions with the same techniques we had used for treating GAVE, according to the randomization. We found that EBL significantly decreased the number of sessions required for complete obliteration of the lesions (2.98 sessions compared to 3.48 sessions in the APC group (p < 0.05)). Hemoglobin levels increased significantly after obliteration of the lesions in both groups, compared to pretreatment values (p < 0.05), but with no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05); however, the EBL group of patients required a significantly smaller number of units of blood transfusion than the APC group of patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events nor complications between the

  9. Tubal ligation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100044.htm Tubal ligation - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 ...

  10. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    MedlinePlus

    ... depending on a woman's age and other factors. Success rates may be as high as 80 percent or ... details of the procedure Discuss the likelihood of success and your ability to get pregnant after the procedure Discuss other options for pregnancy, such as IVF A tubal ligation reversal can be done as ...

  11. Post tubal ligation syndrome or iatrogenic hydrosalpinx.

    PubMed

    Gregory, M G

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this case report is as follows: to attempt to establish an association between the observed increase in hydrosalpinx and the phenomenal increase in surgical sterilization; to present a credible etiology for iatrogenic hydrosalpinx; and to discuss the pathogenesis of a disease process henceforth referred to as post tubal ligation syndrome. A 36-year-old white woman was admitted to Park View Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee on January 7, 1981 for evaluation of continuous lower abdominal pain, abdominal pressure, and dyspareunia for several months. The woman had 2 children who were delivered vaginally. An abdominal tubal ligation was performed for sterilization when she was 27, and vaginal hysterectomy, with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, was done for symptomatic pelvic relaxation at age 33. Physical examination showed tenderness without palpable masses in the pelvic adnexal areas. Laboratory studies were within normal limits. On January 9, 1981, the patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She was found to have bilateral hydrosalpinx. Historically, hydrosalpinx has been considered an intermediary step in pelvic inflammatory disease. Iatrogenic hydrosalpinx is, in essence, initiated by an initial insult, e.g., tubal ligation, fulguration, or application of a mechanical clip or band. Theoretically, single point interruption of a fallopian tube should produce no ill effects. The popularity and success of tubal ligation attest to single point interruption of an otherwise normal fallopian tube as an innocuous procedure. A schematic drawing is provided of the same tube insulted a 2nd time and consequently the situation is prefactory to development of hydrosalpinx, i.e., a tube lined with secretory epithelium is closed at both ends. Secretion within this closed system will produce dilatation. This "2nd" insult to the normal fallopian tube, post tubal ligation, may take 1 of several forms. The symptoms of iatrogenic

  12. [Appraisal of Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steve

    This document consists of four separate handouts all related to the appraisal of audiovisual (AV) materials: "How to Work with an Appraiser of AV Media: A Convenient Check List for Clients and Their Advisors," helps a client prepare for an appraisal, explaining what is necessary before the appraisal, the appraisal process and its costs,…

  13. Oestrogen deficiency after tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, J

    1985-04-13

    4 of 7 women who had undergone tubal ligation within the past seven years were found to have oestrogen excretion concentrations at ovulation below the tenth percentile. A disturbance in the oestrogen/progesterone ratio as a consequence of localised hypertension at the ovary, when the utero-ovarian arterial loop is occluded at tubal ligation, is proposed as a possible cause of oestrogen deficiency syndrome, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and menorrhagia after tubal ligation. Similar pathophysiology may occur after hysterectomy with ovarian conservation.

  14. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council...-7577 or alice@asc.gov ; Appraisal Subcommittee; 1401 H Street, NW., Suite 760, Washington, DC...

  15. [Post-tubal ligation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Satoh, K; Osada, H

    1993-01-01

    Post-tubal ligation syndrome includes pain during intercourse, aching lower back, premenstrual tension syndrome, difficulty in menstruating, uterine hemorrhage, and absence of menstruation. The syndrome is caused by blood circulation problems in and around the Fallopian tubes and ovaries, pressure on nerves, and intrapelvic adhesion. Differentiating between this syndrome and endometritis during diagnosis and differentiating between functional hemorrhage due to hormonal abnormality and anatomical hemorrhage due to polyp or tumor is very important. Since the symptoms of this syndrome are mild, simple symptomatic treatment is sufficient in most cases. In some cases, however, desquamation surgery or reversal of tubal ligation may be necessary. Endoscopic surgery is also available. In Japan, because of widespread use of condoms and IUDs, tubal ligation is not very common.

  16. [Appraisal: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chiu-Chu; Ma, Shu-Ching

    2007-04-01

    Appraisal is a cognitive response by an individual facing an event within a given environment. When the individual has passed through a thought process that gives the event meaning, the coping process is finally completed. Coping heightens an individual's well-being. Negative appraisal will induce an emotional coping response and affect one's quality of life, mental state and health. Several researchers applied the concept of appraisal to their disciplines. The concept of appraisal, however, is poorly defined. This article applies the methodology outlined by Walker and Avant (1995) to analyze the concept of appraisal. The definition of appraisal, examples, and empirical references provided in this paper will be useful in nursing practice in relation to the role of appraisal in coping.

  17. Ligation-assisted endoscopic submucosal resection with circumferential mucosal incision for duodenal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hideaki; Suehiro, Satoshi; Shimizu, Takanori; Katsuyama, Yasushi; Hayasaka, Kenji; Ito, Hideto

    2015-09-14

    Here we present the case of a 64-year-old female with a duodenal carcinoid tumor treated by ligation-assisted endoscopic submucosal resection (ESMR-L) with circumferential mucosal incision (CMI). Band ligation was effective in resecting the duodenal carcinoid tumor after CMI, with an uneventful post-procedural course. Histopathological examination showed clear tumor margins at deeper tissue levels. Thus, in the present case, ESMR-L with CMI was useful for the treatment of duodenal carcinoid tumor.

  18. The postal tubal ligation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faber, E; Rocko, J M; Timmes, J J; Zolli, A F

    1981-01-01

    The frequency of symptoms following tubal ligation calls for an examination of the basic problem with the methods now used. This discussion recommends a modification of tubal ligation which as performed during the past 2-1/2 years has been symptom free, post operatively. What is meant by symptom free is those symptoms which can be directly related to tubal ligation. Symptomatology is complex and insidious. Characteristically, there is a latent period of no symptoms. This asymptomatic period may be totally subjective and may last several years during which time the correlation between surgery and symptoms is obscured. This is particularly the case if purely symptomatic therapeusis has had some degree of success. The latest period is followed by the gradual development of the following: menstrual disorders; abdominal pain which is usually located in the lower abdomen and is of 2 varieties, i.e., dysmenorrhea and nonmenstrual pain; and infection. Physical examination demonstrates little. This set of symptoms, which has been documented also by Poma et al., and when taken as a whole, constitutes a syndrome which should be termed the posttubal ligation syndrome. These patients give a history of repeat X-rays, biopsies, endoscopies, and surgical exploration. Some of these patients have had 4 or 5 celiotomies. A modification of the traditional method of tubal ligation definitely requires consideration. The characteristics of the oviducts which need mention and emphasis are reviewed. On the basis of the reviewed considerations, it becomes obvious that smooth transport of the ovum is a necessity and that obstruction in the tubes will cause a reaction similar to obstruction anywhere in the body. Tubal ligation should be performed in such a manner so as not to obstruct the ova from passing down the tube. The tubes should be cut fairly close to the uterus and be tied. The rest of the tube from fimbria to the isthmus should be left open. In this manner, the ovum passes into the

  19. [Latex ligation in treatment of chronic hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Ektov, V N; Somov, K A

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the results of treatment of 432 patients with chronic hemorrhoids using different variants of latex ligation. New technique including ligation of mucosa and submucosa of low-ampullar rectum providing ligation of hemorrhoidalvessels, lifting and recto-anal repair is developed and suggested. This method is advisable to use in case of chronic internal hemorrhoids stages I and II. The authors recommend simultaneous combined ligation of mucosa of low-ampullar rectum and internal hemorrhoids for stages III and IV. Different variants of latex ligation with external hemorrhoids excision were used in 103 patients. Pointed variants of latex ligation preserve important advantages including mini-invasiveness, simplicity and wide availability, low cost. Good remote results were obtained after these procedures in 87.3% of observations. Suggested tactics extends use of latex ligation and increases its effectiveness in treatment of different stages and forms of chronic hemorrhoids.

  20. Comparative ligational, optical band gap and biological studies on Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and O-vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Attia, M. I.; El-Tabai, M. N.

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from the condensation of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and o-vanillin synthesized and characterized by different conventional physicochemical techniques. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. The bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO, dipole moment and binding energy calculated by DFT calculations. The optical band gap (Eg) values equal 3.28, 3.03, 3.58 and 3.57 eV for [Cr(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.75H2O), [Cr(HL2)Cl2(H2O)](H2O), [Fe(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.5H2O) and [Fe(HL2)2Cl(H2O)](3H2O) complexes, respectively. The antibacterial activities tested against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  1. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  2. Western blot analysis of Src kinase assays using peptide substrates ligated to a carrier protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2004-06-01

    We have applied intein-mediated peptide ligation (IPL) to the use of peptide substrates for kinase assays and subsequent Western blot analysis. IPL allows for the efficient ligation of a synthetic peptide with an N-terminal cysteine residue to an intein-generated carrier protein containing a cysteine reactive C-terminal thioester through a native peptide bond. A distinct advantage of this procedure is that each carrier protein molecule ligates only one peptide, ensuring that the ligation product forms a sharp band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by mutational analysis of peptide substrates derived from human cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2, which contains a phosphorylation site of human c-Src protein tyrosine kinase.

  3. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  4. Determinants of tubal ligation in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rudzik, Alanna E F; Leonard, Susan H; Sievert, Lynnette L

    2011-06-21

    Tubal ligation provides an effective and reliable method by which women can choose to limit the number of children they will bear. However, because of the irreversibility of the procedure and other potential disadvantages, it is important to understand factors associated with women's choice of this method of birth control. Between May 1999 and August 2000, data were collected from 755 women aged 40 to 60 years from a cross-section of neighborhoods of varying socio-economic make-up in Puebla, Mexico, finding a tubal ligation rate of 42.2%. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to examine demographic, socio-economic, and reproductive history characteristics in relation to women's choice of tubal ligation. Regression analyses were repeated with participants grouped by age to determine how the timing of availability of tubal ligation related to the decision to undergo the procedure. The results of this study suggest that younger age, more education, use of some forms of birth control, and increased parity were associated with women's decisions to undergo tubal ligation. The statistically significant difference of greater tubal ligation and lower hysterectomy rates across age groups reflect increased access to tubal ligation in Mexico from the early 1970s, supporting the idea that women's choice of tubal ligation was related to access.

  5. Cloning of DNA fragments: ligation reactions in agarose gel.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo

    2014-01-01

    Ligation reactions to ligate a desired DNA fragment into a vector can be challenging to beginners and especially if the amount of the insert is limiting. Although additives known as crowding agents, such as PEG 8000, added to the ligation mixes can increase the success one has with ligation reactions, in practice the amount of insert used in the ligation can determine the success or the failure of the ligation reaction. The method described here, which uses insert DNA in gel slice added directly into the ligation reaction, has two benefits: (a) using agarose as the crowding agent and (b) reducing steps of insert purification. The use of rapid ligation buffer and incubation of the ligation reaction at room temperature greatly increase the efficiency of the ligation reaction even for blunt-ended ligation.

  6. 24 CFR 257.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 257.114 Section 257.114... PROGRAM Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 257.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to...

  7. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.114 Appraisal. (a) The property shall be appraised by an appraiser on the FHA Appraiser Roster. (b) An appraisal of a property to be security for a Program...

  8. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  9. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  10. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  11. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  12. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  13. 7 CFR 761.7 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) General. This section describes Agency requirements for: (1) Real estate and chattel appraisals... FLP and Non-program loans. (b) Appraisal standards. (1) Real estate appraisals, technical appraisal... existing real estate appraisal. Except where specified elsewhere, when a real estate appraisal is...

  14. 7 CFR 761.7 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) General. This section describes Agency requirements for: (1) Real estate and chattel appraisals... FLP and Non-program loans. (b) Appraisal standards. (1) Real estate appraisals, technical appraisal... existing real estate appraisal. Except where specified elsewhere, when a real estate appraisal is...

  15. Heterotopic Pregnancy Following Reversal of Tubal Ligation.

    PubMed

    Eschenbach, Stephanie; Entzian, Dirk; Baumgarten, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who had undergone reversal of tubal ligation with subsequent heterotopic pregnancy. We review the initial radiological evaluation of heterotopic pregnancies and the subsequent radiologic findings following appropriate therapy.

  16. The Pupil Appraisal Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilborn, Bobbie; Gentile, Lance M.

    The primary purpose of the Pupil Appraisal Center (PAC) is to promote teacher education by providing teachers and students direct experience in resolving behavioral disorders and learning problems. PAC provides specialized teacher training in counseling, reading, hearing, speech, and language development and provides service to area schools for…

  17. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Gross appraisals. 644.43 Section 644.43 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real... reflect actual market conditions and unit prices. (2) Each gross appraisal will be supported by...

  18. 30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisals. 882.12 Section 882.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private... independent appraiser. The appraisal shall state— (1) The estimated market value of the property in...

  19. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acquisition Conference 1992 (Washington, DC, 1992), ISBN 0-16-038050-2 when appraising the values of the... appraiser(s) shall provide to the authorized officer appraisals estimating the market value of Federal and... meeting the requirements of FIRREA. (b) Market value. (1) In estimating market value, the appraiser...

  20. 12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a...

  1. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. (a) Appraisals required. An appraisal performed by a State certified...

  2. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Material and Methods Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). Results In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conclusions Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words:Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation. PMID:28149476

  3. 78 FR 60873 - Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal... amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in closed session:...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... least one of the following qualifications: (1) Certification by a National or State appraisal society... that the appraiser meets the criteria for a certification in a National or State appraisal society....

  5. Ultrasensitive detection of DNA and RNA based on enzyme-free click chemical ligation chain reaction on dispersed gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kato, Daiki; Oishi, Motoi

    2014-10-28

    An ultrasensitive colorimetric DNA and RNA assay using a combination of enzyme-free click chemical ligation chain reaction (CCLCR) on dispersed gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and a magnetic separation process has been developed. The click chemical ligation between an azide-containing probe DNA-modified GNP and a dibenzocyclooctyne-containing probe biotinyl DNA occurred through hybridization with target DNA (RNA) to form the biotinyl-ligated GNPs (ligated products). Eventually, both the biotinyl-ligated GNPs and target DNA (RNA) were amplified exponentially using thermal cycling. After separation of the biotinyl-ligated GNPs using streptavidin-modified magnetic beads, the change in intensity of the surface plasmon band at 525 nm in the supernatants was observed by UV/vis measurement and was also evident visually. The CCLCR assay provides ultrasensitive detection (50 zM: several copies) of target DNA that is comparable to PCR-based approaches. Note that target RNA could also be detected with similar sensitivity without the need for reverse transcription to the corresponding cDNA. The amplification efficiency of the CCLCR assay was as high as 82% due to the pseudohomogeneous reaction behavior of CCLCR on dispersed GNPs. In addition, the CCLCR assay was able to discriminate differences in single-base mismatches and to specifically detect target DNA and target RNA from the cell lysate.

  6. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Two Different Treatment Approaches (Early Ligation versus Selective Ligation) for Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Wickremasinghe, Andrea C.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Piecuch, Robert E.; Johnson, Bridget C.; Golden, Suzanne; Moon-Grady, Anita J.; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether a change in the approach to management of persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), from “early ligation” to “selective ligation,” is associated with an increased risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Study design In 2005, we changed our PDA treatment protocol (in infants ≤27 6/7 weeks gestation) from an “early ligation” approach, with PDA ligation quickly if they failed to close after indomethacin (Period 1: 1/99–12/04), to a “selective ligation” approach, with PDA ligation only if specific criteria were met (Period 2: 1/05–5/09). All infants in both periods received prophylactic indomethacin. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the odds of a composite Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcome (Bayley MDI or Cognitive score <70, cerebral palsy, blindness, and/or deafness) associated with each treatment approach at 18–36 months (n=224). Results During Period 1, 23% of the infants in follow-up failed indomethacin treatment, and all were ligated; during Period 2, 30% of infants failed indomethacin, and 66% were ligated after meeting pre-specified criteria. Infants treated with the “selective ligation” strategy had fewer Abnormal Outcomes than infants treated with the “early ligation” approach (OR=0.07, p=0.046). Infants ligated before 10 days of age had an increased incidence of Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcome. The significant difference in outcomes between the two PDA treatment strategies could be accounted for, in part, by the earlier age of ligation during Period 1. Conclusions A “selective ligation” approach for PDAs that fail to close with indomethacin does not worsen neurodevelopmental outcome at 18–36 months. PMID:22795222

  8. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture... Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible for ensuring that appraisal values adequately reflect the actual value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking...

  9. 48 CFR 1437.7002 - Appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appraisal standards. 1437... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Appraisal Services (Real Property) 1437.7002 Appraisal standards. (a) All real property appraisals for condemnation purposes shall be consistent with...

  10. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222 Appraisal... methods to determine appraised value include, but are not limited to, transaction evidence...

  11. 7 CFR 770.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 770.9 Section 770.9 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.9 Appraisals. (a) The applicant or the borrower, as appropriate, will pay the cost of any appraisal required under this part. (b) Appraisals...

  12. 12 CFR 34.85 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 34.85 Section 34.85... APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a national bank shall substantiate the parcel's market value by obtaining either: (i) An appraisal...

  13. 78 FR 60872 - Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal... amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open session for its....) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation May, June and July 2013 Grant Reimbursement Requests Phase 2...

  14. 7 CFR 761.7 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section describes Agency requirements for: (1) Real estate and chattel appraisals made in connection with... loans. (b) Appraisal standards. (1) Real estate appraisals, technical appraisal reviews and their... State Office) or other format containing the same information. (c) Use of an existing real...

  15. 7 CFR 761.7 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) General. This section describes Agency requirements for: (1) Real estate and chattel appraisals... FLP and Non-program loans. (b) Appraisal standards. (1) Real estate appraisals, technical appraisal...) or other format containing the same information. (3) For direct FO loans secured by real estate...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... real estate properties, all contract (fee) appraisers should include the sales comparison, income (when... Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County... estate contract appraisers must be certified as State-Certified General Appraisers. (b) Chattel...

  17. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... real estate properties, all contract (fee) appraisers should include the sales comparison, income (when... Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County... estate contract appraisers must be certified as State-Certified General Appraisers. (b) Chattel...

  18. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... real estate properties, all contract (fee) appraisers should include the sales comparison, income (when... Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County... estate contract appraisers must be certified as State-Certified General Appraisers. (b) Chattel...

  19. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... real estate properties, all contract (fee) appraisers should include the sales comparison, income (when... Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County... estate contract appraisers must be certified as State-Certified General Appraisers. (b) Chattel...

  20. Enzyme-mediated ligation technologies for peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marcel; Toplak, Ana; Quaedflieg, Peter Jlm; Nuijens, Timo

    2017-02-18

    With the steadily increasing complexity and quantity requirements for peptides in industry and academia, the efficient and site-selective ligation of peptides and proteins represents a highly desirable goal. Within this context, enzyme-mediated ligation technologies for peptides and proteins have attracted great interest in recent years as they represent an extremely powerful extension to the scope of chemical methodologies (e.g. native chemical ligation) in basic and applied research. Compared to chemical ligation methods, enzymatic strategies using ligases such as sortase, butelase, peptiligase or omniligase generally feature excellent chemoselectivity, therefore making them valuable tools for protein and peptide chemists.

  1. 77 FR 20633 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation December 2011 grant reimbursement request....

  2. 78 FR 9050 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Complaint National Hotline. Missouri Compliance Review. How...

  3. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in... discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation March 2012 Grant Reimbursement Request....

  4. 77 FR 14014 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda: ] Appraisal Foundation September-November 2011 Grant...

  5. 76 FR 31961 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda: Appraisal Foundation January 2011 Grant Reimbursement...

  6. Streamlined expressed protein ligation using split inteins.

    PubMed

    Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Liu, Zhihua; Shah, Neel H; Willis, John A; Idoyaga, Juliana; Muir, Tom W

    2013-01-09

    Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein α-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein α-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein α-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein α-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody.

  7. As fast and selective as enzymatic ligations: unpaired nucleobases increase the selectivity of DNA-controlled native chemical PNA ligation.

