Science.gov

Sample records for approach aspectos juridicos

  1. Contenedores: Aspectos tecnicos, biologicos y economicos

    Treesearch

    Tara Luna; Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    La elección del contenedor es una de las consideraciones más importantes al establecer un nuevo vivero o empezar a producir una especie nueva. El tipo y tamaño de contenedor no sólo determina la cantidad de agua y nutrientes minerales que están disponibles para el crecimiento de una planta, sino que también afecta otros aspectos operativos del vivero, como el tamaño de...

  2. A Cratera de Colônia (São Paulo - SP) Aspectos Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varella, Paulo Gomes; Atulim, Regina Auxiliadora

    2006-06-01

    Despite the studies carried out during the last five decades, Colônia crater, situated at the south of São Paulo (SP), is not much known to the Brazilian scientific community (including astronomers) let alone to the population at large. For this paper, we have selected the main characteristics of that crater, such as size, age, geographic location, geological features of the area, and items in favor of its description as an impact crater, since, up to our days, many researchers have been still uncertain as to its origin. We have also established, a comparison between Colônia crater and other similar Brazilian craters, in order to single it out as a very important site for astronomical, paleoclimatic, geological, and geophysical research. It has also been our aim to provide some subsidy to science teachers who wish to approach this subject in the classroom, and stress (emphasize) the importance of this crater as a Brazilian patrimony, considering that this topic, save for a few distinguished exceptions, is not regularly taught at school. Lastly, (finally) we describe, briefly, the current condition of the crater, pointing out the protection initiatives taken by CONDEPHAAT (Conselho de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico, Artístico, Arqueológico e Turístico do Estado de São Paulo) and the creation of APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) Capivari-Monos to refrain the disastrous occupation while propitiating a preservative action to protect the important fountainhead area of São Paulo as well as the crater itself.

  3. Approaching Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-05

    This enhanced color view of Jupiter's south pole was created by citizen scientist Gabriel Fiset using data from the JunoCam instrument on NASA's Juno spacecraft. Oval storms dot the cloudscape. Approaching the pole, the organized turbulence of Jupiter's belts and zones transitions into clusters of unorganized filamentary structures, streams of air that resemble giant tangled strings. The image was taken on Dec. 11, 2016 at 9:44 a.m. PST (12:44 p.m. EST), from an altitude of about 32,400 miles (52,200 kilometers) above the planet's beautiful cloud tops. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21390

  4. Some Approaches to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nila Banton; Strickland, Ruth

    This pamphlet discusses some beginning approaches and technological approaches to reading instruction, and the relationship between children's language and reading. The first section looks at several approaches to reading instruction: "The Language Experience Approach,""The Initial Teaching Alphabet,""Linguistic Approaches to Reading,""Programed…

  5. Morpheus Surface Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows the Project Morpheus lander flying a kilometer-long simulated surface approach while avoiding hazards in a landing field. The approach takes place at the Shuttle Landing Facili...

  6. Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  7. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: retroauricular approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoong

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has abruptly increased recently, with a female predominance. Conventional thyroidectomy using transcervical incision inevitably leaves an unfavorable neck scar; therefore, various extracervical approaches have been introduced to improve cosmetic satisfaction after thyroidectomy. Several reports demonstrated that these extracervical approaches have advantages not only in terms of cosmesis but also in terms of surgical outcomes and postoperative functional preservation. The retroauricular approach has advantages as the dissection area is smaller than that in the transaxillary approach (TA) and surgical anatomy is familiar to the head and neck surgeons. In addition, there is no concern about paresthesia around the nipple or anterior chest, and surgical direction makes central neck dissection easier than with the other extracervical approaches. Herein, we aim to introduce the surgical procedure of retroauricular approach thyroidectomy and present our experiences of postoperative outcomes.

  8. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: retroauricular approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has abruptly increased recently, with a female predominance. Conventional thyroidectomy using transcervical incision inevitably leaves an unfavorable neck scar; therefore, various extracervical approaches have been introduced to improve cosmetic satisfaction after thyroidectomy. Several reports demonstrated that these extracervical approaches have advantages not only in terms of cosmesis but also in terms of surgical outcomes and postoperative functional preservation. The retroauricular approach has advantages as the dissection area is smaller than that in the transaxillary approach (TA) and surgical anatomy is familiar to the head and neck surgeons. In addition, there is no concern about paresthesia around the nipple or anterior chest, and surgical direction makes central neck dissection easier than with the other extracervical approaches. Herein, we aim to introduce the surgical procedure of retroauricular approach thyroidectomy and present our experiences of postoperative outcomes. PMID:27294041

  9. [Surgical approaches in rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Duron, J-B; Bardot, J; Levet, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    In the first step of rhinoplasty, the surgical approach will expose through different types of incisions and dissection planes the osteocartilaginous framework of the nasal pyramid prior to performing actions to reduce or increase the latter. This exposure can be performed by a closed approach or by an external approach--the choice depends on the type of nose and the habits of the surgeon. Far from being opposites, closed and external approaches are complementary and should be known and mastered by surgeons performing rhinoplasty.

  10. The TLC Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welker, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  11. The TLC Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welker, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  12. Approaches to Beginning Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aukerman, Robert C.

    The more than one hundred approaches to initial reading instruction can be grouped under ten headings: basal reader, phonemics, phonemic reading, "linguistics," total language arts, language-experience, one-to-one sound symbol, individualized reading, early reading, and perceptual discrimination. Although the basal reader approach is used in more…

  13. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  14. Modular Approach for Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  15. Approaches to Truancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

    This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

  16. Alternative Approaches to Negotiating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramming, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    The wait-and-react and laundry-list approaches to combating teachers' collective-bargaining demands are ineffective. An alternative goals-setting approach requires management and the district negotiations team to identify important needs and objectives. West Seneca Central School District ended contentious negotiations by presenting unions with…

  17. Flipped Classroom Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdamli, Fezile; Asiksoy, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Flipped classroom is an active, student-centered approach that was formed to increase the quality of period within class. Generally this approach whose applications are done mostly in Physical Sciences, also attracts the attention of educators and researchers in different disciplines recently. Flipped classroom learning which wide-spreads rapidly…

  18. Ten practice redesign approaches.

    PubMed

    Slayton, Val

    2013-01-01

    As healthcare delivery continues to evolve at a rapid pace, practices need to consider redesign approaches to stay ahead of the pack. From national policy and private payer initiatives to societal macro trends and the growing use of mobile technologies, delivering value, understanding customer needs, and assessing satisfaction are important elements to achieve and maintain success. This article discusses 10 practice redesign approaches.

  19. Introducing Systems Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  20. Otoplasty: A graduated approach.

    PubMed

    Foda, H M

    1999-01-01

    Numerous otoplastic techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Technique selection in otoplasty should be done only after careful analysis of the abnormal anatomy responsible for the protruding ear deformity. A graduated surgical approach is presented which is designed to address all contributing factors to the presenting auricular deformity. The approach starts with the more conservative cartilage-sparing suturing techniques, then proceeds to incorporate other more aggressive cartilage weakening maneuvers. Applying this approach resulted in better long-term results with less postoperative lateralization than that encountered on using the cartilage-sparing techniques alone.

  1. Approaching Marquette Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this picture of a rock informally named Marquette Island as the rover was approaching the rock for investigations that have suggested the rock is a stony meteorite.

  2. Ares I Integration Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the planned Integration approach for the Ares I Launch vehicle. It includes organization charts, and diagrams showing responsibilities for the various activities of the launch. Included is also a timeline with milestones for the project.

  3. SOHO Sees Venus' Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows the Sun's corona and Venus' approach for the transit. This was taken with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) in ...

  4. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  5. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...

  6. Hurricane Hermine Approaching Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    ... as it approached the coast of Florida. Hermine began life as Tropical Depression Nine, originating off the coast of Cuba on Aug. 28. After heading northwest into the Gulf of Mexico, it took a right turn toward ...

  7. Approaching Venus Image #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-05

    NASA MESSENGER spacecraft snapped a series of images as it approached Venus on June 5. The planet is enshrouded by a global layer of clouds that obscures its surface to the MESSENGER Dual Imaging System MDIS cameras.

  8. Approaches to Machine Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-16

    The field of machine learning strives to develop methods and techniques to automatic the acquisition of new information, new skills, and new ways of organizing existing information. In this article, we review the major approaches to machine learning in symbolic domains, covering the tasks of learning concepts from examples, learning search methods, conceptual clustering, and language acquisition. We illustrate each of the basic approaches with paradigmatic examples. (Author)

  9. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  10. Dynamic Approaches to Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Symbolic rule-based approaches have been a preferred way to study language and cognition. Dissatisfaction with rule-based approaches in the 1980s lead to alternative approaches to study language, the most notable being the dynamic approaches to language processing. Dynamic approaches provide a significant alternative by not being rule-based and…

  11. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  12. Unconventional approaches to fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brunelli, B.; Leotta, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to unconventional approaches to fusionthose thermonuclear reactors that, in comparison with Tokamak and other main lines, have received little attention in the worldwide scientific community. Many of the approaches considered are still in the embryonic stages. The authors-an international group of active nuclear scientists and engineers-focus on the parameters achieved in the use of these reactors and on the meaning of the most recent physical studies and their implications for the future. They also compare these approaches with conventional ones, the Tokamak in particular, stressing the non-plasma-physics requirements of fusion reactors. Unconventional compact toroids, linear systems, and multipoles are considered, as are the ''almost conventional'' fusion machines: stellarators, mirrors, reversed-field pinches, and EBT.

  13. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-27

    ISS030-E-050883 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (bottom), Expedition 30 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on. Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin (bottom background), flight engineer, photographs the approach of the Progress from a Zvezda window.

  15. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-27

    ISS030-E-050885 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov (bottom) and Oleg Kononenko (center), both Expedition 30 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on. Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin (bottom background), flight engineer, photographs the approach of the Progress from a Zvezda window.

  16. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-27

    ISS030-E-050884 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (bottom), Expedition 30 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on. Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin (bottom background), flight engineer, photographs the approach of the Progress from a Zvezda window.

  17. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  18. USEPA WATERSHED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...

  19. Ceres on Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-05

    This image is one several images NASA Dawn spacecraft took on approach to Ceres on Feb. 4, 2015 at a distance of about 90,000 miles 145,000 kilometers from the dwarf planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19179

  20. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  1. Ethical Approaches to Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role that higher education has in ethical compliance to Title IX and the Clery Act. The discussion includes a curious look at common practices as potential future approaches to consent and sexual assault education. Articles and research are included to ground understanding in the current context, while examples from a…

  2. NEW APPROACHES: Toppling trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Malcolm

    1998-03-01

    This article explains a novel way of approaching centripetal force: theory is used to predict an orbital period at which a toy train will topple from a circular track. The demonstration has proved useful in A-level, GNVQ and undergraduate Physics and Engineering schemes.

  3. Clinical approach to toxicities.

    PubMed

    Drobatz, K J

    1994-11-01

    Toxicities are a common presenting complaint in the emergency department. This article discusses the clinical approach to the poisoned patient from the initial telephone call by the owner to presentation, management, and monitoring of the patient in the emergency department. Topics discussed include telephone triage, diagnosis, management, and monitoring of the poisoned patient.

  4. New Ideas and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukov, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines theories of youth that have been proposed in the past few years by Russian scientists, and presents the author's original version of a theory of youth that is based on the thesaurus methodological approach. It addresses the ways in which biosocial characteristics may be reflected in new theories of youth.

  5. Marxian Approaches to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  6. Salt repository design approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

  7. New Ideas and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukov, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines theories of youth that have been proposed in the past few years by Russian scientists, and presents the author's original version of a theory of youth that is based on the thesaurus methodological approach. It addresses the ways in which biosocial characteristics may be reflected in new theories of youth.

  8. USEPA WATERSHED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development has developed a well defined research plan to evaluate pollutants within watersheds. This plan is defined by long term goals and annual performance measures. The first goal is to provide the approache...

  9. Emphasis: Different Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Richard L., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Articles in this publication either deal with one of a variety of topics involved under the broad heading of the teaching of English or, more specifically, concern the different approaches to the teaching of literature. Titles are "The Psychology of Remediation"; "Non-Standard Negro Dialect: Myth or Reality"; "The Teaching of Pronunciation in the…

  10. Gaspra Approach Sequence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This montage of 11 images taken by NASA Galileo spacecraft as it flew by the asteroid Gaspra on Oct. 1991, shows Gaspra growing progressively larger in the field of view of Galileo solid-state imaging camera as the spacecraft approached the asteroid. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00079

  11. Synopsis of emergent approaches

    Treesearch

    Malcolm North; Brandon Collins; John Keane; Jonathan W. Long; Carl Skinner; Bill. Zielinski

    2014-01-01

    This synopsis presents three integrated themes that emerged from synthesizing information about biological resources. These themes become particularly important when managing forests to promote resilience at large landscape scales and long timeframes. This synopsis summarizes ideas in the longer chapter 1.2, “Integrative Approaches: Promoting Socioecological Resilience...

  12. Marxian Approaches to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  13. ATV 2 Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029470 (24 Feb. 2011) --- Surrounded by the blackness of space, the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2) approaches the International Space Station. Docking of the two spacecraft occurred at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  14. ATV 2 Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029343 (24 Feb. 2011) --- Backdropped by the blackness of space and Earth’s horizon, the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2) appears very small as it approaches the International Space Station. Docking of the two spacecraft occurred at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  15. ATV 2 Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029435 (24 Feb. 2011) --- Backdropped by a cloud-covered part of Earth, the European Space Agency's "Johannes Kepler" Automated Transfer Vehicle-2 (ATV-2) approaches the International Space Station. Docking of the two spacecraft occurred at 10:59 a.m. (EST) on Feb. 24, 2011.

  16. External approach to rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.

  17. Comparing Information Access Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

  18. Adopting a Pluricentric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kerckvoorde, Colette

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

  19. A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Facilities and services are a huge drain on community college budgets. They are also vital to the student experience. As funding dries up across the country, many institutions are taking a team approach, working with partner colleges and private service providers to offset costs and generate revenue without sacrificing the services and amenities…

  20. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  1. Overview of Curricular Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartz, Cameo V.; Parker, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education address the transition from after-college life in a variety of curricular approaches. Articulation agreements provide greater transferability of courses from one college to another, thereby easing the transition for students. Career courses, which are typically taught by career center staff, are a common offering…

  2. A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Facilities and services are a huge drain on community college budgets. They are also vital to the student experience. As funding dries up across the country, many institutions are taking a team approach, working with partner colleges and private service providers to offset costs and generate revenue without sacrificing the services and amenities…

  3. Islamic approach in counseling.

    PubMed

    Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

    2014-02-01

    A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah.

  4. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENS, JACOB H.

    TO PERMIT COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AT SAN MATEO, FIVE INSTITUTIONS WITH SYSTEMS PROGRAMS ARE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF TRIP NOTES. OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE HAS BEEN COMPLETELY ORGANIZED AROUND THE VOLUNTARY WORK-STUDY LABORATORY APPROACH TO LEARNING. ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY, OKLAHOMA CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, HENRY FORD…

  5. Dystonia: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark J

    2008-12-01

    Dystonia is a common movement disorder characterised by abnormal postures of the affected body part. It has a very varied presentation and numerous causes, and this can create difficulties with diagnosis and appropriate investigation. This article aims to provide a clinical approach to patients with dystonia, focussing on how to create a differential diagnosis and to plan rational testing.

  6. Ecosystem approach in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  7. Domain Approach: An Alternative Approach in Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…

  8. Transaction based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  9. The imaging spectrometer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    Two important sensor design drivers are the requirement for spatial registration of the spectral components and the implementation of the advanced multispectral capability, including spectral band width, number of bands and programmability. The dispersive approach, fundamental to the imaging spectrometer concept, achieves these capabilities by utilizing a spectrometer to disperse the spectral content while preserving the spatial identity of the information in the cross-track direction. Area array detectors in the spectrometer focal plane detect and store the spatial and multispectral content for each line of the image. The choice of spectral bands, image IFOV and swath width is implemented by programmed readout of the focal plane. These choices in conjunction with data compression are used to match the output data rate with the telemetry link capability. Progress in the key technologies of optics, focal plane detector arrays, onboard processing, and focal plane cooling supports the viability of the imaging spectrometer approach.

  10. Approach to hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2013-07-01

    Hemorrhoids are a very common anorectal disorder defined as the symptomatic enlargement and abnormally downward displacement of anal cushions. The current pathophysiologies of hemorrhoids include the degenerative change of supportive tissue within the anal cushions, vascular hyperplasia, and hyperperfusion of hemorrhoidal plexus. Low-grade hemorrhoids are easily and effectively treated with dietary and lifestyle modification, medical intervention, and some office-based procedures. An operation is usually indicated in symptomatic high-grade and/or complicated hemorrhoids. Whilst hemorrhoidectomy has been the mainstay of surgical treatment, more recently other approaches have been employed including Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, and doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation. Post-procedural pain and disease recurrence remain the most challenging problems in the treatment of hemorrhoids. This article deals with modern approaches to hemorrhoids based on the latest evidence and reviews of the literature. The management of hemorrhoids in complicated situations is also discussed.

  11. The Supraorbital Keyhole Approach.

    PubMed

    Tatarli, Necati; Ceylan, Davut; Şeker, Aşkin; Solmaz, Bilgehan; Çavdar, Safiye; Kiliç, Türker

    2015-07-01

    The major aim of the present anatomical study was to demonstrate the anatomical structures that can be visualized using the supraorbital keyhole approach, both endoscopically and microscopically, from an eyebrow incision to intracranial structures. Furthermore, it defines an optimal craniotomy for surgery. Fine dissection was performed on each side of 5 formalin-fixed adult cadavers according to the surgical procedures of the supraorbital keyhole approach, and each step was documented both endoscopically and microscopically. Furthermore, the distance between the superior temporal line and the supraorbital notch/foramen was measured from the 10 total sides of the 5 cadavers and from the 118 sides of the 59 autopsies. Tumors and aneurysms of the anterior cranial fossa can be visualized during the supraorbital keyhole approach. The average distance between the superior temporal line and the supraorbital notch/foramen was measured. The distance obtained from the autopsies on the 25 females was 31.56 ± 4.03  mm on the right side and 31.04 ± 5.40  mm on the left side. The average distance obtained from the autopsies on the 34 males was 34.00 ± 4.59  mm on the right side and 33.59 ± 5.41  mm on the left side. There was no statistically significant difference between right and left in the female and male autopsies or between sexes. This anatomical study showed that structures in the anterior and middle cranial fossa can be reached via the supraorbital keyhole craniotomy approach with minimal brain retraction and adequate exposure and with minimal craniotomy size.

  12. NEW APPROACHES: Vision underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Alan L.

    1997-11-01

    A tutorial type problem examining the focusing performance of the human eye in air and in water is solved by two different approaches. Calculations show that light can be effectively focused on the retina when the eye is in air but not underwater, even with the usual accommodation. We then examine how some vertebrates have accommodation processes that permit them to see effectively both above and below water.

  13. The diesel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1993-04-01

    Whether for standby or baseload capacity, diesel generator sets are being used in markets worldwide. Companies are taking a variety of approaches to tapping these markets. The markets for diesel generators follow two basic paths. In the US, they are used primarily for standby or peaking applications. Outside the US, the market includes standby applications but is more often for baseload or prime-power applications.

  14. SEI Approach to Harmonization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    Osterweil: Little JIL process language • Amescua, Garcia , Sanchez et. al.: Patterns • Others Multimodel Harmonization Builds on Existing Works © 2008...James, A Systems Approach to Process Infrastructure, INCOSE Symposium 2005 [Amescua-Sanchez] Amescua, Antonio, Javier Garcia , Maria-Isabel Sanchez-Segura...Industrial Design Engineering at the Royal College of Art (RCA) in London. [Byrnes –Vasques 07] Byrnes, Paul D. and Renato Chaves Vasques, Integrated

  15. [Marijuana: A toxicological approach].

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    From an adult perspective, both marijuana and alcohol consumption are becoming natural. Among illegal substances, marijuana has disseminated all over the word and specially in Argentina. Thus, a scientifc approach towards this issue must be developed and we should spread what we know about toxicity and adverse effects, particularly among adolescents. The impact of this kind of toxic during the neurodevelopmental period, both in cognitive and impulse control areas, may involve negative consequences for users at a later age.

  16. Theoretical Approaches to Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, Krzysztof

    Nanoparticles can be viewed as wave resonators. Involved waves are, for example, carrier waves, plasmon waves, polariton waves, etc. A few examples of successful theoretical treatments that follow this approach are given. In one, an effective medium theory of a nanoparticle composite is presented. In another, plasmon polaritonic solutions allow to extend concepts of radio technology, such as an antenna and a coaxial transmission line, to the visible frequency range.

  17. AVOSS Development Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    A concept is presented for development and implementation of prototype Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to provide dynamical, weather dependent wake vortex separation criteria to ATC facilities with adequate stability and lead time for use in establishing arrival scheduling. This current paper discusses AVOSS development approach. The discussion includes: system model, AVOSS R&D effort scope, major development issues, concept system development process, AVOSS system testing, and concept demonstration.

  18. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-050932 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov (left), Expedition 30 flight engineer, monitors data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, commander, looks on.

  19. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parsec's astrometry direct approaches .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A. H.

    Parallaxes - and hence the fundamental establishment of stellar distances - rank among the oldest, keyest, and hardest of astronomical determinations. Arguably amongst the most essential too. The direct approach to obtain trigonometric parallaxes, using a constrained set of equations to derive positions, proper motions, and parallaxes, has been labeled as risky. Properly so, because the axis of the parallactic apparent ellipse is smaller than one arcsec even for the nearest stars, and just a fraction of its perimeter can be followed. Thus the classical approach is of linearizing the description by locking the solution to a set of precise positions of the Earth at the instants of observation, rather than to the dynamics of its orbit, and of adopting a close examination of the never many points available. In the PARSEC program the parallaxes of 143 brown dwarfs were aimed at. Five years of observation of the fields were taken with the WIFI camera at the ESO 2.2m telescope, in Chile. The goal is to provide a statistically significant number of trigonometric parallaxes to BD sub-classes from L0 to T7. Taking advantage of the large, regularly spaced, quantity of observations, here we take the risky approach to fit an ellipse in ecliptical observed coordinates and derive the parallaxes. We also combine the solutions from different centroiding methods, widely proven in prior astrometric investigations. As each of those methods assess diverse properties of the PSFs, they are taken as independent measurements, and combined into a weighted least-square general solution.

  1. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  2. Reliability-centred approach evaluated.

    PubMed

    Steele, William R

    2005-02-01

    Reliability-centred maintenance is the process used to determine the most effective maintenance approach. RCM takes a system approach when evaluating the consequences of failure. Run-to-fail is sometimes an acceptable maintenance approach. Condition monitoring is often the most effective maintenance approach.

  3. Approach to Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-26

    The narrow angle camera onboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft took a series of exposures of Saturn and its rings and moons on February 9, 2004, which were composited to create this stunning, color image. At the time, Cassini was 69.4 million kilometers (43.1 million miles) from Saturn, less than half the distance from Earth to the Sun. The image contrast and colors have been slightly enhanced to aid visibility. The smallest features visible in this image are approximately 540 kilometers across (336 miles). Fine details in the rings and atmosphere are beginning to emerge, and will grow in sharpness and clarity over the coming months. The optical thickness of Saturn's B (middle) ring and the comparative translucence of the A (outer) ring, when seen against the planet, are now apparent. Subtle color differences in the finely banded Saturnian atmosphere, as well as structure within the diaphanous, inner C ring can be easily seen. Noticeably absent are the ghostly spoke-like dark markings in Saturn's B ring, first discovered by NASA's Voyager spacecraft on approach to the planet 23 years ago. The icy moon Enceladus (520 kilometers or 323 miles across) is faintly visible on the left in the image. Its brightness has been increased seven times relative to the planet. Cassini will make several very close approaches to Enceladus, returning images in which features as small as 50 meters (165 feet) or less will be detectable. The composite image signals the start of Cassini's final approach to the ringed planet and the beginning of monitoring and data collection on Saturn and its environment. This phase of the mission will continue until Cassini enters orbit around Saturn on July 1, 2004. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05380

  4. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2007-06-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  5. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  6. Multidisciplinary approach to obesity.

    PubMed

    Donini, L M; Donini, M L; Savina, C; Castellaneta, E; Coletti, C; Paolini, M; Scavone, L; Civale, C; Ceccarelli, P; Zaninotto, S; Tineri, M; Grossi, G; De Felice, M R; Cannella, C

    2009-03-01

    Obesity, associated with morbidity and mortality, is a complex disorder, characterised by an increase in fat mass (FM). Most authors agree in considering essential an integrated treatment made up of nutritional intervention, physical reconditioning programme and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy. However, the feasibility is problematic and data in literature confirming the validity of this approach are poor. To verify the efficacy of a multidimensional approach (Nutritional Psycho-Physical Reconditioning - NPPR) in obesity treatment. All patients admitted from June 2002 to June 2004 (464 subjects) ranged from 18 to 65 years old, with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 were included in the programme. After the nutritional status evaluation a standard dietetic treatment (group N) or an integrated and multidisciplinary obesity treatment (group NPPR) was proposed. In group NPPR treatment duration was significantly higher (142.6+/-26 vs 48.6+/-55 days - p=0.000), while the drop-out amount was definitely lower (5.5 vs 54.4%; p=0.000). Weight loss compared to the initial weight and the difference between initial and final FM resulted significantly higher in group NNPR. Subjects in NPPR obtained a higher increase in the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (59.9+/-19 vs 40.5+/-17 m; p=0.04) and in muscular strength. State and trait anxiety, mood and quality of life scores improved in NPPR subjects while remained substantially stable in group N. An integrated approach to obesity is the way to be pursued in order to obtain important and at least short-term results.