    PubMed

    Ficht, Simon; Dose, Christian; Seitz, Oliver

    2005-11-01

    DNA-controlled reactions offer interesting opportunities in biological, chemical, and nanosciences. In practical applications, such as in DNA sequence analysis, the sequence fidelity of the chemical-ligation reaction is of central importance. We present a ligation reaction that is as fast as and much more selective than enzymatic T4 ligase-mediated oligonucleotide ligations. The selectivity was higher than 3000-fold in discriminating matched from singly mismatched DNA templates. It is demonstrated that this enormous selectivity is the hallmark of the particular ligation architecture, which is distinct from previous ligation architectures designed as "nick ligations". Interestingly, the fidelity of the native chemical ligation of peptide nucleic acids was increased by more than one order of magnitude when performing the ligation in such a way that an abasic-site mimic was formed opposite an unpaired template base. It is shown that the high sequence fidelity of the abasic ligation could facilitate the MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometric analysis of early cancer onset by allowing the detection of as little as 0.2 % of single-base mutant DNA in the presence of 99.8 % wild-type DNA.

  8. 12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required... by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real...

  9. 12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals...

  10. Performance Appraisal: A Win/Win Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Krantz, Shelley

    1983-01-01

    Training managers fully for the performance appraisal process can transform an appraisal discussion from an administrative exercise to a worthwhile experience that contributes to the organization as a whole. (Author/SSH)

  11. (Bio)molecular surface patterning by phototriggered oxime ligation.

    PubMed

    Pauloehrl, Thomas; Delaittre, Guillaume; Bruns, Michael; Meißler, Maria; Börner, Hans G; Bastmeyer, Martin; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2012-09-03

    Making light work of ligation: A novel method utilizes light for oxime ligation chemistry. A quantitative, low-energy photodeprotection generates aldehyde, which subsequently reacts with aminooxy moieties. The spatial control allows patterning on surfaces with a fluoro marker and GRGSGR peptide, and can be imaged by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry.

  12. A new 10-min ligation method using a modified buffer system with a very low amount of T4 DNA ligase: the "Coffee Break Ligation" technique.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuki; Ishida, Masaharu; Horii, Akira

    2007-10-01

    The ligation reaction is widely used in molecular biology. There are several kits available that complete the ligation reaction very rapidly but they are rather expensive. In this study, we successfully modified the ligation buffer with much lower cost than existing kits. The ligation reaction can be completed in 10 min using very low activities such as 0.01 U T4 DNA ligase, and costs only $1 for 100 reactions of 20 microl scale. We name this ligation system the "Coffee Break Ligation" system; one can complete ligation reaction while drinking a cup of coffee, and perform 100 reactions by spending money equivalent to a cup of coffee.

  13. Irreversible sortase A-mediated ligation driven by diketopiperazine formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fa; Luo, Ethan Y; Flora, David B; Mezo, Adam R

    2014-01-17

    Sortase A (SrtA)-mediated ligation has emerged as an attractive tool in bioorganic chemistry attributing to the remarkable specificity of the ligation reaction and the physiological reaction conditions. However, the reversible nature of this reaction limits the efficiency of the ligation reaction and has become a significant constraint to its more widespread use. We report herein a novel set of SrtA substrates (LPETGG-isoacyl-Ser and LPETGG-isoacyl-Hse) that can be irreversibly ligated to N-terminal Gly-containing moieties via the deactivation of the SrtA-excised peptide fragment through diketopiperazine (DKP) formation. The convenience of the synthetic procedure and the stability of the substrates in the ligation buffer suggest that both LPETGG-isoacyl-Ser and LPETGG-isoacyl-Hse are valuable alternatives to existing irreversible SrtA substrate sequences.

  14. A simple microfluidic assay for the detection of ligation product.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jingjing; Roebelen, Johann; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel microfluidic-based approach to detect ligation products. The conformal specificity of ligases is used in various molecular assays to detect point mutations. Traditional methods of detecting ligation products include denaturing gel electrophoresis, sequence amplification, and melting curve analysis. Gel electrophoresis is a labor- and time-intensive process, while sequence amplification and melting curve analysis require instruments capable of accurate thermal ramping and sensitive optical detection. Microfluidics has been widely applied in genomics, proteomics, and cell cytometry to enable rapid and automated assays. We designed an assay that fluorogenically detects ligation products following a simple magnetic separation through a microfluidic channel. 100 nM of synthetic HIV-1 K103N minority mutant templates were successfully detected in 30 min. This simple and rapid method can be coupled with any ligation assay for the detection of ligation products.

  15. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The GAO shall develop one or more performance appraisal systems which provide for...

  16. Teacher Appraisal: Back to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimore, Peter; Mortimore, Jo

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the government's progress in introducing a formal, systematic, and compulsory system of teacher appraisal across England and Wales, using comparisons with civil service, business, and commerce appraisal techniques. Describes national government-initiated pilot appraisal schemes, concluding with a discussion of implications for developing a…

  17. 12 CFR 34.85 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a national bank shall substantiate the parcel's market value by obtaining either: (i) An appraisal in... develop a prudent real estate collateral evaluation policy that allows the bank to monitor the value...

  18. 25 CFR 700.39 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 700.39 Section 700.39 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.39 Appraisal. The appraisal is an estimate of the fair market value which...

  19. 7 CFR 761.7 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 761.7 Section 761.7 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.7 Appraisals. (a) General. This section describes Agency requirements for: (1) Real estate and chattel appraisals made in connection...

  20. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 762.127 Section 762.127... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.127 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. The Agency may require a lender to obtain an appraisal based on the type of security, loan size, and whether...

  1. 32 CFR 644.436 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appraisal. 644.436 Section 644.436 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.436 Appraisal. Under the... classification. Appraisals will not be undertaken for property which has been or is likely to be classified...

  2. 7 CFR 3550.62 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 3550.62 Section 3550.62 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.62 Appraisals. (a) Requirement. An appraisal is required when the debt to be secured exceeds $15,000 or whenever RHS...

  3. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal period. 9901.411 Section 9901... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) and (b) of this section, the appraisal period will be October 1 to September...

  4. 25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY... Restricted Lands § 152.24 Appraisal. Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, an appraisal shall...

  5. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... experience or training to establish market (not retail) values as determined by the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current real estate appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security. Agency... market or on the subject real estate and the appraisal was either completed within the past 12 months...

  6. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... experience or training to establish market (not retail) values as determined by the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current real estate appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security. Agency... market or on the subject real estate and the appraisal was either completed within the past 12 months...

  7. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... experience or training to establish market (not retail) values as determined by the Agency. (d) Real estate appraisals. A current real estate appraisal is required when real estate will be primary security. Agency... market or on the subject real estate and the appraisal was either completed within the past 12 months...

  8. Appraisal and Evaluation: Chimera, Fantasy, or Practicality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marland, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Looks beyond the threatening and remunerative aspects of teacher appraisal in the United Kingdom to the contribution that evaluation can make to professional and school development. Considers five sound reasons for appraisal, the roles and behaviors to be appraised, and some workable approaches and techniques. Effective leadership is the key.…

  9. Template-directed oligonucleotide ligation on hydroxylapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acevedo, O. L.; Orgel, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the prebiotic synthesis of the precursors of biopolymers could have occurred on a solid surface such as that provided by clay or some other mineral. One such scheme envisages that growing polymers were localized by adsorption to a mineral surface where an activating agent or activated monomers were supplied continuously or cyclically. Here, it is reported that a sequence of reactions in which initially formed oligo(G)s are reactivated by conversion to phosphorimidazolides in the presence of poly(C) and then allowed to ligate is ideal, in that repeated cycles can be carried out on the surface of hydroxylapatite, whereas in the liquid phase the cycle could be achieved only with considerable difficulty.

  10. Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel

    1989-01-01

    This skill-testing exercise is intended to update the “Critical Appraisal Package: Therapy,” published by the College of Family Physicians of Canada in 1986. The format follows the design of the original practical exercises of the package: clinical scenario, article, worksheet, and methodology notes. PMID:21249024

  11. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  12. Appraisal Psychology, Neurobiology, and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the confluence of stimulus appraisal and social cognition that is effected by the neural system in the brain has important implications for language and learning theories. Describes the anatomy and functions of this neural system and discusses how it may operate in motivation for second language acquisition and how in conjunction…

  13. Efficient Ligation of the Schistosoma Hammerhead Ribozyme †

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Marella D.; Jucker, Fiona M.; Pardi, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni is the best characterized of the natural hammerhead ribozymes. Biophysical, biochemical, and structural studies have shown that the formation of the loop-loop tertiary interaction between stems I and II alters the global folding, cleavage kinetics, and conformation of the catalytic core of this hammerhead, leading to a ribozyme that is readily cleaved under physiological conditions. This study investigates the ligation kinetics and the internal equilibrium between cleavage and ligation for the Schistosoma hammerhead. Single turnover kinetic studies on a construct where the ribozyme cleaves and ligates substrate(s) in trans showed up to 23% ligation when starting from fully cleaved products. This was achieved by a ~2,000-fold increase in the rate of ligation compared to a minimal hammerhead without the loop-loop tertiary interaction, yielding an internal equilibrium that ranges from 2–3 at physiological Mg2+ ion concentrations (0.1 –1 mM). Thus, the natural Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme is almost as efficient at ligation as it is at cleavage. The results here are consistent with a model where formation of the loop-loop tertiary interaction leads to a higher population of catalytically active molecules, and where formation of this tertiary interaction has a much larger effect on the ligation than the cleavage activity of the Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme. PMID:17319693

  14. Appraisal-emotion relationships in daily life.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Van Mechelen, Iven; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Using a daily process design, the present study examined relationships between momentary appraisals and emotional experience based on Smith and Lazarus' (1993) theory of emotions (1993). Nine times a day for 2 weeks, participants (N = 33, 23 women) recorded their momentary experience of 2 positive emotions (joy, love) and 4 negative emotions (anger, guilt, fear, sadness) and the core relational theme appraisal contents Smith and Lazarus hypothesized as corresponding to these emotions. A series of multilevel modeling analyses found that the hypothesized relationships between appraisal contents and these emotions were stronger than relationships between contents and other emotions, although appraisals were related to other emotions in many cases. Moreover, there were some individual differences in the strength of these relationships. These results suggest that there are no one-to-one relationships between appraisal contents and specific emotional experiences, and that specific emotions are associated with different appraisal contents, and that specific appraisals are associated with different emotions.

  15. Selective suppression of interleukin-12 induction after macrophage receptor ligation.

    PubMed

    Sutterwala, F S; Noel, G J; Clynes, R; Mosser, D M

    1997-06-02

    Interleukin (IL)-12 is a monocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokine that plays a crucial role in both the innate and the acquired immune response. In this study, we examined the effects that ligating specific macrophage receptors had on the induction of IL-12 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We report that ligation of the macrophage Fcgamma, complement, or scavenger receptors inhibited the induction of IL-12 by LPS. Both mRNA synthesis and protein secretion were diminished to near-undetectable levels following receptor ligation. Suppression was specific to IL-12 since IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production were not inhibited by ligating macrophage receptors. The results of several different experimental approaches suggest that IL-12 downregulation was due to extracellular calcium influxes that resulted from receptor ligation. First, preventing extracellular calcium influxes, by performing the assays in EGTA, abrogated FcgammaR-mediated IL-12(p40) mRNA suppression. Second, exposure of macrophages to the calcium ionophores, ionomycin or A23187, mimicked receptor ligation and inhibited IL-12(p40) mRNA induction by LPS. Finally, bone marrow-derived macrophages from FcR gamma chain-deficient mice, which fail to flux calcium after receptor ligation, failed to inhibit IL-12(p40) mRNA induction. These results indicate that the calcium influxes that occur as a result of receptor ligation are responsible for inhibiting the induction of IL-12 by LPS. Hence, the ligation of phagocytic receptors on macrophages can lead to a dramatic decrease in IL-12 induction. This downregulation may be a way of limiting proinflammatory responses of macrophages to extracellular pathogens, or suppressing the development of cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens.

  16. Analysis of Genes, Transcripts, and Proteins via DNA Ligation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, Tim; Shetye, Alysha; Tanaka, Yuki; Gu, Jijuan; Larsson, Chatarina; Göransson, Jenny; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Söderberg, Ola; Nilsson, Mats; Landegren, Ulf

    2009-07-01

    Analytical reactions in which short DNA strands are used in combination with DNA ligases have proven useful for measuring, decoding, and locating most classes of macromolecules. Given the need to accumulate large amounts of precise molecular information from biological systems in research and in diagnostics, ligation reactions will continue to offer valuable strategies for advanced analytical reactions. Here, we provide a basis for further development of methods by reviewing the history of analytical ligation reactions, discussing the properties of ligation reactions that render them suitable for engineering novel assays, describing a wide range of successful ligase-based assays, and briefly considering future directions.

  17. Convergent synthesis of proteins by kinetically controlled ligation

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Stephen; Pentelute, Brad; Bang, Duhee; Johnson, Erik; Durek, Thomas

    2010-03-09

    The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.

  18. Ligation and quaternary structure induced changes in the heme pocket of hemoglobin: a transient resonance Raman study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M; Stepnoski, R A; Stavola, M; Ondrias, M R; Cone, R L

    1982-04-27

    The extent to which ligation and quaternary structure modify the heme-heme pocket configuration is determined by generating and analyzing transient resonance Raman spectra from various photolyzed and partially photolyzed hemoglobins (Hb). From small frequently shifts in Raman band I (approximately 1355 cm-1) it is determined that ligation induces a configurational change about the heme. The extent to which ligation modifies the heme pocket is influenced by the quaternary structure. With respect to the structural parameter responsible for variations in the pi orbital electron density of the porphyrin, the degree of alteration of the heme pocket configuration relative to deoxy-Hb(T) follows the sequence: liganded Hb(R) greater than liganded Hb(R) + IHP greater than liganded Hb(T) [alpha chain greater than beta chain] greater than deoxy-Hb(R). This progression of configurations also forms a sequence with respect to the "retentiveness" of the heme pocket as reflected in the ligand dynamics associated with geminate recombination. The results indicate that the heme-heme pocket of the R-state Hb's, relative to those of the T-state species, favors ligand retention in a dynamic, as well as thermodynamic, sense. The analysis of these and other related data implicates a ligation and quaternary structure modulated electronic and/or electrostatic interaction between the pi system of the porphyrin and the surrounding heme pocket as the basis for this variation in ligand dynamics as well as for the energetics of cooperativity.

  19. Formatting and ligating biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Daniel J.; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  20. Risk factors for predicting early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Ji, Feng; Xu, Qin-Wei; Zhang, Mie-Qing

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical risk factors for early variceal rebleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). METHODS: 342 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices who received elective EVL to prevent bleeding or rebleeding at our endoscopy center between January 2005 and July 2010. were included in this study. The early rebleeding cases after EVL were confirmed by clinical signs or endoscopy. A case-control study was performed comparing the patients presenting with early rebleeding with those without this complication. RESULTS: The incidence of early rebleeding after EVL was 7.60%, and the morbidity of rebleeding was 26.9%. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that four variables were independent risk factors for early rebleeding: moderate to excessive ascites [odds ratio (OR) 62.83, 95% CI: 9.39-420.56, P < 0.001], the number of bands placed (OR 17.36, 95% CI: 4.00-75.34, P < 0.001), the extent of varices (OR 15.41, 95% CI: 2.84-83.52, P = 0.002) and prothrombin time (PT) > 18 s (OR 11.35, 95% CI: 1.93-66.70, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The early rebleeding rate after EVL is mainly affected by the volume of ascites, number of rubber bands used to ligate, severity of varices and prolonged PT. Effective measures for prevention and treatment should be adopted before and after EVL. PMID:21876624

  1. A Photo-Triggered Traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi Ligation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Feng, Tianshi; Yeung, Chi-Chung; Koo, Chi-Kin; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lam, Michael H W

    2016-08-08

    The use of light to control the course of a chemical/biochemical reaction is an attractive idea because of its ease of administration with high precision and fine spatial resolution. Staudinger ligation is one of the commonly adopted conjugation processes that involve a spontaneous reaction between azides and arylphosphines to form iminophosphoranes, which further hydrolyze to give stable amides. We designed an anthracenylmethyl diphenylphosphinothioester (1) that showed promising Staudinger ligation reactivity upon photo-excitation. Broadband photolysis at 360-400 nm in aqueous organic solvents induced heterolytic cleavage of its anthracenylmethyl-phosphorus bond, releasing a diphenylphosphinothioester (2) as an efficient traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation reagent. The quantum yield of such a photo-induced heterolytic bond-cleavage at the optimal wavelength of photolysis (376 nm) at room temperature is ≥0.07. This work demonstrated the feasibility of photocaging arylphosphines to realize the photo-triggering of the Staudinger ligation reaction.

  2. Cross-ligation and exchange reactions catalyzed by hairpin ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Sekiguchi, A; Ohtsuka, E

    1993-01-01

    The negative strand of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus (sTobRV(-)) contains a hairpin catalytic domain that shows self-cleavage and self-ligation activities in the presence of magnesium ions. We describe here that the minimal catalytic domain can catalyze a cross-ligation reaction between two kinds of substrates in trans. The cross-ligated product increased when the reaction temperature was decreased during the reaction from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. A two-stranded hairpin ribozyme, divided into two fragments between G45 and U46 in a hairpin loop, showed higher ligation activity than the nondivided ribozyme. The two stranded ribozyme also catalyzed an exchange reaction of the 3'-portion of the cleavage site. Images PMID:8441626

  3. Hairpin ribozyme-catalyzed ligation in water-alcohol solutions.

    PubMed

    Vlassov, Alexander V; Johnston, Brian H; Kazakov, Sergei A

    2005-12-01

    The hairpin ribozyme (HPR) is a naturally existing RNA that catalyzes site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation. At 37 degrees C and in the presence of divalent metal ions (M(2+)), the HPR efficiently cleaves RNA substrates in trans. Here, we show that the HPR can catalyze efficient M(2+)-independent ligation in trans in aqueous solutions containing any of several alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, and millimolar concentrations of monovalent cations. Ligation proceeds most efficiently in 60% isopropanol at 37 degrees C, whereas the reverse (cleavage) reaction is negligible under these conditions. We suggest that dehydration of the RNA is the key factor promoting HPR activity in water- alcohol solutions. Alcohol-induced ribozyme ligation may have practical applications.

  4. 25 CFR 700.117 - Criteria for appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for appraisals. 700.117 Section 700.117 Indians... Acquisition and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.117 Criteria for appraisals. (a) Appraisal standards. The Commission's appraisals shall be based upon nationally recognized appraisal standards...

  5. 75 FR 36088 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Rules of Operation; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Rules of Operation; Amendment AGENCY: Appraisal... governing the Chairperson and Vice Chairperson of the Appraisal Subcommittee. SUMMARY: The Appraisal... , respectively, or by U.S. Mail at Appraisal Subcommittee, 1401 H Street, NW., Suite 760, Washington, DC...

  6. 49 CFR 24.103 - Criteria for appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for appraisals. 24.103 Section 24.103... appraisals. (a) Appraisal requirements. This section sets forth the requirements for real property acquisition appraisals for Federal and federally-assisted programs. Appraisals are to be prepared according...

  7. 49 CFR 24.104 - Review of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of appraisals. 24.104 Section 24.104... appraisals. The Agency shall have an appraisal review process and, at a minimum: (a) A qualified review... market information in all appraisals to assure that they meet the definition of appraisal found in 49...

  8. 7 CFR 3550.111 - Appraisals (loans only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals (loans only). 3550.111 Section 3550.111... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.111 Appraisals (loans only). An appraisal is required when the section 504... adequacy of the security. RHS may charge an appraisal fee. Appraisals must be made in accordance with...

  9. 12 CFR 722.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 722.4 Section 722... APPRAISALS § 722.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a) Conform to generally accepted appraisal standards as evidenced by the...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.753 - Agency appraisal standards and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concluded by each approach. (f) Real estate history. Appraisals must contain a 5-year ownership and sales... estate, which is the land and improvements, and the real property, or property rights, being appraised...) Appraisers. MFH appraisals prepared for the Agency will be written by Agency appraisers or independent...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.753 - Agency appraisal standards and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concluded by each approach. (f) Real estate history. Appraisals must contain a 5-year ownership and sales... estate, which is the land and improvements, and the real property, or property rights, being appraised...) Appraisers. MFH appraisals prepared for the Agency will be written by Agency appraisers or independent...

  12. X-ray snapshots for metalloporphyrin axial ligation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. X.; Zhang, X.; Wasinger, E. C.; Lockard, J. V.; Stickrath, A. B.; Mara, M. W.; Attenkofer, K.; Jennings, G.; Smolentsev, G.; Soldatov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Axial ligation mechanisms of a metalloporphyrin, nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP), were investigated by static and transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy at Ni K-edge (8.333 keV). A surprisingly broad (i.e. {approx}1.4 eV) linewidth for the 1s {yields} 3d{sub x2-y2} transition in the ground state was attributed to strong geometry dependent 3d molecular orbital (MO) energies due to coexisting conformers in solution. The broad distribution of 3d MO energy levels enables transient degeneracy of the 3d{sub z2} and 3d{sub x2-y2} MOs to produce a temporary vacancy in the 3d{sub z2} MO which favors axial ligation. Photoexcitation also induces the vacancy in the 3d{sub z2} MO, leading to a more than two-fold enhancement in the axial ligated species. Therefore, a unified axial ligation mechanism for both the ground and excited state is proposed based on the elucidation of the excited state structural dynamics, which will have a broad impact in understanding and controlling axial ligation in enzymatic reactions and molecular catalysis involving transient axial ligation.

  13. Ligation with nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Ong, Carmichael; Tai, Warren; Sarma, Aartik; Opal, Steven M; Artenstein, Andrew W; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel method for detecting nucleic acid targets using a ligation step along with an isothermal, exponential amplification step. We use an engineered ssDNA with two variable regions on the ends, allowing us to design the probe for optimal reaction kinetics and primer binding. This two-part probe is ligated by T4 DNA Ligase only when both parts bind adjacently to the target. The assay demonstrates that the expected 72-nt RNA product appears only when the synthetic target, T4 ligase, and both probe fragments are present during the ligation step. An extraneous 38-nt RNA product also appears due to linear amplification of unligated probe (P3), but its presence does not cause a false-positive result. In addition, 40 mmol/L KCl in the final amplification mix was found to be optimal. It was also found that increasing P5 in excess of P3 helped with ligation and reduced the extraneous 38-nt RNA product. The assay was also tested with a single nucleotide polymorphism target, changing one base at the ligation site. The assay was able to yield a negative signal despite only a single-base change. Finally, using P3 and P5 with longer binding sites results in increased overall sensitivity of the reaction, showing that increasing ligation efficiency can improve the assay overall. We believe that this method can be used effectively for a number of diagnostic assays.

  14. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  16. 77 FR 61404 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  17. 78 FR 2995 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of..., and Enforcement Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee...

  18. 78 FR 28218 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  19. 76 FR 42126 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as ] amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  20. 77 FR 72862 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  1. 78 FR 14301 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  2. 76 FR 1165 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  3. 75 FR 57468 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  4. 75 FR 74732 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  5. 78 FR 25084 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  6. 78 FR 71611 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  7. 78 FR 9050 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  8. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  9. 76 FR 57741 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  10. 78 FR 20318 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  11. 77 FR 14014 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  12. 77 FR 26280 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  13. 76 FR 25690 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  14. 76 FR 31962 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  15. 77 FR 66840 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  16. 77 FR 20633 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  17. 76 FR 13188 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  18. 75 FR 62819 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  19. 76 FR 61704 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  20. 77 FR 58140 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  1. 77 FR 66840 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  2. Ligation under vision of haemorrhoidal cushions for therapy of bleeding haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, M; Issa, N; Gutman, M; Neufeld, D

    2008-06-01

    Ligation under vision (LUV) is a simple method for the surgical treatment of haemorrhoids. In this study, we evaluated the results of our initial experience with the procedure in terms of postoperative pain, patients' final satisfaction and complications. We reviewed a group of patients who had undergone suture ligation of symptomatic haemorrhoids of grade II and III. This was performed with the haemorrhoids under direct vision and without the use of any ancillary instrumentation such as a Doppler sensor. All interventions were performed in the day-care surgical unit using general or regional anaesthesia. Surgical outcome and degree of postoperative pain were determined from outpatient clinic follow-up and individual phone interviews. A total of 32 patients (19 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 59 years had undergone LUV. There were 23 patients (72%) with grade II and 9 patients (28%) with grade III haemorrhoids. The indication for the surgery was bleeding in 19 patients (59%), prolapse in 6 (19%) and both in 7 (22%). A previous rubber band ligation had been carried out in 17 patients (53%). On average, the surgery took 22 min. All patients were discharged on the same day. Four %patients (12%) suffered only mild postoperative pain, 14 (44%) suffered from moderate pain and another 14 (44%) had severe pain. At follow-up (median 21 months, range 9-33 months), 28 %patients (87.5%) were completely asymptomatic at the time of the phone interview. The final result was assessed as excellent by 19 patients (60%), successful by 10 (31%), and unsuccessful by 3 (9%). All patients had complete functional recovery and there were no major surgical complications. Our data show that LUV of symptomatic haemorrhoids is a simple and safe procedure. It can be performed as effective isolated surgery for symptomatic haemorrhoids and as an additional procedure in the treatment of complex perianal pathology.

  3. [Post-translational ligation and function of dual-vector transferred split CFTR gene].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fu-Xiang; Liu, Ze-Long; Qu, Hui-Ge; Chi, Xiao-Yan

    2010-01-01

    The mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to an autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). The gene therapy for CF using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivering CFTR gene is restricted by the contents limitation of AAV vectors. In this study the split CFTR genes severed at its regulatory domain were delivered by a dual-vector system with an intein-mediated protein trans-splicing as a technique to investigate the post-translational ligation of CFTR half proteins and its function as a chloride ion channel. A pair of eukaryotic expression vectors was constructed by breaking the human CFTR cDNA before Ser712 codon and fusing with Ssp DnaB intein coding sequences. After co-transfection into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells followed by transient expression, patch clamps were carried out to record the chloride current of whole-cell and the activity of a single channel, and the ligation of two halves of CFTR was observed by Western blotting. The results showed that the intein-fused half genes co-transfected cells displayed a high whole cell chloride current and activity of a single channel indicating the functional recovery of chloride channel, and an intact CFTR protein band was figured out by CFTR-specific antibodies indicating that intein can efficiently ligate the separately expressed half CFTR proteins. The data demonstrated that protein splicing strategy could be used as a strategy in delivering CFTR gene by two vectors, encouraging our ongoing research program on dual AAV vector system based gene transfer in gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.

  4. [Post-translational ligation of split CFTR severed before TMD2 and its chloride channel function].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Gong, Xiandi; Liu, Zelong; Yang, Shude; Qu, Huige; Chi, Xiaoyan

    2010-12-01

    Mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene leads to cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting a number of organs including the lung airways, pancreas and sweat glands. In order to investigate the post-translational ligation of CFTR with reconstructed functional chloride ion channel and the split Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing was explored to co-deliver CFTR gene into eukaryotic cells with two vectors. The human CFTR cDNA was split after Glu838 codon before the second transmembrane dome (TMD2) into two halves of N- and C-parts and fused with the coding sequences of split Ssp DnaB intein. Pair of eukaryotic expression vectors pEGFP-NInt and pEYFP-IntC were constructed by inserting them into the vectors pEGFP-N1 and pEYFP-N1 respectively. The transient expression was carried out for observing the ligation of CFTR by Western blotting and recording the chloride current by patch clamps when cotransfection of the pair of vectors into baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. The results showed that an obvious protein band proven to be ligated intact CFTR can be seen and a higher chloride current and activity of chloride channel were recorded after cotransfection. These data demonstrated that split Ssp DnaB intein could be used as a strategy in delivering CFTR gene by two vectors providing evidence for application of dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to overcome the limitation of packaging size in cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

  5. Ectopic tubal pregnancy after hysterectomy and tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Marilin; Mohammadi, Amir; Monteiro, Carmela

    2009-01-01

    Posthysterectomy ectopic pregnancy is an unusual condition that may present soon after hysterectomy or several years later. Similarly, although tubal ligation is a widespread method of contraception, tubal pregnancy after tubal ligation is not common either. If any of these conditions are rare, having an ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy and tubal ligation is even more infrequent and only one of such cases was found in our review of the literature. We describe the case of a 35-year-old patient, with history of bilateral tubal ligation and vaginal hysterectomy that looked for medical attention due to abdominal pain. A pregnancy test was positive and a transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated the presence of a gestational sac at the vaginal cuff, adjacent to the ovary. An exploratory laparotomy showed a ruptured ectopic pregnancy located in the distal portion of the left fallopian tube. The occurrence of an ectopic pregnancy several years following tubal ligation and vaginal hysterectomy is a rare phenomenon that appears to be secondary to a fistulous connection into the peritoneal cavity.

  6. Band heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Naila, N

    2010-01-01

    Band heterotopias are one of the rarest groups of congenital disorder that result in variable degree of structural abnormality of brain parenchyma. Band of heterotopic neurons result from a congenital or acquired deficiency of the neuronal migration. MRI is the examination of choice for demonstrating these abnormalities because of the superb gray vs. white matter differentiation, detail of cortical anatomy and ease of multiplanar imaging. We report a case of band heterotopia that showed a bilateral band of gray matter in deep white matter best demonstrated on T2 Wt. and FLAIR images.

  7. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  8. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 762.127 Section 762.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.127 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. The...

  9. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  10. Faculty Appraisal--an MBO Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Bob

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that a "Management by Objectives" (MBO) approach be considered for an effective faculty appraisal system. MBO appraisal is based on the assumptions that faculty members are capable of committing themselves to their work and that they will be allowed to participate in the administration of their areas. (JOW)

  11. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984, overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  12. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1, 1984, overseas agencies are required to evaluate the performance of employees who serve under overseas local...

  13. Performance Appraisals Can Yield Tangible Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An objective, measure-oriented job performance appraisal plan permits management to evaluate worker performance more accurately and precisely, and provides a means for assessing the degree-of-match between employee qualifications and job skills requirements for hiring, advancement, and dismissal decisions. Deficient appraisals may be costly,…

  14. How to … be an active appraiser.

    PubMed

    Austin, Trevor

    2013-07-01

    Being an active appraiser is very challenging in terms of knowing a doctor's work well enough to appraise them effectively. It also requires a set of skills that need to be developed and applied well in a complex system and in the context of an individual doctor's career development. Being 'active' means bringing these skills and principles together.

  15. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  16. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  17. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  18. Children's Appraisal of Moderately Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Brianne; Power, Thomas; Hill, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated 2 questions: (1) do children show consistent styles of appraisal across a range of moderately stressful events?, and (2) what are the adjustment and parenting correlates of individual differences in children's appraisal style? Ninety-nine 3rd though 5th grade children and their mothers participated. For each of 6 vignettes…

  19. 24 CFR 266.642 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisals. 266.642 Section 266.642... Obligations Claim Procedures § 266.642 Appraisals. Where actions taken or caused to be taken by the HFA have the effect of the recovery of less than the face amount of the HFA Debenture held by HUD, an...

  20. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  1. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  2. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  3. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  4. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  5. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  7. 48 CFR 1437.7002 - Appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal standards. 1437.7002 Section 1437.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL... of the Interagency Land Acquisition Conference publication “Uniform Appraisal Standards for...

  8. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  9. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  10. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  11. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  12. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  13. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards...

  14. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards...

  15. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal...

  16. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal...

  17. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards...

  18. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisals. 254.9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.9 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall...

  19. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisals. 254.9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.9 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall...

  20. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisals. 254.9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.9 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall...

  1. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisals. 254.9 Section 254.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.9 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall...

  2. 12 CFR 626.6015 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal. 626.6015 Section 626.6015 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM NONDISCRIMINATION IN LENDING § 626.6015 Nondiscriminatory appraisal. No Farm Credit institution shall discriminate against any...

  3. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2012-06-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one's own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy that resulted. The more a situation was appraised as undeserved, the more participants experienced malicious envy. Benign envy was experienced more when the situation was not undeserved, and the most when the situation was appraised as both deserved and controllable. The current research also clarifies how the types of envy differ from the related emotions admiration and resentment.

  4. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

  5. Splint ligation of RNA with T4 DNA ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Christopher J.; O’Keefe, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    Splint ligation of RNA, whereby specific RNA molecules are ligated together, can be carried out using T4 DNA ligase and a bridging DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the RNAs. This method takes advantage of the property of T4 DNA ligase to join RNA molecules when they are in an RNA:DNA hybrid. Splint ligation is a useful tool for the introduction of modified nucleotides into RNA molecules, insertion of a radiolabel into a specific position within an RNA and for the assembly of smaller synthetic RNAs into longer RNA molecules. Such modifications enable a wide range of experiments to be carried out with the modified RNA including structural studies, co-immunoprecipitations, and the ability to map sites of RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions. PMID:23065567

  6. Template-Directed Ligation of Peptides to Oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruick, Richard K.; Dawson, Philip E.; Kent, Stephen BH; Usman, Nassim; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides and peptides have enjoyed a wide range of applications in both biology and chemistry. As a consequence, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have received considerable attention, most notably in the development of antisense constructs with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have been used as molecular tags, in the assembly of supramolecular arrays and in the construction of encoded combinatorial libraries. To make these chimeric molecules more accessible for a broad range of investigations, we sought to develop a facile method for joining fully deprotected oligonucleotides and peptides through a stable amide bond linkage. Furthermore, we wished to make this ligation reaction addressable, enabling one to direct the ligation of specific oligonucleotide and peptide components.To confer specificity and accelerate the rate of the reaction, the ligation process was designed to be dependent on the presence of a complementary oligonucleotide template.

  7. Development of an Improved Animal Model of Overactive Bladder: Transperineal Ligation versus Transperitoneal Ligation in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Park, Jung Woo; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Ha, U Syn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Sung Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared a transperineal ligation model and a transperitoneal ligation model in male rats to determine which animal model of overactive bladder (OAB) was more useful based on cystometrography, estimations of oxidative stress, and measurements of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Materials and Methods Male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15 in each): the control group, the transperineal ligation group, and the transperitoneal ligation group. Four weeks after the ligation procedure, cystometrography was performed and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and histologic changes were evaluated. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine and superoxide dismutase, and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity was investigated by measuring levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Results The transperineal model led to results similar to those observed for the transperitoneal model, namely (1) increased voiding frequency and reductions in the non-voiding contraction interval and the maximal vesical pressure, (2) increased levels of oxidative stress markers, (3) increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and (4) fibrotic changes in the bladder tissue. Conclusions We suggest that the transperineal procedure can be used as an alternative OAB model in male rats. PMID:27574597

  8. Butelase-mediated cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Qiu, Yibo; Cao, Yuan; Hemu, Xinya; Liu, Chuan-Fa; Tam, James P

    2016-10-01

    Enzymes that catalyze efficient macrocyclization or site-specific ligation of peptides and proteins can enable tools for drug design and protein engineering. Here we describe a protocol to use butelase 1, a recently discovered peptide ligase, for high-efficiency cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins ranging in size from 10 to >200 residues. Butelase 1 is the fastest known ligase and is found in pods of the common medicinal plant Clitoria ternatea (also known as butterfly pea). It has a very simple C-terminal-specific recognition motif that requires Asn/Asp (Asx) at the P1 position and a dipeptide His-Val at the P1' and P2' positions. Substrates for butelase-mediated ligation can be prepared by standard Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) chemistry or recombinant expression with the minimal addition of this tripeptide Asn-His-Val motif at the C terminus. Butelase 1 achieves cyclizations that are 20,000 times faster than those of sortase A, a commonly used enzyme for backbone cyclization. Unlike sortase A, butelase is traceless, and it can be used for the total synthesis of naturally occurring peptides and proteins. Furthermore, butelase 1 is also useful for intermolecular ligations and synthesis of peptide or protein thioesters, which are versatile activated intermediates necessary for and compatible with many chemical ligation methods. The protocol describes steps for isolation and purification of butelase 1 from plant extract using a four-step chromatography procedure, which takes ∼3 d. We then describe steps for intramolecular cyclization, intermolecular ligation and butelase-mediated synthesis of protein thioesters. Butelase reactions are generally completed within minutes and often achieve excellent yields.

  9. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  10. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Causgrove, T.P.; Dyer, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions areinvestigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a real-time'' apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm[sup [minus]1] . The time course ofchanges in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and FE-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 n. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  11. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Causgrove, T.P.; Dyer, R.B.

    1992-12-31

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions areinvestigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a ``real-time`` apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm{sup {minus}1} . The time course ofchanges in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and FE-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 n. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  12. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Causgrove, Timothy P.; Dyer, R. B.

    1993-05-01

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions are investigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved infrared absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a 'real-time' apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm-1. The time course of changes in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and Fe-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 ns. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  13. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Iliakis, George

    2015-06-23

    Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1), DNA ligase 3 (Lig3) and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4). While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ). Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche-ligase to a

  14. RNA self-ligation: from oligonucleotides to full length ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, Slawomir; Salomon, Kristina; Appel, Bettina; Müller, Sabine

    2012-07-01

    The RNA-world-theory is one possible explanation of how life on earth has evolved. In this context it is of high interest to search for molecular systems, capable of self-organization into structures with increasing complexity. We have engineered a simple catalytic system in which two short RNA molecules can catalyze their own ligation to form a larger RNA construct. The system is based on the hairpin ribozyme using a 2',3'-cyclophosphate as activated species for ligation. 2',3'-cyclic phosphates can be easily formed and occur in many natural systems, thus being superior candidates for activated building blocks in RNA world scenarios.

  15. Sequelae of tubal ligation: an analysis of 75 consecutive hysterectomies.

    PubMed

    Stock, R J

    1984-10-01

    Seventy-five consecutive patients undergoing hysterectomy subsequent to elective sterilization were studied regarding the occurrence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of pelvic pain and/or menorrhagia. Twenty patients were clinically considered to have the syndrome. In none of the patients operated on specifically for menstrual abnormalities could the findings be remotely attributed to the sterilization procedure. Five of the 20 patients had pelvic varicosities and one had pelvic adhesions that may have been a consequence of previous sterilization and conceivably the cause for the pelvic pain for which the patients were undergoing hysterectomy. I question the legitimacy of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome as a reason for hysterectomy.

  16. Endocrine profile of patients with post-tubal-ligation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, J T; Abraham, G E

    1981-07-01

    The endocrine profile of the midluteal phase was assessed in 29 patients with the post-tubal-ligation syndrome, consisting of pain, bleeding and premenstrual tension. Compared to normal controls, the patients had a high serum estradiol and a low serum progesterone level. This abnormal luteal function may be responsible for the symptoms observed and may also explain the failure to conceive following successful reversal of tubal ligation. It is recommended that patients seeking sterilization reversal be screened for abnormal luteal function preoperatively. Selection of sterilization procedures that minimize alteration in luteal function should be given high priority.

  17. Strengthening medical appraisal: reactions to proposals for a new appraisal system to support revalidation.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kerry; Lyons, Nick; Conlon, Maurice; Critchley, Ralph

    2011-11-01

    This paper introduces the first stage of the NHS Revalidation Support Team's (RST) proposals to strengthen medical appraisal. It reports on four focus groups held at London Deanery in 2010, with the aim of gauging initial reactions from general practitioners (GPs). The four groups consisted of two groups of appraisers and two groups of appraisees. After presentation of the proposals to strengthen appraisal, participants were invited to make comparisons between existing appraisal, and the new proposals, Interestingly, the matter which attracted most discussion was a proposal to include an element of self-assessment by the appraisee prior to appraisal, and not, as might have been expected, the proposals for assessment of the appraisee's progress towards revalidation by the appraiser. Since these focus groups, the model of strengthened medical appraisal referred to in this paper has been the subject of testing in the pathfinder pilot, a large scale pilot involving 3000 doctors in various settings in England. The evaluation of the pathfinder pilot was published (July 2011). After further refinement of the appraisal process, including taking into account new GMC and Royal College publications and more testing and piloting, the final version of medical appraisal to support revalidation, known as the Medical Appraisal Guide (MAG) is due to be published in March 2012, in time to permit the expected commencement of revalidation in late 2012.

  18. Angry and Afraid: Women's Appraisal of Sexual Harassment during Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine primary appraisal of sexual harassment, that is, a victim's cognitive evaluation of the harassment and the factors that influence this appraisal. The perspectives of 72 female plaintiffs were investigated by measuring their primary appraisal of the event, examining the structure of this appraisal, and…

  19. 78 FR 25084 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open....) Discussion Agenda Revised ASC Policy Statements Appraisal Foundation January 2013 Grant Reimbursement...

  20. 77 FR 33458 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... Delegations of Authority to include monitoring of the appraisal requirements established by the...

  1. 75 FR 74732 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda: Appraisal Foundation July 2010 Grant...

  2. 76 FR 6134 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...] Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial... is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open session for its regular... item be moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation October 2010...

  3. 76 FR 61703 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation June 2011 Grant Reimbursement...

  4. 76 FR 47182 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open...; Appraisal Foundation April 2011 Grant Reimbursement Request; Delaware Compliance Review; Illinois...

  5. 76 FR 13187 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation November 2010 Grant Reimbursement Request. North...

  6. 77 FR 58140 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation FY13 Grant Proposal ASC FY13...

  7. 12 CFR 202.14 - Rules on providing appraisal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules on providing appraisal reports. 202.14... EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.14 Rules on providing appraisal reports. (a) Providing appraisals. A creditor shall provide a copy of an appraisal report used in connection with an application...

  8. 7 CFR 766.115 - Challenging the Agency appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Challenging the Agency appraisal. 766.115 Section 766... Challenging the Agency appraisal. (a) A borrower considered for primary loan servicing who does not agree with the Agency's appraisal of the borrower's assets may: (1) Obtain a technical appraisal review of...