  7. Quantum Approach to Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenholm, Stig; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2005-08-01

    An essential overview of quantum information Information, whether inscribed as a mark on a stone tablet or encoded as a magnetic domain on a hard drive, must be stored in a physical object and thus made subject to the laws of physics. Traditionally, information processing such as computation occurred in a framework governed by laws of classical physics. However, information can also be stored and processed using the states of matter described by non-classical quantum theory. Understanding this quantum information, a fundamentally different type of information, has been a major project of physicists and information theorists in recent years, and recent experimental research has started to yield promising results. Quantum Approach to Informatics fills the need for a concise introduction to this burgeoning new field, offering an intuitive approach for readers in both the physics and information science communities, as well as in related fields. Only a basic background in quantum theory is required, and the text keeps the focus on bringing this theory to bear on contemporary informatics. Instead of proofs and other highly formal structures, detailed examples present the material, making this a uniquely accessible introduction to quantum informatics. Topics covered include: * An introduction to quantum information and the qubit * Concepts and methods of quantum theory important for informatics * The application of information concepts to quantum physics * Quantum information processing and computing * Quantum gates * Error correction using quantum-based methods * Physical realizations of quantum computing circuits A helpful and economical resource for understanding this exciting new application of quantum theory to informatics, Quantum Approach to Informatics provides students and researchers in physics and information science, as well as other interested readers with some scientific background, with an essential overview of the field.

  8. STS-119 Approach OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-17

    ISS018-E-042056 (17 March 2009) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, Space Shuttle Discovery is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 18 crewmember as the shuttle approaches the International Space Station during STS-119 rendezvous and docking operations. Docking occurred at 4:20 p.m. (CDT) on March 17, 2009. The final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment are visible in Discovery’s cargo bay. A Russian spacecraft docked to the station is visible at left.

  9. STS-119 Approach OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-17

    ISS018-E-042051 (17 March 2009) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, Space Shuttle Discovery is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 18 crewmember as the shuttle approaches the International Space Station during STS-119 rendezvous and docking operations. Docking occurred at 4:20 p.m. (CDT) on March 17, 2009. The final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment are visible in Discovery?s cargo bay. A Russian spacecraft docked to the station is visible at top.

  10. An evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Thomas J.

    1993-04-01

    The paper describes an evolutionary approach to the development of aerospace systems, represented by the introduction of integrated product teams (IPTs), which are now used at Rockwell's Space Systems Division on all new programs and are introduced into existing projects after demonstrations of increases in quality and reductions in cost and schedule due to IPTs. Each IPT is unique and reflects its own program and lasts for the life of the program. An IPT includes customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and associate contractors, and have a charter, mission, scope of authority, budget, and schedule. Functional management is responsible for the staffing, training, method development, and generic technology development.

  11. New approaches for immunosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Eiseman, B.; Hansbrough, J.; Weil, R.

    1980-01-01

    New approaches for experimental immunosuppression have been reviewed. These include the following: (1) cyclosporin A, a metabolite from fungus that suppresses multiplying but not resting T and B lymphocytes and can be used in pulsed manner with interspersed drug-free periods; (2) total lymphoid irradiation (transplantation tolerance in rats has been achieved by pretransplant radiation); (3) thoracic duct drainage, which is being revived following its demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases; (4) hyperbaric oxygen (HBOX). We have found that HBOX 2 1/2 ATA for five hours daily depresses cell-mediated immunity in mice and that this can be reversed by intravenous administration of autologous macrophages.

  12. [Regenerative approach for COPD].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    No treatment to cure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is available. Regenerative medicine is one of promising areas for this intractable disease. Several reagents and growth factors are known to promote lung regeneration in small animal models. However, regenerative medicines for human lungs are not achieved yet. Recent advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering have expanded our understanding of lung endogenous stem cells, and this new knowledge provides us with new ideas for future regenerative therapy for lung diseases. Although lungs are the most challenging organ for regenerative medicine, our cumulative knowledge of lung regeneration and of endogenous progenitor cells makes clear the possibilities for regenerative approach to COPD.

  13. Progress Resupply Vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-050933 (27 Jan. 2012) --- Russian cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov (left) and Oleg Kononenko (partially obscured), both Expedition 30 flight engineers, monitor data at the manual TORU docking system controls in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station during approach and docking operations of the unpiloted ISS Progress 46 resupply vehicle. Progress 46 docked automatically to the Pirs Docking Compartment via the Kurs automated rendezvous system at 7:00 p.m. (EST) on Jan. 27, 2012. NASA astronaut Dan Burbank (partially out of frame at right), commander, looks on.

  14. Combined approach brings success.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Sixteen months ago, according to Trumpf Medical Systems, which managed the project, 'something out of the ordinary' happened at Leighton Hospital in Crewe. When making plans to upgrade ageing operating theatres and critical care units, the estates department took the decision to involve other disciplines from the very start of the process. Clinicians, nursing staff, architects, patient representatives, and suppliers, all played their part, with the estates team always at the hub. As Oliver Law, managing director of the UK medical technology specialist, explains, this multidisciplinary approach had a profound effect on the outcome.

  15. Dragon Spacecraft Approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-25

    ISS031-E-070943 (25 May 2012) --- Backdropped against the Namib Desert on the Atlantic coast of Namibia, the SpaceX Dragon commercial cargo craft approaches the International Space Station on May 25, 2012 for grapple and berthing. Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Don Pettit and Andre Kuipers grappled Dragon at 9:56 a.m. (EDT) with the Canadarm2 robotic arm and used the robotic arm to berth Dragon to the Earth-facing side of the station's Harmony node at 12:02 p.m.

  16. The collaboratory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  17. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  18. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  19. Engineering approaches to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Melody A; Hirosue, Sachiko; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2012-08-22

    As the science of immunology grows increasingly mechanistic, motivation for developing quantitative, design-based engineering approaches has also evolved, both for therapeutic interventions and for elucidating immunological pathways in human disease. This has seeded the nascent field of "immunoengineering," which seeks to apply engineering analyses and design approaches to problems in translational immunology. For example, cell engineers are creating ways to tailor and use immune cells as living therapeutics; protein engineers are devising new methods of rapid antibody discovery; biomaterials scientists are guiding vaccine delivery and immune-cell activation with novel constructs; and systems immunologists are deciphering the evolution and maintenance of T and B cell receptor repertoires, which could help guide vaccine design. The field is multidisciplinary and collaborative, with engineers and immunologists working together to better understand and treat disease. We discuss the scientific progress in this young, yet rapidly evolving research area, which has yielded numerous start-up companies that are betting on impact in clinical and commercial translation in the near future.

  20. Proteomic approach to nanotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Magdalena; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Brzóska, Kamil; Gutleb, Arno C; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2016-03-30

    In recent years a large number of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been developed with promising technical benefits for consumers and medical appliances. In addition to already known potentially advantageous biological properties (antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activity) of NMs, many new medical applications of NMs are foreseen, such as drug carriers, contrast agents, radiopharmaceuticals and many others. However, there is increasing concern about potential environmental and health effects due to NMs exposure. An increasing body of evidence suggests that NMs may trigger undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems with potential to generate harmful effects. In this review we summarized a current state of knowledge on the proteomics approaches to nanotoxicity, including protein corona formation, in vitro and in vivo effects of exposure to NMs on proteome of different classes of organisms, from bacteria and plants to mammals. The effects of NMs on the proteome of environmentally relevant organisms are also described. Despite the benefit that development of nanotechnology may bring to the society, there are still major gaps of knowledge on the influence of nanomaterials on human health and the environment. Thus, it seems necessary to conduct further interdisciplinary research to fill the knowledge gaps in NM toxicity, using more holistic approaches than offered by conventional biological techniques. “OMICS” techniques will certainly help researchers in this field. In this paper we summarized the current stage of knowledge of the effects of nanoparticles on the proteome of different organisms, including those commonly used as an environmentally relevant indicator organisms.

  1. Systemic approaches to biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Almudena; Valencia, Alfonso; Cases, Ildefonso

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradation, the ability of microorganisms to remove complex chemicals from the environment, is a multifaceted process in which many biotic and abiotic factors are implicated. The recent accumulation of knowledge about the biochemistry and genetics of the biodegradation process, and its categorization and formalization in structured databases, has recently opened the door to systems biology approaches, where the interactions of the involved parts are the main subject of study, and the system is analysed as a whole. The global analysis of the biodegradation metabolic network is beginning to produce knowledge about its structure, behaviour and evolution, such as its free-scale structure or its intrinsic robustness. Moreover, these approaches are also developing into useful tools such as predictors for compounds' degradability or the assisted design of artificial pathways. However, it is the environmental application of high-throughput technologies from the genomics, metagenomics, proteomics and metabolomics that harbours the most promising opportunities to understand the biodegradation process, and at the same time poses tremendous challenges from the data management and data mining point of view.

  2. Modular Approach to Spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-01-01

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics. PMID:26066079

  3. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario; Rovera, Giuseppe; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Sachet, Marco; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-07-10

    The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being.

  4. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being. PMID:23842429

  5. Telemetry - An economical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Cliff L.

    Remote piloted vehicle projects used for low-Reynolds-number testing have a need for high-resolution low-cost multichannel telemetry. Two approaches are discussed in detail in this paper. The first utilizes an analog 8 or 16 input multiplexer, feeding a single analog to digital converter. Disregarding RF transmitter and receiver, the manufactured cost would be about 21 dollars per data channel. The transmit section of the 96 channel unit could be housed in 52 cubic inches. The second system contains voltage controlled oscillators, transmitted to frequency to voltage converters. This system has good resolution, but has storage difficulties and often is limited in channel capability. For applications needing less than 15 channels, this system could be manufactured for 300 dollars. The coding or transmitter part would require less than 6 cubic inches for 15 channels.

  6. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    PubMed

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic approaches for shankopathies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Bey, Alexandra L; Chung, Leeyup; Krystal, Andrew D; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the current treatments for these disorders are mostly focused on behavioral and educational approaches. The considerable clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ASD present a significant challenge to the development of an effective treatment targeting underlying molecular defects. Deficiency of SHANK family genes causing ASD represent an exciting opportunity for developing molecular therapies because of strong genetic evidence for SHANK as causative genes in ASD and the availability of a panel of Shank mutant mouse models. In this article, we review the literature suggesting the potential for developing therapies based on molecular characteristics and discuss several exciting themes that are emerging from studying Shank mutant mice at the molecular level and in terms of synaptic function.

  8. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  9. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Coordinated Parallel Runway Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The current air traffic environment in airport terminal areas experiences substantial delays when weather conditions deteriorate to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Expected future increases in air traffic will put additional pressures on the National Airspace System (NAS) and will further compound the high costs associated with airport delays. To address this problem, NASA has embarked on a program to address Terminal Area Productivity (TAP). The goals of the TAP program are to provide increased efficiencies in air traffic during the approach, landing, and surface operations in low-visibility conditions. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficiencies of terminal area flight operations commensurate with Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) at current or improved levels of safety.

  11. Population approaches in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chatelut, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (PK) approach is now often used to evaluate PK characteristics of a new compound during its clinical development. Recently, new legislation governing the development and authorization of medicines for use in children aged 0-17 years was introduced in the European Union. Among the strategies proposed in relation to clinical aspects, use of population PKs is stated. In this manuscript, comparison between standard PK and population PK methods will be briefly addressed to understand why the second is particularly adapted to perform PK studies in paediatrics. Then, specific patients' characteristics (covariates) in paediatrics will be presented. Examples of PK and PK-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) studies will be finally given. The number of population PK studies published still exceeds largely those of PK-PD.

  12. An environmental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Geerling, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

  13. ATIS - A modular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirson, Allan

    The author describes a modular approach to the design of an in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system that supports a phased implementation of the technology, and anticipates expected differences in implementation in different parts of the world and for different makes and models of vehicle. A series of sensors in the vehicle are used to determine the vehicle's position by dead reckoning and map-matching. The system then calculates the best route to the selected destination, taking into account the real-time traffic information received from a traffic management center, and presents route guidance instructions to the user as the route is traversed. Attention is given to modularity considerations, vehicle positioning, driver support, vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, and the role of standards.

  14. Approaching the new reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Al V.

    I'm very pleased to be here and to have this opportunity to discuss with you what I view as the current challenges in space science. Today, NASA finds itself at a major crossroads. We are in the process of moving from one era in our existence into another. As we continue to launch important science missions, we are simultaneously changing the way we do business, in a very fundamental way. We are again focusing on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions. We are again focusing on NASA's role as a source of technological advancement within the U.S. economy. And we are returning to the leaner, more flexible approach to managing our projects. In short, NASA has embarked on a new journey, and a challenging journey it will be.

  15. Typhoon Usagi approaching China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Typhoon Usagi on Sept. 22 at 02:45 UTC/Sept. 21 at 10:45 p.m. EDT on its approach to a landfall in China. Credit: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Neuroblastoma: A neurochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schor, N.F. )

    1991-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is among the most common malignancies of childhood. Despite greatly improved therapy for some pediatric tumors, the prognosis for children with metastatic neuroblastoma has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. With conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, children with metastatic neuroblastoma have a 20% long-term survival rate. The authors describe here approaches to neuroblastoma that target its neuronal characteristics. On the one hand, the neurotransmitter receptors on the surface of the neuroblastoma cells and, on the other hand, specific isozymes that distinguish neuroblastoma cells from their normal counterparts are the focus of these experimental therapies. In the former case, specificity for tumor cells is effected by (1) selective protection of normal neuronal elements from toxicity, or (2) selective potentiation of toxicity for neural tumor cells. It is hoped that these strategies will be generalizable to other neural crest-derived tumors. 32 references.

  17. Investigational Approaches for Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Surmont, Veerle F.; van Thiel, Eric R. E.; Vermaelen, Karim; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the etiology, epidemiology, natural history, and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011) using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA), Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands), Cochrane Library (Great Britain), National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA), HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA), NIH database (USA), International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database), with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugs. Currently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients. PMID

  18. Approaching attometer laser vibrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz

    2014-05-27

    The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

  19. Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

  20. A Narrative Approach to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Anne

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including…

  1. Imminent Approach to Dione

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-20

    This view from NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward Saturn icy moon Dione, with giant Saturn and its rings in the background, just prior to the mission final close approach to the moon on August 17, 2015. At lower right is the large, multi-ringed impact basin named Evander, which is about 220 miles (350 kilometers) wide. The canyons of Padua Chasma, features that form part of Dione's bright, wispy terrain, reach into the darkness at left. Imaging scientists combined nine visible light (clear spectral filter) images to create this mosaic view: eight from the narrow-angle camera and one from the wide-angle camera, which fills in an area at lower left. The scene is an orthographic projection centered on terrain at 0.2 degrees north latitude, 179 degrees west longitude on Dione. An orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope. North on Dione is up. The view was acquired at distances ranging from approximately 106,000 miles (170,000 kilometers) to 39,000 miles (63,000 kilometers) from Dione and at a sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 35 degrees. Image scale is about 1,500 feet (450 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19650

  2. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  3. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  4. Voyager Approaches Final Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrates the positions of the Voyager spacecraft in relation to structures formed around our Sun by the solar wind. Also illustrated is the termination shock, a violent region the spacecraft must pass through before reaching the outer limits of the solar system. At the termination shock, the supersonic solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 400 kilometers per second to less than 100 kilometer per second (900,000 to less than 225,000 miles per hour). Beyond the termination shock is the solar system's final frontier, the heliosheath, a vast region where the turbulent and hot solar wind is compressed as it presses outward against the interstellar wind that is beyond the heliopause. A bow shock likely forms as the interstellar wind approaches and is deflected around the heliosphere, forcing it into a teardrop-shaped structure with a long, comet-like tail.

    The exact location of the termination shock is unknown, and it originally was thought to be closer to the Sun than Voyager 1 currently is. As Voyager 1 cruised ever farther from the Sun, it confirmed that all the planets are inside an immense bubble blown by the solar wind and the termination shock was much more distant.

  5. Mitochondrial approaches for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Beal, M. Flint

    2008-01-01

    A large body of evidence from post-mortem brain tissue and genetic analysis in man and biochemical and pathological studies in animal models (transgenic and toxin) of neurodegeneration suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common pathological mechanism. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA deletions, pathological mutations, altered mitochondrial morphology and interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria leads to neuronal demise. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses the potential therapeutic efficacy of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, synthetic triterpenoids, and mitochondrial targeted antioxidants (MitoQ) and peptides (SS-31) in in vitro studies and in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have also reviewed the current status of clinical trials of creatine, coenzyme Q10, idebenone and MitoQ in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we discuss newly identified therapeutic targets including PGC-1α and Sirtuins, which provide promise for future therapeutic developments in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19076459

  6. Approach to hypohidrosis.

    PubMed

    Chia, K Y; Tey, H L

    2013-07-01

    Hypohidrosis refers to diminished sweating in response to appropriate stimuli. This can cause hyperthermia, heat exhaustion and death. The aetiology of hypohidrosis can be divided into exogenous, dermatological and neurological causes. Exogenous causes act either by systemic neurohormonal inhibition of sweating or localised damage to the skin and sweat glands. Dermatological disorders can result from congenital disorders, wherein other ectodermal tissues may also be affected, or acquired disorders in which manifestations of the primary disease predominate. Neurological disorders should be classified based on an upper motor neuron or lower motor neuron pattern of disease. In the former, there is spasticity and hyperactive reflexes whereas in the latter, flaccidity and hypoactive reflexes predominate. Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrois refers to isolated anhidrosis with no other detectable abnormalities. When approaching a patient with hypohidrois, exogenous causes should first be excluded. Physical examination, paying attention to mucocutaneous manifestations and neurological signs, will dichotomise if the lesion is dermatological or neurological. In the former, a skin biopsy is the investigation of choice. In the latter, one should consider magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord for upper motor neuron lesions, nerve conduction tests for lower motor neuron lesions and autonomic nerve function tests for autonomic dysfunction. Finally, if a diagnosis of acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis is suspected, a quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test and serum immunoglobulin-E levels may be performed. Treatment involves addressing the underlying condition and avoidance of aggravating factors. Acquired idiopathic generalised anhidrosis responds well to high dose systemic corticosteroids.

  7. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment. PMID:24791078

  8. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Curd ML; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear–nose–throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear–nose–throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo. Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins. PMID:22722640

  9. COMPRENDO: Focus and Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Allera, Axel; Bachmann, Jean; Berntsson, Pia; Beresford, Nicola; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Ciceri, Francesca; Dagnac, Thierry; Falandysz, Jerzy; Galassi, Silvana; Hala, David; Janer, Gemma; Jeannot, Roger; Jobling, Susan; King, Isabella; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Kloas, Werner; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Levada, Ramon; Lo, Susan; Lutz, Ilka; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oredsson, Stina; Porte, Cinta; Rand-Weaver, Marian; Sakkas, Vasilis; Sugni, Michela; Tyler, Charles; van Aerle, Ronny; van Ballegoy, Christoph; Wollenberger, Leah

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of man-made chemicals are in regular use and discharged into the environment. Many of them are known to interfere with the hormonal systems in humans and wildlife. Given the complexity of endocrine systems, there are many ways in which endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect the body’s signaling system, and this makes unraveling the mechanisms of action of these chemicals difficult. A major concern is that some of these EDCs appear to be biologically active at extremely low concentrations. There is growing evidence to indicate that the guiding principle of traditional toxicology that “the dose makes the poison” may not always be the case because some EDCs do not induce the classical dose–response relationships. The European Union project COMPRENDO (Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters—Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds) therefore aims to develop an understanding of potential health problems posed by androgenic and antiandrogenic compounds (AACs) to wildlife and humans by focusing on the commonalities and differences in responses to AACs across the animal kingdom (from invertebrates to vertebrates). PMID:16818253

  10. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins.

  11. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

  12. Skull base approaches in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable. In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe. The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field? In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described. These approaches are: 1) pterional approach 2) frontolateral approach 3) transsphenoidal approach 4) suboccipital lateral approach These approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy. PMID:20602753

  13. The narrative approach to personalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlan, Owen; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Hampson, Cormac; Lawless, Séamus; O'keeffe, Ian

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the narrative approach to personalisation. This novel approach to the generation of personalised adaptive hypermedia experiences employs runtime reconciliation between a personalisation strategy and a number of contextual models (e.g. user and domain). The approach also advocates the late binding of suitable content and services to the generated personalised pathway resulting in an interactive composition that comprises services as well as content. This article provides a detailed definition of the narrative approach to personalisation and showcases the approach through the examination of two use-cases: the personalised digital educational games developed by the ELEKTRA and 80Days projects; and the personalised learning activities realised as part of the AMAS project. These use-cases highlight the general applicability of the narrative approach and how it has been applied to create a diverse range of real-world systems.

  14. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  15. Approaching cancer pain relief.

    PubMed

    Lickiss, J N

    2001-01-01

    Pain is defined as an unpleasant experience-it is subjective and achieving pain relief is achieving a change in the patient's experience. There needs to be an adequate concept of a human person (an ecological model will be discussed) and a logical process for approaching pain relief in an individual patient (e.g. the plan used in the Sydney Institute of Palliative Medicine). Communication with the patient is critical to get a grasp of him or her as a person, their environment, personal experience and cultural background. Then encourage him or her to tell the story of the cancer saga as they perceive it, listening carefully for the matters which may have given rise to acute distress (for example, delay in diagnosis) and how they adjusted to this. The individual is conveying a great deal about him or herself as they tell their story. Next the story of the treatment and their experience of it, and then the response of their tumour to it--then the story of their pain: when it began, its characteristics, how it evolved, what factors worsen the pain, what relieves it, etc. This is followed by careful clinical examination to clarify what could be the most likely mechanism(s) responsible for the noxious stimulus. Some investigation (e.g. X-ray) may be justified to assist clarification--but not before making a clinical diagnosis (best guess) and commencing treatment with drugs or other logical measures with some local action--depending on the most probable mechanism. Paracetamol/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) etc may be logical. Threshold factors should be attended to--comfort, concern always, or anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs if the patient is pathologically anxious or depressed. The opioid drugs--with morphine still as the gold standard--should be appropriately used. This involves careful calibration of dose (below sedative level) normally with an immediate-release, preparation--and, in the case of morphine, specific counselling concerning 'myths' to

  16. Loran-C approach considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Loran-C during approaches to landing is investigated. The Avionics Engineering Center has evaluated such approach applications at Galion, Ohio Municipal Airport and at Mansfield, Ohio Lahm airport. Loran-C data were referenced to ground tracker data to determine that the Loran-C approach path was straight, flyable, and parallel to the runway centerline. The Loran-C operational issues that were investigated are listed.

  17. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, David

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  18. Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

  19. Microbial Burden Approach : New Monitoring Approach for Measuring Microbial Burden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Barmatz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Advantages of new approach for differentiating live cells/ spores from dead cells/spores. Four examples of Salmonella outbreaks leading to costly destruction of dairy products. List of possible collaboration activities between JPL and other industries (for future discussion). Limitations of traditional microbial monitoring approaches. Introduction to new approach for rapid measurement of viable (live) bacterial cells/spores and its areas of application. Detailed example for determining live spores using new approach (similar procedure for determining live cells). JPL has developed a patented approach for measuring amount of live and dead cells/spores. This novel "molecular" method takes less than 5 to 7 hrs. compared to the seven days required using conventional techniques. Conventional "molecular" techniques can not discriminate live cells/spores among dead cells/spores. The JPL-developed novel method eliminates false positive results obtained from conventional "molecular" techniques that lead to unnecessary delay in the processing and to unnecessary destruction of food products.

  20. Exomars Mission Verification Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

    According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests

  1. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  2. Adolescent Suicide: An Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyash-Abdo, Huda

    2002-01-01

    Proposes an ecological approach to enhance our understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to the increased risk for suicide among adolescents. The ecological approach allows exploration of how adolescent suicide is determined by multiple factors related to the adolescent's personal history or ontogenic…

  3. Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, M. G., Ed.

    Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

  4. Science Focus: The Salters' Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kevin de

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the Salter's approach to teaching and learning science at the Junior Secondary level by showing how the phenomenon of fire is treated in curriculum materials. Discusses contents of the teachers' guide, student texts, and assessment pack. Gives an evaluation of the usefulness of the approach in the Australian context. (Author/MKR)

  5. Spouse Assault: A Community Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, David R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive community approach to the problem of spouse assault involves education of a grassroots community organization, legal incorporation, establishing organizational goals and plans, publicity, state coalition of all such community groups, and new legislation. Such an approach led to the establishment of Michigan's Domestic Violence…

  6. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHIS study on children’s use of complementary health approaches, including natural products and mind and body practices, visit the National ... conventional care or prescribed medications with any health product or practice ... suggests a complementary approach, do not increase the dose or duration of ...