  9. 76 FR 57741 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in... item be moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation May 2011...

  10. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings association may use or rely upon an appraisal of a dwelling which the savings association knows, or...

  11. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral...) Appraisals. A Bank may require a member to obtain an appraisal of any item of collateral, and to perform...

  12. 78 FR 33419 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open....) Discussion Agenda Illinois Compliance Update Appraisal Foundation February 2013 Grant Reimbursement...

  13. 78 FR 14300 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in... agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Complaint National Hotline Illinois Compliance Review How to...

  14. 77 FR 72862 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda: ASC Policy for the Appraisal Complaint...

  15. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum:...

  16. 76 FR 1164 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... item be moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation September 2010...

  17. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appraisal of other interests. 644.47 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.47 Appraisal of other interests. (a) Minerals. (1) In all cases, the value of the subsurface will be included or accounted for in the appraisal report in...

  18. 76 FR 42126 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation 2010 Agreed Upon Procedures Grant Report....

  19. 77 FR 5249 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as ] amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... requests that an item be moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda Appraisal Foundation 2012...

  20. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  1. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... appraiser to appraise all of the decedent's real and personal property within the estate. (b) It shall be... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a)...

  2. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appraiser to appraise all of the decedent's real and personal property within the estate. (b) It shall be... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a)...

  3. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... appraiser to appraise all of the decedent's real and personal property within the estate. (b) It shall be... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... appraiser to appraise all of the decedent's real and personal property within the estate. (b) It shall be... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... appraiser to appraise all of the decedent's real and personal property within the estate. (b) It shall be... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11.706... LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a) Upon...

  6. Sequence fidelity of a template-directed PNA-ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Mattes, A; Seitz, O

    2001-10-21

    The ligation method and an appended duplex-stabilizing dye affect both yield and sequence selectivity of a template-controlled PNA-ligation. The highest selectivity was obtained with a peptide condensation that formed an abasic site.

  7. Optimization of ligation reaction conditions in gene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Theriault, N Y; Carter, J B; Pulaski, S P

    1988-05-01

    Several phosphorylation, annealing and ligation reaction conditions have been investigated for the enzymatic assembly of genes of interest. The use of longer oligodeoxyribonucleotides (40-60 bases long) also improved the enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, the use of longer oligonucleotides and the elimination of long stretches of G's or C's lowered the mutation rate.

  8. Magnetic Ligation Method for Quantitative Detection of MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liong, Monty; Im, Hyungsoon; Majmudar, Maulik D.; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Sebas, Matthew; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic ligation method is utilized for the detection of microRNAs amongst a complex biological background without polymerase chain reaction or nucleotide modification. The sandwich probes assay can be adapted to analyze a panel of microRNAs associated with cardiovascular diseases in heart tissue samples. PMID:24532323

  9. Click nucleic acid ligation: applications in biology and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2012-08-21

    Biochemical strategies that use a combination of synthetic oligonucleotides, thermostable DNA polymerases, and DNA ligases can produce large DNA constructs up to 1 megabase in length. Although these ambitious targets are feasible biochemically, comparable technologies for the chemical synthesis of long DNA strands lag far behind. The best available chemical approach is the solid-phase phosphoramidite method, which can be used to assemble DNA strands up to 150 bases in length. Beyond this point, deficiencies in the chemistry make it impossible to produce pure DNA. A possible alternative approach to the chemical synthesis of large DNA strands is to join together carefully purified synthetic oligonucleotides by chemical methods. Click ligation by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne (CuAAC) reaction could facilitate this process. In this Account, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and applications of oligonucleotides prepared by click ligation. The alkyne and azide oligonucleotide strands can be prepared by standard protocols, and the ligation reaction is compatible with a wide range of chemical modifications to DNA and RNA. We have employed click ligation to synthesize DNA constructs up to 300 bases in length and much longer sequences are feasible. When the resulting triazole linkage is placed in a PCR template, various DNA polymerases correctly copy the entire base sequence. We have also successfully demonstrated both in vitro transcription and rolling circle amplification through the modified linkage. This linkage has shown in vivo biocompatibility: an antibiotic resistance gene containing triazole linkages functions in E. coli . Using click ligation, we have synthesized hairpin ribozymes up to 100 nucleotides in length and a hammerhead ribozyme with the triazole linkage located at the substrate cleavage site. At the opposite end of the length scale, click-ligated, cyclic mini-DNA duplexes have been used as models to study base pairing. Cyclic duplexes have

  10. SCAMPI Lead Appraiser (Service Mark) Body of Knowledge (SLA BOK)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Competencies • CMP 3.2.2, Defining the appraisal team roles and responsibilities Examples • The initial set of appraisal team norms are agreed on...Competencies • CMP 3.1.1, Managing stakeholder involvement • CMP 3.2.2, Defining the appraisal team roles and responsibilities Examples • A site...appraisal team roles and responsibilities Associated Skills • Balancing appraisal team members’ workloads based on team member capabilities and

  11. Neural circuits associated with positive and negative self-appraisal.

    PubMed

    Brühl, A B; Rufer, M; Kaffenberger, T; Baur, V; Herwig, U

    2014-04-18

    Self-worth is particularly influenced by self-appraisal, which is negatively biased in many psychiatric disorders. Positive and negative self-appraisals also shape current emotional states or even evoke defensive reactions, when they are incongruent with a subject's current state. Prior studies have mainly used externally given evaluative appraisals. In this study, 30 subjects used individual negative and positive self-appraisals during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We additionally investigated the effects of such self-appraisals onto the subsequent perception of photos of the individual subjects. Both self-appraisal conditions activated dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to the neutral condition. Positive self-appraisal evoked stronger activity than negative self-appraisal in the amygdala, ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex, whereas negative self-appraisal was associated with increased activity in the occipital regions. Positive self-appraisal had no effect on the perception of a photo of oneself, whereas negative appraisal increased activity in the anterior insula and parietal regions. Overall, positive self-appraisal activated more emotion-related brain regions, whereas negative self-appraisal had a relatively stronger influence on perception-related brain activity. These findings could on the one hand explain the effect of negative self-appraisal on the behavior in the real world and on the other hand support a stronger focus of psychotherapy on enhancing positive self-appraisals.

  12. Application of an omonasteine ligation strategy for the total chemical synthesis of the BRD7 bromodomain.

    PubMed

    Van de Vijver, Pieter; Scheer, Liesbeth; van Beijnum, Judy; Griffioen, Arjan; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2012-09-28

    The use of omonasteine (Omo) in sequential peptide ligation strategies extends the scope of homocysteine (Hcy) ligation to longer, methionine-rich proteins. Hcy-to-Omo conversion can be performed on-resin, while the Omo-to-Hcy deprotection can be performed in situ after peptide ligation. This strategy was successfully applied in the synthesis of the BRD7 bromodomain.

  13. Performance Appraisal: What Does the Future Hold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Robert I.

    1980-01-01

    Included in this examination of performance appraisal practices is an outline of the characteristics of a good system--one that is cheap to install and only requires a manager to do his/her job. (Author/IRT)

  14. 21 CFR 1316.74 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appraise the property to determine the domestic value at the time and place of seizure. The domestic value shall be considered the price at which such or similar property is freely offered for sale. If there...

  15. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mean the price at which such or similar property is freely offered for sale at the time and place of appraisement, in the same quantity or quantities as seized, and in the ordinary course of trade. If there is...

  16. Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borcherding, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

  17. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  18. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  19. A new extraction technique for rectal foreign bodies with a rubber band ligation device.

    PubMed

    Calişkan, Cemil; Karaca, Can; Akgün, Erhan; Korkut, Mustafa A

    2010-06-01

    Foreign bodies in the rectum are a rare clinical condition that should be noted. The most frequently encountered cause is erotic activity. The first goal of the therapy is extraction of the foreign body using the simplest method possible while protecting the integrity of the intestine. Many instruments and methods have been suggested for this purpose. This report discusses a new management strategy for these patients along with a review of the literature.

  20. Developing a tool for analysis of recorded appraisal discussions.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Mark; Rees, Lynne

    2011-07-01

    Appraisal in Wales is organised and quality assured through Cardiff University on behalf of the Local Health Boards. This has enabled the development of a standardised and consistent appraisal experience for GPs in Wales. Central to this is regular feedback to all GP appraisers from their line managers, their appraisal co-ordinator, about their work and especially the quality of the Form 4 document (the appraisal summary). Included is feedback about GP experience of the appraisal process, including the appraisal discussion. Presently there are no methods of directly assessing the quality of the appraisal discussion. The authors, who are both appraisal co-ordinators (ACs), have developed a method of assessing the quality of a recording of a real appraisal discussion. The information gathered from this assessment has been used in a facilitative style to feedback to the appraiser to acknowledge their skills in the appraisal discussion and to identify areas for development. This paper describes the work done to create an appraisal discussion assessment method (ADAM), and suggestions about how to use it. Using a Delphi approach, we have developed descriptors to aid formative assessment of the appraisal discussion.

  1. Addition of HOBt improves the conversion of thioester-Amine chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Todorovski, Toni; Suñol, David; Riera, Antoni; Macias, Maria J

    2015-11-01

    The syntheses of large peptides and of those containing non-natural amino acids can be facilitated by the application of convergent approaches, dissecting the native sequence into segments connected through a ligation reaction. We describe an improvement of the ligation protocol used to prepare peptides and proteins without cysteine residues at the ligation junction. We have found that the addition of HOBt to the ligation, improves the conversion of the ligation reaction without affecting the epimerization rate or chemoselectivity, and it can be efficiently used with peptides containing phosphorylated amino acids.

  2. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  3. 12 CFR 390.442 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in... appraiser are not necessary in order to protect Federal financial and public policy interests in real...

  4. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real...

  5. 12 CFR 390.442 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in... appraiser are not necessary in order to protect Federal financial and public policy interests in real...

  6. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real...

  7. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real...

  8. 12 CFR 390.442 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in... appraiser are not necessary in order to protect Federal financial and public policy interests in real...

  9. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real...

  10. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... An appraisal performed by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate... lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real...

  11. Model-guided ligation strategy for optimal assembly of DNA libraries.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daphne T W; Sarkar, Casim A

    2012-10-01

    DNA ligation is essential to many molecular biology manipulations, but this reaction is often carried out by following generic guidelines or by trial and error. Maximizing the desired ligation product is especially important in DNA library construction for directed evolution experiments since library diversity is directly affected by ligation efficiency. Here, we suggest that display vectors that rely on Type IIP restriction sites for cloning should be redesigned to utilize Type IIS restriction sites instead because ligation yield is significantly improved: we observed up to 15- and 2.6-fold increases in desired products for circular and linear ligation reactions, respectively. To guide ligation optimization more rationally, we developed an easily parameterized thermodynamic model that predicts product distributions based on input DNA concentrations and free energies of the ligation events. We applied this model to study ligation reactions using a ribosome display vector redesigned with Type IIS restriction sites (pRDV2). We computationally predicted and experimentally validated the relative abundance of various products in three-piece linear ligations as well as the extent of transformation from vector-insert circular ligations. Based on our results, we provide general insights into ligation and we outline guidelines for optimizing this reaction for both in vivo and in vitro display methodologies.

  12. Acute salivary gland hypofunction in the duct ligation model in the absence of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Correia, PN; Carpenter, GH; Osailan, SM; Paterson, KL; Proctor, GB

    2008-01-01

    Objective The commonly associated aetiology of salivary gland inflammation and salivary hypofunction has led to the widely held belief that inflammation causes salivary gland hypofunction. Indeed, our own recent study seemed to support this contention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in an acute duct ligation model, eliminating inflammation the submandibular gland would recover normal function. Materials and methods Ligation of the rat submandibular gland excretory duct for 24 h was used to induce inflammation and salivary gland hypofunction. A group of duct ligated rats was compared with a second group given dexamethasone, on the day of duct ligation. Twenty-four hours later salivary gland function was assessed and salivary glands were collected. Results Histology and myeloperoxidase activity assay revealed a profound decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration of ligated glands from rats given dexamethasone, compared with ligated glands in the absence of dexamethasone. Salivary flow rate evoked by methacholine was decreased (P < 0.01) by approximately 56% (ligated vs control, 79 ± 9 μl min−1 g−1vs 177 ± 11 μl min−1 g−1) and salivary flow from ligated dexamethasone-treated and ligated glands was similar. Conclusion Despite eliminating the inflammatory reaction in the ligated gland, salivary hypofunction was not reversed, suggesting that other mechanisms must be at work in the ligation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:18221457

  13. Critical evaluation and rate constants of chemoselective ligation reactions for stoichiometric conjugations in water.

    PubMed

    Saito, Fumito; Noda, Hidetoshi; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-17

    Chemoselective ligation reactions have contributed immensely to the development of organic synthesis and chemical biology. However, the ligation of stoichiometric amounts of large molecules for applications such as protein-protein conjugates is still challenging. Conjugation reactions need to be fast enough to proceed under dilute conditions and chemoselective in the presence of unprotected functional groups; the starting materials and products must be stable under the reaction conditions. To compare known ligation reactions for their suitability under these conditions, we determined the second-order rate constants of ligation reactions using peptide substrates with unprotected functional groups. The reaction conditions, the chemoselectivity of the reactions, and the stability of the starting materials and products were carefully evaluated. In some cases, the stability could be improved by modifying the substrate structure. These data obtained under the ligation conditions provide a useful guide to choose an appropriate ligation reaction for synthesis of large molecules by covalent ligation reactions of unprotected substrates in water.

  14. The Fidelity of Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Ligation and the Inevitability of Polymerase Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Kenneth D.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    1999-08-01

    The first living systems may have employed template-directed oligonucleotide ligation for replication. The utility of oligonucleotide ligation as a mechanism for the origin and evolution of life is in part dependent on its fidelity. We have devised a method for evaluating ligation fidelity in which ligation substrates are selected from random sequence libraries. The fidelities of chemical and enzymatic ligation are compared under a variety of conditions. While reaction conditions can be found that promote high fidelity copying, departure from these conditions leads to error-prone copying. In particular, ligation reactions with shorter oligonucleotide substrates are less efficient but more faithful. These results support a model for origins in which there was selective pressure for template-directed oligonucleotide ligation to be gradually supplanted by mononucleotide polymerization.

  15. Click chemistry for rapid labeling and ligation of RNA.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Eduardo; Das, Subha R

    2011-01-03

    The copper(I)-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (click chemistry) is shown to be compatible with RNA (with free 2'-hydroxyl groups) in spite of the intrinsic lability of RNA. RNA degradation is minimized through stabilization of the Cu(I) in aqueous buffer with acetonitrile as cosolvent and no other ligand; this suggests the general possibility of "ligandless" click chemistry. With the viability of click chemistry validated on synthetic RNA bearing "click"-reactive alkynes, the scope of the reaction is extended to in-vitro-transcribed or, indeed, any RNA, as a click-reactive azide is incorporated enzymatically. Once clickable groups are installed on RNA, they can be rapidly click labeled or conjugated together in click ligations, which may be either templated or nontemplated. In click ligations the resultant unnatural triazole-linked RNA backbone is not detrimental to RNA function, thus suggesting a broad applicability of click chemistry in RNA biological studies.

  16. Reactions of buffers in cyanogen bromide-induced ligations.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Heike; Gerlach, Claudia; Richert, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Rapid, template-directed ligation reactions between a phosphate-terminated oligonucleotide and an unphosphorylated reaction partner may be induced by cyanogen bromide (BrCN). Frequently, however, the reaction is low yielding, and even a large excess of the condensing agent can fail to induce quantitative conversions. In this study, we used BrCN to induce chemical primer extension reactions. Here, we report that buffers containing hydroxyl groups react with short oligodeoxynucleotides in the presence of BrCN. One stable adduct between HEPBS buffer and cytosine was characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR after HPLC purification, indicating that a side reaction occurred at this nucleobase. Further, a first example of a primer extension reaction between an unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide as primer and dGMP is reported. Together, our results shed light on the potency, as well as the drawbacks of BrCN as a highly reactive condensing reagent for the ligation of unmodified nucleic acids.

  17. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2014-01-01

    Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482

  18. Is ligation the only solution to the pyrophosphate problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, J.; Jongbloets, R.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1993-12-01

    Pyrophosphate linkages are easily formed during the nonenzymatic oligomerization of activated nucleotides. They often form ‘caps’ which terminate an oligonucleotide with a 5'-5' pyrophosphate. Owing to their structural resemblance to the intermediates in enzymatic ligation reactions, it has been suggested that pyrophosphate caps might have been capable of acting as activating groups in chain elongation processes. We argue that an alternative possibility would have been the specific hydrolysis of pyrophosphates.

  19. Is ligation the only solution to the pyrophosphate problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Jongbloets, R.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrophosphate linkages are easily formed during the nonenzymatic oligomerization of activated nucleotides. They often form `caps' which terminate an oligonucleotide with a 5'-5' pyrophosphate. Owing to their structural resemblance to the intermediates in enzymatic ligation reactions, it has been suggested that pyrophosphate caps might have been capable of acting as activating groups in chain elongation processes. We argue that an alternative possibility would have been the specific hydrolysis of pyrophosphates.

  20. [Ssp DnaB intein-mediated ligation of heavy and light chains of coagulation factor VIII in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Liu, Zelong; Qu, Huige; Xin, Xiaolin; Dong, Hongxin; Liu, Xiangqin

    2009-07-01

    We studied the ligation of coagulation factor VIII heavy and light chains in Escherichia coli by utilizing the intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. A B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII) gene was broken into two halves of heavy and light chains before Ser1657 which meets the splicing required conserved residue and then fused to 106 and 48 amino acid-containing N-part termed Int-N and C-part termed Int-C coding sequences of split mini Ssp DnaB intein respectively. These two fusion genes were constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. Through induction for expression of recombinant protein it displayed an obvious protein band as predicted size of BDD-FVIII protein on SDS-PAGE gel. Western blotting using factor VIII specific antibodies confirmed that this protein band is BDD-FVIII produced by protein trans-splicing. It demonstrated that the heavy and light chains of BDD-FVIII can be efficiently ligated with the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. These results provided evidence for encouraging our ongoing investigation with intein as a means in dual AAV vectors carrying the factor VIII gene to overcome the packaging size limitation of a single AAV vector in hemophilia A gene therapy.

  1. DNA hybridization and ligation for directed colloidal assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyr, Margaret

    Colloidal assembly using DNA hybridization has been pursued as a means assemble non-conventional ordered colloidal structures. However, to date it is undetermined whether DNA hybridization can be used to achieve non-FCC colloidal crystals. Using microcontact printing techniques, we have fabricated covalently bound single stranded DNA (ssDNA) two-dimensional arrays on glass surfaces, which were used to direct the assembly of complementary DNA functionalized polystyrene colloids. Two of the hallmarks of DNA hybridization, sequence specificity and thermal reversibility, were demonstrated. Due to the periodicity of these arrays, laser diffraction was used to directly monitor these structures during assembly. To demonstrate the versatility of the 2D colloidal array assembled via DNA hybridization, a catalytic DNA sequence or DNAzyme was incorporated into the colloidal array system. By tethering the enzymatic strand to the patterned glass surface and the substrate strand to polystyrene colloids, we showed that the DNAzyme could prevent the assembly of the arrays when the required Pb2+ cofactor was provided. Attempts to assemble the colloid arrays and disassemble via the Pb2+-DNAzyme induced cleavage were unsuccessful, likely due to the incomplete cleavage of the multitude of hybridized linkages between each colloid and the surface. Since DNA is not only capable of catalyzing reactions, but also capable of being reacted upon by a variety of biological enzymes, we examined the use of DNA ligase as a means to control the assembly of DNA-functionalized colloids. A three-sequence linker system was used for the hybridization mediated assembly of colloids: one sequence was tethered to the surface of the glass slide or colloids, one was tethered to another colloid surface, and the linker sequence hybridizes simultaneously to both tethered sequences. Once hybridized, the two tethered fragments can be ligated using DNA ligase, resulting in a continuous sequence tethered on one end

  2. Assessing and appraising nursing students' professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diers, Jane E.

    The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.320 - Does appraisal information need to be kept confidential?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does appraisal... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Appraisal § 102-75.320 Does appraisal information need to be kept confidential? Yes, appraisals, appraisal reports, appraisal analyses, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by... the appraisal to be made by a qualified appraiser on the lender's staff with experience appraising...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... appraiser. The Lender will use an appraiser that is properly licensed or certified, as appropriate, to make residential real estate appraisals in accordance with the criteria set forth by the Appraiser Qualification Board (AQB) of the Appraisal Foundation regardless of the amount of the loan. Appraisers may...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... appraiser. The Lender will use an appraiser that is properly licensed or certified, as appropriate, to make residential real estate appraisals in accordance with the criteria set forth by the Appraiser Qualification Board (AQB) of the Appraisal Foundation regardless of the amount of the loan. Appraisers may...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... appraiser. The Lender will use an appraiser that is properly licensed or certified, as appropriate, to make residential real estate appraisals in accordance with the criteria set forth by the Appraiser Qualification Board (AQB) of the Appraisal Foundation regardless of the amount of the loan. Appraisers may...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appraiser. The Lender will use an appraiser that is properly licensed or certified, as appropriate, to make residential real estate appraisals in accordance with the criteria set forth by the Appraiser Qualification Board (AQB) of the Appraisal Foundation regardless of the amount of the loan. Appraisers may...

  9. 43 CFR 2201.3-3 - Appraisal report standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purposes shall contain, at a minimum, the following information: (a) A summary of facts and conclusions; (b... appraiser through normal research that would lead the appraiser to believe that hazardous substances may...

  10. What is interesting? Exploring the appraisal structure of interest.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J

    2005-03-01

    Relative to other emotions, interest is poorly understood. On the basis of theories of appraisal process and structure, it was predicted that interest consists of appraisals of novelty (factors related to unfamiliarity and complexity) and appraisals of coping potential (the ability to understand the new, complex thing). Four experiments, using in vivo rather than retrospective methods, supported this appraisal structure. The findings were general across measured and manipulated appraisals, interesting stimuli (random polygons, visual art, poetry), and measures of interest (self-reports, forced-choice, behavioral measures). Furthermore, the appraisal structure was specific to interest (it did not predict enjoyment, a related positive emotion), and appraisals predicted interest beyond relevant traits (curiosity, openness). The appraisal perspective offers a powerful way of construing the causes of interest.

  11. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  12. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided...

  13. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  14. Prostate cancer: appraisal, coping, and health status.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Resnick, Martin I

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how cognitive appraisal and types of coping affect the health status of men with prostate cancer. Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping guided this correlational, cross-sectional study. The convenience sample was composed of 131 men with prostate cancer who completed the Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Short-Form Health Survey using mailed questionnaires. Participants who appraised more harm or loss experienced worse physical and mental health. When participants perceived their diagnosis as posing more harm or loss or a greater threat, they were more likely to use emotion-focused coping. When the diagnosis was perceived as a challenge, men were more likely to use more problem-focused coping. The findings of this study enable health care providers to be more attentive to the psychosocial needs of prostate cancer patients.

  15. 76 FR 5161 - Determination Regarding National Appraisal Complaint Hotline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Determination Regarding National Appraisal Complaint Hotline AGENCY: Appraisal... regarding a national appraisal complaint hotline. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 1473(p) of the Dodd-Frank... determined that no one national hotline presently exists that fully complies with the Act. The...

  16. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal and measurement... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.48 Appraisal and measurement. (a) Appraisal... weight equivalent. In all cases the units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  17. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

  18. Performance Appraisal in UK Universities: A Case of Procedural Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryman, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Research evidence concerning the introduction of performance appraisal in United Kingdom universities is presented. The notion of "procedural compliance" is introduced to draw attention to the largely externally imposed appraisal of universities and to the nature of institutional response. Findings of a study of appraisal in four…

  19. Teacher Appraisal: A Lesson on Confusion over Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a study of a large urban school's teacher appraisal system to ascertain the teachers' perceptions of the purpose of the appraisal system in use. The study initially involved an examination of government promulgations, which establish the requirement for an appraisal system, and a similar examination of the school's…

  20. 12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section 225... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

  1. 76 FR 6135 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... No: 2011-2389] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS11-05] Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination... that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in closed session: Location: FDIC--L. William...

  2. 77 FR 33459 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  3. 76 FR 71034 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Special Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal...), notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open session for a special...: November 17, 2011. Time: 10 a.m. Status: Open. Matters to be Considered Discussion Agenda:...

  4. 75 FR 57468 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open... member of the ASC requests that an item be moved to the discussion agenda.) Discussion Agenda...

  5. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of appraisals. 34.6 Section 34.6... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.6 Schedule of appraisals. The Secretary shall make fair market value appraisals of areas administered by the Service within five...

  6. 77 FR 45610 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Doc No: 2012-18760] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS12-15] Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination... that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in closed session: Location: OCC--250 E Street...

  7. 78 FR 39729 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  8. 77 FR 45610 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Doc No: 2012-18761] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS12-14] Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination... that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open session for its regular meeting: Location:...

  9. 76 FR 19773 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  10. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance appraisal for inmate workers... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  11. 78 FR 47698 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  12. 76 FR 76410 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.753 - Agency appraisal standards and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency appraisal standards and requirements. 3560.753... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Appraisals § 3560.753 Agency appraisal standards and requirements. (a) General. The Agency recognizes USPAP as the...

  14. 12 CFR 552.14 - Dissenter and appraisal rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissenter and appraisal rights. 552.14 Section... ASSOCIATIONS-INCORPORATION, ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.14 Dissenter and appraisal rights. (a) Right to... part of management's proxy solicitation for such meeting. (2) Demand for appraisal and payment....

  15. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because they... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value...

  16. 76 FR 25690 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  17. 7 CFR 764.107 - General appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General appraisal requirements. 764.107 Section 764....107 General appraisal requirements. (a) Establishing value for real estate. The value of real estate will be established by an appraisal completed in accordance with § 761.7 of this chapter....

  18. 77 FR 5249 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  19. 75 FR 67969 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Doc No: 2010-27911] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS10-8] Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination... that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in open session for its regular meeting: Location:...

  20. 76 FR 47182 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  1. 76 FR 68187 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Doc No: 2011-28463] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS11-29] Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination... that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in closed session: Location: OCC--250 E Street...

  2. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  3. 78 FR 33419 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet in...

  4. 75 FR 62819 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the... Act of 1989, as amended, notice is hereby given that the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) will meet...

  5. Performance Appraisal for Librarians: A Guided Self-Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sally

    Intended for use by library managers, this self-study guide provides an introduction to performance appraisal as an effective tool in human resource management, and a review of the extensive management literature on performance appraisal. Topics discussed include: (1) the functions of performance appraisal, which include the provision of…

  6. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that appraiser to remove or change information that might be considered detrimental to the subject... information under this system to VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  7. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that appraiser to remove or change information that might be considered detrimental to the subject... information under this system to VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to...

  8. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  9. Examination of Performance Appraisal Behavior Structure

    PubMed Central

    Tziner, Aharon; Levy, Shlomit

    2017-01-01

    The personality (dispositional) characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and orientation of 498 managers and military officers toward performance appraisal and organization were collected in order to examine their structural relationships to raters' behavior, in terms of (a) mean appraisal ratings, (b) measures of performance dimensions discrimination, and (c) rate discrimination. A mapping sentence comprising a modality, a reference group, and an aspect (content) facet were used. The empirical results largely confirmed this definitional system. Moreover, a polarizing partition of the space into three regions–Self (rater), Ratee, and Organization/System–was found, possibly implying that these three considerations are equally proximal in determining rater behavior. Future directions for research are advanced. PMID:28119659

  10. Examination of Performance Appraisal Behavior Structure.

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Levy, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    The personality (dispositional) characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and orientation of 498 managers and military officers toward performance appraisal and organization were collected in order to examine their structural relationships to raters' behavior, in terms of (a) mean appraisal ratings, (b) measures of performance dimensions discrimination, and (c) rate discrimination. A mapping sentence comprising a modality, a reference group, and an aspect (content) facet were used. The empirical results largely confirmed this definitional system. Moreover, a polarizing partition of the space into three regions-Self (rater), Ratee, and Organization/System-was found, possibly implying that these three considerations are equally proximal in determining rater behavior. Future directions for research are advanced.

  11. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  12. Tuboplasty as a reversal macrosurgery for tubal ligation, is pregnancy possible? A case series

    PubMed Central

    Yassaee, Fakhrolmolouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reversal of tubal ligation is requested by some women for various reasons. The present study aims to determine the rate of pregnancy after tubal ligation reversal. Case: In these case series, we reported fifteen women who requested tuboplasty after tubal ligation. In these cases reversal of tubal ligation was done in 15 women. Pregnancy occurred in 4 women (26.6%). Two term pregnancy and 2 abortions were determined. Conclusion: The success rate of pregnancy after macro surgical reversal of tubal ligation is good and can be considered before in vitro fertilization. The type of tubal ligation and the procedure used will determine the best procedure for reversal and have a major impact on chance of success for reversal surgery. PMID:25031582

  13. Menstrual Pattern following Tubal Ligation: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Ziaei, Saeideh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mohamadi, Eesa

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubal ligation (TL) is recommended for women who have completed their family planning. The existence of the menstrual disorders following this procedure has been the subject of debate for decades. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between tubal ligation and menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods A historical cohort study was carried out on 140 women undergoing tubal ligation (TL group) and on 140 women using condom as the main contraceptive method (Non-TL group). They aged between 20 and 40 years and were selected from a health care center in Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, during 2013-2014. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, obstetrical features and menstrual bleeding pattern using a routine questionnaire. A validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC) was also used to measure the menstrual blood loss. Results Women with TL had more menstrual irregularity than those without TL (24.3 vs. 10%, P=0.002). Women with TL had more polymenorrhea (9.3 vs. 1.4%, P=0.006), hypermenorrhea (12.1 vs. 2.1%, P=0.002), menorrhagia (62.9 vs. 22.1%, P<0.0001) and menometrorrhagia (15.7 vs. 3.6%, P=0.001) than those without TL. There is a significant difference in the PBLAC score between women with and without TL (P<0.0001). According to logistic regression, age odds ratio [(OR=1.08, con- fidence interval (CI):1.07-1.17, P=0.03)], TL (OR=5.95, CI:3.45-10.26, P<0.0001) and cesarean section (OR=2.72, CI:1.49-4.97, P=0.001) were significantly associated with menorrhagia. Conclusion We found significant differences in menstrual disorders between women with and without TL. Therefore, women should be informed by the health providers regarding the advantages and disadvantages of TL before the procedures. PMID:26985334

  14. Assessing Teacher Appraisals and Stress in the Classroom: Review of the Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Lambert, Richard G.; Lineback, Sally; Fitchett, Paul; Baddouh, Priscila G.

    2016-01-01

    Stress research increasingly emphasizes the role of appraisal in determining which events are perceived as stressful. The Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demands (CARD) was developed to measure teachers' appraisals of their classroom demands and resources in order to assess their risk for experiencing occupational stress. The present purposes…

  15. Post-functionalization of polymers via orthogonal ligation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Anja S; Glassner, Mathias; Inglis, Andrew J; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2013-05-27

    The establishment of advanced living/controlled polymerization protocols allows for engineering synthetic polymers in a precise fashion. Combining advanced living/controlled polymerization techniques with highly efficient coupling chemistries facilitates quantitative, modular, and orthogonal functionalization of synthetic polymer strands at their chain termini as well as side-chain functionalization. The review highlights the current status of selected post-functionalization techniques of polymers via orthogonal ligation chemistries, major characteristics of the specific transformation chemistry, as well as the characterization of the products.

  16. Teacher Appraisal Research Networks 1980-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    Legislation requiring site-based performance management in British schools gave rise to the development of practitioner research networks, in which instrumental performance appraisal has predominated over humanist and critical approaches. Even marginalized networks have involved important collaborations among teachers, higher education…

  17. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  18. Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadir, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of 152 school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in…

  19. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data which will disclose the purpose, the scope of the problem and the principal techniques and... opposite. When a large number of buildings are involved, including duplicates, one picture may be used for... condition and relative use and obsolescence shall be stated for each item or group appraised, and,...

  20. Teacher Self-Appraisal Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, E. Wayne

    Teacher Self-Appraisal (TAS) is intended to help teachers in evaluating their daily teaching activity by means of a video-tape record. The process involves four phases: 1) determining objectives and appropriate teaching methods; 2) making the video tape; 3) observing the tape and recording the information on a coding card; and 4) analyzing the…

  1. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  2. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  3. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  4. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  5. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Treatment of Seized Merchandise § 162.43 Appraisement. (a... 606, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1606). The term “domestic value” as used therein shall... value shall be fixed as of the date of the violation. In the case of entered merchandise, the date...

  6. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Treatment of Seized Merchandise § 162.43 Appraisement. (a... 606, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1606). The term “domestic value” as used therein shall... value shall be fixed as of the date of the violation. In the case of entered merchandise, the date...

  7. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Treatment of Seized Merchandise § 162.43 Appraisement. (a... 606, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1606). The term “domestic value” as used therein shall... value shall be fixed as of the date of the violation. In the case of entered merchandise, the date...

  8. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Treatment of Seized Merchandise § 162.43 Appraisement. (a... 606, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1606). The term “domestic value” as used therein shall... value shall be fixed as of the date of the violation. In the case of entered merchandise, the date...

  9. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  10. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  11. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  12. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  13. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  14. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  15. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  16. TLR9 ligation in pancreatic stellate cells promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Levie, Elliot; Nguy, Susanna; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Xu, Yijie; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Greco, Stephanie H.; Deutsch, Michael; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Tippens, Daniel; Pushalkar, Smruti; Eisenthal, Andrew; Saxena, Deepak; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hajdu, Cristina; Engle, Dannielle D.; Tuveson, David

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling can have protective or protumorigenic effects on oncogenesis depending on the cancer subtype and on specific inflammatory elements within the tumor milieu. We found that TLR9 is widely expressed early during the course of pancreatic transformation and that TLR9 ligands are ubiquitous within the tumor microenvironment. TLR9 ligation markedly accelerates oncogenesis, whereas TLR9 deletion is protective. We show that TLR9 activation has distinct effects on the epithelial, inflammatory, and fibrogenic cellular subsets in pancreatic carcinoma and plays a central role in cross talk between these compartments. Specifically, TLR9 activation can induce proinflammatory signaling in transformed epithelial cells, but does not elicit oncogene expression or cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, TLR9 ligation induces pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to become fibrogenic and secrete chemokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation. TLR9-activated PSCs mediate their protumorigenic effects on the epithelial compartment via CCL11. Additionally, TLR9 has immune-suppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment (TME) via induction of regulatory T cell recruitment and myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation. Collectively, our work shows that TLR9 has protumorigenic effects in pancreatic carcinoma which are distinct from its influence in extrapancreatic malignancies and from the mechanistic effects of other TLRs on pancreatic oncogenesis. PMID:26481685

  17. TLR9 ligation in pancreatic stellate cells promotes tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Levie, Elliot; Nguy, Susanna; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Xu, Yijie; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Greco, Stephanie H; Deutsch, Michael; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Tippens, Daniel; Pushalkar, Smruti; Eisenthal, Andrew; Saxena, Deepak; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hajdu, Cristina; Engle, Dannielle D; Tuveson, David; Miller, George

    2015-11-16

    Modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling can have protective or protumorigenic effects on oncogenesis depending on the cancer subtype and on specific inflammatory elements within the tumor milieu. We found that TLR9 is widely expressed early during the course of pancreatic transformation and that TLR9 ligands are ubiquitous within the tumor microenvironment. TLR9 ligation markedly accelerates oncogenesis, whereas TLR9 deletion is protective. We show that TLR9 activation has distinct effects on the epithelial, inflammatory, and fibrogenic cellular subsets in pancreatic carcinoma and plays a central role in cross talk between these compartments. Specifically, TLR9 activation can induce proinflammatory signaling in transformed epithelial cells, but does not elicit oncogene expression or cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, TLR9 ligation induces pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to become fibrogenic and secrete chemokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation. TLR9-activated PSCs mediate their protumorigenic effects on the epithelial compartment via CCL11. Additionally, TLR9 has immune-suppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment (TME) via induction of regulatory T cell recruitment and myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation. Collectively, our work shows that TLR9 has protumorigenic effects in pancreatic carcinoma which are distinct from its influence in extrapancreatic malignancies and from the mechanistic effects of other TLRs on pancreatic oncogenesis.

  18. Photoinduced axial ligation and deligation dynamics of nonplanar nickel dodecaarylporphyrins.

    PubMed

    Retsek, Jennifer L; Drain, Charles Michael; Kirmaier, Christine; Nurco, Daniel J; Medforth, Craig J; Smith, Kevin M; Sazanovich, Igor V; Chirvony, Vladimir S; Fajer, Jack; Holten, Dewey

    2003-08-13

    The ground- and excited-state metal-ligand dynamics of nonplanar nickel(II) 2,3,5,7,8,10,12,13,15,17,18,20-dodecaphenylporphyrin (NiDPP) and two fluorinated analogues (NiF(20)DPP and NiF(28)DPP) have been investigated using static and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy in toluene and in ligating media that differ in basicity, aromaticity, and steric encumbrance. Because of the electronic and steric consequences of nonplanarity, NiDPP does not bind axial ligands in the ground state, but metal coordination does occur after photoexcitation with multistep dynamics that depend on the properties of the ligand. Following the structural relaxations that occur in all nickel porphyrins within approximately 10 ps, ligand binding to photoexcited NiDPP is progressively longer in pyridine, piperidine, and 3,5-lutidine (25-100 ps) but does not occur at all in 2,6-lutidine in which the ligating nitrogen is sterically encumbered. The transient intermediate that is formed, which nominally could be either a five- or six-coordinate species, also has a ligand-dependent lifetime (200-550 ps). Decay of this intermediate occurs partially via ligand release to re-form the uncoordinated species, in competition with binding of the second axial ligand and/or conformational/electronic relaxations (of a six-coordinate intermediate) to give the ground state of the bis-ligated photoproduct. The finding that the photoproduct channel principally depends on ligand characteristics along with the time-evolving spectra suggests that the transient intermediate may involve a five-coordinate species. In contrast to NiDPP, the fluorinated analogues NiF(20)DPP and NiF(28)DPP do coordinate axial ligands in the ground state but eject them after photoexcitation. Collectively, these results demonstrate the sensitivity with which the electronic and structural characteristics of the macrocycle, substituents, and solvent (ligands) can govern the photophysical and photochemical properties of nonplanar porphyrins

  19. One-pot native chemical ligation by combination of two orthogonal thioester precursors.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Yuya; Kawakami, Toru; Hojo, Hironobu

    2017-02-09

    We developed a one-pot peptide ligation method using two orthogonal thioester precursors and a protecting group for the ligation reaction between Asp and Cys. Combination of the two precursors facilitated the one-pot operation and yielded the entire polypeptide. The usefulness of this method was successfully demonstrated by the total synthesis of histone H4.

  20. Plant Enzymes but Not Agrobacterium VirD2 Mediate T-DNA Ligation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ziemienowicz, Alicja; Tinland, Bruno; Bryant, John; Gloeckler, Veronique; Hohn, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a gram-negative soil bacterium, transfers DNA to many plant species. In the plant cell, the transferred DNA (T-DNA) is integrated into the genome. An in vitro ligation-integration assay has been designed to investigate the mechanism of T-DNA ligation and the factors involved in this process. The VirD2 protein, which is produced in Agrobacterium and is covalently attached to T-DNA, did not, under our assay conditions, ligate T-DNA to a model target sequence in vitro. We tested whether plant extracts could ligate T-DNA to target oligonucleotides in our test system. The in vitro ligation-integration reaction did indeed take place in the presence of plant extracts. This reaction was inhibited by dTTP, indicating involvement of a plant DNA ligase. We found that prokaryotic DNA ligases could substitute for plant extracts in this reaction. Ligation of the VirD2-bound oligonucleotide to the target sequence mediated by T4 DNA ligase was less efficient than ligation of a free oligonucleotide to the target. T-DNA ligation mediated by a plant enzyme(s) or T4 DNA ligase requires ATP. PMID:10938108

  1. Ligation of the hairpin ribozyme in cis induced by freezing and dehydration

    PubMed Central

    KAZAKOV, SERGEI A.; BALATSKAYA, SVETLANA V.; JOHNSTON, BRIAN H.

    2006-01-01

    Although reducing the temperature slows most chemical reactions, freezing can stimulate some reactions by mechanisms that are only partially understood. Here we show that freezing stimulates the self-ligation (circularization) of linear forms of the hairpin ribozyme (HPR) containing 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and 5′-OH termini. Divalent metal ions (M2+) are not required, but monovalent cations and anions at millimolar concentrations can have various effects on this reaction depending on the specific ion. Under optimal conditions, the observed rate of M2+-independent self-ligation reaches a peak (0.04 min−1) at −10°C with a yield of −60% after 1 h. In contrast, no ligation occurs either at above 0°C or in solutions that remain unfrozen when supercooled to subzero temperatures. Under freezing conditions, the cleavage–ligation equilibrium strongly favors ligation. Besides freezing, evaporation of the aqueous solvent as well as the presence of ethanol at levels of 40% or above can also induce M2+-independent HPR ligation at 25°C. We argue that partial RNA dehydration, which is a common feature of freezing, evaporation, and the presence of ethanol, is a key factor supporting HPR ligation activity at both above- and below-freezing temperatures. In the context of the RNA world hypothesis, freezing-induced ligation is an attractive mechanism by which complex RNAs could have evolved under conditions in which RNA was relatively protected against degradation. PMID:16495237

  2. A facile avenue to conductive polymer brushes via cyclopentadiene-maleimide Diels-Alder ligation.

    PubMed

    Yameen, Basit; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Preuss, Corinna M; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Verveniotis, Elisseos; Trouillet, Vanessa; Rezek, Bohuslav; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2013-10-07

    Cyclopentadienyl end-capped poly(3-hexylthiophene) was employed to fabricate conductive surface tethered polymer brushes via a facile route based on cyclopentadiene-maleimide Diels-Alder ligation. The efficient nature of the Diels-Alder ligation was further combined with a biomimetic polydopamine-assisted functionalization of surfaces, making it an access route of choice for P3HT surface immobilization.