  7. Science Focus: The Salters' Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Kevin de

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the Salter's approach to teaching and learning science at the Junior Secondary level by showing how the phenomenon of fire is treated in curriculum materials. Discusses contents of the teachers' guide, student texts, and assessment pack. Gives an evaluation of the usefulness of the approach in the Australian context. (Author/MKR)

  8. An Experimental Approach To… Everything!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Taylor; Flowers, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The goal of formal education is student learning. By emphasizing experimentation in the classroom or lab, students learn about the results of a particular inquiry. But more importantly, they learn to refine their approach to learning by creating new knowledge rather than merely remembering what they have been told. An inquiry approach where…

  9. Integrated approach for biofouling control.

    PubMed

    Vrouwenvelder, J S; Kruithof, J C; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive research efforts, past and present strategies to control biofouling problems in spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes have not been successful under all circumstances. Gaining insight in the biofouling process is a first necessity. Based on recent insights, an overview is given of 12 potential complementary approaches to solve biofouling. Combinations of approaches may be more efficient in biofouling control than a single approach. A single approach must be 100% effective, while in combination each individual approach can be partially effective while the combination is still efficient. An integrated Approach for Biofouling Control (ABC) is proposed, based on three corner stones: (i) equipment design and operation, (ii) biomass growth conditions, and (iii) cleaning agents as a framework to control biofouling. While past and present strategies addressed mainly membranes and microorganisms, i.e. removal or inactivation of biomass, this ABC-approach addresses the total membrane filtration system. It is anticipated that this integral approach will enable a more rational and effective control of biofouling. Although in this stage chemical cleaning and biofouling inhibitor dosage seem unavoidable to control biofouling, it is expected that in future--because of sustainability and costs reasons--membrane systems will be developed without or with minimal need for chemical cleaning and dosing. Three potential scenarios for biofouling control are proposed based on (i) biofouling tolerant spiral wound membrane systems, (ii) capillary membranes, and (iii) phosphate limitation.

  10. Alternatives in Education -- 54 Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekel, Jerome R.; Johnson, Robert E.

    Fifty-four approaches identify ways by which students can learn, methods for teachers to employ, and approaches to a sequence of studies. A statement of philosophy notes the book's goal of providing a transition from individualized instruction to personalized instruction. The purpose, needs, philosophy and objectives of the open studies program…

  11. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  12. Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Robert

    The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…

  13. An approach to the future

    Treesearch

    Peter C. Bishop

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the rudiments of an approach to the future that we should teach and practice in our personal and professional lives. It begins with a consideration of change. The future is about change. If there were no change, we would have no reason to pay attention to the future. The paper concludes with an approach to long-term forecasting that takes...

  14. Approaches to Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, M. G., Ed.

    Works by European and American educators from the Renaissance to the twentieth century are presented. A historical re-evaluation of foreign-language teaching combined with the scientific approach of modern linguistics can provide valuable insights for current teaching and learning approaches. Selections are presented from the writings of the…

  15. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  16. An Experimental Approach To… Everything!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Taylor; Flowers, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The goal of formal education is student learning. By emphasizing experimentation in the classroom or lab, students learn about the results of a particular inquiry. But more importantly, they learn to refine their approach to learning by creating new knowledge rather than merely remembering what they have been told. An inquiry approach where…

  17. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  18. Project Approach: Teaching. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Rose

    The primary objective of the action research chronicled (in English and Chinese) in this book was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the Project Approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the Project Approach, focusing on…

  19. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  20. A Systems Approach to Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert E.

    The systematic approach to teaching provides a method for the functional organization and development of instruction. This method applies to preparation of materials for classroom use, as well as for print and non-print media. Inputs to the systems approach include well defined objectives, analysis of the intended audience, special criteria…

  1. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  2. [Stewart's acid-base approach].

    PubMed

    Funk, Georg-Christian

    2007-01-01

    In addition to paCO(2), Stewart's acid base model takes into account the influence of albumin, inorganic phosphate, electrolytes and lactate on acid-base equilibrium. It allows a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of acid-base disorders. Particularly simultaneous and mixed metabolic acid-base disorders, which are common in critically ill patients, can be assessed. Stewart's approach is therefore a valuable tool in addition to the customary acid-base approach based on bicarbonate or base excess. However, some chemical aspects of Stewart's approach remain controversial.

  3. Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Campbell, D.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Cable, M.D.; Graves, W.R.; Lane, S.M.; Lerche, R.A.; Price, R.H.; Stearns, D.G.; Mourou, G.A.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-05-01

    We discuss two approaches to obtain neutron detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, a uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focused through a pinhole, and streaked. Calculations show that 20-ps time resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that a time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse.

  4. Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Campbell, D.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Cable, M.D.; Graves, W.R.; Lane, S.M.; Lerche, R.A.

    1984-10-05

    We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse.

  5. A Holistic Approach to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbeau, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    Described are two examples involving recursive mathematical sequences designed to integrate a holistic approach to learning algebra. These examples promote pattern recognition with algebraic justification, full class participation, and mathematical values that can be transferred to other situations. (MDH)

  6. Alternative Significant Contribution Approaches Evaluated

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) discusses alternative approaches that EPA evaluated for defining emissions that constitute each upwind state’s significant contribution to nonattainment and interference with maintenance downwind.

  7. The Cup-Can Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Foodservice Journal, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Answers questions about the approach, tells the story of how the program works in the San Diego Mission School in New Mexico, and gives information on those companies in industry that manufacture products meeting USDA specifications. (Author)

  8. Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

  9. Four Approaches to Entrepreneurship II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl C.; Nauta, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Four approaches to teaching advanced entrepreneurship in current use are as follows: (1) advanced options such as franchises and buyouts and international entrepreneurship; (2) preentrepreneurship courses; (3) starting a business; and (4) structured experience. (JOW)

  10. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  11. The Montessori Approach to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elise Braun

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Montessori approach to music education and specific techniques for teaching piano to young children using key and note cards above the piano keys. These materials isolate the teaching purpose, show errors, and stimulate self-correction. (MDM)

  12. Fibromyalgia and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... other symptoms, such as cognitive and memory problems, sleep disturbances, morning stiffness, headaches, painful menstrual periods, numbness or ... of conventional medical treatment. Nondrug approaches such as exercise and good sleep habits can also help manage ...

  13. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  14. Asteroid 433 Eros Approaches Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Asteroid 433 Eros made a close approach to Earth the morning of January 31st coming within 0.17 AU (15 million miles) of our planet. In this set of images taken that morning, the bright moving dot ...

  15. Distributed Databases: The Adaptable Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braniff, Thomas A.

    1978-01-01

    Distributed data bases in statewide and multi-institutional systems are discussed. It is suggested that traditional approaches to data processing and current data base software are inappropriate for a distributed data base system. (BH)

  16. Periareolar approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Cerezo Madueño, Francisco; Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Algar Algar, Francisco Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2014-04-01

    In recent years advances in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery have been aimed at reducing the number of video surgery ports, and especially major lung resections pose the greatest challenge. We describe a new minimally invasive as well as aesthetic approach for thoracoscopic lobectomy. The technique poses no difficulty for the surgeon and has certain advantages over other videothoracoscopic approaches. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Retromandibular approach for subcondylar fractures].

    PubMed

    Villagra Siles, E J; Rodríguez Perales, M A; Pou López, V C

    2006-04-01

    Fractures of the jaw are the second ones in order of frequency, being the condylar region the most frequent. With the coming of the rigid fixation, more surgeons now agree with the open approach for the displaced fractures of subcondylar region, specially in adult patients. When a rigid fixation is necessary, retromandibular approach is an effective and safe technique, specially for condylar displaced fractures, in which the facial nerve is exposed without any damage.

  18. Downward approach to hydrological prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Blöschl, Günter; Zhang, Lu; Vertessy, Rob

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the downward approach to hydrologic prediction and attempts to provide a context for the papers appearing in this special issue. The downward approach is seen as a necessary counterpoint to the mechanistic reductionist approach that dominates current hydrological model development. It provides a systematic framework to learning from data, including the testing of hypotheses at every step of analysis. It can also be applied in a hierarchical manner: starting from exploring first-order controls in the modelling of catchment response, the model complexity can then be increased in response to deficiencies in reproducing observations at different levels. The remaining contributions of this special issue present a number of applications of the downward approach, including development of parsimonious water balance models with changing time scales by learning from signatures extracted from observed streamflow data at different time scales, regionalization of model parameters, parameterization of effects of sub-grid variability, and standardized statistical approaches to analyse data and to develop model structures. This review demonstrates that the downward approach is not a rigid methodology, but represents a generic framework. It needs to play an increasing role in the future in the development of hydrological models at the catchment scale.

  19. A systems approach to obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Mui, Yeeli; Haidari, Leila A; Spiker, Marie L; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has become a truly global epidemic, affecting all age groups, all populations, and countries of all income levels. To date, existing policies and interventions have not reversed these trends, suggesting that innovative approaches are needed to transform obesity prevention and control. There are a number of indications that the obesity epidemic is a systems problem, as opposed to a simple problem with a linear cause-and-effect relationship. What may be needed to successfully address obesity is an approach that considers the entire system when making any important decision, observation, or change. A systems approach to obesity prevention and control has many benefits, including the potential to further understand indirect effects or to test policies virtually before implementing them in the real world. Discussed here are 5 key efforts to implement a systems approach for obesity prevention: 1) utilize more global approaches; 2) bring new experts from disciplines that do not traditionally work with obesity to share experiences and ideas with obesity experts; 3) utilize systems methods, such as systems mapping and modeling; 4) modify and combine traditional approaches to achieve a stronger systems orientation; and 5) bridge existing gaps between research, education, policy, and action. This article also provides an example of how a systems approach has been used to convene a multidisciplinary team and conduct systems mapping and modeling as part of an obesity prevention program in Baltimore, Maryland. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The information-processing approach.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, A H; Stebbins, S

    1990-01-01

    The information-processing (IP) approach to perception and cognition arose as a reaction to behaviourism. This reaction mainly concerned the nature of explanation in scientific psychology. The "standard" account of behaviour, phrased in strictly external terms, was replaced by a "realist" account, phrased in terms of internal entities and processes. An analysis of the theoretical language used in IP psychology shows an undisciplined state of affairs. A great number of languages is simultaneously in use; no level of analysis is unambiguously referred to; and basic concepts such as information and processing remain largely undefined. Nevertheless, over the past 25 years the IP approach has developed into a disciplined and sophisticated experimental science. A look at actual practice hints at the basic reason for its success. The approach is not so much concerned with absolute or intrinsic properties of the human information processor, but with what can be called its relative or differential properties. A further analysis of this feature of the IP approach in terms of the formal language of a logical system makes explicit the basis of its success. The IP approach can be regarded as developing an empirical difference calculus on an unspecified class of objects, phrased in terms of a simulated "theory-neutral" observation language, and with operators that are structurally analogous to logical operators. This reinterpretation of what the IP approach is about brings a number of advantages. It strengthens its position as an independent science, clarifies its relation with other approaches within psychology and other sciences within the cognitive science group, and makes it independent of philosophical subtleties.

  1. Bayesian Approach for Inconsistent Information

    PubMed Central

    Stein, M.; Beer, M.; Kreinovich, V.

    2013-01-01

    In engineering situations, we usually have a large amount of prior knowledge that needs to be taken into account when processing data. Traditionally, the Bayesian approach is used to process data in the presence of prior knowledge. Sometimes, when we apply the traditional Bayesian techniques to engineering data, we get inconsistencies between the data and prior knowledge. These inconsistencies are usually caused by the fact that in the traditional approach, we assume that we know the exact sample values, that the prior distribution is exactly known, etc. In reality, the data is imprecise due to measurement errors, the prior knowledge is only approximately known, etc. So, a natural way to deal with the seemingly inconsistent information is to take this imprecision into account in the Bayesian approach – e.g., by using fuzzy techniques. In this paper, we describe several possible scenarios for fuzzifying the Bayesian approach. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the estimated imprecise parameters. In this paper, to implement the corresponding fuzzy versions of the Bayesian formulas, we use straightforward computations of the related expression – which makes our computations reasonably time-consuming. Computations in the traditional (non-fuzzy) Bayesian approach are much faster – because they use algorithmically efficient reformulations of the Bayesian formulas. We expect that similar reformulations of the fuzzy Bayesian formulas will also drastically decrease the computation time and thus, enhance the practical use of the proposed methods. PMID:24089579

  2. Laparoscopic approach in gastrointestinal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rodriguez, Rosa M; Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Flores-Cortés, Mercedes; López-Bernal, Francisco; Martín, Cristobalina; Diaz, Verónica Pino; Ciuro, Felipe Pareja; Ruiz, Javier Padillo

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the laparoscopic approach to gastrointestinal emergencies and its more recent indications. Laparoscopic surgery has a specific place in elective procedures, but that does not apply in emergency situations. In specific emergencies, there is a huge range of indications and different techniques to apply, and not all of them are equally settle. We consider that the most controversial points in minimally invasive procedures are indications in emergency situations due to technical difficulties. Some pathologies, such as oesophageal emergencies, obstruction due to colon cancer, abdominal hernias or incarcerated postsurgical hernias, are nearly always resolved by conventional surgery, that is, an open approach due to limited intraabdominal cavity space or due to the vulnerability of the bowel. These technical problems have been solved in many diseases, such as for perforated peptic ulcer or acute appendectomy for which a laparoscopic approach has become a well-known and globally supported procedure. On the other hand, endoscopic procedures have acquired further indications, relegating surgical solutions to a second place; this happens in cholangitis or pancreatic abscess drainage. This endoluminal approach avoids the need for laparoscopic development in these diseases. Nevertheless, new instruments and new technologies could extend the laparoscopic approach to a broader array of potentials procedures. There remains, however, a long way to go. PMID:26973409

  3. Market-based approaches to tree valuation

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry

    2008-01-01

    A recent four-part series in Arborist News outlined different appraisal processes used to value urban trees. The final article in the series described the three generally accepted approaches to tree valuation: the sales comparison approach, the cost approach, and the income capitalization approach. The author, D. Logan Nelson, noted that the sales comparison approach...

  4. Anomaly Detection Using Behavioral Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benferhat, Salem; Tabia, Karim

    Behavioral approaches, which represent normal/abnormal activities, have been widely used during last years in intrusion detection and computer security. Nevertheless, most works showed that they are ineffective for detecting novel attacks involving new behaviors. In this paper, we first study this recurring problem due on one hand to inadequate handling of anomalous and unusual audit events and on other hand to insufficient decision rules which do not meet behavioral approach objectives. We then propose to enhance the standard decision rules in order to fit behavioral approach requirements and better detect novel attacks. Experimental studies carried out on real and simulated http traffic show that these enhanced decision rules improve detecting most novel attacks without triggering higher false alarm rates.

  5. New approaches to antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Kealey, C; Creaven, C A; Murphy, C D; Brady, C B

    2017-03-08

    New antibiotics are urgently required by human medicine as pathogens emerge with developed resistance to almost all antibiotic classes. Pioneering approaches, methodologies and technologies have facilitated a new era in antimicrobial discovery. Innovative culturing techniques such as iChip and co-culturing methods which use 'helper' strains to produce bioactive molecules have had notable success. Exploiting antibiotic resistance to identify antibacterial producers performed in tandem with diagnostic PCR based identification approaches has identified novel candidates. Employing powerful metagenomic mining and metabolomic tools has identified the antibiotic'ome, highlighting new antibiotics from underexplored environments and silent gene clusters enabling researchers to mine for scaffolds with both a novel mechanism of action and also few clinically established resistance determinants. Modern biotechnological approaches are delivering but will require support from government initiatives together with changes in regulation to pave the way for valuable, efficacious, highly targeted, pathogen specific antimicrobial therapies.

  6. Variational Approach to Molecular Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nüske, Feliks; Keller, Bettina G; Pérez-Hernández, Guillermo; Mey, Antonia S J S; Noé, Frank

    2014-04-08

    The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the molecular dynamics propagator (or transfer operator) contain the essential information about the molecular thermodynamics and kinetics. This includes the stationary distribution, the metastable states, and state-to-state transition rates. Here, we present a variational approach for computing these dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This approach is analogous to the variational approach used for computing stationary states in quantum mechanics. A corresponding method of linear variation is formulated. It is shown that the matrices needed for the linear variation method are correlation matrices that can be estimated from simple MD simulations for a given basis set. The method proposed here is thus to first define a basis set able to capture the relevant conformational transitions, then compute the respective correlation matrices, and then to compute their dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors, thus obtaining the key ingredients of the slow kinetics.

  7. The community-reinforcement approach.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Meyers, R J; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S

    1999-01-01

    The community-reinforcement approach (CRA) is an alcoholism treatment approach that aims to achieve abstinence by eliminating positive reinforcement for drinking and enhancing positive reinforcement for sobriety. CRA integrates several treatment components, including building the client's motivation to quit drinking, helping the client initiate sobriety, analyzing the client's drinking pattern, increasing positive reinforcement, learning new coping behaviors, and involving significant others in the recovery process. These components can be adjusted to the individual client's needs to achieve optimal treatment outcome. In addition, treatment outcome can be influenced by factors such as therapist style and initial treatment intensity. Several studies have provided evidence for CRA's effectiveness in achieving abstinence. Furthermore, CRA has been successfully integrated with a variety of other treatment approaches, such as family therapy and motivational interviewing, and has been tested in the treatment of other drug abuse.

  8. Systems Science Approach to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirkamanathan, Visakan

    Behaviours of many complex systems of interest cannot be adequately described since the underlying science has not advanced enough to be able to tease out the mathematical relationships. There is a need therefore to use methods and tools that capture the structure in the data that is representative of the systems behaviour. The subject of system identification allows us to deduce mathematical relations that govern the dynamics of systems based on the observed data. In addition, it can also be used to understand the system from basic principles. In this brief talk, the main approaches of systems science to data are reviewed identifying their strengths and limitations. The approaches include computational intelligence methods such as neural networks, genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic, as well as system identification methods in both time and frequency domains. Examples from physical science, neuroscience and social science serve to highlight achievements of the systems science approach to data.

  9. The integrative approach to psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Z J

    1990-12-01

    From the early days of psychiatry as a distinct field of knowledge and clinical practice two competing approaches to the etiology and treatment of mental disorders have vied for dominance: the somatic and the psychic ("moral"). We are witnessing the same struggle today. To speak metaphorically, we can opt for either brainless or mindless psychiatry, as Szasz proposed. He failed to consider a third option, however, one that may be called an integrative approach. The latter is neither mindless nor brainless but rather encompasses both the mind and the brain in its theoretical and practical consideration. I will formulate the integrative approach in this paper and argue that it has a distinct advantage for both the study and treatment of mental disorders.

  10. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  11. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  12. My Treatment Approach: Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Basar, Omer; Brugge, William R

    2017-09-07

    Our treatment approach for either symptomatic or incidentally found pancreatic cysts continues to improve. The true incidence of pancreatic cysts is not known, and pancreatic cystic neoplasms, especially intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, are currently most commonly diagnosed and resected. This is a result of increasing awareness, widespread availability of imaging, and better understanding of the nature of pancreatic cysts as well. Recent studies on molecular analysis and devices such as microbiopsy forceps help us better define and select the treatment approach to alleviate symptoms and to prevent malignant tumors while avoiding unnecessary surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATING CANCER ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The alternative approach for estimating cancer potency from inhalation exposure to asbestos seeks to improve the methods developed by USEPA (1986). This efforts seeks to modify the the current approach for estimating cancer potency for lung cancer and mesothelioma to account for the current scientific consensus that cancer risk from asbestos depends both on mineral type and on particle size distribution. In brief, epidemiological exposure-response data for lung cancer and mesothelioma in asbestos workers are combined with estimates of the mineral type(s) and partical size distribution at each exposure location in order to estimate potency factors that are specific to a selected set of mineral type and size

  14. Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

  15. Writing approaches of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Ellen; Ball, Susan C; Maliszewski, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20years, research has focused on the writing processes of college students, however, despite recent support for writing as a tool of reflection in nursing education, little is known about how it is that nursing students go about writing papers and assignments as part of their professional education. In order to determine the writing processes of nursing students, the Inventory of Processes in College Composition, a self-response questionnaire, was administered to 169 nursing students. Results support the independence of the writing approaches that nursing students use and similarity to the writing approaches of a general college student population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  17. Intersectoral approaches to neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Ault, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    The neglected diseases are a diverse group of communicable diseases that affect principally the world's poorest people. They are linked to poverty, as both a cause and a consequence of same, and affect community security and family productivity. The neglected diseases cause acute and chronic illness, disability, and sometimes death, and they may carry stigma for those infected. Current interventions for neglected diseases emphasize the health sector, but to achieve sustainability and simultaneously combat poverty, an intersectoral approach to their prevention and control is needed. This chapter outlines some concepts for an intersectoral approach, including interventions from the nutrition and food security, education, and environmental sectors.

  18. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATING CANCER ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The alternative approach for estimating cancer potency from inhalation exposure to asbestos seeks to improve the methods developed by USEPA (1986). This efforts seeks to modify the the current approach for estimating cancer potency for lung cancer and mesothelioma to account for the current scientific consensus that cancer risk from asbestos depends both on mineral type and on particle size distribution. In brief, epidemiological exposure-response data for lung cancer and mesothelioma in asbestos workers are combined with estimates of the mineral type(s) and partical size distribution at each exposure location in order to estimate potency factors that are specific to a selected set of mineral type and size

  19. New approaches to crisis intervention.

    PubMed

    Motto, J A

    1979-01-01

    Constant efforts to improve crisis services have led to many innovative programs. Some have proven their feasibility and become established procedures. Others are now in a developing stage and still others represent new approaches. A survey of 50 suicide prevention and crisis services around the world provides evidence of a trend toward a broadening range of services, a more active case-finding approach, greater visibility, increased integration into the community care system, and creative leadership by newer and smaller centers as well as the well-established ones. This is being accomplished without relinquishing the traditional respect for anonymity, ever-present availability, and a nonjudgmental regard for each person's need.

  20. LNG decision making approaches compared.

    PubMed

    Pitblado, Robin; Baik, John; Raghunathan, Vijay

    2006-03-17

    Hazard zones associated with LNG handling activities have been a major point of contention in recent terminal development applications. Debate has reflected primarily worst case scenarios and discussion of these. This paper presents results from a maximum credible event approach. A comparison of results from several models either run by the authors or reported in the literature is presented. While larger scale experimental trials will be necessary to reduce the uncertainty, in the interim a set of base cases are suggested covering both existing trials and credible and worst case events is proposed. This can assist users to assess the degree of conservatism present in quoted modeling approaches and model selections.

  1. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach versus microscopic approach in children.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Mario; Massimi, Luca; Parrilla, Claudio; Galli, Jacopo; Caldarelli, Massimo; Di Rocco, Concezio; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    To confirm the efficacy and safeness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal (ETS) approach in the treatment of sellar and parasellar lesions in children compared with the conventional microscopic transsphenoidal approach (CTS). Case series with chart review. A. Gemelli - University Hospital - Catholic University of Sacred Heart - Rome. We retrospectively evaluate 21 children (mean age 8.3 years) affected by sellar/parasellar lesions: 11 were treated via microscopic sublabial approach between 1995 and 2005 and 10 were treated with ETS approach between 2006 and 2009. The past series (group A) comprised all sellar/suprasellar lesions and we observed: gross total surgical excision in 81.2% of cases, permanent morbidity in 1/11 patients, CSF fistula in 1/11 patients, mean hospitalization time of 5.8 days and PICU was required. The present series (group B) included 8 sellar/suprasellar and 2 clival lesions and we observed: GTS excision in 80% of the cases, no permanent morbidity, a mean hospitalization time of 4.1 days (P=0.01), CSF fistula in 2/10 patients and the PICU was not required. 10/11 patient of group A underwent to blood transfusion vs 4/10 of the group B (P=0.008). The mean pain score of group A was 5.8 ± 1.7 on the contrary in the group B it was 4.1 ± 1.5 (P=0.006). The ETS approach to the sellar and parasellar region has proved its reliability and effectiveness in the adults. The minimal invasiveness makes it ideal for the treatment of pediatric lesion of this region, in which it is essential to preserve the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and of the naso-facial structures to assure the correct growth of the child. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Psychology: An Epigenetic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    1987-01-01

    A comparative psychology course oriented around the themes of phylogeny and ontogeny is described. The course emphasizes the evolution and development of behavioral processes and includes a discussion of the concept of integrative levels and Schneirla's approach/withdrawal theory. The course evaluates genetic determinism and stresses the principle…

  3. Classical approach in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'ev, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

  4. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  5. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  6. Force approach to radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  7. Map Projections: Approaches and Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    Map projections take on new meaning with location systems needed for satellites, other planets and space. A classroom approach deals first with the relationship between the earth and the globe, then with transformations to flat maps. Problems of preserving geometric qualities: distance, angles, directions are dealt with in some detail as are…

  8. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Andrew R.

    A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

  9. Teaching Ethics: A Direct Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, William Y., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compares five designs of an undergraduate ethics course at Saint Edward's University (Texas) in a 5-year study involving 318 students. Reveals the effectiveness of directly targeting and teaching in tandem the elements of moral reasoning. Bases study on Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Argues that this approach best develops moral…

  10. Map Projections: Approaches and Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, H. J.

    1970-01-01

    Map projections take on new meaning with location systems needed for satellites, other planets and space. A classroom approach deals first with the relationship between the earth and the globe, then with transformations to flat maps. Problems of preserving geometric qualities: distance, angles, directions are dealt with in some detail as are…

  11. Early Intervention Approaches. Chapter 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on early intervention approaches. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Child Maltreatment and Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: Some Preliminary Findings" (Patrick A. Curtis and Mary Wood Schneider); (2) "Evaluation…

  12. Profile Analysis: Multidimensional Scaling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines an exploratory multidimensional scaling-based approach to profile analysis called Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) (M. Davison, 1994). The PAMS model has the advantages of being applied to samples of any size easily, classifying persons on a continuum, and using person profile index for further hypothesis studies, but…

  13. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  14. An Ontological Approach to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Bruce

    Distinguishing the contextual realm addressed by ontological education as a valid area for inquiry by those who think about language and communication, this paper discusses an approach to education that is ontological in nature, in that its focus is the "being" of human beings rather than their knowledge. The paper explores several ideas…

  15. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  16. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  17. New Approaches to Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Kelly, Gail P., Ed.