  3. Degradation profile and preliminary clinical testing of a resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Aminlashgari, Nina; Höglund, Odd V; Borg, Niklas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2013-06-01

    A resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels was developed and tested in vitro to reveal the degradation profile of the device and to predict the clinical performance in terms of adequate mechanical support during a healing period of 1week. In addition, preliminary clinical testing was performed that showed complete hemostasis and good tissue grip of renal arteries in five pigs. The device was made by injection molding of poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) triblock copolymer, and it consisted of a case with a locking mechanism connected to a partly perforated flexible band. A hydrolytic degradation study was carried out for 7, 30 and 60days in water and buffer medium, following the changes in mass, water absorption, pH and mechanical properties. A new rapid matrix-free laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) method was developed for direct screening of degradation products released into the degradation medium. The combination of LDI-MS and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses enabled the comparison of the degradation product patterns in water and buffer medium. The identified degradation products were rich in trimethylene carbonate units, indicating preferential hydrolysis of amorphous regions where trimethylene units are located. The crystallinity of the material was doubled after 60days of hydrolysis, additionally confirming the preferential hydrolysis of trimethylene carbonate units and the enrichment of glycolide units in the remaining solid matrix. The mechanical performance of the perforated band was followed for the first week of hydrolysis and the results suggest that sufficient strength is retained during the healing time of the blood vessels.

  4. 7 CFR 3560.752 - Appraisal use, request, review, and release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal use, request, review, and release. 3560.752... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Appraisals § 3560.752 Appraisal use, request, review, and release. (a) Appraisal uses. The Agency will use appraisals to...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.334... Appraisal of property serving as collateral. An appraisal of all property serving as security for the... Lender may pass the cost of the appraisal on to the borrower. The appraisal must have been...

  6. 12 CFR 563.170 - Examinations and audits; appraisals; establishment and maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., appraisal of real estate by the Office in connection with any examination or audit of a savings association, affiliate, or service corporation shall be made by an appraiser, or by appraisers, selected by the Office's... appraiser or appraisers upon receipt by the savings association, affiliate, or service corporation of...

  7. 12 CFR 563.170 - Examinations and audits; appraisals; establishment and maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appraisal of real estate by the Office in connection with any examination or audit of a savings association, affiliate, or service corporation shall be made by an appraiser, or by appraisers, selected by the Office's... appraiser or appraisers upon receipt by the savings association, affiliate, or service corporation of...

  8. 12 CFR 163.170 - Examinations and audits; appraisals; establishment and maintenance of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., appraisal of real estate by the OCC in connection with any examination or audit of a savings association, affiliate, or service corporation shall be made by an appraiser, or by appraisers, selected by the OCC. The... corporation direct to such appraiser or appraisers upon receipt by the savings association, affiliate,...

  9. [Is a hysterectomy justifiable to prevent post-tubal ligation syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Maheux, R; Fugère, P

    1980-12-01

    Among 2057 tubal ligations performed between 1971-75 in "Hopital Saint-Luc" in Montreal, 78 patients had to be readmitted for hysterectomy. The main indication for hysterectomy among these patients was for menstrual disorders (65%). These menstrual disorders were present at the moment of the tubal ligation in about half of the patients. Among the patients who had to be reoperated for hysterectomy for menstrual disorders and who were asymptomatic at the momemt of their tubal ligation, 88% were using oral contraceptives for a mean period of 5.8 years. The low incidence of hysterectomy post-tubal ligation (3.8%) does not seem to justify a total hysterectomy to prevent what has been described as the "post tubal ligation syndrome" in the patients who are asymptomatic and desire a permanent sterilization. (Author's modified)

  10. The implications of enhancing appraisal to meet the requirements of revalidation, as perceived by appraisers: a qualitative study in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Judy; Cameron, Niall

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study which explored the possible impact of enhanced appraisal and the requirements of revalidation upon GP appraisers in Scotland. So far there has been little research examining the impact 'enhanced' appraisal may have on the appraisee or appraiser population. Key objectives were to identify potential benefits and problems with the introduction of enhanced appraisal for the appraiser population and to explore what they perceive its impact will be on the GP workforce more generally. Three focus groups were held with a purposive sample of 17 highly experienced GP appraisers from across Scotland between February and April 2010. The results showed that this group of appraisers perceived that they would need to become more prescriptive about the standard of basic paperwork and evidence that is submitted by an appraisee. This created some anxieties about taking on a more judgemental role. They were concerned about a possible need to inform a high-achieving GP that their evidence was insufficient. Concerns were also raised about appraisees becoming less open and candid during appraisal once the links to revalidation are in place. Uncertainty was expressed about the relationship between the appraiser and responsible officer (RO) and how appraisers should decide which appraisees ought to be flagged up to the RO. The need for clear, standardised summary forms (known as GP Scot 4 in Scotland) to be passed to the RO was highlighted. Some of the appraisers were unsure about the value of new types of evidence which will be required--notably MSF and continuing professional development (CPD) credits. However, a few appraisers noted that some early adopters of CPD credits liked this way of recording their learning whilst MSF could be valuable and was seldom controversial. Potential benefits of 'enhanced appraisal' were highlighted--particularly increased engagement from some GPs who have hitherto been reluctant appraisees. The appraisers in this

  11. Sensitive detection of aggregated prion protein via proximity ligation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Maria; Wik, Lotta; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Comoy, Emmanuel; Linné, Tommy; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2014-01-01

    The DNA assisted solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) provides a unique opportunity to specifically detect prion protein (PrP) aggregates by investigating the collocation of 3 or more copies of the specific protein. We have developed an SP-PLA that can detect PrP aggregates in brain homogenates from infected hamsters even after a 107-fold dilution. In contrast, brain homogenate from uninfected animals did not generate a detectable signal at 100-fold higher concentration. Using either of the 2 monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies, 3F4 and 6H4, we successfully detected low concentrations of aggregated PrP. The presented results provide a proof of concept that this method might be an interesting tool in the development of diagnostic approaches of prion diseases. PMID:25482604

  12. Confinement-induced Molecular Templating and Controlled Ligation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Daniel; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, François; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leith, Jason; Leslie, Sabrina; Leslie Lab Team

    Loading and manipulating long DNA molecules within sub-50 nm cross-section nanostructures for genomic and biochemical analyses, while retaining their structural integrity, present key technological challenges to the biotechnology sector, such as device clogging and molecular breakage. We overcome these challenges by using Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technology to gently load DNA into nanogrooves from above. Here, we demonstrate single-fluorophore visualization of custom DNA barcodes as well as efficient top-loading of DNA into sub-50 nm nanogrooves of variable topographies. We study confinement-enhanced self-ligation of polymers loaded in circular nanogrooves. Further, we use concentric, circular nanogrooves to eliminate confinement gradient-induced drift of stretched DNA.

  13. Sensitive detection of aggregated prion protein via proximity ligation.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Maria; Wik, Lotta; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Comoy, Emmanuel; Linné, Tommy; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2014-01-01

    The DNA assisted solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) provides a unique opportunity to specifically detect prion protein (PrP) aggregates by investigating the collocation of 3 or more copies of the specific protein. We have developed an SP-PLA that can detect PrP aggregates in brain homogenates from infected hamsters even after a 10(7)-fold dilution. In contrast, brain homogenate from uninfected animals did not generate a detectable signal at 100-fold higher concentration. Using either of the 2 monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies, 3F4 and 6H4, we successfully detected low concentrations of aggregated PrP. The presented results provide a proof of concept that this method might be an interesting tool in the development of diagnostic approaches of prion diseases.

  14. Detection of Protein SUMOylation In Situ by Proximity Ligation Assays.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Umut; Jollivet, Florence; Berthier, Caroline; de Thé, Hugues; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Sumoylation is a posttranslational process essential for life and concerns a growing number of crucial proteins. Understanding the influence of this phenomenon on individual proteins or on cellular pathways in which they function has become an intense area of research. A critical step in studying protein sumoylation is to detect sumoylated forms of a particular protein. This has proven to be a challenging task for a number of reasons, especially in the case of endogenous proteins and in vivo studies or when studying rare cells such as stem cells. Proximity ligation assays that allow detection of closely interacting protein partners can be adapted for initial detection of endogenous sumoylation or ubiquitination in a rapid, ultrasensitive, and cheap manner. In addition, modified forms of a given protein can be detected in situ in various cellular compartments. Finally, the flexibility of this technique may allow rapid screening of drugs and stress signals that may modulate protein sumoylation.

  15. Left Atrial Appendage Ligation and Exclusion Technology in the Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Faisal F.; Noheria, Amit; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the most feared complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Targeting the left atrial appendage (LAA) mechanically is attractive as a means to simultaneously reduce stroke risk, the need for anticoagulation, and hemorrhagic complications in patients with non-valvular AF. The results of the PROTECT-AF and PREVAIL randomized clinical trials support this approach as a viable therapeutic alternative to warfarin in selected patients and add to accumulating evidence regarding the importance of the LAA in thromboembolism in AF. A number of devices for percutaneous LAA closure are under investigation or development. In this article, key design features of these ligation and exclusion technologies will be discussed, with a focus on aspects of LAA morphology, relational anatomy, thrombosis, and thromboembolism relevant for successful device development and deployment. PMID:27087888

  16. Bioorthogonal Oxime Ligation Mediated In Vivo Cancer Targeting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Yin, Qian; Xu, Yunxiang; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Kaimin; Yen, Jonathan; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    Current cancer targeting relying on specific biological interaction between cell surface antigen and respective antibody or its analogue has proven to be effective in the treatment of different cancers; however, this strategy has its own limitations, such as heterogeneity of cancer cells and immunogenicity of the biomacromolecule binding ligands. Bioorthogonal chemical conjugation has emerged as an attractive alternative to biological interaction for in vivo cancer targeting. Here, we report an in vivo cancer targeting strategy mediated by bioorthogonal oxime ligation. Oxyamine group, the artificial target, is introduced onto 4T1 murine breast cancer cells through liposome delivery and fusion. Poly(ethylene glycol) -polylactide (PEG-PLA) nanoparticle (NP) is surface-functionalized with aldehyde groups as targeting ligands. The improved in vivo cancer targeting of PEG-PLA NPs is achieved through specific and efficient chemical reaction between the oxyamine and aldehyde groups.

  17. In Situ Vesicle Formation by Native Chemical Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Roberto J.; Cole, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid vesicles are of intense fundamental and practical interest, yet methods for their de novo generation from reactive precursors are limited. A non-enzymatic and chemoselective method to spontaneously generate phospholipid membranes from water-soluble starting materials would be a powerful tool for generating vesicles and studying lipid membranes. Here we describe the use of native chemical ligation (NCL) to rapidly prepare phospholipids spontaneously from thioesters. While NCL is one of the most popular tools for synthesizing proteins and nucleic acids, to our knowledge this is the first example of using NCL to generate phospholipids de novo. The lipids are capable of in situ synthesis and self-assembly into vesicles that can grow to several microns in diameter. The selectivity of the NCL reaction enables compatibility of in situ membrane formation with biological materials such as proteins. This work expands the application of NCL to the formation of phospholipid membranes. PMID:25346090

  18. Bioorthogonal Oxime Ligation Mediated In Vivo Cancer Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li; Yin, Qian; Xu, Yunxiang; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Kaimin; Yen, Jonathan; Dobrucki, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    Current cancer targeting relying on specific biological interaction between cell surface antigen and respective antibody or its analogue has proven to be effective in the treatment of different cancers; however, this strategy has its own limitations, such as heterogeneity of cancer cells and immunogenicity of the biomacromolecule binding ligands. Bioorthogonal chemical conjugation has emerged as an attractive alternative to biological interaction for in vivo cancer targeting. Here, we report an in vivo cancer targeting strategy mediated by bioorthogonal oxime ligation. Oxyamine group, the artificial target, is introduced onto 4T1 murine breast cancer cells through liposome delivery and fusion. Poly(ethylene glycol) -polylactide (PEG-PLA) nanoparticle (NP) is surface-functionalized with aldehyde groups as targeting ligands. The improved in vivo cancer targeting of PEG-PLA NPs is achieved through specific and efficient chemical reaction between the oxyamine and aldehyde groups. PMID:26146536

  19. In vivo multiphoton imaging of bile duct ligation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.

  20. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  1. Religious Dissociation and Economic Appraisal in Brazil.

    PubMed

    François Dengah, H J

    2016-04-01

    Research on the association between religion and health often neglects to provide an explicit theoretical mechanism of influence between faith and well-being. This research posits that dissociative behaviors, such as glossolalia, may provide a biological pathway that influences both physiological and psychological health. This paper argues that religious dissociation acts as a moderator between economic stressors and psychobiological appraisal. Brazil, with its economic inequality and preponderance of religious dissociative rituals, provides an ideal context to examine religious dissociation as a moderator of stress. Utilizing data from a cross section of Brazilian faiths, this paper examines: (1) Whether individuals with low socioeconomic status preferentially participate and experience religious dissociative states and (2) whether dissociative states are correlated with greater psychological appraisal of status.

  2. An Appraisal of Coupled Climate Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K; Gleckler, P; Covey, C; Taylor, K; Bader, D; Phillips, T; Fiorino, M; Achutarao, K

    2004-02-24

    In 2002, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) proposed the concept for a state-of-the-science appraisal of climate models to be performed approximately every two years. Motivation for this idea arose from the perceived needs of the international modeling groups and the broader climate research community to document progress more frequently than provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports. A committee of external reviewers, which included senior researchers from four leading international modeling centers, supported the concept by stating in its review: ''The panel enthusiastically endorses the suggestion that PCMDI develop an independent appraisal of coupled model performance every 2-3 years. This would provide a useful 'mid-course' evaluation of modeling progress in the context of larger IPCC and national assessment activities, and should include both coupled and single-component model evaluations.''

  3. GazeAppraise v. 0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Andrew; Haass, Michael; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Matzen, Laura; McNamara, Laura

    2016-08-01

    GazeAppraise advances the state of the art of gaze pattern analysis using methods that simultaneously analyze spatial and temporal characteristics of gaze patterns. GazeAppraise enables novel research in visual perception and cognition; for example, using shape features as distinguishing elements to assess individual differences in visual search strategy. Given a set of point-to-point gaze sequences, hereafter referred to as scanpaths, the method constructs multiple descriptive features for each scanpath. Once the scanpath features have been calculated, they are used to form a multidimensional vector representing each scanpath and cluster analysis is performed on the set of vectors from all scanpaths. An additional benefit of this method is the identification of causal or correlated characteristics of the stimuli, subjects, and visual task through statistical analysis of descriptive metadata distributions within and across clusters.

  4. The supervisor's performance appraisal: evaluating the evaluator.

    PubMed

    McConnell, C R

    1993-04-01

    The focus of much performance appraisal in the coming decade or so will likely be on the level of customer satisfaction achieved through performance. Ultimately, evaluating the evaluator--that is, appraising the supervisor--will likely become a matter of assessing how well the supervisor's department meets the needs of its customers. Since meeting the needs of one's customers can well become the strongest determinant of organizational success or failure, it follows that relative success in ensuring these needs are met can become the primary indicator of one's relative success as a supervisor. This has the effect of placing the emphasis on supervisory performance exactly at the point it belongs, right on the bottom-line results of the supervisor's efforts.

  5. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jeremy G. White, Iain Richards, Juliet

    2009-01-15

    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context.

  6. Research report appraisal: how much understanding is enough?

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2014-07-01

    When appraising research papers, how much understanding is enough? More specifically, in deciding whether research results can inform practice, do appraisers need to substantively understand how findings are derived or is it sufficient simply to grasp that suitable analytic techniques were chosen and used by researchers? The degree or depth of understanding that research appraisers need to attain before findings can legitimately/sensibly inform practice is underexplored. In this paper it is argued that, where knowledge/justified beliefs derived from research evidence prompt actions that materially affect patient care, appraisers have an epistemic duty to demand high (maximal) rather than low (minimal) levels of understanding regards finding derivation (i.e. appraisers have a duty to seek a superior epistemic situation). If this argument holds assumptions about appraiser competence/ability and the feasibility of current UK conceptions of evidence based practice are destabilized.

  7. The haem b558 component of the cytochrome bd quinol oxidase complex from Escherichia coli has histidine-methionine axial ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, F; Cheesman, M R; Thomson, A J; Kaysser, T; Gennis, R B; Peng, Q; Peterson, J

    1995-01-01

    The cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli is induced when the bacteria are cultured under microaerophilic or low-aeration conditions. This membrane-bound respiratory oxidase catalyses the two-electron oxidation of ubiquinol and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. The oxidase contains three haem prosthetic groups: haem b558, haem b595 and haem d. Haem d is the oxygen binding site, and it is likely that haem d and b595 form a bimetallic site in the enzyme. Haem b558 has been previously characterized spectroscopically as being low spin and has been shown to be located within subunit I (CydA) of this two-subunit enzyme. It is likely that haem b558 is associated with the quinol oxidation site, which has also been shown to be within subunit I. In a previous effort to locate the specific amino acids axially ligated to haem b558, all six histidines within subunit I were altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Only one, histidine-186, was identified as a likely ligand to haem b558. Hence it was suggested that haem b558 could not have bis(histidine) ligation. In the current work, a combination of low-temperature near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism (NIR-MCD) and EPR spectroscopies have been employed to identify the nature of the haem b558 axial ligands. The NIR-MCD spectrum at cryogenic temperatures is dominated by the low-spin haem b558 component of the complex, and the low-energy band near 1800 nm is strong evidence for histidine-methionine ligation. It is concluded that haem b558 is ligated to histidine-186 plus one of the methionines located within subunit I of the oxidase. PMID:7772053

  8. Coarctation of the Aorta as a Complication of Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Amna; Jain, Sunil K.; Jiwani, Amyn K.

    2017-01-01

    Surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a commonly performed procedure. Complications are infrequent and most commonly include recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and rarely ligation of left pulmonary artery. We report a case of accidental ligation of the descending thoracic aorta leading to a clinically significant coarctation. PMID:28386503

  9. Emotion appraisal and anxiety symptomatology in a university sample.

    PubMed

    Smith, Angela H; Norton, Peter J; Wetterneck, Chad T

    2014-01-01

    Current conceptualizations for anxiety disorders focus heavily on cognitive and behavioral aspects of anxiety and address other emotions to a far lesser extent. Studies have demonstrated that negative appraisals of anxiety and fear (e.g., anxiety sensitivity) are elevated in each of the anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. Much less is known about how the appraisal of other emotions is related to anxiety disorder symptom presentation. The current study examines the appraisal of specific aversive emotions in relation to anxiety symptomatology. Undergraduate university students (N = 530) completed measures of specific anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as a measure of emotional appraisal. A maximum likelihood estimated multivariate regression model was used to examine the unique relationships between emotional appraisal and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms varied in their relationships with emotional appraisal. Each symptom group was highly related to fear of appraisals of anxiety; however, some anxiety symptoms were also related to fear of other emotional states, including guilt, sadness, disgust, lust, and embarrassment. Understanding the full range of appraisals of emotional experiences in anxiety conditions may help inform conceptualizations, and potentially treatments, by guiding the focus to the feared emotional states of the individual. The present study helps to clarify some of the relationships between emotion appraisal and anxiety symptoms.

  10. Preparing for your annual staff appraisal: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    Annual appraisals are an important part of workforce management and staff development. To improve the appraisal process, the professional interests of the practitioner and objectives of the organisation need to be aligned. Nurses should be well prepared for their annual appraisal so that they can gain the most from it, as well as contribute to the work of the team, department and employer. This article emphasises the need for the nurse and manager to have a strategy that allows for an honest appraisal of work done, examination of ongoing needs and plans for future work.

  11. 12 CFR 34.44 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Appraisal Foundation, 1029 Vermont Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20005, unless principles of safe and sound... appropriate deductions and discounts for proposed construction or renovation, partially leased buildings,...

  12. 12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Appraisal Foundation, 1029 Vermont Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20005, unless principles of safe and sound... appropriate deductions and discounts for proposed construction or renovation, partially leased buildings,...