    Perspectives on research in comparative education are presented in 17 articles originally published in the "Comparative Education Review." The objective is to present an array of new viewpoints, orientations, and approaches. Titles and authors are: "Introduction: Perspectives on Comparative Education" (Philip G. Altbach, Gail P. Kelly); "Critical…

  18. Animation of Ceres on Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-04

    This is a frame from an animation showcasing a series of images NASA Dawn spacecraft took on approach to Ceres on Feb. 4, 2015 at a distance of about 90,000 miles 145,000 kilometers from the dwarf planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19182

  19. Approaches to Rural Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Kathy R.; Scott, Jacqueline L.

    2006-01-01

    Three professional development approaches have shown promise in raising the competency level of early childhood professionals in rural areas. Provider registry systems gather information that provides a foundation for further professional development initiatives and systemic development. Statewide professional development systems designed to serve…

  20. Photochemical approaches to ordered polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Abdulaziz, Mahmoud; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1990-01-01

    The photocyclization of o-benzyloxyphenyl ketone chromophores provides an efficient, high yield route to the synthesis of 2,3-diphenylbenzofurans. The synthesis and solution of photochemistry of a series of polymers containing this chromophore is described. The photocuring of these polymers is a potential new approach to the synthesis of highly conjugated polymers based upon a p-phenylene bisbenzofuran repeat unit.

  1. Indian Education: An Intergenerational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalohead, Priscilla; Sterner, Michele

    The Indian Education Program in the Osseo School District (Minnesota) serves approximately 200 American Indian students in grades K-12 from 27 schools and a variety of tribes. The Program's intergenerational approach reflects tribal traditions in that generations learn together and grandparents, parents, and students are involved in the…

  2. ENGLISH WRITING, APPROACHES TO COMPOSITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS BY STAFF MEMBERS OF THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER FOCUSES ON APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF COMPOSITION IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. THE PAPERS ARE (1) "LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION," BY JAMES F. MCCAMPBELL, (2) "COMPOSING--EPIPHANY AND DETAIL," BY JOSEPH DYESS, (3) "THE LANGUAGE COMPOSITION…

  3. Three Approaches to Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafter, David O.

    1984-01-01

    Three common evaluation models are the scientific, interactive, and hybrid. A study of evaluation projects mandated by the Wisconsin legislature revealed that the hybrid model was most effective in achieving policy planning and policy control utilization, the interactive approach provided aid to individual utilization, and the scientific approach…

  4. Eight Approaches to Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doggett, Gina

    Important features of eight second language teaching methods--grammar-translation, direct, audiolingual, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, community language learning, Total Physical Response, and the communicative approach--are summarized . A chart outlines characteristics of these aspects of the methods: goals, teacher and student roles, the…

  5. Using Natural Approach Teaching Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Describes a beginning foreign language class applying the principles of Stephen Krashen's "Natural Approach" and James Asher's "Total Physical Response" method. Initially students carry out the instructor's commands in the form of actions rather than being required to speak. In later stages role play and simple discussions are…

  6. Guitar Class: A Multifaceted Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Lee R.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that the bias linking guitars to popular culture has needlessly limited approaches to teaching guitar. Examines how each of five current programs develops different music skills. Advocates a comprehensive, multifaceted program capable of emphasizing student skills in melody, harmony, perception, creativity, and performance over six years…

  7. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  8. A Freudian Approach to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Sandra L.

    This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

  9. A Freudian Approach to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Sandra L.

    This document offers the point of view that Bruno Bettelheim's writings, based on Sigmund Freud's approach to education, suggest the most practical applications for achieving positive results within the classroom. The overall result of a student being taught all through school by the Freudian method would be an extremely positive one. Such a…

  10. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Jane

    This paper addresses the problem of an inadequate science teaching approach at a time when students need to be familiar with, and be able to understand, global problems and personal problems delving into complex, interrelated issues based on the science of a living universe. This report focuses on research about the problems in science education,…

  11. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  12. Integrated reclamation: Approaching ecological function?

    Treesearch

    Ann L. Hild; Nancy L. Shaw; Ginger B. Paige; Mary I. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to reclaim arid and semiarid lands have traditionally targeted plant species composition. Much research attention has been directed to seeding rates, species mixes and timing of seeding. However, in order to attain functioning systems, attention to structure and process must compliment existing efforts. We ask how to use a systems approach to enhance...

  13. Ethnic Studies: Issues and Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Philip Q.

    This book offers a comprehensive definition of the field of ethnic studies, covering both major issues in the field and its theoretical and methodological approaches. It traces the origins and evolution of the discipline in the United States and maps its domain. Some of the current issues addressed include affirmative action, illegal/legal…

  14. Using Natural Approach Teaching Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Describes a beginning foreign language class applying the principles of Stephen Krashen's "Natural Approach" and James Asher's "Total Physical Response" method. Initially students carry out the instructor's commands in the form of actions rather than being required to speak. In later stages role play and simple discussions are…

  15. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  16. Approaches to Academic Growth Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Gimbert, Belinda; O'Connell, Ann A.; Riegel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is much interest in assessing growth in student learning. Assessments of growth have important implications and affect many policy decisions at many levels. Aims: In the present article, we review some of the different approaches to measuring growth and examine the implications of their usage. Sample: Samples used in research on…

  17. Force approach to radiation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    López, Gustavo V.

    2016-02-15

    The difficulty of the usual approach to deal with the radiation reaction is pointed out, and under the condition that the radiation force must be a function of the external force and is zero whenever the external force be zero, a new and straightforward approach to radiation reaction force and damping is proposed. Starting from the Larmor formula for the power radiated by an accelerated charged particle, written in terms of the applied force instead of the acceleration, an expression for the radiation force is established in general, and applied to the examples for the linear and circular motion of a charged particle. This expression is quadratic in the magnitude of the applied force, inversely proportional to the speed of the charged particle, and directed opposite to the velocity vector. This force approach may contribute to the solution of the very old problem of incorporating the radiation reaction to the motion of the charged particles, and future experiments may tell us whether or not this approach point is in the right direction.

  18. Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boren, John J., Ed.; Onken, Lisa Simon, Ed.; Carroll, Kathleen M., Ed.

    The intent of this book is to present information on various counseling approaches for drug abuse used in some of the best known and most respected treatment programs in the United States. In an effort to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how the model is applied in practice, each chapter follows a specific…

  19. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  20. Writing Approaches of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Ellen; Bushrow, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    The writing approach framework provides a comprehensive perspective on college-level academic writing based on the relationship of writers' beliefs and strategies to the quality of written outcomes. However, despite increased demands for more and better writing at the graduate level, little is known about graduate-level writing processes or about…

  1. Nanoscale fabrication by nonconventional approaches.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ampere A; Notargiacomo, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    An overview of three major nonconventional approaches in nanofabrication, scanning probe microscopy lithography, self-assembly, and imprint lithography, is presented. Typically, these nonconventional approaches are emerging technologies based on simple principles with potential cost-effective manufacturability, as compared to those conventional processes that are widely used and highly developed for making microelectronic circuits. Following the introduction of nonconventional technologies and their significances in nanofabrication, the details of each approach are presented. The lithographic applications of scanning probe microscopy, which involves three major variations: scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, are first evaluated with emphasis on their abilities in making structures with subnanoscale resolutions. The principles and processes for each technique are presented while their differences are also discussed. For the second approach, self-assembly, which uses a bottom-up fabrication strategy, is reported starting with an introduction of its basic principle. Self-assembly, with and without externally controlled forces for patterning nanoscale structures, is then examined. The associated principles and procedures of key assembling processes are presented. The third one, imprint lithography, is addressed with an emphasis on its recent progress and challenges. The nanolithographic abilities of different techniques developed using the general imprinting principle are examined. Finally, concluding remarks are provided to summarize the major technologies studied and to recommend the scopes for technology improvement and future research.

  2. Building America Systems Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building America Research Teams use a systems engineering approach to achieve higher quality and energy savings in homes. Using these techniques, the energy consumption of new houses can be reduced by 40% or more with little or no impact on the cost of ownership.

  3. Exostosis Bursata - Multimodality Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asik Ali Mohamed; Sharma, Praveen; Rege, Rujuta; Seena, C R; Rajesh, Saveetha

    2016-09-01

    Osteochondromas or exostosis are common benign bone tumours, commonly arising from the metaphyseal region of long bones (femur, humerus, tibia). Osteochondroma of the scapula are rare and cause mechanical irritation leading to bursal formation. We hereby report a case of 30-year-old man who presented with painful chest wall swelling and its multimodality approach to establish the diagnosis.

  4. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience

    Treesearch

    J.W. Long; Carl Skinner; M. North; C.T. Hunsaker; L. Quinn-Davidson

    2014-01-01

    This chapter begins by discussing current challenges for ecosystem management that emerged from multiple chapters of the full synthesis. It then considers integrative approaches to promote resilience, including general strategies that recognize the integrated nature of socioecological systems, the importance of promoting disturbance regimes upon which these systems...

  5. Cleft Palate; A Multidiscipline Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Richard B., Ed.

    Nineteen articles present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of facial clefts. The following subjects are discussed: the history of cleft lip and cleft palate surgery; cogenital defects; classification; the operation of a cleft palate clinic; physical examination of newborns with cleft lip and/or palate; nursing care; anesthesia;…

  6. Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Harry

    The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

  7. Family Research: An Ethnographic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Howard F.

    1991-01-01

    An ethnographic approach based on in-depth interviewing, naturalistic and participant observation, narrative description, and contextual interpretation is proposed as a tool for family health care research. The multiple meanings of family, both for research clinicians and for society, are considered. The problem of how a family orientation is incorporated into biomedical' health care is discussed. PMID:21229058

  8. Building Biographies: A Snapshot Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnowski, Myra

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a method for building biographies with elementary students. Called the "snapshot approach," it encourages students to visualize memorable events in the life of the person being studied. Step one is gathering and studying biographical information, step two is selecting the material to use, and step three is arranging and interpreting the…

  9. Organ donation: a communitarian approach.

    PubMed

    Etzioni, Amitai

    2003-03-01

    Recently, various suggestions have been made to respond to the increasingly great shortage of organs by paying for them. Because of the undesirable side effects of such approaches (commodification, injustice, and costs), a communitarian approach should be tried first. A communitarian approach to the problem of organ shortage entails changing the moral culture so that members of society will recognize that donating one's organs, once they are no longer of use to the donor, is the moral (right) thing to do. This approach requires much greater and deeper efforts than sharing information and making public service announcements. It entails a moral dialogue, in which the public is engaged, leading to a change in what people expect from one another. Among the devices that could help change the moral culture are a public statement, endorsed by community members and leaders, that expresses the community sense that donation "is what a good person does" and a community-specific web page that lists those who have made the commitment. A change in law so that a person's wishes in the matter are recognized as final and binding are also desired. This position paper deals only with cadaver organs and not living donors.

  10. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  11. Twenty Approaches to Individual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Dorlesa Barmettler

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews traditional helping systems of therapy, i.e., psychonalytic, experiential/phenomenological, cognitive, and behavioral, as well as mind-body systems approaches of transcendental meditation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise training, nutrition, and bioenergetics analysis. Therapists are admonished to learn about these various…

  12. Comparative Psychology: An Epigenetic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    1987-01-01

    A comparative psychology course oriented around the themes of phylogeny and ontogeny is described. The course emphasizes the evolution and development of behavioral processes and includes a discussion of the concept of integrative levels and Schneirla's approach/withdrawal theory. The course evaluates genetic determinism and stresses the principle…

  13. Interdisciplinary Approach to Building Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Harry

    The paper discusses the interdisciplinary approach used by the Amity High School House Construction Project to develop a construction cluster in a small high school, to give students on-the-job training, and to teach them the relevancy of academic education. The project's monthly plan of action is briefly described. Suggested activities,…

  14. Response to the EGAS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Deryl F.

    2005-01-01

    The author commends Drs. Bemak, Chung, and Siroskey-Sabdo on their efforts to connect with and empower African American adolescent females. However, he does have some concerns regarding their Empowerment Groups for Academic Success (EGAS) approach to empowering this particular group of students. While he agrees with the authors about the…

  15. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  16. New Approaches to Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Kelly, Gail P., Ed.

    Perspectives on research in comparative education are presented in 17 articles originally published in the "Comparative Education Review." The objective is to present an array of new viewpoints, orientations, and approaches. Titles and authors are: "Introduction: Perspectives on Comparative Education" (Philip G. Altbach, Gail P. Kelly); "Critical…

  17. PERTURBATION APPROACH FOR QUANTUM COMPUTATION

    SciTech Connect

    G. P. BERMAN; D. I. KAMENEV; V. I. TSIFRINOVICH

    2001-04-01

    We discuss how to simulate errors in the implementation of simple quantum logic operations in a nuclear spin quantum computer with many qubits, using radio-frequency pulses. We verify our perturbation approach using the exact solutions for relatively small (L = 10) number of qubits.

  18. Twenty Approaches to Individual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Dorlesa Barmettler

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews traditional helping systems of therapy, i.e., psychonalytic, experiential/phenomenological, cognitive, and behavioral, as well as mind-body systems approaches of transcendental meditation, biofeedback, aerobic exercise training, nutrition, and bioenergetics analysis. Therapists are admonished to learn about these various…

  19. Technical Training: A Systematic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammuto, John J.

    1980-01-01

    To employ scarce personnel and money to best advantage, company management must diagnose critical training needs and assign them priorities. A systems approach is recommended, which gives focus to training design while accommodating most organization training goals. Included are suggestions for system design, facility management, and cost…

  20. Early Writing: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document consists of four papers on the acquisition of writing skills by young children. The first paper provides a historical and developmental perspective on early writing. Children's development of manual dexterity is briefly overviewed and aspects of the educational approaches of Pestalozzi, Montessori, Chomsky, Rogers and Ashton-Warner…

  1. Approaches to Academic Growth Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Gimbert, Belinda; O'Connell, Ann A.; Riegel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is much interest in assessing growth in student learning. Assessments of growth have important implications and affect many policy decisions at many levels. Aims: In the present article, we review some of the different approaches to measuring growth and examine the implications of their usage. Sample: Samples used in research on…

  2. Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

  3. A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramvi, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on what both psychoanalysis and anthropology have in common: the emphasis on the researcher's own experience. An ethnographic fieldwork will be used to illustrate how a psychoanalytical approach unfolds the material when studying conditions for learning from experience among teachers in two Norwegian junior high schools, and…

  4. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  5. Pluralistic Approaches to Art Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Doug, Ed.; Congdon, Kristin G., Ed.

    Contributors to this anthology analyze the contemporary academic methods for critiquing art and suggest new ways that might further the understandings of art created by diverse individuals and groups. Essays are organized into three sections. Part 1, "Changes and Extensions in Critical Approaches" includes essays: (1) "Beyond Universalism in Art…

  6. Alternative Approaches to Introductory Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonello, Frank J.; And Others

    This document examines the educational output of three alternative approaches to introductory macroeconomics at the University of Notre Dame. The framework for evaluation consists of the cognitive and affective tradeoffs entailed by using a new experimental course as opposed to two more traditional courses. The experimental course is a freshman…

  7. Curriculum Evaluation: An Historical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Michele M.

    An historical background on curriculum evaluation including terms as they were introduced is presented. The historical approach provides a sense of continuity and direction, and historical perspectives offer necessary references for future curriculum study. Curriculum evaluation at the turn of this century emphasized the testing and measurement…

  8. Institutional Planning: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Willie D.

    This four-chapter report explores the possible contributions of a systems approach to institutional planning. After introductory comments, Chapter I reviews the management theory of Henry Fayol, which emphasizes management tasks, such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, which are "universal" regardless of the level…

  9. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  10. Chemical Calculations; An Audiotutorial Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    An audiotutorial approach to problem-solving in college chemistry relying upon audio tapes is available. The program is designed to increase the teacher's effectiveness by providing individualized attention to student difficulties related to problem-solving. Problem solutions are recorded on audio tapes (designed for use with Sony TC-160 cassettes…

  11. ATV-4 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-15

    ISS036-E-008169 (15 June 2013) --- The European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle-4 (ATV-4) “Albert Einstein” approaches the International Space Station. The spacecraft went on to successfully dock to the orbital outpost at 2:07 GMT, June 15, 2013, following a ten-day period of free-flight.

  12. ATV-4 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-15

    ISS036-E-008170 (15 June 2013) --- The European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle-4 (ATV-4) “Albert Einstein” approaches the International Space Station. The spacecraft went on to successfully dock to the orbital outpost at 2:07 GMT, June 15, 2013, following a ten-day period of free-flight.

  13. Intervention Strategies: A Multicultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    1989-01-01

    Intervention planning for limited-English-proficient students calls for an experiential approach which compares and contrasts the students' home culture with mainstream United States culture. Methods are presented for incorporating student culture in intervention activities (building a multicultural calendar, studying folk tales) and for…

  14. Optogenetic approaches to treat epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wykes, Robert C; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Pavlov, Ivan; Magloire, Vincent

    2016-02-15

    Novel treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy are required. Optogenetics is a combination of optical and genetic methods used to control the activity of specific populations of excitable cells using light with high temporal and spatial resolution. Derived from microbial organisms, 'opsin' genes encode light-activated ion channels and pumps. Opsins can be genetically targeted to well-defined neuronal populations in mammalian brains using viral vectors. When exposed to light of an appropriate wavelength, the excitability of neurons can be increased or decreased optically on a millisecond timescale. Alternative treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy such as vagal, cortical or subcortical stimulation, focal cooling, callosotomy, or ketogenic diet have met with limited success, whereas optogenetic approaches have shown considerable pre-clinical promise. Several groups have reported that optogenetic approaches successfully attenuated epileptiform activity in different rodent models of epilepsy, providing proof of the principle that this approach may translate to an effective treatment for epilepsy patients. However, further studies are required to determine the optimal opsin, in which types (or subtypes) of neurons it should be expressed, and what are the most efficient temporal profiles of photostimulation. Although invasive due to the need to inject a viral vector into the brain and implant a device to deliver light to opsin-transduced neurons, this approach has the potential to be effective in suppressing spontaneous seizures while avoiding the side-effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) or the need to permanently excise regions of the brain. Optogenetic approaches may treat drug-refractory epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimalist Approach to Perceptual Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lenay, Charles; Stewart, John

    2012-01-01

    Work aimed at studying social cognition in an interactionist perspective often encounters substantial theoretical and methodological difficulties: identifying the significant behavioral variables; recording them without disturbing the interaction; and distinguishing between: (a) the necessary and sufficient contributions of each individual partner for a collective dynamics to emerge; (b) features which derive from this collective dynamics and escape from the control of the individual partners; and (c) the phenomena arising from this collective dynamics which are subsequently appropriated and used by the partners. We propose a minimalist experimental paradigm as a basis for this conceptual discussion: by reducing the sensory inputs to a strict minimum, we force a spatial and temporal deployment of the perceptual activities, which makes it possible to obtain a complete recording and control of the dynamics of interaction. After presenting the principles of this minimalist approach to perception, we describe a series of experiments on two major questions in social cognition: recognizing the presence of another intentional subject; and phenomena of imitation. In both cases, we propose explanatory schema which render an interactionist approach to social cognition clear and explicit. Starting from our earlier work on perceptual crossing we present a new experiment on the mechanisms of reciprocal recognition of the perceptual intentionality of the other subject: the emergent collective dynamics of the perceptual crossing can be appropriated by each subject. We then present an experimental study of opaque imitation (when the subjects cannot see what they themselves are doing). This study makes it possible to characterize what a properly interactionist approach to imitation might be. In conclusion, we draw on these results, to show how an interactionist approach can contribute to a fully social approach to social cognition. PMID:22582041

  16. Ventral surgical approaches to craniovertebral junction chordomas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder; Harrop, James; Schiffmacher, Paul; Rosen, Marc; Evans, James

    2010-03-01

    Chordomas are primarily malignant tumors encountered at either end of the neural axis; the craniovertebral junction and the sacrococcygeal junction. In this article, we discuss the surgical management of craniovertebral junction chordomas. In this paper, we discuss the surgical management of craniovertebral junction chordomas. The following approaches are illustrated: transoral-transpalatopharyngeal approach, high anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach, endoscopic transoral approach, and endoscopic transnasal approach. No single operative approach can be used for all craniovertebral chordomas. Therefore, the location of the tumor dictates which approach or approaches should be used.

  17. Approaches to neuroscience data integration

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ernest; Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Marenco, Luis; Holford, Matthew E.; Morse, Thomas M.; Mutalik, Pradeep; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of neuroscience databases increases, the need for neuroscience data integration grows. This paper reviews and compares several approaches, including the Neuroscience Database Gateway (NDG), Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and Entrez Neuron, which enable neuroscience database annotation and integration. These approaches cover a range of activities spanning from registry, discovery and integration of a wide variety of neuroscience data sources. They also provide different user interfaces for browsing, querying and displaying query results. In Entrez Neuron, for example, four different facets or tree views (neuron, neuronal property, gene and drug) are used to hierarchically organize concepts that can be used for querying a collection of ontologies. The facets are also used to define the structure of the query results. PMID:19505888

  18. A multiparadigm approach to nursing.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, J

    1997-09-01

    Nursing theory development has made good progress in differentiating the domain of nursing from medicine; many of these theories are categorized as holistic theories. Nursing classification systems are also being developed to organize extant nursing practice. The dissonance between the two has been one of the most difficult contemporary issues for the leadership of nursing. A framework is proposed that would account for these disparate approaches. This proposed framework for the domain of healing is in keeping with the metaparadigm of health and uses a multiple paradigm approach. Nursing interventions are discussed in relation to the framework. It invites a dialogue in keeping with the scholarship of holism. Practice and scholarship implications are discussed.

  19. Intelligent Control Approaches for UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrisnaKumar, Kalmanje

    2003-01-01

    This talk will present overviews of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied at the NASA Ames Research Center as applicable to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mars flyers, and to the next generation of flight controllers for manned aircraft. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller, (b) adaptive critic-based optimal trajectory generator; (c) optimal allocation technique based on linear programming; (4) immunized maneuvering using autopilot building blocks. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted and unmanned simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) match flying qualities of modem fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) achieve intelligent maneuvering capabilities for unmanned vehicles. Results obtained so far will be presented and discussed.

  20. CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES FOR THE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended to assist users in establishing or refining protocols, including the specific methods related to field sampling, laboratory sample processing, taxonomy, data entry, management and analysis, and final assessment and reporting. It also reviews and provides information on development of monitoring designs to address certain types of environmental questions and approaches for documenting and reporting data quality and performance characteristics for large river biological monitoring. The approaches presented are not intended to replace existing program components but may in some cases be useful for refining them. The goal of this research is to develop methods and indicators that are useful for evaluating the condition of aquatic communities, for assessing the restoration of aquatic communities in response to mitigation and best management practices, and for determining the exposure of aquatic communities to different classes of stressors (i.e., pesticides, sedimentation, habitat alteration).

  1. Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Quadri, Humair S.; Smaglo, Brandon G.; Morales, Shannon J.; Phillips, Anna Chloe; Martin, Aimee D.; Chalhoub, Walid M.; Haddad, Nadim G.; Unger, Keith R.; Levy, Angela D.; Al-Refaie, Waddah B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its declining incidence, gastric cancer (GC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A multimodal approach to GC is critical to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Pretherapy fine resolution contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and staging laparoscopy play an important role in patients with newly diagnosed ostensibly operable GC to avoid unnecessary non-therapeutic laparotomies. Currently, margin negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy performed at high volume hospitals remain the backbone of GC treatment. Importantly, adequate GC surgery should be integrated in the setting of a multimodal treatment approach. Treatment for advanced GC continues to expand with the emergence of additional lines of systemic and targeted therapies. PMID:28824918

  2. A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Molina, C.

    2016-10-15

    In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.

  3. Direct Approach to Quantum Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreassen, Anders; Farhi, David; Frost, William; Schwartz, Matthew D.

    2016-12-01

    The decay rates of quasistable states in quantum field theories are usually calculated using instanton methods. Standard derivations of these methods rely in a crucial way upon deformations and analytic continuations of the physical potential and on the saddle-point approximation. While the resulting procedure can be checked against other semiclassical approaches in some one-dimensional cases, it is challenging to trace the role of the relevant physical scales, and any intuitive handle on the precision of the approximations involved is at best obscure. In this Letter, we use a physical definition of the tunneling probability to derive a formula for the decay rate in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory directly from the Minkowski path integral, without reference to unphysical deformations of the potential. There are numerous benefits to this approach, from nonperturbative applications to precision calculations and aesthetic simplicity.