  13. Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of nonenzymatic, template-directed oligoribonucleotide ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Bartel, D. P.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    The role of divalent cations in the mechanism of pyrophosphate-activated, template-directed oligoribonucleotide ligation has been investigated. The dependence of the reaction rate on Mg2+ concentration suggests a kinetic scheme in which a Mg2+ ion must bind before ligation can proceed. Mn2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ can also catalyze the reaction. Although Pb2+ and Zn2+ do not catalyze the reaction in the absence of other divalent ions, they significantly modulate the reaction rate when added in the presence of Mg2+, with Pb2+ stimulating the reaction (up to 65-fold) and Zn2+ inhibiting the reaction. The logarithm of the ligation rate increases linearly, with slope of 0.95, as a function of pH, indicating that the reaction involves a single critical deprotonation step. The ligation rates observed with the different divalent metal ion catalysts (Mn2+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Sr2+ = Ba2+) vary inversely with the pKa values of their bound water molecules. The pH profile and these relative ligation rates suggest a mechanism in which a metal-bound hydroxide ion located near the ligation junction promotes catalysis, most likely by deprotonation of the hydroxl nucleophile. The effects of changing either the leaving group or the attacking hydroxyl, together with the large delta S(++) value for oligonucleotide ligation (about -20 eu), are consistent with an associative transition state.

  14. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA-RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; Cantor, Eric J; Evans, Thomas C

    2014-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10(-3) s(-1) and K(M) < 1 nM at 25 °C under conditions where T4 DNA ligase produced only 5'-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a K(M) ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn(2+), but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (<100 µM) and pH >8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5'-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3' side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA.

  15. Recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction allows rapid and seamless cloning of oligomeric genes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jonathan R; Mackay, J Andrew; Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-04-12

    This paper reports a new strategy, recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction (PRe-RDL), to rapidly clone highly repetitive polypeptides of any sequence and specified length over a large range of molecular weights. In a single cycle of PRe-RDL, two halves of a parent plasmid, each containing a copy of an oligomer, are ligated together, thereby dimerizing the oligomer and reconstituting a functional plasmid. This process is carried out recursively to assemble an oligomeric gene with the desired number of repeats. PRe-RDL has several unique features that stem from the use of type IIs restriction endonucleases: first, PRe-RDL is a seamless cloning method that leaves no extraneous nucleotides at the ligation junction. Because it uses type IIs endonucleases to ligate the two halves of the plasmid, PRe-RDL also addresses the major limitation of RDL in that it abolishes any restriction on the gene sequence that can be oligomerized. The reconstitution of a functional plasmid only upon successful ligation in PRe-RDL also addresses two other limitations of RDL: the significant background from self-ligation of the vector observed in RDL, and the decreased efficiency of ligation due to nonproductive circularization of the insert. PRe-RDL can also be used to assemble genes that encode different sequences in a predetermined order to encode block copolymers or append leader and trailer peptide sequences to the oligomerized gene.

  16. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. {yields} Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. {yields} PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  17. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Feng, Yanni; Ying, Xin; Gong, Joshua; Gyles, Carlton L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE) lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands) and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:26090813

  18. Evaluation of small ligand-protein interaction by ligation reaction with DNA-modified ligand.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Rie; Mie, Masayasu; Funabashi, Hisakage; Kobatake, Eiry

    2010-01-01

    A method for the evaluation of interactions between protein and ligand using DNA-modified ligands, including signal enhancement of the DNA ligation reactions, is described. For proof of principle, a DNA probe modified by biotin was used. Two DNA probes were prepared with complementary sticky-ends. While one DNA probe was modified at the 5'-end of the sticky-end, the other was not modified. The probes could be ligated together by T4 DNA ligase along the strand without biotin modification. However, in the presence of streptavidin or anti-biotin Fab, the ligation reaction joining the two probes could not occur on either strand.

  19. A modified version of the digestion-ligation cloning method for more efficient molecular cloning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Li, Yanling; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Hongman; Ren, Daming; Zhang, Lijun; An, Yingfeng

    2014-05-15

    Here we describe a modified version of the digestion-ligation approach for efficient molecular cloning. In comparison with the original method, the modified method has the additional steps of gel purification and a second ligation after the first ligation of the linearized vector and DNA insert. During this process, the efficiency and reproducibility could be significantly improved for both stick-end cloning and blunt-end cloning. As an improvement of the very important molecular cloning technique, this method may find a wide range of applications in bioscience and biotechnology.

  20. 12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a sound underwriting policy because appraisal reports contain estimates of the value of collateral... apply with respect to appraisals on nonresidential properties prepared on form reports approved by...

  1. 12 CFR 564.8 - Appraisal policies and practices of savings associations and subsidiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a sound underwriting policy because appraisal reports contain estimates of the value of collateral... apply with respect to appraisals on nonresidential properties prepared on form reports approved by...

  2. 12 CFR 164.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property collateral that is consistent with safe and sound banking practices. (c) Appraisals to address... property that threatens the adequacy of the institution's real estate collateral protection after the... interests in real property, including mortgaged-backed securities, and each loan or interest in a...

  3. 12 CFR 164.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... property collateral that is consistent with safe and sound banking practices. (c) Appraisals to address... property that threatens the adequacy of the institution's real estate collateral protection after the... interests in real property, including mortgaged-backed securities, and each loan or interest in a...

  4. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property collateral that is consistent with safe and sound banking practices. (c) Appraisals to address... property that threatens the adequacy of the institution's real estate collateral protection after the... interests in real property, including mortgaged-backed securities, and each loan or interest in a...

  5. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... property collateral that is consistent with safe and sound banking practices. (c) Appraisals to address... property that threatens the adequacy of the institution's real estate collateral protection after the... interests in real property, including mortgaged-backed securities, and each loan or interest in a...

  6. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4)...

  7. 76 FR 41441 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Alert Interactive Voice Response System with references to its successor, the online-based Credit Alert...'s Limited Denial of Participation list, or in HUD's Credit Alert Interactive Voice Response System... recognized professional appraisal organizations. D. Credit Alert Interactive Voice Response System...

  8. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4)...

  9. 12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those... real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real estate's value; (4) A lease of real estate... of the property that threatens the adequacy of the credit union's real estate collateral...

  10. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4)...

  11. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real...

  12. 12 CFR 164.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a state certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real...

  13. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4)...

  14. 12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those... real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real estate's value; (4) A lease of real estate... of the property that threatens the adequacy of the credit union's real estate collateral...

  15. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4) A lien on real...

  16. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real estate has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution; (3) The transaction is not secured by real estate; (4)...

  17. 12 CFR 722.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those... real estate has been taken for purposes other than the real estate's value; (4) A lease of real estate... of the property that threatens the adequacy of the credit union's real estate collateral...

  18. A Novel Model of Severe Gallstone Pancreatitis: Murine Pancreatic Duct Ligation Results in Systemic Inflammation and Substantial Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Isaac; Yuan, Zuobiao; Meyerholz, David K.; Twait, Erik; Williard, Deborah E.; Kempuraj, Duraisamy

    2010-01-01

    Background Suitable experimental models of gallstone pancreatitis with systemic inflammation and mortality are limited. We developed a novel murine model of duct-ligation-induced acute pancreatitis associated with multiorgan dysfunction and severe mortality. Methods Laparotomy was done on C57/BL6 mice followed by pancreatic duct (PD) ligation, bile duct (BD) ligation without PD ligation, or sham operation. Results Only mice with PD ligation developed acute pancreatitis and had 100% mortality. Pulmonary compliance was significantly reduced after PD ligation but not BD ligation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil count and interleukin-1β concentration, and the plasma creatinine level, were significantly elevated with PD ligation but not BD ligation. Pancreatic nuclear factor κB (p65) and activator protein 1 (c-Jun) were activated within 1 h of PD ligation. Conclusion PD-ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice is associated with systemic inflammation, acute lung injury, multiorgan dysfunction and death. The development of this novel model is an exciting and notable advance in the field. PMID:20975317

  19. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  20. Expanded utility of the native chemical ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Dawn S Y; Srinivasan, Rajavel; Chen, Grace Y J; Yao, Shao Q

    2004-10-04

    The post-genomic era heralds a multitude of challenges for chemists and biologists alike, with the study of protein functions at the heart of much research. The elucidation of protein structure, localization, stability, post-translational modifications, and protein interactions will steadily unveil the role of each protein and its associated biological function in the cell. The push to develop new technologies has necessitated the integration of various disciplines in science. Consequently, the role of chemistry has never been so profound in the study of biological processes. By combining the strengths of recombinant DNA technology, protein splicing, organic chemistry, and the chemoselective chemistry of native chemical ligation, various strategies have been successfully developed and applied to chemoselectively label proteins, both in vitro and in live cells, with biotin, fluorescent, and other small molecule probes. The site-specific incorporation of molecular entities with unique chemical functionalities in proteins has many potential applications in chemical and biological studies of proteins. In this article, we highlight recent progress of these strategies in several areas related to proteomics and chemical biology, namely, in vitro and in vivo protein biotinylation, protein microarray technologies for large-scale protein analysis, and live-cell bioimaging.

  1. Laparoscopic ligation of varicoceles: an anatomically superior operation.

    PubMed Central

    al-Shareef, Z. H.; Koneru, S. R.; al-Tayeb, A.; Shehata, Z. M.; Aly, T. F.; Basyouni, A.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 1991, 25 consecutive symptomatic male patients with 26 varicoceles were treated by laparoscopic ligation of internal spermatic veins under general anaesthesia. Twenty-one patients had either scrotal discomfort or painful swelling and four patients presented with infertility. The mean follow-up period is 5 months (range 3 weeks to 9 months). The procedure has provided a satisfactory outcome in 19 out of 21 patients (90.5%) with scrotal symptoms. Of the four patients presenting with infertility due to oligospermia, three had significantly elevated sperm counts at 3 months which resulted in one pregnancy. So far there has been no recurrence of the varicocele. The main potential advantage of the laparoscopic approach is better visualisation of the anatomy, especially the testicular artery and the collateral venous circulation at the level of the internal inguinal ring. In addition to being less invasive with implied benefits, the endoscopic procedure has enabled identification of multiple veins in 22 out of 26 (84.6%) varicoceles in our series. PMID:8166797

  2. Melatonin Alleviates Liver Apoptosis in Bile Duct Ligation Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Li, Shih-Wen; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: one group received laparotomy (Sham), a second group received BDL for two weeks (BDL), and a third group received BDL and intraperitoneal melatonin (100 mg/day) for two weeks (BDL + M). BDL group rats showed liver apoptosis, increased pro-inflamamtory mediators, caspases alterations, anti-apoptotic factors changes, and dysfunction of ER homeostasis. Melatonin effectively reversed apoptosis, mainly through intrinsic pathway and reversed ER stress. In addition, in vitro study showed melatonin exerted its effect mainly through the melatonin 2 receptor (MT2) in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL. PMID:27556445

  3. Performance appraisal system for therapeutic recreation.

    PubMed

    Conway, M

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic Recreation professionals continually strive for effective performance standards for their clients. In addition to standards for clients, Therapeutic Recreation Specialists must also develop performance standards for themselves to meet the continual challenge of accountability in the 80's. This paper identifies the need to develop a performance appraisal system as well as the benefits. The elements of the standards include: specificity, observability, measurability, attainment and mutual determination. The paper also reviews the process of assignment of relative weights, categories of review and detailed standards for the Director of Therapeutic Recreation and Therapeutic Recreation Specialist at the Rehabilitation Institute of Detroit.

  4. BOOK APPRAISAL: HISTORY OF DENTISTRY IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Michael, O S

    2016-06-01

    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.

  5. 24 CFR 200.200 - What is the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the Appraiser Roster? 200.200 Section 200.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Appraiser Roster § 200.200 What is...

  6. Conveying the Performance Appraisal: The Research and Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gerald L.

    Results of an examination of research literature on performance-appraisal interviewing and its implications are presented in this report. The appraisal interview functions to (1) provide feedback on performance, (2) counsel and provide help, (3) discover what the employee is thinking, (4) teach the employee to solve problems, (5) help the employee…

  7. 19 CFR 152.108 - Unacceptable bases of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unacceptable bases of appraisement. 152.108 Section 152.108 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Merchandise § 152.108 Unacceptable bases of appraisement. For the purposes of this subpart,...

  8. 19 CFR 152.108 - Unacceptable bases of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unacceptable bases of appraisement. 152.108 Section 152.108 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Merchandise § 152.108 Unacceptable bases of appraisement. For the purposes of this subpart,...

  9. 19 CFR 152.108 - Unacceptable bases of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unacceptable bases of appraisement. 152.108 Section 152.108 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Merchandise § 152.108 Unacceptable bases of appraisement. For the purposes of this subpart,...

  10. 19 CFR 152.108 - Unacceptable bases of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unacceptable bases of appraisement. 152.108 Section 152.108 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Merchandise § 152.108 Unacceptable bases of appraisement. For the purposes of this subpart,...

  11. 19 CFR 152.108 - Unacceptable bases of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unacceptable bases of appraisement. 152.108 Section 152.108 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Merchandise § 152.108 Unacceptable bases of appraisement. For the purposes of this subpart,...

  12. 19 CFR 152.101 - Basis of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... computed value method before the deductive value method. The request must be made at the time the entry... computed value method, the merchandise will be appraised using the deductive value method if it is possible..., Trade Agreements Act of 1979. (b) Methods. Imported merchandise will be appraised on the basis, and...

  13. Teacher Emotion Management in the Classroom: Appraisal, Regulation, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Compared with other professions, teachers in P-12 schools seem to experience the highest level of emotional exhaustion. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher emotions within the context of teachers' appraisals and the ways they regulate and cope with their emotions. This was done by exploring novice teachers' appraisals of classroom…

  14. 7 CFR 1781.14 - Planning, options, and appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Planning, options, and appraisals. 1781.14 Section 1781.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.14 Planning, options, and appraisals. (a) WS and RCD area plans are...

  15. Appraisals of Negative Events by Preadolescent Children of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Virgil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated children's appraisals of the significance of negative events. Subjects were 256 preadolescent children of divorced parents. Cross-sectional structural equation models found significant paths between negative appraisal and psychological symptoms, over and above the direct effects of the traditional life event measure of stress. (MDM)

  16. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  17. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  18. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  19. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  20. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  1. Structural Model of Coping, Appraisals, and Emotions in Vocational Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; And Others

    The potential application of the appraisal theory of emotions developed by I. Roseman and others (1990) to transactional models of stress-produced emotions in the work place was tested. Data were gathered from 231 graduate students in counseling who were asked to rate their appraisals of taking a new job and subsequent emotional reactions, as well…

  2. Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

  3. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  4. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount. 203.15 Section 203.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to...

  5. 7 CFR 764.356 - Appraisal and valuation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal and valuation requirements. 764.356 Section 764.356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Emergency Loan Program § 764.356 Appraisal...

  6. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  7. Teacher Performance Appraisal: More about Performance or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Given that "teacher appraisal can be a key lever for increasing the focus on teaching quality" (OECD, 2013b, p.9) and that many reforms in the past have failed (Kleinhenz & Ingvarson, 2004), an understanding of the various aspects of successful performance appraisal is essential. The literature has begun to refer to a number of…

  8. Portfolio Assessment as an Alternate Appraisal Method: A Faculty Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Kimberly D.; McArdle, Geri; Cole, Ann F.

    2005-01-01

    Performance appraisal continues to be an area of research within Human Resource Development. This case study explores the impact of promotion portfolios upon the performance and professional development of university professors. Specific themes from data analysis indicated that portfolios are viewed as a performance appraisal measure/learning tool…

  9. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  10. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  11. Transactional Model of Coping, Appraisals, and Emotional Reactions to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brack, Greg; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    A study investigated the relationship of transactional models of stress management and appraisal-emotion relationships to emotions produced by taking a new job. The participants, 231 graduate students, completed measures of cognitive appraisals, stress coping resources, and emotional reactions at the time of taking a new job and some time later.…

  12. Cognitive Appraisal of Dissertation Stress among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devonport, Tracey J.; Lane, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined changes in primary and secondary appraisal, and coping strategies utilized in the final weeks leading to dissertation submission. Sixty volunteer Sports Studies dissertation students (male: n = 29; female: n = 31) completed an adapted Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale (CAHS: Kessler, 1998), and Brief COPE (Carver,…

  13. 12 CFR 34.44 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 34.44 Section 34.44 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... value as set forth in this subpart; and (e) Be performed by State licensed or certified appraisers...

  14. 12 CFR 34.44 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 34.44 Section 34.44 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... value as set forth in this subpart; and (e) Be performed by State licensed or certified appraisers...

  15. 12 CFR 34.44 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 34.44 Section 34.44 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... value as set forth in this subpart; and (e) Be performed by State licensed or certified appraisers...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... real estate market or other valid data was utilized in arriving at the decision to make the adjustment... written justification and must cite within it the data used in arriving at the decision to make the... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  17. 12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section 225.64 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal...

  18. 12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section 225.64 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... findings and information under this system to VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to..., information and argument to the Loan Guaranty Officer in opposition to the withdrawal. The Loan...

  20. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... findings and information under this system to VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to..., information and argument to the Loan Guaranty Officer in opposition to the withdrawal. The Loan...

  1. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... findings and information under this system to VA on demand. While the quality control personnel need not be appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability to..., information and argument to the Loan Guaranty Officer in opposition to the withdrawal. The Loan...

  2. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  3. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  4. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  5. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exercised to avoid duplication of value. (2) In the event that subsurface valuation is unfamiliar to the... recommendations. Mineral valuation engineers within the Corps may be utilized on a cost reimburseable basis for furnishing gross or tract appraisals. (b) Timber. (1) Where the land being appraised has only young trees...

  6. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exercised to avoid duplication of value. (2) In the event that subsurface valuation is unfamiliar to the... recommendations. Mineral valuation engineers within the Corps may be utilized on a cost reimburseable basis for furnishing gross or tract appraisals. (b) Timber. (1) Where the land being appraised has only young trees...

  7. 32 CFR 644.47 - Appraisal of other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exercised to avoid duplication of value. (2) In the event that subsurface valuation is unfamiliar to the... recommendations. Mineral valuation engineers within the Corps may be utilized on a cost reimburseable basis for furnishing gross or tract appraisals. (b) Timber. (1) Where the land being appraised has only young trees...

  8. Real Estate Appraising. A Suggested Adult Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    Developed to assist teachers of classes in real estate appraisal and to help students prepare for professional qualification, this guide presents 12 lessons which may be taught in 15 two-hour sessions. The twelve lessons are (1) The Appraisal of Real Estate, (2) Real Property Value, (3) Basic Principles of Real Property Value, (4) The Appraisal…

  9. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Schedule of appraisals. 34.6 Section 34.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.6 Schedule of appraisals....

  10. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule of appraisals. 34.6 Section 34.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.6 Schedule of appraisals....

  11. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule of appraisals. 34.6 Section 34.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.6 Schedule of appraisals....

  12. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule of appraisals. 34.6 Section 34.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.6 Schedule of appraisals....

  13. Chemical ligation methods for the tagging of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Anthony D; Clark, Matthew A; Hupp, Christopher D; Litovchick, Alexander; Zhang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    The generation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries requires the unimolecular association of multiple encoding oligonucleotides with encoded chemical entities during combinatorial synthesis processes. This has traditionally been achieved using enzymatic ligation. We discuss a range of chemical ligation methods that provide alternatives to enzymatic ligation. These chemical ligation methods include the generation of modified internucleotide linkages that support polymerase translocation and other modified linkages that while not supporting the translocation of polymerases can also be used to generate individual cDNA molecules containing encoded chemical information specifying individual library members. We also describe which of these approaches have been successfully utilized for the preparation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries and those that were subsequently used for the discovery of inhibitors.

  14. Nonenzymatic ligation of an RNA oligonucleotide analyzed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pino, Samanta; Biasiucci, Mariano; Scardamaglia, Mattia; Gigli, Giuseppe; Betti, Maria Grazia; Mariani, Carlo; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2011-05-19

    The products of ligation reaction of a 24 nucleotides long PolyA RNA adsorbed on mica were observed by atomic force microscopy. The occurrence of oligonucleotides at different degrees of polymerization has been quantitatively studied before and after ligation reaction. The microscopy images at the nanoscale show that nonenzymatic ligation of pristine RNA monomers results in the formation of supramolecular aggregates, with prevalence of dimers and tetramers. Analytical conditions were defined allowing the identification, the quantitative evaluation, and their distribution after ligation reaction, also providing an estimate of the degree of hydration of the objects. Such investigation is of particular biological relevance and provides the simplest yet model system for direct investigation of RNA reactions by advanced microscopy.