  4. Malaysia implements the integrated approach.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem.

  5. Immunotherapeutic approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Andrea Casadei; Pisconti, Salvatore; Licchetta, Antonella; Scartozzi, Mario; Memeo, Riccardo; Palmieri, Vincenzo Ostilio; Aprile, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Nardulli, Patrizia; Silvestris, Nicola; Brunetti, Oronzo

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer with a high mortality rate due to the fact that the diagnosis usually occurs at anadvanced stage. Even in case of curative surgical treatment, recurrence is common. Sorafenib and regorafenib are the only therapeutic agents that have been demonstrated to be effective in advanced HCC, thus novel curative approaches are urgently needed. Recent studies focus on the role of immune system in HCC. In fact, the unique immune response in the liver favors tolerance, which can represent a real challenge for conventional immunotherapy in these patients. Spontaneous immune responses against tumor antigens have been detected, and new immune therapies are under investigation: dendritic cell vaccination, immune-modulator strategy, and immune checkpoint inhibition. In recent years different clinical trials examining the use of immunotherapy to treat HCC have been conducted with initial promising results. This review article will summarize the literature data concerning the potential immunotherapeutic approaches in HCC patients. PMID:28420805

  6. An Approach to Speaker Identification.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will provide standards upon which any attempts to meet the challenge of identifying speakers by voice should be based. It is organized into a model based on (i) application of a rigorous research program validating the system, (ii) an upgrading of the organization of the SI area, and (iii) exploitation of new technology. The second part of the presentation will describe an illustrative speech/voice approach to SI development. This effort is also based on an extensive corpus of research. It is suggested that application of the cited standards, plus the illustrative model, will permit reasonable progress to be made. Finally, a number of procedural recommendations are made; they should enhance the efficacy of the proposed approach. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Computational Approaches to Interface Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Tools which make use of computational processes - mathematical, algorithmic and/or knowledge-based - to perform portions of the design, evaluation and/or construction of interfaces have become increasingly available and powerful. Nevertheless, there is little agreement as to the appropriate role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process. Current tools fall into broad classes depending on which portions, and how much, of the design process they automate. The purpose of this panel is to review and generalize about computational approaches developed to date, discuss the tasks which for which they are suited, and suggest methods to enhance their utility and acceptance. Panel participants represent a wide diversity of application domains and methodologies. This should provide for lively discussion about implementation approaches, accuracy of design decisions, acceptability of representational tradeoffs and the optimal role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process.

  8. Recommended approach to sofware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.; Page, J.; Eslinger, S.; Church, V.; Merwarth, P.

    1983-01-01

    A set of guideline for an organized, disciplined approach to software development, based on data collected and studied for 46 flight dynamics software development projects. Methods and practices for each phase of a software development life cycle that starts with requirements analysis and ends with acceptance testing are described; maintenance and operation is not addressed. For each defined life cycle phase, guidelines for the development process and its management, and the products produced and their reviews are presented.

  9. PARSEC's Astrometry - The Risky Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A. H.

    2015-10-01

    Parallaxes - and hence the fundamental establishment of stellar distances - rank among the oldest, most direct, and hardest of astronomical determinations. Arguably amongst the most essential too. The direct approach to obtain trigonometric parallaxes, using a constrained set of equations to derive positions, proper motions, and parallaxes, has been labelled as risky. Properly so, because the axis of the parallactic apparent ellipse is smaller than one arcsec even for the nearest stars, and just a fraction of its perimeter can be followed. Thus the classical approach is of linearizing the description by locking the solution to a set of precise positions of the Earth at the instants of observation, rather than to the dynamics of its orbit, and of adopting a close examination of the few observations available. In the PARSEC program the parallaxes of 143 brown dwarfs were planned. Five years of observation of the fields were taken with the WFI camera at the ESO 2.2m telescope in Chile. The goal is to provide a statistically significant number of trigonometric parallaxes for BD sub-classes from L0 to T7. Taking advantage of the large, regularly spaced, quantity of observations, here we take the risky approach to fit an ellipse to the observed ecliptic coordinates and derive the parallaxes. We also combine the solutions from different centroiding methods, widely proven in prior astrometric investigations. As each of those methods assess diverse properties of the PSFs, they are taken as independent measurements, and combined into a weighted least-squares general solution. The results obtained compare well with the literature and with the classical approach.

  10. The Clinical Approach to Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Amanda L; Cho, Tracey A

    2016-05-01

    Encephalitis has various etiologies, but viral infections and autoimmune disorders are the most commonly identified. Clinical signs, geographical clues, and diagnostic testing-including cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities-can be helpful in identifying the cause. Certain forms of encephalitis have specific treatments; hence, establishing a diagnosis rapidly and accurately is crucial. Here, we describe the clinical approach to diagnosing several common etiologies of encephalitis as well as treatment strategies.

  11. A Viable Systems Engineering Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    methodology was not meeting the needs of the sponsors • The Agile approach Scrum was selected as the only viable solution for managing project...Self-organized teams Slide 11 Source: Agile Alliance (http://www.agilealliance.org/) Scrum Applied to Systems Engineering • Scrum is a framework for...ceremonies • A Scrum project is a series of iterations or Sprints where every 2-4 weeks produces fully developed requirements, functional analyses, and

  12. Assessment of Optimal Interrogation Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    7540 Pickens Avenue Fort Jackson, SC 29207 DACA DACA08-R-0001 Public Release In March 2006, Department of Defense Polygraph Institute (DoDPI) [now the...Defense Academy for Credibility Assessment ( DACA )] Research Division requested research to determine the optimal approaches or techniques used by an...interrogator. Specifically, DACA wanted the researchers to gather information from "expert" interrogators (referred to as "superior" interrogators

  13. An Epidemiological Approach to Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    extraordinarily good results for many marketers, and 7 illustrates the benefits of considering ideas to be contagious like viruses or other infectious...and the spread of viruses , we will be better able to understand what it is about the terrorist mentality that infects the susceptible population... virus would), permission marketing (Godin, 1999) and other such approaches to marketing. In a world that is oversaturated with advertisements, the notion

  14. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  15. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    PubMed

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance.

  16. [Behavioral approach to sexual dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Gellman, C

    1983-01-01

    The basic principles of those behaviourist approaches are: - Treatment of the couple, no matter which partner is apparently "responsible" for the sexual problem, and mutual involvement of both partners. - Sexual information and education regarding the cycle of sexual response, anatomy, biology, and sexual techniques. - Changing negative attitudes vis-à-vis sexuality. - Elimination of sexual anxieties. - Improvement of verbal and corporal communication within the couple. - Learning to know oneself and others better--Initiation to psychological attention and observation.

  17. Jellyfish Stings: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Lakkis, Najla A; Maalouf, Grace J; Mahmassani, Dina M

    2015-09-01

    Jellyfish have a worldwide distribution. Their stings can cause different reactions, ranging from cutaneous, localized, and self-limited to serious systemic or fatal ones, depending on the envenoming species. Several first aid treatments are used to manage such stings but few have evidence behind their use. This review of the literature describes and discusses the different related first aid and treatment recommendations, ending with a summarized practical approach. Further randomized controlled trials in this field are needed.

  18. Rapid Propellant Loading Approach Exploration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    was selected. Model-based reasoning ( MBR ) is an innovative way of determining the dynamic state of a process by examining all available sensors...instead of just one or a few. MBR also has the capability to determine the health of the system and predict degradations. Two NASA-developed MBR ...incorporate cryogenic technical and operations knowledge allowing nearly autonomous system operation with minimal supervision. The MBR approach provided

  19. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027820 (7 Feb. 2008) --- An unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  20. Therapeutic approaches to diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Rajesh; Desai, Akshay S; Solomon, Scott D

    2009-08-01

    Progressive abnormalities of passive stiffness or active relaxation of the myocardium that impair ventricular filling during diastole may be an important contributor to the development of heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, highlighting potential therapeutic approaches and exploring the limited available evidence base for improving clinical outcomes in patients with these challenging entities.

  1. STS-127 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-17

    ISS020-E-022362 (17 July 2009) --- This view of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was one of a series provided by an Expedition 20 crewmember prior to and during a survey of the approaching vehicle before docking with the International Space Station. As part of the survey and part of every mission's activities, the STS-127 Endeavour crew performed a back-flip for the rendezvous pitch maneuver (RPM).

  2. STS-127 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-17

    ISS020-E-022354 (17 July 2009) --- This view of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was one of a series provided by an Expedition 20 crewmember prior to and during a survey of the approaching vehicle before docking with the International Space Station. As part of the survey and part of every mission's activities, the STS-127 Endeavour crew performed a back-flip for the rendezvous pitch maneuver (RPM).

  3. STS-127 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-17

    ISS020-E-022349 (17 July 2009) --- This view of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was one of a series provided by an Expedition 20 crewmember prior to and during a survey of the approaching vehicle before docking with the International Space Station. As part of the survey and part of every mission's activities, the STS-127 Endeavour crew performed a back-flip for the rendezvous pitch maneuver (RPM).

  4. STS-127 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-17

    ISS020-E-022364 (17 July 2009) --- This view of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was one of a series provided by an Expedition 20 crewmember prior to and during a survey of the approaching vehicle before docking with the International Space Station. As part of the survey and part of every mission's activities, the STS-127 Endeavour crew performed a back-flip for the rendezvous pitch maneuver (RPM).

  5. STS-127 approach to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-17

    ISS020-E-022359 (17 July 2009) --- This view of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was one of a series provided by an Expedition 20 crewmember prior to and during a survey of the approaching vehicle before docking with the International Space Station. As part of the survey and part of every mission's activities, the STS-127 Endeavour crew performed a back-flip for the rendezvous pitch maneuver (RPM).

  6. [Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the

  7. An efficient iris segmentation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

    2011-10-01

    Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

  8. Different approaches of spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacoume, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of the calculation of spectral power density of a random function from an estimate of the autocorrelation function were studied. A comparative study was presented of these different methods. The principles on which they are based and the hypothesis implied were pointed out. Some indications on the optimization of the length of the estimated correlation function was given. An example of application of the different methods discussed in this paper was included.

  9. [Pulmonary nodule: a bayesian approach].

    PubMed

    Meert, A-P

    2010-01-01

    A solitary pulmonary nodule is a common clinical problem. It is usually detected incidentally. The prevalence of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in the lung cancer screening study varies from 8 to 50% (with a prevalence of malignant nodule from 1 to 13%). The bayesian approach can help us to identify promptly malignant nodule in order to treat them surgically and to avoid surgery for benign nodules. Therefore, it is needed to estimate the probability of cancer (Pca) in the SPN. Likelihood ratio (LR) for overall prevalence of malignancy and for different clinical and radiological information (age, smoking exposure, symptoms, cancer history, nodule size, spiculation, calcification, location, growth...) can be obtained from the literature. The odds of cancer-malignancy (odds ca) can be calculated by multiplying all of these LRs together. The Pca = odds ca/1+odds ca. Using this bayeasian approach, the probability of cancer based on an abnormal or normal fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan has been estimated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET scan are respectively about 90%, 83%, 92% and 90%. Moreover, the LR for malignancy are higher with an abnormal PET scan when compared to most clinical and radiological LRs. Today, the Bayesian approach of SPN must include PET scan.

  10. Molecular Approaches to Sarcoma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, R. J.; Tarantolo, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of aggressive tumors that have a relatively poor prognosis. Although conventional therapeutic regimens can effectively cytoreduce the overall tumor mass, they fail to consistently achieve a curative outcome. Alternative gene-based approaches that counteract the underlying neoplastic process by eliminating the clonal aberrations that potentiate malignant behavior have been proposed. As compared to the accumulation of gene alterations associated with epithelial carcinomas, sarcomas are frequently characterized by the unique presence of a single chromosomal translocation in each histological subtype. Similar to the Philadelphia chromosome associated with CML, these clonal abnormalities result in the fusion of two independent unrelated genes to generate a unique chimeric protein that displays aberrant activity believed to initiate cellular transformation. Secondary gene mutations may provide an additional growth advantage that further contributes to malignant progression. The recent clinical success of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, suggests that therapeutic approaches specifically directed against essential survival factors in sarcoma cells may be effective. This review summarizes published approaches targeting a specific molecular mechanism associated with sarcomagenesis. The strategy and significance of published translational studies in six distinct areas are presented. These include: (1) the disruption of chimeric transcription factor activity; (2) inhibition of growth stimulatory post-translational modifications; (3) restoration of tumor suppressor function; (4) interference with angiogenesis; (5) induction of apoptotic pathways; and (6) introduction of toxic gene products. The potential for improving outcomes in sarcoma patients and the conceptual obstacles to be overcome are discussed. PMID:18521343

  11. New approaches in GMO detection.

    PubMed

    Querci, Maddalena; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Zel, Jana; Van den Eede, Guy; Broll, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    The steady rate of development and diffusion of genetically modified plants and their increasing diversification of characteristics, genes and genetic control elements poses a challenge in analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is expected that in the near future the picture will be even more complex. Traditional approaches, mostly based on the sequential detection of one target at a time, or on a limited multiplexing, allowing only a few targets to be analysed at once, no longer meet the testing requirements. Along with new analytical technologies, new approaches for the detection of GMOs authorized for commercial purposes in various countries have been developed that rely on (1) a smart and accurate strategy for target selection, (2) the use of high-throughput systems or platforms for the detection of multiple targets and (3) algorithms that allow the conversion of analytical results into an indication of the presence of individual GMOs potentially present in an unknown sample. This paper reviews the latest progress made in GMO analysis, taking examples from the most recently developed strategies and tools, and addresses some of the critical aspects related to these approaches.

  12. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  13. Pragmatic approaches to genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre; ten Have, Henk

    2005-01-01

    Pragmatic approaches to genetic testing are discussed and appraised. Whilst there are various schools of pragmatism, the Deweyan approach seems to be the most appreciated in bioethics as it allows a historical approach indebted to Hegel. This in turn allows the pragmatist to specify and balance principles in various contexts. There are problems with where to draw a line between what is referred to here as the micro- and macro-level of doing bioethics, unless one is simply to be classified as a principlist. Whilst most discussions on genetics occur at a macro level, most specifying must be done also at a micro level - the clinical encounter. Whilst pragmatism encourages us to understand better social and scientific factors and puts into perspective statements like 'playing God', doubts are raised about the 'consensus' process and how one can put aside fundamental values such as the moral status of the embryo on which there is general disagreement. If those doing pragmatism do not endorse these values, there seems to be little ground for process and compromise with those who do. It seems therefore that pragmatism cannot ignore values, even those which are not endorsed by everyone.

  14. Novel therapeutic approaches for haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Shetty, S; Ghosh, K

    2015-03-01

    The major therapy for haemophilia is plasma derived or recombinant clotting factors which are evolving steadily to increase potency, stability and half-life. Research in the area of haemophilia therapeutics, however, is not restricted only to modifications in the recombinant products, but alternate therapeutic strategies are being developed which are in different phases of experimental and clinical trials. This chapter reviews the diverse molecular innovations which are being developed for alternate therapeutic approaches in haemophilia. The data is mainly extracted from the literature and the Conference abstracts. Some of the novel therapeutic approaches include inhibition of anticoagulant pathway factors (activated protein C, antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor) by monoclonal antibodies, peptide inhibitors, DNA or RNA aptamers, use of variant coagulation factors (factor Xa, factor Va) which are more resistant to inactivation or enzymatically more active and antibody-mediated therapy including a humanized anti-factor IXa/X bispecific antibody mimicking factor VIII. Other approaches include nonsense mutation suppression, induction of prothrombotic microparticles by P-selectin-immunoglobulin chimeras, suppression of fibrinolytic potential either by antifibrinolytics or by the use of mutant molecules of fibrinolytic inhibitors. Few products are proposed as 'stand alone' treatment for haemophilia, while a few can be used as adjuvant therapies to recombinant factors with an aim to reduce the amount of factor intake. All efforts are underway to produce an alternate, novel drug for haemophilia which will have an increased half-life, subcutaneously injectable, non-immunogenic and effective both in the presence and absence of inhibitors.

  15. Neuromodulation: Selected approaches and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Parpura, Vladimir; Silva, Gabriel A.; Tass, Peter A.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Koehne, Jessica; Lee, Kendall H.; Andrews, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    The brain operates through complex interactions in the flow of information and signal processing within neural networks. The “wiring” of such networks, being neuronal or glial, can physically and/or functionally go rogue in various pathological states. Neuromodulation, as a multidisciplinary venture, attempts to correct such faulty nets. In this review, selected approaches and challenges in neuromoduation are discussed. The use of water-dispersible carbon nanotubes have proven effective in modulation of neurite outgrowth in culture as well as in aiding regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. Studying neural circuits using computational biology and analytical engineering approaches brings to light geometrical mapping of dynamics within neural networks, much needed information for stimulation interventions in medical practice. Indeed, sophisticated desynchronization approaches used for brain stimulation have been successful in coaxing “misfiring” neuronal circuits to resume productive firing patterns in various human disorders. Devices have been developed for the real time measurement of various neurotransmitters as well as electrical activity in the human brain during electrical deep brain stimulation. Such devices can establish the dynamics of electrochemical changes in the brain during stimulation. With increasing application of nanomaterials in devices for electrical and chemical recording and stimulating in the brain, the era of cellular, and even intracellular, precision neuromodulation will soon be upon us. PMID:23190025

  16. On Approach: Jupiter and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of On Approach: Jupiter and Io

    This sequence of images was taken on Jan. 8, 2007, with the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), while the spacecraft was about 81 million kilometers (about 50 million miles) from Jupiter. Jupiter's volcanic moon Io is to the right; the planet's Great Red Spot is also visible. The image was one of 11 taken during the Jan. 8 approach sequence, which signaled the opening of the New Horizons Jupiter encounter.

    Even in these early approach images, Jupiter shows different face than what previous visiting spacecraft -- such as Voyager 1, Galileo and Cassini -- have seen. Regions around the equator and in the southern tropical latitudes seem remarkably calm, even in the typically turbulent 'wake' behind the Great Red Spot.

    The New Horizons science team will scrutinize these major meteorological features -- including the unexpectedly calm regions -- to understand the diverse variety of dynamical processes on the solar system's largest planet. These include the newly formed Little Red Spot, the Great Red Spot and a variety of zonal features.

  17. Omic approaches in environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Abril, Nieves; Ruiz-Laguna, Julia; Osuna-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Vioque-Fernández, Amalia; Fernández-Cisnal, Ricardo; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan; Pueyo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring requires the application of batteries of different biomarkers, as environmental contaminants induce multiple responses in organisms that are not necessarily correlated. Omic technologies were proposed as an alternative to conventional biomarkers since these techniques quantitatively monitor many biological molecules in a high-throughput manner and thus provide a general appraisal of biological responses altered by exposure to contaminants. As the studies using omic technologies increase, it is becoming clear that any single omic approach may not be sufficient to characterize the complexity of ecosystems. This work aims to provide a preliminary working scheme for the use of combined transcriptomic and proteomic methodologies in environmental biomonitoring. There are difficulties in working with nonmodel organisms as bioindicators when combining several omic approaches. As a whole, our results with heterologous microarrays in M. spretus and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) in P. clarkii indicated that animals sustaining a heavy pollution burden exhibited an enhanced immune response and/or cell apoptosis. The proteomic studies, although preliminary, provide a holistic insight regarding the manner by which pollution shifts protein intensity in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), completing the transcriptomic approach. In our study, the sediment element concentration was in agreement with the intensity of protein expression changes in C. maenas crabs. In conclusion, omics are useful technologies in addressing environmental issues and the determination of contamination threats.

  18. Proteomic approaches to bacterial differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-01

    While genomic approaches have been applied for the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to their inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides that could potentially be present in the proteomes of artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. A mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to experimentally detect and validate the predicted tryptic peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second in silico assessment of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was conducted to investigate the levels of instrumental performance that would be required to experimentally detect these peptides, as well as how performance varied with complexity (e.g., the number of different microorganisms). The experimental data for a simple community showed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and to quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for identifying a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities and the possible development of community wide markers of perturbations to such communities.

  19. A possibilistic approach to clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy clustering has been shown to be advantageous over crisp (or traditional) clustering methods in that total commitment of a vector to a given class is not required at each image pattern recognition iteration. Recently fuzzy clustering methods have shown spectacular ability to detect not only hypervolume clusters, but also clusters which are actually 'thin shells', i.e., curves and surfaces. Most analytic fuzzy clustering approaches are derived from the 'Fuzzy C-Means' (FCM) algorithm. The FCM uses the probabilistic constraint that the memberships of a data point across classes sum to one. This constraint was used to generate the membership update equations for an iterative algorithm. Recently, we cast the clustering problem into the framework of possibility theory using an approach in which the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values may be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes. We show the ability of this approach to detect linear and quartic curves in the presence of considerable noise.

  20. Computer Algebra, Instrumentation and the Anthropological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article considers research and scholarship on the use of computer algebra in mathematics education following the instrumentation and the anthropological approaches. It outlines what these approaches are, positions them with regard to other approaches, examines tensions between the two approaches and makes suggestions for how work in this…

  1. Synchronized Flashing Lights For Approach And Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Michael L.; Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Bell, Joseph L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic system for guiding vehicle in approaching and docking with another vehicle includes active optical targets (flashing lights) on approached vehicle synchronized with sensor and image-processing circuitry on approaching vehicle. Conceived for use in automated approach and docking of two spacecraft. Also applicable on Earth to manually controlled and automated approach and docking of land vehicles, aircraft, boats, and submersible vehicles, using GPS or terrestrial broadcast time signals for synchronization. Principal advantage: optical power reduced, with consequent enhancement of safety.

  2. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  3. Synchronized Flashing Lights For Approach And Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Michael L.; Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Bell, Joseph L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic system for guiding vehicle in approaching and docking with another vehicle includes active optical targets (flashing lights) on approached vehicle synchronized with sensor and image-processing circuitry on approaching vehicle. Conceived for use in automated approach and docking of two spacecraft. Also applicable on Earth to manually controlled and automated approach and docking of land vehicles, aircraft, boats, and submersible vehicles, using GPS or terrestrial broadcast time signals for synchronization. Principal advantage: optical power reduced, with consequent enhancement of safety.

  4. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  5. Computational approaches for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Hung, Che-Lun; Chen, Chi-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Cellular proteins are the mediators of multiple organism functions being involved in physiological mechanisms and disease. By discovering lead compounds that affect the function of target proteins, the target diseases or physiological mechanisms can be modulated. Based on knowledge of the ligand-receptor interaction, the chemical structures of leads can be modified to improve efficacy, selectivity and reduce side effects. One rational drug design technology, which enables drug discovery based on knowledge of target structures, functional properties and mechanisms, is computer-aided drug design (CADD). The application of CADD can be cost-effective using experiments to compare predicted and actual drug activity, the results from which can used iteratively to improve compound properties. The two major CADD-based approaches are structure-based drug design, where protein structures are required, and ligand-based drug design, where ligand and ligand activities can be used to design compounds interacting with the protein structure. Approaches in structure-based drug design include docking, de novo design, fragment-based drug discovery and structure-based pharmacophore modeling. Approaches in ligand-based drug design include quantitative structure-affinity relationship and pharmacophore modeling based on ligand properties. Based on whether the structure of the receptor and its interaction with the ligand are known, different design strategies can be seed. After lead compounds are generated, the rule of five can be used to assess whether these have drug-like properties. Several quality validation methods, such as cost function analysis, Fisher's cross-validation analysis and goodness of hit test, can be used to estimate the metrics of different drug design strategies. To further improve CADD performance, multi-computers and graphics processing units may be applied to reduce costs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Transcriptomic Approaches to Neural Repair

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Martins, Ana; Chandran, Vijayendran; Costigan, Michael; Lerch, Jessica K.; Willis, Dianna E.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why adult CNS neurons fail to regenerate their axons following injury remains a central challenge of neuroscience research. A more complete appreciation of the biological mechanisms shaping the injured nervous system is a crucial prerequisite for the development of robust therapies to promote neural repair. Historically, the identification of regeneration associated signaling pathways has been impeded by the limitations of available genetic and molecular tools. As we progress into an era in which the high-throughput interrogation of gene expression is commonplace and our knowledge base of interactome data is rapidly expanding, we can now begin to assemble a more comprehensive view of the complex biology governing axon regeneration. Here, we highlight current and ongoing work featuring transcriptomic approaches toward the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms that can be manipulated to promote neural repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Transcriptional profiling is a powerful technique with broad applications in the field of neuroscience. Recent advances such as single-cell transcriptomics, CNS cell type-specific and developmental stage-specific expression libraries are rapidly enhancing the power of transcriptomics for neuroscience applications. However, extracting biologically meaningful information from large transcriptomic datasets remains a formidable challenge. This mini-symposium will highlight current work using transcriptomic approaches to identify regulatory networks in the injured nervous system. We will discuss analytical strategies for transcriptomics data, the significance of noncoding RNA networks, and the utility of multiomic data integration. Though the studies featured here specifically focus on neural repair, the approaches highlighted in this mini-symposium will be of broad interest and utility to neuroscientists working in diverse areas of the field. PMID:26468186

  7. An evolutionary approach to Function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the distinction between function and role is vexing and difficult. While it appears to be useful, in practice this distinction is hard to apply, particularly within biology. Results I take an evolutionary approach, considering a series of examples, to develop and generate definitions for these concepts. I test them in practice against the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). Finally, I give an axiomatisation and discuss methods for applying these definitions in practice. Conclusions The definitions in this paper are applicable, formalizing current practice. As such, they make a significant contribution to the use of these concepts within biomedical ontologies. PMID:20626924

  8. Renewable resources. A systematic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Lopez, E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a renewable resource as a source of raw material for energy or simply for satisfaction of ecological needs, is a complex problem involving a series of disciplines, decisions at different levels, and intense, community participation. This book brings together a series of papers related to the use of renewable resources seen from different perspectives: from that of the biologist who searches for new techniques for the massive propagation of plants to the chemist who has found numerous chemical alternatives for the conversion of many sources of raw materials and energy to cellulose. The social and physical impacts of renewable resource exploitation are analyzed using different approaches.