  15. Generating site-specifically modified proteins via a versatile and stable nucleophilic carbon ligation.

    PubMed

    Kudirka, Romas; Barfield, Robyn M; McFarland, Jesse; Albers, Aaron E; de Hart, Gregory W; Drake, Penelope M; Holder, Patrick G; Banas, Stefanie; Jones, Lesley C; Garofalo, Albert W; Rabuka, David

    2015-02-19

    There is a need for facile chemistries that allow for chemo- and regioselectivity in bioconjugation reactions. To address this need, we are pioneering site-specific bioconjugation methods that use formylglycine as a bioorthogonal handle on a protein surface. Here we introduce aldehyde-specific bioconjugation chemistry, the trapped-Knoevenagel ligation. The speed and stability of the trapped-Knoevenagel ligation further advances the repertoire of aldehyde-based bioconjugations and expands the toolbox for site-specific protein modifications. The trapped-Knoevenagel ligation reaction can be run at near neutral pH in the absence of catalysts to produce conjugates that are stable under physiological conditions. Using this new ligation, we generated an antibody-drug conjugate that demonstrates excellent efficacy in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Common Carotid Artery Ligation to Minimize Blood Loss During Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Alice E; Goodman, Andrew R

    2016-09-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgery in veterinary medicine carries the risk of severe hemorrhage due to the great vascular supply of the head. Temporary hemostasis can be achieved with the application of pressure or hemostatic agents, but more definitive treatment may be needed to ensure bleeding will not resume once the patient is awake and normotensive. (1 , 2) Actively bleeding vessels encountered during maxillofacial surgery may be inaccessible, and vessels may recoil into bone, sometimes preventing definitive ligation. These scenarios may require ligation of the common carotid artery. (1) The purpose of this paper is to describe how to perform ligation of the common carotid artery in a step-by-step fashion. Both temporary and permanent ligation techniques are described.

  17. Heated oligonucleotide ligation assay (HOLA): an affordable single nucleotide polymorphism assay.

    PubMed

    Black, W C; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Duteau, N M

    2006-03-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection requires expensive equipment and reagents. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is an inexpensive SNP assay that detects ligation between a biotinylated "allele-specific detector" and a 3' fluorescein-labeled "reporter" oligonucleotide. No ligation occurs unless the 3' detector nucleotide is complementary to the SNP nucleotide. The original OLA used chemical denaturation and neutralization. Heated OLA (HOLA) instead uses a thermal stable ligase and cycles of denaturing and hybridization for ligation and SNP detection. The cost per genotype is approximately US$1.25 with two-allele SNPs or approximately US$1.75 with three-allele SNPs. We illustrate the development of HOLA for SNP detection in the Early Trypsin and Abundant Trypsin loci in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and at the a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.

  18. Chemoselective modifications for the traceless ligation of thioamide-containing peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxin J; Szantai-Kis, D Miklos; Petersson, E James

    2016-07-14

    Thioamides are single-atom substitutions of canonical amide bonds, and have been proven to be versatile and minimally perturbing probes in protein folding studies. Previously, our group showed that thioamides can be incorporated into proteins by native chemical ligation (NCL) with Cys as a ligation handle. In this study, we report the expansion of this strategy into non-Cys ligation sites, utilizing radical initiated desulfurization to "erase" the side chain thiol after ligation. The reaction exhibited high chemoselectivity against thioamides, which can be further enhanced with thioacetamide as a sacrificial scavenger. As a proof-of-concept example, we demonstrated the incorporation of a thioamide probe into a 56 amino acid protein, the B1 domain of Protein G (GB1). Finally, we showed that the method can be extended to β-thiol amino acid analogs and selenocysteine.

  19. Interrupting Rivaling Access-flow with Nonsurgical Image-guided ligation: the "IRANI" Procedure.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Freed, Robert; Liu, Fengyong; Irani, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of collateral veins is one of the most common causes of fistula failure to mature. The traditional approach to eliminate collateral vessel flow is coil embolization under fluoroscopy or surgical cut down and branch vessel ligation. However, both approaches are expensive and time consuming. Here, we described an image-guided nonsurgical method to ligate collateral veins. The collateral veins were ligated using Hawkins-Akins needle under ultrasound guidance. The average time for one ligation procedure was 17 minutes. There was a significant increase of blood flow in the venous outflow postligation procedure. Four weeks postprocedure ultrasound demonstrated occlusion of the target vessels. This procedure was well tolerated without major complications. In summary, the novel procedure described here offers an image-guided nonsurgical approach for collateral vein occlusion.

  20. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  1. Synthesis of cysteine-rich peptides by native chemical ligation without use of exogenous thiols.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Shugo; Yoshiya, Taku; Mochizuki, Masayoshi; Nishiuchi, Yuji

    2015-04-03

    Native chemical ligation (NCL) performed without resorting to the use of thiol additives was demonstrated to be an efficient and effective procedure for synthesizing Cys-rich peptides. This method using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as a reducing agent facilitates the ligation reaction even at the Thr-Cys or Ile-Cys site and enables one-pot synthesis of Cys-rich peptides throughout NCL and oxidative folding.

  2. Combining ligation reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis to obtain reliable long DNA probes.

    PubMed

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Mondello, Monica; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-05-01

    New DNA amplification methods are continuously developed for sensitive detection and quantification of specific DNA target sequences for, e.g. clinical, environmental or food applications. These new applications often require the use of long DNA oligonucleotides as probes for target sequences hybridization. Depending on the molecular technique, the length of DNA probes ranges from 40 to 450 nucleotides, solid-phase chemical synthesis being the strategy generally used for their production. However, the fidelity of chemical synthesis of DNA decreases for larger DNA probes. Defects in the oligonucleotide sequence result in the loss of hybridization efficiency, affecting the sensitivity and selectivity of the amplification method. In this work, an enzymatic procedure has been developed as an alternative to solid-phase chemical synthesis for the production of long oligonucleotides. The enzymatic procedure for probe production was based on ligation of short DNA sequences. Long DNA probes were obtained from smaller oligonucleotides together with a short sequence that acts as bridge stabilizing the molecular complex for DNA ligation. The ligation reactions were monitored by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF) using a bare fused-silica capillary. The capillary gel electrophoresis-LIF method demonstrated to be very useful and informative for the characterization of the ligation reaction, providing important information about the nature of some impurities, as well as for the fine optimization of the ligation conditions (i.e. ligation cycles, oligonucleotide and enzyme concentration). As a result, the yield and quality of the ligation product were highly improved. The in-lab prepared DNA probes were used in a novel multiplex ligation-dependent genome amplification (MLGA) method for the detection of genetically modified maize in samples. The great possibilities of the whole approach were demonstrated by the specific and sensitive

  3. Gold nanoparticle-enabled real-time ligation chain reaction for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-12

    A simple and ultrasensitive colorimetric DNA assay based on the detection of the product of a ligation chain reaction (LCR) and the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as signal generators has been developed. During LCR, the AuNPs were ligated together, resulting in a distinct color change in real time after a sufficient number of thermal cycles. The cumulative nature of the protocol produced a detection limit of 20 aM with a selectivity factor of 10(3).

  4. Hypermutable ligation of plasmid DNA ends in cells from patients with Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rünger, T M; Bauer, C; Dekant, B; Möller, K; Sobotta, P; Czerny, C; Poot, M; Martin, G M

    1994-01-01

    Werner Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an increased cancer risk and by symptoms suggestive of premature aging. Cells from these patients demonstrate a typical pattern of chromosomal instability and a spontaneous hypermutability with a high rate of unusually large deletions. We have studied the in vivo DNA ligation in three lymphoblast cell lines from Werner syndrome patients and three from normal donors. In our host cell ligation assay we transfected linearized plasmid pZ189 and measured the amount of plasmid DNA ends rejoined by these host cells as the ability of the recovered plasmid to transform bacteria. A mutagenesis marker gene close to the ligation site allowed screening for mutations. Subsequent mutation analysis provided information about the accuracy of the ligation process. The cells from Werner syndrome patients were as effective as normal cells in ligating DNA ends. However, mutation analysis revealed that the three Werner syndrome cell lines introduced 2.4-4.6 times more mutations (p < 0.001) than the normal cell lines during ligation of the DNA ends: the mutation rates were 69.4, 97.2, and 58.7%, as compared to 23.6, 21.7, and 24.4% in the normal cell lines. These increased mutation frequencies in plasmids ligated during passage through Werner syndrome cells were mainly due to a significant (p < 0.001) increase in deletions. This error-prone DNA ligation might be responsible for the spontaneous hypermutability and the genomic instability in Werner syndrome cells and related to the apparently accelerated aging and high cancer risk in affected patients.

  5. 24 CFR 200.204 - What actions may HUD take against unsatisfactory appraisers on the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What actions may HUD take against unsatisfactory appraisers on the Appraiser Roster? 200.204 Section 200.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  6. 24 CFR 200.206 - What are my responsibilities as an appraiser listed on the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are my responsibilities as an appraiser listed on the Appraiser Roster? 200.206 Section 200.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  7. Counselor's Handbook: I, Counselor's Interviewing Guides in Individual Appraisal; II, Counselee Appraisal Patterns Related to Fields of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part I includes guides for appraising individual characteristics such as interests, temperament, educational development, and aptitudes, to help the counselee learn about himself. Part II includes guidelines for appraising individual characteristics as they relate to the 18 fields of work (occupational clusters) which help the counselee learn…

  8. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  9. An efficient ligation reaction promoted by a Varkud Satellite ribozyme with extended 5'- and 3'-termini.

    PubMed

    Jones, F D; Ryder, S P; Strobel, S A

    2001-12-15

    The Neurospora Varkud Satellite (VS) RNA is capable of promoting a reversible self-cleavage reaction important for its replication pathway. In vivo the VS RNA performs a cis-cleavage reaction to generate monomeric length transcripts that are subsequently ligated to produce circular VS RNA. The predominant form of VS RNA observed in vivo is the closed circular form, though minimal VS ribozyme self-cleavage constructs lack detectable ligation activity. MFOLD analysis of the entire VS RNA sequence revealed an extended region 5' and 3' of the minimal self-cleaving region that could anneal to form a complementary helix, which we have termed helix 7. In full-length VS RNA, this helix appears to span over 40 bp of sequence and brings the 5'- and 3'-ends of the RNA into proximity for the ligation reaction. Here we report a variant of the VS ribozyme with an extended 5'- and 3'-terminus capable of forming a truncated helix 7 that promotes the ligation reaction in vitro. Through mutation and selection of this RNA we have identified a ribozyme containing two point mutations in the truncated helix 7 that ligates with >70% efficiency. These results show that an additional helical element absent in current VS ribozyme constructs is likely to be important for the ligation activity of VS RNA.

  10. Electrochemical detection of point mutation based on surface ligation reaction and biometallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chu, Xia; Xu, Xiangmin; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2008-05-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical method for point mutation detection based on surface enzymatic ligation reaction and biometallization is demonstrated. In this method the surface-immobilized allele-specific probe, complementary to the mutant target, undergoes allele-specific ligation with the 5'-phosphorylated ligation probe in the presence of the mutant oligonucleotide target and E. coli DNA ligase. If there is an allele mismatch, no ligation takes place. After thermal treatment at 90 degrees C, the formed duplex melts apart, which merely allows the ligation product to remain on the electrode surface. Then, biotinylated detection probes hybridize with the ligation product. With the binding of streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) to the biotinylated probes, a non-reductive substrate of alkaline phosphatase, ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-P), can be converted into ascorbic acid (AA) at the electrode surface. Silver ions in solution are then reduced by AA, resulting in the deposition of silver metal onto the electrode surface. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) is used to detect the amount of deposited silver. The proposed approach has been successfully implemented for the identification of single base mutation in codon 12 of K-ras oncogene target with a detection limit of 80fM, demonstrating that this method provides a highly specific, sensitive and cost-efficient approach for point mutation detection.

  11. Insights into the mechanism and catalysis of the native chemical ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erik C B; Kent, Stephen B H

    2006-05-24

    Native chemical ligation of unprotected peptide segments involves reaction between a peptide-alpha-thioester and a cysteine-peptide, to yield a product with a native amide bond at the ligation site. Peptide-alpha-thioalkyl esters are commonly used because of their ease of preparation. These thioalkyl esters are rather unreactive so the ligation reaction is catalyzed by in situ transthioesterification with thiol additives. The most common thiol catalysts used to date have been either a mixture of thiophenol/benzyl mercaptan, or the alkanethiol MESNA. Despite the use of these thiol catalysts, ligation reactions typically take 24-48 h. To gain insight into the mechanism of native chemical ligaton and in order to find a better catalyst, we investigated the use of a number of thiol compounds. Substituted thiophenols with pK(a) > 6 were found to best combine the ability to exchange rapidly and completely with thioalkyl esters, and to then act as effective leaving groups in reaction of the peptide-thioester with the thiol side chain of a cysteine-peptide. A highly effective and practical catalyst was (4-carboxylmethyl)thiophenol ('MPAA'), a nonmalodorous, water-soluble thiol. Use of MPAA gave an order of magnitude faster reaction in model studies of native chemical ligation and in the synthesis of a small protein, turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3). MPAA should find broad use in native chemical ligation and in the total synthesis of proteins.

  12. Effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide on ligation capability of T4 DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Tong, Zhaoxue; Zhao, Guojie; Mu, Runqing; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2014-09-01

    To further understand the ligation mechanism, effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide (2'-OMeN) on the T4 DNA ligation efficiency were investigated. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay was used to monitor the nick-joining process by T4 DNA ligase. Results showed that substitutions at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick decreased the ligation efficiency by 48.7% ± 6.7% and 70.6% ± 4.0%, respectively. Substitutions at both 5'- and 3'-ends decreased the ligation efficiency by 76.6% ± 1.3%. Corresponding kinetic parameters, Vmax, Km, and kcat, have been determined in each case by using the Michaelis-Menten equation. The kinetic data showed that the 2'-OMeN substitutions reduced the maximal initial velocity and increased the Michaelis constant of T4 DNA ligase. Mismatches at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick have also shown different influences on the ligation. Results here showed that the sugar pucker conformation at 3'-end impairs the ligation efficiency more profoundly than that at 5'-end. Different concentrations of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), and ATP were also demonstrated to affect the T4 DNA ligase activity. These results enriched our knowledge about the effects of 2'-OMeN substitutions on the T4 DNA ligase.

  13. Chemical Ligation of Folded Recombinant Proteins: Segmental Isotopic Labeling of Domains for NMR Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong; Ayers, Brenda; Cowburn, David; Muir, Tom W.

    1999-01-01

    A convenient in vitro chemical ligation strategy has been developed that allows folded recombinant proteins to be joined together. This strategy permits segmental, selective isotopic labeling of the product. The src homology type 3 and 2 domains (SH3 and SH2) of Abelson protein tyrosine kinase, which constitute the regulatory apparatus of the protein, were individually prepared in reactive forms that can be ligated together under normal protein-folding conditions to form a normal peptide bond at the ligation junction. This strategy was used to prepare NMR sample quantities of the Abelson protein tyrosine kinase-SH(32) domain pair, in which only one of the domains was labeled with 15N Mass spectrometry and NMR analyses were used to confirm the structure of the ligated protein, which was also shown to have appropriate ligand-binding properties. The ability to prepare recombinant proteins with selectively labeled segments having a single-site mutation, by using a combination of expression of fusion proteins and chemical ligation in vitro, will increase the size limits for protein structural determination in solution with NMR methods. In vitro chemical ligation of expressed protein domains will also provide a combinatorial approach to the synthesis of linked protein domains.

  14. Protein-templated fragment ligations - from molecular recognition to drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Jaegle, Mike; Wong, Ee Lin; Tauber, Carolin; Nawrotzky, Eric; Arkona, Christoph; Rademann, Jörg

    2017-01-24

    The understanding and manipulation of molecular recognition events is the key to modern approaches in drug discovery. Protein-templated fragment ligation is a novel concept to support drug discovery and can help to improve the efficacy of already existing protein ligands. Protein-templated fragment ligations are chemical reactions between small molecules ("fragments") that utilize a protein´s surface as a template to combine and to form a protein ligand with increased binding affinity. The approach exploits the molecular recognition of reactive small molecule fragments by proteins both for ligand assembly and for the identification of bioactive fragment combinations. Chemical synthesis and bioassay are thus integrated in one single step. In this article we portrait the biophysical basis of reversible and irreversible fragment ligations and the available methods to detect protein-templated ligation products. The scope of known chemical reactions providing templated ligation products is reviewed and the possibilities to extend the reaction portfolio are discussed. Selected recent applications of the method in protein ligand discovery are reported. Finally, the strengths and limitations of the concept are discussed and an outlook on the future impact of templated fragment ligations on the drug discovery process is given.

  15. Prospective comparison of ligation and bipolar cautery technique in non-scalpel vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Şahin, Ali Feyzullah; Divrik, Rauf Taner; Yildirim, Ümit; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is no trial comparing bipolar cautery and ligation for occlusion of vas in non-scalpel vasectomy. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these vasectomy occlusion techniques. Materials and Methods: Between January 2002-June 2009, patients were allocated in alternate order. We recruited 100 cases in cautery group and 100 cases in ligation group. Non-scalpel approach was performed during vasectomy and fascial interposition was performed in all cases. First semen analysis was done 3 months after vasectomy. Vasectomy success was defined as azoospermia or non-motile sperm lower than 100.000/mL. Results: Four patients from the cautery group were switched to the ligation group due to technical problem of cautery device. Thus, data of 96 patients as cautery group and 104 patients as ligation group were evaluated. After vasectomy, semen analyses were obtained from 59 of 96 (61.5%) patients in cautery group and to 66 of 104 (63.5%) patients in ligation group. There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups in terms of the success of vasectomy (p=0.863). Conclusion: Although bipolar cautery technique is safe, effective and feasible in non-scalpel vasectomy, it has no superiority to ligation. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the success and complications between the two groups. PMID:26742977

  16. Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yushu; Liang, Chengbo; Suo, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral carotid artery ligation which could induce adaptive improvement is a classic model that has been widely used to study pathology of ischemic disease. In those studies, blood flow is an important parameter to characterize the ischemia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality which can provide depth resolved images in biological tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. SPF rats was anesthetized with isoflurane and divided into two groups. In first group, bilateral carotid artery was surgically exposed, and then left carotid artery was ligated. Blood flow changes of the contralateral carotid artery was monitored using high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography, including the absolute flow velocity and the flow volume. In the other group, skull window was opened at the ipsilateral cerebral cortex of ligation and blood supply of small artery was measured before and after the ligation. The measured results demonstrate the blood supply compensation process after unilateral carotid artery ligation. With the superiority of high resolution, OCT is an effective technology in monitoring results of carotid artery after ligation.

  17. A novel, one-step amplification and oligonucleotide ligation procedure for multiplex genetic typing

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerding, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    A new technique, coupled amplification and oligonucleotide ligation (CAL), has been developed for simultaneous multiplex amplification and genotyping of DNA. CAL is a biphasic method which combines in one assay DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA genotyping by the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA). By virtue of a difference in the melting temperatures of PCR primer-target DNA and OLA probe-target DNA hybrids, the method allows preferential amplification of DNA during stage I and oligonucleotide ligation during stage II of the reaction. In stage I target DNA is amplified using high-melting primers in a two-step PCR cycle that employs a 72{degrees}C anneal-elongation step. In stage II genotyping of PCR products by competitive oligonucleotide ligation with oligonucleotide probes located between PCR primers is accomplished by several cycles of denaturation at 94{degrees}C followed by anneal-ligation at 55{degrees}C. Ligation products are fluorochrome-labeled at their 3{prime}-ends and analyzed electrophoretically on a fluorescent DNA sequencer. The CAL procedure has been used for multiplex detection of 30 cystic fibrosis mutations and for analysis of ras gene point mutations. Because mutation detection occurs concurrently with target amplification, the technique is rapid, highly sensitive and specific, easily automatable, and requires minimal sample processing.

  18. Formation of oligonucleotide-PNA-chimeras by template-directed ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppitz, M.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    DNA sequences have previously been reported to act as templates for the synthesis of PNA, and vice versa. A continuous evolutionary transition from an informational replicating system based on one polymer to a system based on the other would be facilitated if it were possible to form chimeras, that is molecules that contain monomers of both types. Here we show that ligation to form chimeras proceeds efficiently both on PNA and on DNA templates. The efficiency of ligation is primarily determined by the number of backbone bonds at the ligation site and the relative orientation of template and substrate strands. The most efficient reactions result in the formation of chimeras with ligation junctions resembling the structures of the backbones of PNA and DNA and with antiparallel alignment of both components of the chimera with the template, that is, ligations involving formation of 3'-phosphoramidate and 5'-ester bonds. However, double helices involving PNA are stable both with antiparallel and parallel orientation of the two strands. Ligation on PNA but not on DNA templates is, therefore, sometimes possible on templates with reversed orientation. The relevance of these findings to discussions of possible transitions between genetic systems is discussed.

  19. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether

  20. 22 CFR 146.425 - Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Counseling and use of appraisal and counseling... appraisal and counseling materials. (a) Counseling. A recipient shall not discriminate against any person on... appraisal and counseling materials. A recipient that uses testing or other materials for appraising...