  9. Orthodontic–periodontics interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.; Reddy, Y. Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P.; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties. PMID:22628956

  10. Approaches to wind resource verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barchet, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Verification of the regional wind energy resource assessments produced by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory addresses the question: Is the magnitude of the resource given in the assessments truly representative of the area of interest? Approaches using qualitative indicators of wind speed (tree deformation, eolian features), old and new data of opportunity not at sites specifically chosen for their exposure to the wind, and data by design from locations specifically selected to be good wind sites are described. Data requirements and evaluation procedures for verifying the resource are discussed.

  11. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  12. Specialist approaches to managing lipoedema.

    PubMed

    Fetzer, Amy

    2016-04-01

    While there is no proven cure for lipoedema, early detection is key as specialist treatments, complemented by self-management techniques, can improve symptoms and prevent progression. There is no universal approach as the correct treatment or treatments will depend on each patient's particular circumstances; however, when chosen early and appropriately, interventions can provide huge benefits. The most common treatments in the management of lipoedema include compression, manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), tumescent liposuction, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy (IPC), kinesio taping, deep oscillation therapy, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

  13. New Synthetic Approaches to TAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-16

    TITUT FLR ORGANI’rCH1. -h . M .... ,. , UND HIC)CHEMIE WI) , 1 16.2. 1988 L)EtR UNIVERSITAT BONN W , , : 71 Prof. Dr. H, Wamhotl European Research...firstly applied to the cyclic ureide model compound:.2 I " 1-2- Me e X 4N( Although, the resulting 1,3,5,7-tetramethyltetrazocane proved to be a...which we call the "electrocyclic approach": Following a procedure shown first in 1983 by R. Gompper and M.L. Schwarzensteiner (Angew.Chem. 95, 553

  14. Orthodontic-periodontics interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K; Reddy, Y Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties.

  15. Novel Approaches for Glycodrug Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Hirosato

    This chapter will give you an overview of recent approaches for drug development, focusing on the function and roles of carbohydrates. Section 2 will outline the biochemical functions of polysaccharide (neutral polysaccharide, chitin and chitosan, glycosaminoglycan, and synthetic polysaccharides) and glycopolymers and the perspectives of their medicinal/medical use. Section 3 will outline recent biopharmaceutical research and development, utilizing the functions of carbohydrates. Section 4 will outline drug discovery and development of new medicines targeting carbohydrates. In addition, recent advances in carbohydrate synthesis technology, needed for development of new medicines, will also be described.

  16. Setup reduction approaches for machining

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1997-04-01

    Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

  17. An approach to space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J. H.; Hochberg, T.; Barnouin, O.; Gu, Y. B.

    1990-01-01

    Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. A new approach is discussed for space fusion power, namely Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small, simple device. It appears capable of burning aneutronic fuels which are most desirable for space applications and is well suited for direct conversion. An experimental device to test the concept is described.

  18. Approach to Mars Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

  19. A rational approach to dementia.

    PubMed Central

    Ropper, A H

    1979-01-01

    Dementia is a common problem facing all medical practitioners and it frequently results in hospitalization and death. This review provides a framework for dealing with dementia in clinical practice that is based on both traditional concepts and recent advances in the understanding of the problem. Distinguishing at the bedside between dementia and other disorders of intellect is emphasized. The main causes of dementia and their clinical characteristics are reviewed and a rational approach to definitive diagnosis is developed. Simple, effective symptomatic forms of therapy are described. PMID:159118

  20. New Synthetic Approaches to TAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-30

    macro- cyclic ligand with glycoluril and tetrazocane units (Cucurbiturils); internal/ex- ternal stabilizat’on of TAT’ structure and reactivity...Ring Synthetic Approaches to TAT via Urea It is known since a long time that urea and phosgene condense in a 2:1 manner to furnish carbonyl-bisurea...8]ane-N 4-system: 0 N h / -O -(o I4J I) While diethyl carbonate, Staab’s reagent, and triethyl orthoformate did not lead to tetrazocanes, phosgene

  1. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

  2. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Approach to adolescent suicide prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kostenuik, Marcia; Ratnapalan, Mohana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an approach to suicide prevention in youth. SOURCES OF INFORMATION A literature review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and evaluation studies or program evaluation, adolescent. MAIN MESSAGE Youth suicide might be prevented by earlier recognition and treatment of mental illness. Family physicians can and should screen for mental illness in youth; there are many diagnostic and treatment resources available to assist with this. CONCLUSION Earlier detection and treatment of mental illness are the most important ways family physicians can reduce morbidity and mortality for youth who are contemplating suicide. PMID:20705879

  4. Disease management: a continuum approach.

    PubMed

    Harvey, N; DePue, D M

    1997-06-01

    Disease management is a comprehensive, integrated approach to managing the health of populations through the use of disease-specific standards and protocols and population segmentation. It has been increasing in popularity among integrated delivery systems (IDSs) and payers alike as a way to respond to competitive pressures and to shift care delivery from inpatient to alternative care sites. To successfully implement disease-management programs, IDSs must develop an organizational mind-set that stresses information-driven, evidence-based standards of care that are adhered to across a tightly integrated continuum of care.

  5. A psychological approach to ethics.

    PubMed

    De Meira Penna, J O

    1985-09-01

    This article has the purpose of calling attention to C.G. Jung's archetypal concept of the Self as an approach to ethics. The distinction between simple morality and transcendent ethics is established. Comparison is made between the archetype of the Self and Kant's categorical imperative. Freud's superego, however, is assimilated to a "natural" outlook on morality, such as the notion of altruism in sociobiology. The superego is only the psychic effect of the current moral code-which could be explained either culturally or as a Lamarckian acquired characteristic of the unconscious. Jung's transcendent ethics is expressed in an "ethical mandala."

  6. Approach to Mars Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, William; Rice, James W.; Parker, Timothy; Lipps, Jere H.; Hoffman, Paul; Burchfiel, Clark; Brasier, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The goals of field study on Mars are nothing less than to understand the processes and history of the planet at whatever level of detail is necessary. A manned mission gives us an unprecedented opportunity to use the immense power of the human mind to comprehend Mars in extraordinary detail. To take advantage of this opportunity, it is important to examine how we should approach the field study of Mars. In this effort, we are guided by over 200 years of field exploration experience on Earth as well as six manned missions exploring the Moon.

  7. SPX-8 Dragon Spacecraft Approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-10

    ISS047e052707 (04/10/2016) --- The SpaceX Dragon cargo spaceship begins the final approach to the International Space Station. The spacecraft is delivering about 7,000 pounds of science and research investigations, including the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module, known as BEAM. Dragon’s arrival marked the first time two commercial cargo vehicles have been docked simultaneously at the space station. Orbital ATK’s Cygnus spacecraft arrived to the station just over two weeks ago. With the arrival of Dragon, the space station ties the record for most vehicles on station at one time – six.

  8. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027761 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a colorful Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  9. Progress 24 resupply approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-20

    ISS014-E-12434 (19 Jan. 2007) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. The Progress 24 resupply craft launched at 8:12 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 14 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:59 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 19 as the spacecraft and the station flew approximately 220 miles above a point near the South Atlantic off the southeast coast of Uruguay.

  10. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027742 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  11. Progress 24 resupply approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-20

    ISS014-E-12364 (19 Jan. 2007) --- Backdropped by a blue Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. The Progress 24 resupply craft launched at 8:12 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 14 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:59 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 19 as the spacecraft and the station flew approximately 220 miles above a point near the South Atlantic off the southeast coast of Uruguay.

  12. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027798 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle (seen as a tiny object just left of center) approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  13. Progress 28 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-07

    ISS016-E-027815 (7 Feb. 2008) --- Backdropped by a colorful Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress 28 resupply craft launched at 7:03 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 5, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver more than 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 16 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:30 a.m. (CST) on Feb. 7.

  14. Progress 23 supply vehicle approach

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-26

    ISS014-E-06544 (26 Oct. 2006) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. Progress docked to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module at 9:29 a.m. (CDT) on Oct. 26. The spacecraft used the automated Kurs system to dock at the aft port of the Zvezda service module. Expedition 14 flight engineer Mikhail Tyurin stood by at the manual Toru docking system controls, but the automated system functioned as designed and manual intervention was not needed.

  15. ORFEUS - Scientific and cost approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graue, R.; Kampf, D.; Rippel, H.

    1993-10-01

    The paper describes the technical and optomechanical concepts of the ORFEUS telescope, which is the primary scientific payload of the free-flying, retrievable, and reusable Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS). Particular attention is given to the scientific targets of the Orfeus telescope and the low-cost approach of the project. The ORFEUS SPAS mission is scheduled to be launched with STS 51 in July 1993 into a 300-km circular orbit, to perform an autonomous free flight for 5-7 days, after which the satellite will be retrieved into the shuttle and returned to earth.

  16. Pharmacological approaches in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    McCarville, Justin L; Caminero, Alberto; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten, characterized by immune responses toward gluten constituents and the autoantigen transglutaminase 2. The only current treatment available for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet, however there are a plethora of therapies in development for the treatment of celiac disease (e.g. vaccine), management of symptoms while consuming gluten (e.g. Necator americanus) or adjuvant therapies in conjunction with the gluten-free diet (e.g. larazotide acetate). Current approaches in development target barrier function, immune responses, detoxifying gluten or sequestering gluten. Developing therapies include those targeting environmental factors, such as the microbiota or proteases.

  17. Progress 12P approaching ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-31

    ISS007-E-13814 (30 August 2003) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station (ISS). The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  18. Progress 12P approaching ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-31

    ISS007-E-13808 (30 August 2003) --- Backdropped by Earth’s horizon, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station (ISS). The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  19. Progress 12P approaching ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-31

    ISS007-E-13811 (30 August 2003) --- Backdropped by a blue and white Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station (ISS). The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  20. An evolutionary approach to Function.

    PubMed

    Lord, Phillip

    2010-06-22

    Understanding the distinction between function and role is vexing and difficult. While it appears to be useful, in practice this distinction is hard to apply, particularly within biology. I take an evolutionary approach, considering a series of examples, to develop and generate definitions for these concepts. I test them in practice against the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI). Finally, I give an axiomatisation and discuss methods for applying these definitions in practice. The definitions in this paper are applicable, formalizing current practice. As such, they make a significant contribution to the use of these concepts within biomedical ontologies.

  1. Stochastic approach to irreversible thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolis, Grégoire; De Decker, Yannick

    2017-10-01

    An extension of classical irreversible thermodynamics pioneered by Ilya Prigogine is developed, in which fluctuations of macroscopic observables accounting for microscopic-scale processes are incorporated. The contribution of the fluctuations to the entropy production is derived from a generalized entropy balance equation and expressed in terms of the fluctuating variables, via an extended local equilibrium Ansatz and in terms of the probability distributions of these variables. The approach is illustrated on reactive systems involving linear and nonlinear steps, and the role of the distance from equilibrium and of the nonlinearities is assessed.

  2. Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Musarò, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  3. Nanoparticle Approaches against Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide success of antibiotics, the treatment of bacterial infection still faces significant challenges, particularly the emergence of antibiotic resistance. As a result, nanoparticle drug delivery platforms including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and various inorganic nanoparticles have been increasingly exploited to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. This review focuses on areas where nanoparticle approaches hold significant potential to advance the treatment of bacterial infection. These areas include targeted antibiotic delivery, environmentally responsive antibiotic delivery, combinatorial antibiotic delivery, nanoparticle-enabled antibacterial vaccination, and nanoparticle-based bacterial detection. In each area we highlight the innovative antimicrobial nanoparticle platforms and review their progress made against bacterial infections. PMID:25044325

  4. 'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.

    PubMed

    Call, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere.

  5. Economics of a multimedia approach

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.B.; Hindawi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    One of the major driving forces in the decision of a facility operator to implement a multimedia approach to examining pollution is the economics of the situation. A multimedia approach has gained favor with many facility operators because it has been shown to be more cost-effective than dealing with a number of phases, or media, separately. To a great extent, this is due to elimination of inefficiencies involved with cross-media transfer of pollutants. Even more basic to the problem of industrial pollution is the generation of waste. All industrial processes yield some percentage of waste products, but frequently during the design phase the costs associated with producing wastes are underestimated. As part of this series on multimedia issues, the costs related to manufacturing waste products are examined in detail. An obvious inefficiency associated with waste generation is the loss of material that potentially could be converted to salable products. The value of commodity raw materials frequently is ignored when considering the total costs of pollution generation at an industrial facility. Although the economics of pollution generation are affected by a number of factors, including regulatory costs, disposal costs and impacts on health and safety, this article focuses on the economics of lost production in industrial facilities.

  6. Modeling Approaches in Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Knapmeyer, Martin; Panning, Mark; Schmerr, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon over 40 years ago revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure on and of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this chapter, we will review these approaches.

  7. Multidisciplinary approaches to solar hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Bren, Kara L.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes three different approaches to engineering systems for the solar-driven evolution of hydrogen fuel from water: molecular, nanomaterials and biomolecular. Molecular systems have the advantage of being highly amenable to modification and detailed study and have provided great insight into photophysics, electron transfer and catalytic mechanism. However, they tend to display poor stability. Systems based on nanomaterials are more robust but also are more difficult to synthesize in a controlled manner and to modify and study in detail. Biomolecular systems share many properties with molecular systems and have the advantage of displaying inherently high efficiencies for light absorption, electron–hole separation and catalysis. However, biological systems must be engineered to couple modules that capture and convert solar photons to modules that produce hydrogen fuel. Furthermore, biological systems are prone to degradation when employed in vitro. Advances that use combinations of these three tactics also are described. Multidisciplinary approaches to this problem allow scientists to take advantage of the best features of biological, molecular and nanomaterials systems provided that the components can be coupled for efficient function. PMID:26052425

  8. Hybrid metrology implementation: server approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Carmen; Timoney, Padraig; Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alex; Kang, Charles; Bozdog, Cornel; Yellai, Naren; Grubner, Eyal; Ikegami, Toru; Ikeno, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid metrology (HM) is the practice of combining measurements from multiple toolset types in order to enable or improve metrology for advanced structures. HM is implemented in two phases: Phase-1 includes readiness of the infrastructure to transfer processed data from the first toolset to the second. Phase-2 infrastructure allows simultaneous transfer and optimization of raw data between toolsets such as spectra, images, traces - co-optimization. We discuss the extension of Phase-1 to include direct high-bandwidth communication between toolsets using a hybrid server, enabling seamless fab deployment and further laying the groundwork for Phase-2 high volume manufacturing (HVM) implementation. An example of the communication protocol shows the information that can be used by the hybrid server, differentiating its capabilities from that of a host-based approach. We demonstrate qualification and production implementation of the hybrid server approach using CD-SEM and OCD toolsets for complex 20nm and 14nm applications. Finally we discuss the roadmap for Phase-2 HM implementation through use of the hybrid server.

  9. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  10. Novel approaches in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Deepa S; Liu, Stephen V; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of tumor immunology has exploded in the past 3 decades. The complex relationships between tumor cells, the tumor microenvironment and the immune system cells, especially the cytotoxic and helper T cells and the regulatory T cells are beginning to be elucidated. In this review, we will attempt to provide a brief primer of tumor immunology. Cytokine therapy has historically been the mainstay of immunotherapy in cancers such as melanoma and kidney cancer. We will review some of the advances made with cancer vaccines, with a focus on peptide vaccines, tumor cell vaccines and immune cell vaccines. The pros and cons of nucleic acid-based vaccines including DNA and RNA vaccines will be discussed. Adoptive cell therapy has made significant progress utilizing chimeric antigen-receptor transduced T cells, especially in hematologic malignancies. We will also consider the key targets in checkpoint inhibition, and summarize some of the preclinical and clinical data with respect to checkpoint inhibition. Progress made in the novel immunotherapeutic approach of oncolytic viral therapy will be analyzed. PDL-1 expression by tumor cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes has been looked at as a biomarker in clinical trials. Limitations to such an approach and potential candidates for future predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy and biomarkers of autoimmunity and adverse reactions will be considered.

  11. Systematic approach to thermal leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, T.; Garny, M.; Hohenegger, A.; Kartavtsev, A.; Mitrouskas, D.

    2013-04-01

    In this work we study thermal leptogenesis using nonequilibrium quantum field theory. Starting from fundamental equations for correlators of the quantum fields we describe the steps necessary to obtain quantum-kinetic equations for quasiparticles. These can easily be compared to conventional results and overcome conceptional problems inherent in the canonical approach. Beyond CP-violating decays we include also those scattering processes which are tightly related to the decays in a consistent approximation of fourth order in the Yukawa couplings. It is demonstrated explicitly how the S-matrix elements for the scattering processes in the conventional approach are related to two- and three-loop contributions to the effective action. We derive effective decay and scattering amplitudes taking medium corrections and thermal masses into account. In this context we also investigate CP-violating Higgs decay within the same formalism. From the kinetic equations we derive rate equations for the lepton asymmetry improved in that they include quantum-statistical effects and medium corrections to the quasiparticle properties.

  12. Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.

    PubMed

    Koshelev, Misha; Lohrenz, Terry; Vannucci, Marina; Montague, P Read

    2010-10-21

    We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV) disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer) by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder). The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574), we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor) and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria.

  13. Fast approach for toner saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

    2011-01-01

    Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

  14. Boom Rendezvous Alternative Docking Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    Space rendezvous and docking has always been attempted with primarily one philosophic methodology. The slow matching of one vehicle's orbit by a second vehicle and then a final closing sequence that ends in matching the orbits with perfect precision and with near zero relative velocities. The task is time consuming, propellant intensive, risk inherent (plume impingement, collisions, fuel depletion, etc.) and requires substantial hardware mass. The historical background and rationale as to why this approach is used is discussed in terms of the path-not-taken and in light of an alternate methodology. Rendezvous and docking by boom extension is suggested to have inherent advantages that today s technology can readily exploit. Extension from the primary spacecraft, beyond its inherent large inertia, allows low inertia connections to be made rapidly and safely. Plume contamination issues are eliminated as well as the extra propellant mass and risk required for the final thruster (docking) operations. Space vehicle connection hardware can be significantly lightened. Also, docking sensors and controls require less fidelity; allowing them to be more robust and less sensitive. It is the potential safety advantage and mission risk reduction that makes this approach attractive, besides the prospect of nominal time and mass savings.

  15. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  16. Personalized Management Approach for OSA.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Jayne C; Amatoury, Jason; Eckert, Danny J

    2017-06-16

    OSA is a heterogeneous disorder. If left untreated, it has major health, safety, and economic consequences. In addition to varying levels of impairment in pharyngeal anatomy (narrow/collapsible airway), nonanatomical "phenotypic traits" are also important contributors to OSA for most patients. However, the majority of existing therapies (eg, CPAP, oral appliances, weight loss, positional therapy, upper airway surgery) target only the anatomical cause. These are typically administered as monotherapy according to a trial and error management approach in which the majority of patients are first prescribed CPAP. Despite its high efficacy, CPAP adherence remains unacceptably low, and second-line therapies have variable and unpredictable efficacies. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the multiple causes of OSA using respiratory phenotyping techniques have identified new targets or "treatable traits" to direct therapy. Identification of the traits and development of therapies that selectively target one or more of the treatable traits has the potential to personalize the management of this chronic health condition to optimize patient outcomes according to precision medicine principles. This brief review highlights the latest developments and emerging therapies for personalized management approaches for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Soliton approach to magnetic holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgärtel, Klaus

    ``Magnetic holes'' (MHs), depressions in the magnetic field magnitude associated with enhancements in density and kinetic pressure, have been observed in the solar wind, the magnetosheaths of terrestrial planets and in the environments of comets, suggesting that this phenomenon may be a common occurrence in space plasmas. MHs are usually believed to result from the mirror instability which can develop in high-beta plasmas with a temperature anisotropy, T⊥/T∥>1. Motivated by the fact that solar wind MHs are often observed in a mirror mode stable environment [Winterhalter et al., 1994], this paper proposes a mechanism for the maintenance of MHs in an equilibrium plasma. We suggest an explanation in terms of magnetically rarefactive (``dark'') MHD solitons with anticorrelation of magnetic field and density, which propagate with small velocities at large angles to the ambient magnetic field. This intrinsically nonlinear approach is based on a magnetohydrodynamic plasma description including Hall inertia effects and utilizes the well-developed soliton theory of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (DNLS) which appears as a partly adequate approximation to the parent Hall-MHD system. The approach introduces an alternative mechanism into the discussion over the physical nature of MHs that is not related to an instability and provides an explanation for various aspects of the observations including amplitude, thickness, and spatial structure of MHs.

  18. Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

    2010-09-01

    Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level.

  19. Conceptual approach to astronomical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, N. A.; Avvakumova, E. A.; Bryukhov, D. O.; Vovchenko, A. E.; Vol'nova, A. A.; Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Kalinichenko, L. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Stupnikov, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technical capabilities have brought about the sweeping growth of the amount of data acquired by the astronomers from observations with different instruments in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. We consider conceptual approach to be a promising tool to efficiently deal with these data. It uses problem domain knowledge to formulate the tasks and develop problem-solving algorithms and data analysis methods in terms of domain concepts without reference to particular data sources, and thereby allows solving certain problems in general form. We demonstrate the benefits of conceptual approach by using it to solve problems related to search for secondary photometric standard candidates, determination of galaxy redshifts, creation of a binary and multiple star repository based on inhomogeneous databases, and classification of eclipsing binaries.We formulate and solve these problems over specifications of astronomical knowledge units such as photometric systems, astronomical objects, multiple stars, etc., and define them in terms of the corresponding problem domains independently of the existing data resources.

  20. Microfluidic approaches to malaria detection.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Peter; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2004-02-01

    Microfluidic systems are under development to address a variety of medical problems. Key advantages of micrototal analysis systems based on microfluidic technology are the promise of small size and the integration of sample handling and measurement functions within a single, automated device having low mass-production costs. Here, we review the spectrum of methods currently used to detect malaria, consider their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss their adaptability towards integration into small, automated micro total analysis systems. Molecular amplification methods emerge as leading candidates for chip-based systems because they offer extremely high sensitivity, the ability to recognize malaria species and strain, and they will be adaptable to the detection of new genotypic signatures that will emerge from current genomic-based research of the disease. Current approaches to the development of chip-based molecular amplification are considered with special emphasis on flow-through PCR, and we present for the first time the method of malaria specimen preparation by dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation. Although many challenges must be addressed to realize a micrototal analysis system for malaria diagnosis, it is concluded that the potential benefits of the approach are well worth pursuing.

  1. Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsonego, Alon; Weiner, Howard L.

    2003-10-01

    Although neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are not classically considered mediated by inflammation or the immune system, in some instances the immune system may play an important role in the degenerative process. Furthermore, it has become clear that the immune system itself may have beneficial effects in nervous system diseases considered neurodegenerative. Immunotherapeutic approaches designed to induce a humoral immune response have recently been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. These studies have led to human trials that resulted in both beneficial and adverse effects. In animal models, it has also been shown that immunotherapy designed to induce a cellular immune response may be of benefit in central nervous system injury, although T cells may have either a beneficial or detrimental effect depending on the type of T cell response induced. These areas provide a new avenue for exploring immune system-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases and will be discussed here with a primary focus on Alzheimer's disease. We will also discuss how these approaches affect microglia activation, which plays a key role in therapy of such diseases.

  2. The acousto-ultrasonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1987-01-01

    The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

  3. Improving immunization approaches to cholera.

    PubMed

    Saha, Amit; Rosewell, Alexander; Hayen, Andrew; MacIntyre, C Raina; Qadri, Firdausi

    2017-03-01

    Cholera's impact is greatest in resource-limited countries. In the last decade several large epidemics have led to a global push to improve and implement the tools for cholera prevention and control. Areas covered: PubMed, Google Scholar and the WHO website were searched to review the literature and summarize the current status of cholera vaccines to make recommendations on improving immunization approaches to cholera. Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have demonstrated their effectiveness in endemic, outbreak response and emergency settings, highlighting their potential for wider adoption. While two doses of the currently available OCVs are recommended by manufacturers, a single dose would be easier to implement. Encouragingly, recent studies have shown that cold chain requirements may no longer be essential. The establishment of the global OCV stockpile in 2013 has been a major advance in cholera preparedness. New killed and live-attenuated vaccines are being actively explored as candidate vaccines for endemic settings and/or as a traveller's vaccine. The recent advances in cholera vaccination approaches should be considered in the global cholera control strategy. Expert commentary: The development of affordable cholera vaccines is a major success to improve cholera control. New vaccines and country specific interventions will further reduce the burden of this disease globally.

  4. The Final Approach Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Bergh, Christopher; Krzeczowski, Ken J.; Schlickenmaier, H. W. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for assisting terminal area air traffic controllers in the management and control of arrival traffic, referred to as the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST), is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. In a cooperative program, NASA and FAA have efforts underway to install and evaluate the system at the Dallas/Fort Worth Terminal Radar Approach Control facility. This paper will review the software architecture, the algorithms components, and the human-machine interface. The system is based on continuous updates of a detailed trajectory analyses of all arrival aircraft. FAST interprets the results of these trajectory analyses to build an efficient and procedurally acceptable plan for the arrival traffic that consists of a sequence, schedule, and runway assignment. The system utilizes a heuristically-based conflict resolution algorithm to build a solution trajectory that satisfies the plan, It extracts a series of speed and heading advisories from the solution trajectory to assist the controller in efficiently managing and controlling the arrival traffic down to the runway. The advisories are displayed in a graphical format to the controller. In addition to the radar tracking data, the system also relies on a series of data bases. These data bases contain aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures, airspace structure, air traffic procedural models, and a three dimensional wind model. Field evaluation of FAST is expected to begin in 1994.

  5. Approaches for modeling magnetic nanoparticle dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful biological probes as well as therapeutic agents. There have been several approaches used to model nanoparticle magnetization dynamics for both Brownian as well as Néel rotation. The magnetizations are often of interest and can be compared with experimental results. Here we summarize these approaches including the Stoner-Wohlfarth approach, and stochastic approaches including thermal fluctuations. Non-equilibrium related temperature effects can be described by a distribution function approach (Fokker-Planck equation) or a stochastic differential equation (Langevin equation). Approximate models in several regimes can be derived from these general approaches to simplify implementation. PMID:25271360

  6. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology.

  7. Dietary Approaches to Prevent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Lydia A.; Green, Torrance; Harrison, Teresa N.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure arises from a combination of environmental and genetic factors and the interactions of these factors. A substantial body of evidence from animal studies, epidemiologic studies, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials has demonstrated that certain dietary patterns and individual dietary elements play a prominent role in the development of hypertension. Changes in diet can lower blood pressure, prevent the development of hypertension, and reduce the risk of hypertension-related complications. Dietary strategies for the prevention of hypertension include reducing sodium intake, limiting alcohol consumption, increasing potassium intake, and adopting an overall dietary pattern such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet or a Mediterranean diet. In order to reduce the burden of blood pressure-related complications, efforts that focus on environmental and individual behavioral changes that encourage and promote healthier food choices are warranted. PMID:24091874

  8. New approaches to hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Graetz, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of a Hydrogen Economy will require the development of new media capable of safely storing hydrogen in a compact and light weight package. Metal hydrides and complex hydrides, where hydrogen is chemically bonded to the metal atoms in the bulk, offer some hope of overcoming the challenges associated with hydrogen storage. The objective is to find a material with a high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen density that can also meet the unique demands of a low temperature automotive fuel cell. Currently, there is considerable effort to develop new materials with tunable thermodynamic and kinetic properties. This tutorial review provides an overview of the different types of metal hydrides and complex hydrides being investigated for on-board (reversible) and off-board (non-reversible) hydrogen storage along with a few new approaches to improving the hydrogenation-dehydrogenation properties.

  9. Diffraction operators in paraxial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

  10. Quantum chaos: An entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sl/omczyński, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol

    1994-11-01

    A new definition of the entropy of a given dynamical system and of an instrument describing the measurement process is proposed within the operational approach to quantum mechanics. It generalizes other definitions of entropy, in both the classical and quantum cases. The Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy is obtained for a classical system and the sharp measurement instrument. For a quantum system and a coherent states instrument, a new quantity, coherent states entropy, is defined. It may be used to measure chaos in quantum mechanics. The following correspondence principle is proved: the upper limit of the coherent states entropy of a quantum map as ℏ→0 is less than or equal to the KS-entropy of the corresponding classical map. ``Chaos umpire sits, And by decision more imbroils the fray By which he reigns: next him high arbiter Chance governs all.'' John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book II

  11. Molecular approaches to allergen standardization.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Martin D; Briza, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Molecular approaches to allergen standardization include the development of purified natural or recombinant allergen standards whose structural and allergenic properties have been validated, in tandem with certified immunoassays for allergen measurement. Purified allergens can be used individually or incorporated into multiple allergen standards. Multicenter international collaborative studies are required to validate candidate allergen standards and immunoassays, as a prelude to being approved by regulatory agencies. Mass spectrometry is a sophisticated and powerful proteomics tool that is being developed for allergen analysis. Recent results using pollen allergens show that mass spectrometry can identify and measure specific allergens in a complex mixture and can provide precise information of the variability of natural allergen extracts. In future, the combined use of immunoassays and mass spectrometry will provide complete standardization of allergenic products. Molecular standardization will form the basis of new allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, as well as assessment of environmental exposure, and will improve the quality of treatment options for allergic patients.

  12. Diagnostic approach to mediastinal masses.

    PubMed

    Giron, J; Fajadet, P; Sans, N; Jarlaud, T; Verhnet, H; Galy-Fourcade, D; Baunin, C; Durand, G; Sénac, J P; Railhac, J J

    1998-03-01

    Mediastinal masses represent a vast group of tumours and pseudo-tumours which can involve the various compartments of the mediastinum. The authors propose a radiologic diagnostic approach starting from the plain thoracic radiograph with study of the mediastinal lines and oesophageal transit and going on to the classifications made possible by modern CT and MR imaging. The proposed diagnostic procedure is based on nine mediastinal lines and two 'threads of Ariadne' which are the compartments where the masses are located and their behaviour at CT (densitometry before and after administration of an iodinated bolus) and at MRI (T1, T2, gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences). The definitive aetiological diagnosis may be established by surgery, but also in certain cases by percutaneous needle biopsy.

  13. Therapeutic approaches for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Plugis, Nicholas M.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common, lifelong autoimmune disorder for which dietary control is the only accepted form of therapy. A strict gluten-free diet is burdensome to patients and can be limited in efficacy, indicating there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches to supplement or supplant dietary therapy. Many molecular events required for disease pathogenesis have been recently characterized and inspire most current and emerging drug-discovery efforts. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) confirm the importance of human leukocyte antigen genes in our pathogenic model and identify a number of new risk loci in this complex disease. Here, we review the status of both emerging and potential therapeutic strategies in the context of disease pathophysiology. We conclude with a discussion of how genes identified during GWAS and follow-up studies that enhance susceptibility may offer insight into developing novel therapies. PMID:26060114

  14. Qualitative approaches in craniofacial research.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Pauline A

    2009-05-01

    This article proposes the customary use of qualitative methods as complementary research tools to enhance the evidence base in the craniofacial field. The recognition given to qualitative approaches in other healthcare areas and their value in enhancing understanding of lay and professional beliefs and behaviors is contrasted with the paucity of qualitative studies to date in the craniofacial field. Research tools from the qualitative repertoire are briefly introduced and their underpinning principles are explained. The contribution made to research with children and families in wider healthcare areas and in the craniofacial field to date is outlined. Future potential applications of these methods to craniofacial research are discussed. It is suggested that qualitative methods be integrated into craniofacial research as part of the standard toolbox of inquiry, and that interdisciplinary collaborations with colleagues from the social sciences appropriately skilled in the methods should be developed.

  15. Clinical indicators: a methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Scott, L; Grimmer, K

    1995-03-01

    Clinical indicators offer physiotherapists a tool by which quality of care can be flagged and evaluated. Such a flag requires a measure of the cost of treatment as well as the outcome achieved for that cost. Traditionally, the number of treatments to discharge has been used as a proxy measure of cost as well as outcome of physiotherapy care. However, physiotherapists recognize that the cost of treatment is an inappropriate reflection of the outcome of care in many instances. The challenge for physiotherapists in developing clinical indicators is to set appropriate flags of quality of care. This paper presents a methodological approach to the development of a flag of performance for acute lower back pain.

  16. Prereferral intervention: a prescriptive approach.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, D; Fuchs, L S; Bahr, M W; Fernstrom, P; Stecker, P M

    1990-04-01

    This investigation assessed effects of three increasingly inclusive versions of the Behavioral Consultation (BC) model on problem behavior of students in mainstream classrooms in an effort to develop an effective and efficient approach to prereferral intervention. Subjects were 43 general educators, their 43 most difficult-to-teach students (without disabilities), and 12 school consultants, representing seven inner-city middle schools. Teachers and students were assigned to three BC groups, representing least (BC 1), more (BC 2), and most (BC 3) inclusive variants of BC, and one control group. Preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up observations of student behavior indicated that more inclusive BC versions exerted stronger effects than the least inclusive variant in reducing problem behavior. Theoretical and practical implications for consultation-related activity are discussed.

  17. Henipavirus pathogenesis and antiviral approaches.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Horvat, Branka

    2015-03-01

    Hendra virus and Nipah virus are closely related, recently emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses, belonging to the Henipavirus genus. Both viruses induce generalized vasculitis affecting particularly the respiratory tract and CNS. The exceptionally broad species tropism of Henipavirus, the high case fatality rate and person-to-person transmission associated with Nipah virus outbreaks emphasize the necessity of effective antiviral strategies for these intriguing threatening pathogens. Current therapeutic approaches, validated in animal models, target early steps in viral infection; they include the use of neutralizing virus-specific antibodies and blocking membrane fusion with peptides that bind the viral fusion protein. A better understanding of Henipavirus pathogenesis is critical for the further advancement of antiviral treatment, and we summarize here the recent progress in the field.

  18. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    PubMed

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.

  19. Synthetic approaches to multifunctional indenes

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Sara; Dinarès, Immaculada

    2011-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of multifunctional indenes with at least two different functional groups has not yet been extensively explored. Among the plausible synthetic routes to 3,5-disubstituted indenes bearing two different functional groups, such as the [3-(aminoethyl)inden-5-yl)]amines, a reasonable pathway involves the (5-nitro-3-indenyl)acetamides as key intermediates. Although several multistep synthetic approaches can be applied to obtain these advanced intermediates, we describe herein their preparation by an aldol-type reaction between 5-nitroindan-1-ones and the lithium salt of N,N-disubstituted acetamides, followed immediately by dehydration with acid. This classical condensation process, which is neither simple nor trivial despite its apparent directness, permits an efficient entry to a variety of indene-based molecular modules, which could be adapted to a range of functionalized indanones. PMID:22238553

  20. Hydrogeological challenges through gender approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Rosaria; Saltari, Davide; Di Giacomo, Tullia Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Women and Men play a different role in the society, tied from the differences (physical, biological, somatic, etc…) typical of each one. In the last decades, more gender approach has been introduced in a number of fields including the hydrogeological risk. Experiences, needs and potential of each one, women and men, covers both the risk reduction before the occurrence of extreme events (vulnerability assessment and prediction of the expected risk), then in the next emergency and intervention in follow-up actions to the overcoming of the event for the return to everyday life. The response of the extreme hydrological events are also subordinated from gender participation and it is closely related from other aspects, as natural disasters (flood events), gender inequalities and urban floodings. These aspects are also scheduled by the different approaches: a woman focuses different primary and social aspects than a man. How women can help organizations offering new 'policies' and government is the main aspect to be considered and how a gender approach can mitigate disasters to hydrological risk. It depends on some factors: gender inequalities (gender perception and sensibility), importance of natural disasters and urban floodings. Gender inequalities can match both in the natural disasters and urban floodings in a relevant way. ICT solutions can also give a helpful framework to accelerate and focus the quicker condition to get the better approach and solution. Gender has a particular significant, explanatory variable in disaster research. Many studies, show how women have higher mortality and morbidity rates than men during natural disasters, especially in lower income countries. In the aftermath disasters, at the same time, specific responsibilities on women are imposed from the gendered division of labour. Furthermore gender differences are sometimes attributed to traditional women's roles, discrimination, lower physical strength, nutritional deficiencies, etc. as

  1. Nanomedicine Approaches for Corneal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Lim, Rayne R.; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal diseases are the third leading cause of blindness globally. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, antibiotics and tissue transplantation are currently used to treat corneal pathological conditions. However, barrier properties of the ocular surface necessitate high concentration of the drugs applied in the eye repeatedly. This often results in poor efficacy and several side-effects. Nanoparticle-based molecular medicine seeks to overcome these limitations by enhancing the permeability and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The promise of nanomedicine approaches for treating corneal defects and restoring vision without side effects in preclinical animal studies has been demonstrated. Numerous polymeric, metallic and hybrid nanoparticles capable of transporting genes into desired corneal cells to intercept pathologic pathways and processes leading to blindness have been identified. This review provides an overview of corneal diseases, nanovector properties and their applications in drug-delivery and corneal disease management. PMID:25941990

  2. Postoperative singultus: an osteopathic approach.

    PubMed

    Petree, Kristie; Bruner, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Singultus, or hiccups, is a common medical condition. Despite exponential leaps in medicine, the pathophysiologic cause remains poorly defined. Persistent singultus has been associated with conditions such as pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. Singultus is also a well-known postoperative complication. The criterion standard of care for patients with singultus involves ruling out lethal pathologic causes, attempting physical stimulation with Valsava maneuvers or drinking water, and, if no relief has been achieved, administering drugs to ease the symptoms. The authors report a case of a man whose postoperative singultus was successfully managed with osteopathic manipulative treatment. This approach addresses many of the possible underlying neuromechanical causes of the aberrant reflex with minimal potential for adverse effects. Physicians should consider osteopathic manipulative treatment in the care of patients with singultus.

  3. Therapeutic approaches to bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodan, G A; Martin, T J

    2000-09-01

    The strength and integrity of our bones depends on maintaining a delicate balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. As we age or as a result of disease, this delicate balancing act becomes tipped in favor of osteoclasts so that bone resorption exceeds bone formation, rendering bones brittle and prone to fracture. A better understanding of the biology of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is providing opportunities for developing therapeutics to treat diseases of bone. Drugs that inhibit the formation or activity of osteoclasts are valuable for treating osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and inflammation of bone associated with rheumatoid arthritis or periodontal disease. Far less attention has been paid to promoting bone formation with, for example, growth factors or hormones, an approach that would be a valuable adjunct therapy for patients receiving inhibitors of bone resorption.

  4. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  5. Emerging Approaches in Predictive Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D.; Rich, Ivan N.; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2016-01-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. PMID:25044351

  6. How to approach chronic anemia.

    PubMed

    Koury, Mark J; Rhodes, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    We present herein an approach to diagnosing the cause of chronic anemia based on a patient's history and complete blood cell count (CBC). Four patterns that are encountered frequently in CBCs associated with chronic anemias are considered: (1) anemia with abnormal platelet and/or leukocyte counts, (2) anemia with increased reticulocyte counts, (3) life-long history of chronic anemia, and (4) anemia with inappropriately low reticulocytes. The pathophysiologic bases for some chronic anemias with low reticulocyte production are reviewed in terms of the bone marrow (BM) events that reduce normal rates of erythropoiesis. These events include: apoptosis of erythroid progenitor and precursor cells by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, development of macrocytosis when erythroblast DNA replication is impaired, and development of microcytosis due to heme-regulated eIF2α kinase inhibition of protein synthesis in iron-deficient or thalassemic erythroblasts.

  7. Approach to the Hypophosphatemic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is commonly missed due to nonspecific signs and symptoms, but it causes considerable morbidity and in some cases contributes to mortality. Three primary mechanisms of hypophosphatemia exist: increased renal excretion, decreased intestinal absorption, and shifts from the extracellular to intracellular compartments. Renal hypophosphatemia can be further divided into fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated or non-fibroblast growth factor 23-mediated causes. Proper diagnosis requires a thorough medication history, family history, physical examination, and assessment of renal tubular phosphate handling to identify the cause. During the past decade, our understanding of phosphate metabolism has grown greatly through the study of rare disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Treatment of hypophosphatemia depends on the underlying disorder and requires close biochemical monitoring. This article illustrates an approach to the hypophosphatemic patient and discusses normal phosphate metabolism. PMID:22392950

  8. Integrated approaches to perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A

    2010-04-01

    New technologies and new ways of thinking have recently led to rapid expansions in the study of perceptual learning. We describe three themes shared by many of the nine articles included in this topic on Integrated Approaches to Perceptual Learning. First, perceptual learning cannot be studied on its own because it is closely linked to other aspects of cognition, such as attention, working memory, decision making, and conceptual knowledge. Second, perceptual learning is sensitive to both the stimulus properties of the environment in which an observer exists and to the properties of the tasks that the observer needs to perform. Moreover, the environmental and task properties can be characterized through their statistical regularities. Finally, the study of perceptual learning has important implications for society, including implications for science education and medical rehabilitation. Contributed articles relevant to each theme are summarized.

  9. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  10. Progress 24 resupply approaches ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-20

    ISS014-E-12361 (19 Jan. 2007) --- Backdropped by a sprinkling of small clouds over a blue Earth, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the International Space Station. The Progress 24 resupply craft launched at 8:12 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 17, 2007 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver 2.5 tons of food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the Expedition 14 crewmembers onboard the station. Progress automatically docked to the Pirs Docking Compartment at 8:59 p.m. (CST) on Jan. 19 as the spacecraft and the station flew approximately 220 miles above a point near the South Atlantic off the southeast coast of Uruguay.

  11. Three approaches to reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    It is noted that current reliability analysis tools differ not only in their solution techniques, but also in their approach to model abstraction. The analyst must be satisfied with the constraints that are intrinsic to any combination of solution technique and model abstraction. To get a better idea of the nature of these constraints, three reliability analysis tools (HARP, ASSIST/SURE, and CAME) were used to model portions of the Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System architecture. When presented with the example problem, all three tools failed to produce correct results. In all cases, either the tool or the model had to be modified. It is suggested that most of the difficulty is rooted in the large model size and long computational times which are characteristic of Markov model solutions.

  12. Systems Approaches to Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Archer, Tenley C; Fertig, Elana J; Gosline, Sara J C; Hafner, Marc; Hughes, Shannon K; Joughin, Brian A; Meyer, Aaron S; Piccolo, Stephen R; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N

    2016-12-01

    Cancer systems biology aims to understand cancer as an integrated system of genes, proteins, networks, and interactions rather than an entity of isolated molecular and cellular components. The inaugural Systems Approaches to Cancer Biology Conference, cosponsored by the Association of Early Career Cancer Systems Biologists and the National Cancer Institute of the NIH, focused on the interdisciplinary field of cancer systems biology and the challenging cancer questions that are best addressed through the combination of experimental and computational analyses. Attendees found that elucidating the many molecular features of cancer inevitably reveals new forms of complexity and concluded that ensuring the reproducibility and impact of cancer systems biology studies will require widespread method and data sharing and, ultimately, the translation of important findings to the clinic. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6774-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  14. General relativistic ? orthonormal frame approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elst, Henk; Uggla, Claes

    1997-09-01

    The dynamical equations of an extended 1 + 3 orthonormal frame approach to the relativistic description of spacetime geometries are explicitly presented and discussed in detail. In particular, the Bianchi identities for the Weyl curvature tensor occur in a fully expanded form, as they are given a central role in the extended formalism. It is shown how one can naturally introduce local coordinates, both in the 1 + 3 threading and the ADM 3 + 1 slicing context. By specializing the general 1 + 3 dynamical equations it is demonstrated how a number of problems of interest can be obtained. In particular, the simplest choices of spatial frames for spatially homogeneous cosmological models, locally rotationally symmetric spacetime geometries, cosmological models with an Abelian isometry group 0264-9381/14/9/021/img6 and `silent' dust cosmological models are discussed.

  15. Medical biofilms--nanotechnology approaches.

    PubMed

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Clond, Morgan A; Vogt, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are colonies of bacteria or fungi that adhere to a surface, protected by an extracellular polymer matrix composed of polysaccharides and extracellular DNA. They are highly complex and dynamic multicellular structures that resist traditional means of killing planktonic bacteria. Recent developments in nanotechnology provide novel approaches to preventing and dispersing biofilm infections, which are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Medical device infections are responsible for approximately 60% of hospital acquired infections. In the United States, the estimated cost of caring for healthcare-associated infections is approximately between $28 billion and $45 billion per year. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of biofilm formation and degradation, its relevance to challenges in clinical practice, and new technological developments in nanotechnology that are designed to address these challenges.

  16. Environmental management: A system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petak, William J.

    1981-05-01

    This paper presents a system framework whose purpose is to improve understanding of environmental management. By analyzing the links between elements of the environmental management system, it is possible to construct a model that aids thinking systematically about the decision-making subsystem, and other subsystems, of the entire environmental management system. Through a multidisciplinary environmental approach, each of the individual subsystems is able to adapt to threats and opportunities. The fields of government, market economics, social responsibility and ecology, for example, are so complex that it is extremely difficult to develop a framework that gives full consideration to all aspects. This paper, through the application of a highly idealized system framework, attempts to show the general relationships that exist between complex system elements.

  17. Immunotherapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Goñi, Fernando

    2015-03-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide and is an emerging global epidemic. It is characterized by an imbalance between production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. Oligomeric forms of Aβ and tau are believed to be the most toxic. Dramatic results from AD animal models showed great promise for active and passive immune therapies targeting Aβ. However, there is very limited evidence in human studies of the clinical benefits from these approaches. Immunotherapies targeting only tau pathology have had some success but are limited so far to mouse models. The majority of current methods is based on immunological targeting of a self-protein; hence, benefits need to be balanced against risks of stimulating excessive autoimmune toxic inflammation. For greater efficacy the next generation of vaccines needs to focus more on concurrently targeting all the intermediate toxic conformers of oligomeric Aβ and tau species.

  18. Progress 12P approaching ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-31

    ISS007-E-13791 (30 August 2003) --- This close-up view of an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle was taken by one of the crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as it approached the aft docking port (out of frame) on the Zvezda Service Module. The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  19. Progress 12P approaching ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-31

    ISS007-E-13803 (30 August 2003) --- Backdropped by the blackness of space, an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle approaches the aft docking port (out of frame) on the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  20. Progress 12P approaching ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-31

    ISS007-E-13799 (30 August 2003) --- This close-up view of an unpiloted Progress supply vehicle was taken by one of the crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as it approached the aft docking port (out of frame) on the Zvezda Service Module. The Progress 12 resupply craft, which launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 8:48 p.m. (CDT) on August 28, 2003, carried nearly three tons of food, fuel, water, supplies and scientific gear for the Expedition 7 crew aboard the Station. The Progress linked up with the Station at 10:40 p.m. (CDT) on August 30, 2003 as the two spacecraft were flying over Central Asia at an altitude of 240 statute miles.

  1. Component Modeling Approach Software Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-23

    The Component Modeling Approach Software Tool (CMAST) establishes a set of performance libraries of approved components (frames, glass, and spacer) which can be accessed for configuring fenestration products for a project, and btaining a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and Visible Transmittance (VT) rating for those products, which can then be reflected in a CMA Label Certificate for code compliance. CMAST is web-based as well as client-based. The completed CMA program and software tool will be useful in several ways for a vast array of stakeholders in the industry: Generating performance ratings for bidding projects Ascertaining credible and accurate performance data Obtaining third party certification of overall product performance for code compliance

  2. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  3. Automated Approaches to RFI Flagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, Karthik; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a major issue in centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. Radio astronomy software packages include tools to excise RFI; both manual and automated utilizing the visibilities (the uv data). Here we present results on an automated RFI flagging approach that utilizes a uv-grid, which is the intermediate product when converting uv data points to an image. It is a well known fact that any signal that appears widespread in a given domain (e.g., image domain) is compact in the Fourier domain (uv-grid domain), i.e., RFI sources that appear as large scale structures (e.g., stripes) in images can be located and flagged using the uv-grid data set. We developed several automated uv-grid based flagging algorithms to detect and excise RFI. These algorithms will be discussed, and results of applying them to measurement sets will be presented.

  4. LED instrument approach instruction display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Crouch, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A display employing light emitting diodes (LED's) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for presenting landing and navigation information to reduce the workload of general aviation pilots during IFR flight. The display consists of a paper tape reader, digital memory, control electronics, digital latches, and LED alphanumeric displays. A presentable digital countdown clock-timer is included as part of the system to provide a convenient means of monitoring time intervals for precise flight navigation. The system is a limited capability prototype assembled to test pilot reaction to such a device under simulated IFR operation. Pilot opinion indicates that the display is helpful in reducing the IFR pilots workload when used with a runway approach plate. However, the development of a compact, low power second generation display was recommended which could present several instructions simultaneously and provide information update capability. A microprocessor-based display could fulfill these requirements.

  5. My Treatment Approach to Gout.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Fawad; Michet, Clement

    2017-08-01

    Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis in the United States. Nevertheless, gout remains misunderstood, misdiagnosed, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Several new recommendation and guideline documents regarding the management of gout have been published in the past few years. New diagnostic modalities, such as ultrasound and dual-energy computed tomography, are now available. Newer treatment options exist, and older agents and their interactions are now better understood. This review addresses these recent diagnostic and therapeutic developments and describes our management protocol with the aim of providing the clinician with a pragmatic approach to gout management. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Approaches to resolving trade disputes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Thiermann, A B

    2003-08-01

    The authors discuss the various approaches to resolving trade disputes available to Member Countries of the OIE (World organisation for animal health). The paper first describes the rights and obligations of Member Countries in setting health measures for the importation of animals and animal products, according to the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The authors indicate how OIE standards may be used to set import measures and introduce issues such as equivalence and the use of provisional measures, which are both areas of potential conflict. The authors then describe the options available for resolving disputes--bilateral discussions, mediation through the OIE, the use of the WTO SPS Committee and the formal WTO dispute settlement process, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each.

  7. Design approaches to experimental mediation☆

    PubMed Central

    Pirlott, Angela G.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., “measurement-of-mediation” designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable. PMID:27570259

  8. A new approach to parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, G L; Prudhomme, D L; Deriso, G T; Sfakianakis, G; Chandarlapaty, S K

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To decrease the operative time for parathyroidectomy in patients with hypercalcemic (primary) hyperparathyroid disease, a combination of preoperative localization of a parathyroid tumor with an effective nuclear scan (scintigram) and intraoperative monitoring of parathyroid hormone (quick parathyroid hormone measurement) to ensure excision of all hyperfunctioning tissue was studied. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: For many years, persistent hypercalcemia after parathyroidectomy (3% to 10%) has been constant and is usually due to the surgeon's failure to remove all hyperfunctioning glands. A marked decrease in parathormone level after excision of a single large gland predicts operative success and a return to normal calcium levels. Conversely, persistent high levels of parathyroid hormone indicate excess secretion by another gland(s) and the need for further exploration. Recently Tc-99m-sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy was shown to be more effective in localizing parathyroid tumors than previous methods. A combination of both techniques could be useful to the surgeon if they improve the operative success rate and are cost-effective. METHODS: Parathyroidectomy was performed on 18 patients with primary hyperparathyroid disease, with tumors localized by MIBI scintigrams. When excision of the identified parathyroid gland was accomplished, the operation was terminated and quick parathyroid hormone was measured to confirm that all hyperfunctioning tissue was removed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with positive results of scintigram had successful parathyroidectomies confirmed by quick parathyroid hormone measurement with a cervical approach. Two patients with mediastinal tumors localized by MIBI scintigraphy could not be resected using this approach. One false-positive/false-negative scintigram was obtained. Compared with patients having parathyroidectomy without localization and hormone monitoring, the average operative time was shortened from 90 to 36 minutes. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Primary sarcopenia is considered to be age-related when no other cause is evident, other than ageing itself. Secondary sarcopenia should be considered when one or more other causes are evident, such as activity-, disease-, or nutrition-related sarcopenia. In this narrative review that focused on human studies, we summarize the pharmaceutical therapies (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, ghrelin, vitamin D, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and eicosapentaenoic acid) and nonpharmaceutical therapies (resistance training, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking) for counteracting primary sarcopenia. Testosterone and growth hormone improve muscle mass and muscle strength, but have several side effects. Although there are some intriguing pharmaceutical therapies to combat sarcopenia, resistance training combined with supplements containing amino acids are the most effective for preventing and treating age-related muscle wasting and weakness. The etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly is multi-factorial. Patients with disuse syndrome and deconditioning often complicate the diagnosis, of not only activity-related sarcopenia, but also age-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia. In these cases a comprehensive approach to sarcopenia treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking. The effect of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia can be enhanced by this comprehensive approach. Future research on pharmaceutical therapies for counteracting sarcopenia should consider non-pharmaceutical therapies and also the causes of sarcopenia.

  10. Can dynamical systems approach turbulence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Philip

    I review some ideas and methods from dynamical systems theory and discuss applications, actual and potential, to the study of fully developed turbulent flows in an open system: the wall region of a boundary layer. After a brief account of applications to a closed flow system, the approach I concentrate on attempts a marriage between statistical methods and deterministic dynamical systems, both orderly and chaotic. Specifically, coherent structures are identified with combinations of certain basis functions using the proper orthogonal decomposition. A relatively low dimensional ordinary differential equation describing the dynamical interactions of a set of these spatially organized structures is then derived by Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting system is optimal in the sense that it retains the greatest turbulent kinetic energy, in a time averaged sense, among all projections of the same dimension. The model is analyzed using the methods of dynamical systems and symmetries are found to play a crucial rôle. In particular, structurally and asymptotically stable heteroclinic cycles emerge as a common feature in models of various dimensions and orbits attracted to these cycles lead to solutions exhibiting intermittent, violent "events," which appear to reproduce key features of the bursting process. I speculate on the validity of this approach, the "understanding" of turbulent processes it offers and on how some of the gaps in the procedure might be bridged. I do not suggest that this is the only way in which dynamical systems methods can be used, but it is one which seems worth pursuing.

  11. Molecular approaches to fish vaccines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 50 years, researchers have tested a variety of killed, attenuated, and subunit preparations for control offish diseases. The earliest fish vaccines used killed preparations containing whole bacteria, viruses, or parasites and today, several bacterins have become commercially successful with more expected as improved delivery systems and adjuvants are realized. Live, attenuated vaccines have been developed by serial passage of a pathogen in culture or by using naturally occurring mutants and cross-reacting strains. These generally offer excellent protection and are cost-effective, but concerns about residual virulence or their effects on other aquatic species make them difficult candidates for licensing. In recent years, the tools of molecular biology have been applied to construction of a variety of recombinant, engineered, or subunit vaccines for fish. Among the approaches to be discussed are: attenuated strains of viruses and bacteria created by deletion of specific genes associated with virulence, in vitro synthesis of protective antigens from genes cloned into E. coli or baculovirus expression systems, chemical synthesis of peptides that represent protective epitopes, and direct immunization with DNA coding for protective antigens. Preparations representing each of these approaches have been tested in laboratory or field trials with various results and such vaccines promise to be safe and relatively inexpensive if they are able to provide protection when delivered by immersion. A significant advantage of genetically engineered vaccines is the ability to construct multivalent preparations that can protect fish against several pathogens or different strains of the same pathogen. While many of these novel vaccine strategies have been effective at stimulating specific immunity in the laboratory, more work is needed to develop better delivery systems and to overcome potential regulatory concerns.

  12. Validation of Modeling Flow Approaching Navigation Locks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    instrumentation, direction vernier . ........................................................................ 8  Figure 11. Plan A lock approach, upstream approach...13-9 8 Figure 9. Tools and instrumentation, bracket attached to rail. Figure 10. Tools and instrumentation, direction vernier . Numerical model

  13. Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Samuel F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

  14. Nationally Consistent Environmental Justice Screening Approaches

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report discusses screening approaches through the lens of the Agency's Environmental Justice Strategic Enforcement Tool (EJSEAT), in particular, and how such approaches might better identify areas of concern.

  15. An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

    1990-01-01

    An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

  16. Another Approach to Generalizing the Mean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejas, J.; Bahovec, V.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to generalizing the definition of means. By this approach we easily obtain generalized means which are quite different from standard arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.

  17. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  18. A New Approach To Teaching Dimensional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Stuart W.

    1997-01-01

    Explains an approach to teaching dimensional analysis that differs slightly from the traditional approach. The difference lies in the novelty of exposition in the presentation and interpretation of dimensional analysis as a speculative process. (DDR)

  19. Shorthand--A New Approach with Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiko, Grace R.

    1977-01-01

    To reduce dropout rates in shorthand classes, the author developed a new approach to teaching the subject by emphasizing phonetics in introducing the shorthand alphabet. She describes and pictures this approach. (MF)

  20. Three Approaches to Stress Management for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Samuel F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. (BH)

  1. Another Approach to Generalizing the Mean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejas, J.; Bahovec, V.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to generalizing the definition of means. By this approach we easily obtain generalized means which are quite different from standard arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.

  2. [Orbitozygomatic approaches to the skull base].

    PubMed

    Cherekaev, V A; Gol'bin, D A; Belov, A I; Radchenkov, N S; Lasunin, N V; Vinokurov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The paper is written in the lecture format and dedicated to one of the main basal approaches, the orbitozygomatic approach, that has been widely used by neurosurgeons for several decades. The authors describe the historical background of the approach development and the surgical technique features and also analyze the published data about application of the orbitozygomatic approach in surgery for skull base tumors and cerebral aneurysms.

  3. A systematic approach to an organization's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Robert L; Verdugo, Miguel; Lee, Tim

    2016-06-01

    This article integrates the concepts of sustainability and quality improvement into a systematic approach to an organization's sustainability. The article: (a) presents a literature-based model that incorporates the factors that drive an organization's sustainability; (b) describes how sustainability is operationalized through a systematic approach to quality improvement; (c) discusses the advantages of a systematic approach to sustainability; and (d) shares with the reader literature and experientially-based lessons learned about the approach.

  4. Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

  5. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  6. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  7. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  8. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  9. 10 CFR 830.7 - Graded approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Graded approach. 830.7 Section 830.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.7 Graded approach. Where appropriate, a contractor must use a graded approach to implement the requirements of this part, document the basis of the graded...

  10. Preferences for Three Theoretically Derived Counseling Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Michael C.; Kinsey, William M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined differences in potential-client preference and believed effectiveness for counseling approaches. Analyses of responses to randomly ordered same-client, same-problem tapes of each approach indicated that the behavioral approach was significantly more highly preferred and believed more effective than either the client-centered or…

  11. Edith Kaplan and the Boston Process Approach.

    PubMed

    Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Ashendorf, Lee; Bauer, Russell M; Bowers, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The history including some of the intellectual origins of the Boston Process Approach and some misconceptions about the Boston Process Approach are reviewed. The influence of Gestalt psychology and Edith Kaplan's principal collaborators regarding the development of the Boston Process Approach is discussed.

  12. A Process Genre Approach to Teaching Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Richard; White, Goodith

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of product, process, and genre approaches to writing in terms of their view of writing and how they see the development of writing. Argues that the three approaches are complementary, and identifies an approach that is informed by each of them. (Author/VWL)

  13. Exploring Academics' Approaches to Managing Team Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augar, Naomi; Woodley, Carolyn J.; Whitefield, Despina; Winchester, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of academics' approaches to managing team assessment at an Australian University with a view to informing policy development and assessment design. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted using a single exploratory case study approach focussing on the team assessment…

  14. Learning Approaches, Study Time and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of the study habits and approaches to study tasks of 34 mechanical engineering students over the course of 1 week found that use of a surface approach to learning was positively correlated with high class attendance and greater study time, suggesting an inefficient approach. The research methodology used is found useful for…

  15. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  16. Implementing a Critically Quasi-Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the methodological approach of a study designed to address some fundamental questions relating to formative assessment. The paper reports on the use of a critically quasi-ethnographic approach and describes the practicalities of adopting such an approach. The validity of the study is also considered, reflecting on…

  17. A Nonviolent Approach to Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    This article advocates a nonviolent approach to social justice education. First, social justice education literature is reviewed, and two contrasting and influential approaches--critical theory and poststructural theory--are the focus of critical analysis. A nonviolent approach is proposed as an alternative. Second, the notion of social justice is…

  18. Language Experience--A Reading Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Elizabeth; Gray, Gordon

    The language experience approach to teaching beginning reading uses a child's own language and experiences as the basis for the first reading material or lessons. The approach integrates the language arts skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The steps suggested for a teacher to follow in utilizing this approach are: (1) oral…

  19. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

  20. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

  1. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

  2. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

  3. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.803 Signal, approach. A roadway signal used to govern the approach to another signal and if operative so...

  4. Update on approaches to the craniomaxillofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Villwock, Jennifer A; Suryadevara, Amar C

    2014-08-01

    A myriad of surgical approaches to the craniomaxillofacial skeleton exist. Depending on the purpose of the procedure and the anatomic area to be addressed, classically used approaches include coronal approach, midfacial degloving, eyelid incisions, and other cutaneous incisions. Over the last decade, endoscopic approaches have become more popular. Whether external, transoral, or endoscopic, a detailed knowledge of the indications, anatomy, limitations, and potential complications is critical to the successful employment of these approaches. This article reviews the recent literature on classic as well as novel advancements to the craniofacial skeleton. Multiple studies in the last 5 years have investigated the approaches to the craniofacial skeleton. Most of these focus on trauma. Recent advances have concentrated on external versus endoscopic approaches to the mandibular condyle, an endoscopic approach to the midface and orbit, three-dimensional imaging of the facial skeleton, and improving upon the existing classic approaches and techniques. Approaches to the craniomaxillofacial skeleton continue to evolve with the refinement of classic approaches and advent of new technologies and approaches. This study reviews the recent literature and provides a comprehensive review of options for craniofacial exposure and the most up-to-date surgical options.

  5. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  6. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeford, Tracy, Ed.; Kitalong, Karla Saari, Ed.; Selfe, Dickie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication" offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional…

  7. An Attributional Approach to Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Hollis W.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    Examined two components of counselor attractiveness--perceived similarity and liking--in a comparison of two theoretical approaches to attractiveness and influence in counseling--the referent power hypothesis and an attributional approach. Results generally support the attributional approach over the reference power hypothesis. (Author)

  8. Larvae, Ladies and Learning: The Project Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitham, Laurel; Killoran, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Project Approach and how it was used in a Grade 1 exploration of Painted Lady butterflies in Ontario, Canada. Outlines the students' experience with the project and examines the compatibility of the Project Approach with the Ontario Science and Technology Curriculum document. Maintains that the Project Approach supports and…

  9. The Large Context Problem (LCP) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This article traces the development of a contextual approach to the teaching of science (physics) subsequently called the Large Context Problem (LCP) approach. This approach is based on the general observation that learning could be well motivated by a context with one unifying central idea capable of capturing the imagination of the students. The…

  10. Exploring Academics' Approaches to Managing Team Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augar, Naomi; Woodley, Carolyn J.; Whitefield, Despina; Winchester, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of academics' approaches to managing team assessment at an Australian University with a view to informing policy development and assessment design. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted using a single exploratory case study approach focussing on the team assessment…

  11. Apprehending ganglioside diversity: a comprehensive methodological approach[S

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Elodie A. Y.; Sibille, Estelle; Martine, Lucy; Chaux-Picquet, Fanny; Bretillon, Lionel; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Gangliosides (GGs) make a wide family of glycosphingolipids ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and particularly abundant in the brain and nervous system. They exhibit a huge diversity due to structural variations in both their oligosaccharidic chain and ceramide moiety, which represent a real analytical challenge. Since their discovery in the 1940s, methods have persistently improved until the emergence of LC/MS, which offers a high level of specificity and sensitivity and is suitable with high-throughput profiling studies. We describe here a comprehensive approach relying on various techniques and aiming at fully characterizing GGs in biological samples. First, total GG content was determined by a biochemical assay. Second, GG class composition was assessed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography followed by colorimetric revelation. Then, ceramide types of GG classes were identified, and their relative quantification was performed thanks to the development of a powerful and reliable LC/MS method. Finally, ceramides were structurally characterized, and minor and less common GG classes were identified using high-resolution MS. These methods were applied to the rat retina to provide an exhaustive description of its GG composition, giving the base for a better understanding of the precise roles of GGs in this tissue. PMID:26142958

  12. Two approaches to physics tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomaniuck, Tania

    One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In

  13. Some approaches to polaron theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogolubov, N. N.; Bogolubov, N. N.

    1985-11-01

    Here, in our approximation of polaron theory, we examine the importance of introducing the T product, which turn out to be a very convenient theoretical approach for the calculation of thermodynamical averages. We focus attention on the investigation of the so-called linear polaron Hamiltonian and present in detail the calculation of the correlation function, spectral function, and Green function for such a linear system. It is shown that the linear polaron Hamiltonian provides an exactly solvable model of our system, and the result obtained with this approach holds true for an arbitrary coupling constant which describes the strength of interaction between the electron and the lattice vibrations. Then, with the help of a variational technique, we show the possibility of reducing the real polaron Hamiltonian to a socalled trial or approximate linear model Hamiltonian. We also consider the exact calculation of free energy with a special technique that reduces calculations with the help of the T product, which, in our opinion, works much better and is easier than other analogous considerations, for example, the path-integral or Feynman-integral method.(1,2) Here we furthermore recall our own work,(4) where it was shown that the results of Refs. 7 and 8 concerning the impedance calculation in the polaron model may be obtained directly without the use of the path-integral method. The study of the polaron system's thermodynamics is carried out by us in the framework of the functional method. A calculation of the free energy and the momentum distribution function is proposed. Note also that the polaron systems with strong coupling(9) proved to be useful in different quantum field models in connection with the construction of dynamical models of composite particles. A rigorous solution of the special strong-coupling polaron problem, describing the interaction of a nonrelativistic particle with a quantum field, was given by Bogolubov.(3) The works of Tavkhelidze, Fedyanin

  14. [Approach to juxtarenal inflammatory aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Scuro, A; Barzaghi, M E; Griso, A; Ferrari Ruffino, S; Kontothanassis, D; Mirandola, M; Leonardi, G; D'Agata, M

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) in a late review of the literature is estimated about 2-15% overall aortic aneurysms. In our data this type of aneurysm is 3.6 overall aortic aneurysms treated. In the majority of the cases, IAAA is juxtarenal or infrarenal. Ethiopathogenesis of IAAA till today is not certain. Recent hypothesis on IAAA attribute the same ethiopathogenesis in both atherosclerotic and inflammatory aneurysm. The interaction of genetic, environmental and infective factors should be able to determine an autoimmune inflammatory reaction of variable severity. 80% of the patients suffering from IAAA present abdominal or lumbar pain, loss of weight and increase of the RC sedimentation velocity. The IAAA's natural history goes to rupture. Entrapment of nearstanding organs totally involved in the fibrotic process is the most frequent complication. Usually there is a compression of the ureter and the duodenum with consequenced hydroureteronephrosis and bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is possible; CT scan and MRI guarantee and accuracy about 90%. Intraoperatively the external wall of IAAA appears whitish and translucent and always there are tenacious adhesion given by the avventital wounds inflammation. Confirm is given by the histological examination of the aneurysmatic wall and peravventitial tissues. Our experience and a late review of the literature concorde that surgical indication for the treatment of IAAA is the same for the atherosclerotic one. This conviction is supported by the fact that the diagnostic methodical evolution and the improvement in mininvasive surgical technique lowered perioperating morbility and mortaliy. We prefer, according with many authors, retroperitoneal approach to juxtarenal IAAA, instead of standardized transperitoneal access with xifo-pubical or transversal under costal incision. This approach offers some advantages as easier exposition of aorta, whose postero-lateral wall is hardly ever

  15. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  16. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  17. Changing U.S. Strategy in South America: Adjusting and Exporting Plan Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-03

    States, Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE). available from <http://www.oas.org/main/main.asp?sLang=E&sLink=http://www.oas.org/ juridico ...www.oas.org/main/main.asp?sLang=E&sLink =http://www.oas.org/ juridico /english/treaties.html> Internet. Accessed 7 January 2004. “Peru Bails Out of Brazil-led

  18. Targeting in a population health approach.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Thomson, Kaye

    2012-10-01

    There are two well described methods to improving health: an individual risk assessment approach and a whole population approach. This study explores the limitations of the individual approach to public health, and the success and limitations of the population approach. A theoretical approach with examples from general and oral health will be used. However although the population approach can reduce the mean prevalence of a condition within the population it can also increase health disparities. Some groups gain disproportionally more from a population intervention and vulnerable population groups disproportionally less leading to an unjust situation. These disparities are the result of social circumstances. Additional strategies targeted to vulnerable groups are therefore necessary to complement the population approach to reduce such disparities. Examples of strategies which could be used in targeting vulnerable groups will be outlined. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The Wonder Approach to learning.

    PubMed

    L'Ecuyer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children's learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children's sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole.

  20. The Wonder Approach to learning

    PubMed Central

    L’Ecuyer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Wonder, innate in the child, is an inner desire to learn that awaits reality in order to be awakened. Wonder is at the origin of reality-based consciousness, thus of learning. The scope of wonder, which occurs at a metaphysical level, is greater than that of curiosity. Unfortunate misinterpretations of neuroscience have led to false brain-based ideas in the field of education, all of these based on the scientifically wrong assumption that children’s learning depends on an enriched environment. These beliefs have re-enforced the Behaviorist Approach to education and to parenting and have contributed to deadening our children’s sense of wonder. We suggest wonder as the center of all motivation and action in the child. Wonder is what makes life genuinely personal. Beauty is what triggers wonder. Wonder attunes to beauty through sensitivity and is unfolded by secure attachment. When wonder, beauty, sensitivity and secure attachment are present, learning is meaningful. On the contrary, when there is no volitional dimension involved (no wonder), no end or meaning (no beauty) and no trusting predisposition (secure attachment), the rigid and limiting mechanical process of so-called learning through mere repetition become a deadening and alienating routine. This could be described as training, not as learning, because it does not contemplate the human being as a whole. PMID:25339882

  1. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  2. Semiclassical approaches to nuclear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorpinchenko, D. V.; Bartel, J.

    2017-01-01

    The extended Gutzwiller trajectory approach is presented for the semiclassical description of nuclear collective dynamics, in line with the main topics of the fruitful activity of V.G. Solovjov. Within the Fermi-liquid droplet model, the leptodermous effective surface approximation was applied to calculations of energies, sum rules, and transition densities for the neutron-proton asymmetry of the isovector giant-dipole resonance and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. By using the Strutinsky shell correctionmethod, the semiclassical collective transport coefficients, such as nuclear inertia, friction, stiffness, and moments of inertia, can be derived beyond the quantum perturbation approximation of the response function theory and the cranking model. The averaged particle-number dependences of the low-lying collective vibrational states are described in good agreement with the basic experimental data, mainly due to the enhancement of the collective inertia as compared to its irrotational flow value. Shell components of the moment of inertia are derived in terms of the periodic-orbit free-energy shell corrections. A good agreement between the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi moments of inertia with shell corrections and the quantum results is obtained for different nuclear deformations and particle numbers. Shell effects are shown to be exponentially dampted out with increasing temperature in all the transport coefficients.

  3. Protein Solubilization: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David H.; Wilson, W. William; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Formulation development presents significant challenges with respect to protein therapeutics. One component of these challenges is to attain high protein solubility (> 50 mg/ml for immunoglobulins) with minimal aggregation. Protein-protein interactions contribute to aggregation and the integral sum of these interactions can be quantified by a thermodynamic parameter known as the osmotic second virial coefficient (B-value). The method presented here utilizes high-throughput measurement of B-values to identify the influence of additives on protein-protein interactions. The experiment design uses three tiers of screens to arrive at final solution conditions that improve protein solubility. The first screen identifies individual additives that reduce protein interactions. A second set of B-values are then measured for different combinations of these additives via an incomplete factorial screen. Results from the incomplete factorial screen are used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). The “trained” ANN enables predictions of B-values for more than 4,000 formulations that include additive combinations not previously experimentally measured. Validation steps are incorporated throughout the screening process to ensure that 1) the protein’s thermal and aggregation stability characteristics are not reduced and 2) the artificial neural network predictive model is accurate. The ability of this approach to reduce aggregation and increase solubility is demonstrated using an IgG protein supplied by Minerva Biotechnologies, Inc. PMID:25270058

  4. NHS contracts: an agency approach.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, R

    1996-01-01

    The White Paper Working for Patients has produced dramatic changes in the organization of health care in the UK that will soon be followed by analogous reforms in other countries. The core of the reform is represented by the separation of the responsibility for purchasing health care from providing the services. The creation of this internal market is said to enhance efficiency, but some peculiar characteristics of health care prevent a Pareto optimal solution being reached. This paper describes the purchaser-provider relationship using an innovative principal agent model to assess the relative merits of the different forms of contracts. The model is also used to show how competition among providers allows the purchaser to extract this private information. From a theoretical point of view, the approach is innovative in the formulation of the principal's objective function; the interesting finding is that the presence of a stringent budget constraint alters both risk-sharing conditions and the First-best contract proposed by the literature. From a policy point of view, the paper explains why in the first wave over 75% of contracts between purchasers and providers were block contracts. It is also demonstrated why this contractual form should be avoided.

  5. Innovative approach towards understanding optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Bharadwaj, Sadashiv Raj; Kumar, Raj; Shudhanshu, Avinash Kumar; Verma, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a decline in the students’ interest towards Science and Optics. Use of technology in the form of various types of sensors and data acquisition systems has come as a saviour. Till date, manual routine tools and techniques are used to perform various experimental procedures in most of the science/optics laboratories in our country. The manual tools are cumbersome whereas the automated ones are costly. It does not enthuse young researchers towards the science laboratories. There is a need to develop applications which can be easily integrated, tailored at school and undergraduate level laboratories and are economical at the same time. Equipments with advanced technologies are available but they are uneconomical and have complicated working principle with a black box approach. The present work describes development of portable tools and applications which are user-friendly. This is being implemented using open-source physical computing platform based on a simple low cost microcontroller board and a development environment for writing software. The present paper reports the development of an automated spectrometer, an instrument used in almost all optics experiments at undergraduate level, and students’ response to this innovation. These tools will inspire young researchers towards science and facilitate development of advance low cost equipments making life easier for Indian as well as developing nations.

  6. Biomimetic approach to dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C; Ku, Young

    2008-01-01

    Titanium, as an implant material, is regarded to be durable and biocompatible, which allows functional replacement of missing teeth. Successful dental implantation depends on an osseointegration phenomenon, a direct structural and functional binding reaction between bone and implant. It is well known that physicochemical characteristics of the dental implant surface, such as roughness, topography, chemistry, and electrical charge affect the biological reactions occurring at the interface of tissue and implant. Therefore, considerable efforts have been made to modify the surface of titanium implants which are based on mechanical, physical and chemical treatments. Recently, biological molecules were introduced onto the surface of implants to stimulate osteogenic cells in the early stage of implantation and consequently accelerate bone formation around implant and subsequent rapid implant stabilization. A range of extracellular matrix components, designed peptides, and growth factors have been proposed as the biological moiety. In this review, we address several issues related to the biology of dental implants and discuss biomimetic modification of the implant surface as a novel approach to obtain successful osseointegration.

  7. System approach to MEMS commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaganov, Vladimir I.; Belov, Nickolai; in't Hout, Sebastiaan R.

    2003-04-01

    It is common to underestimate the challenges of integrating the at least four technologies in any MEMS product: the three technologies of any semiconductor device (electronics, packaging and testing) plus the MEMS microstructure. For some specific areas of application, for example for photonics, optics technology/components must also be integrated. While traditional semiconductor devices utilize standardized and inexpensive packaging and testing procedures and equipment, MEMS require custom solutions that introduce multiple physical domains, such as light in the case of photonics, directly to a potentially moving structure on the die. This heightened complexity coupled with nonstandard packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies has a dramatic impact on functionality, reliability and cost. Being developed and successfully proven for a period of about twenty-five years the System Approach to MEMS Commercialization is based on three major principles: A priori understanding of the interdependence of technologies integrated into MEMS products: micro-machining, IC technology, packaging, testing and other (optics) technologies. Parallel development or implementation of these technologies within the MEMS product. Redistribution of manufacturing complexity from individual to batch realm. Integrating packaging and testing and other (optics) components into the microstructure and including some of the testing and functional algorithms in the ASIC reduce cost by simplifying more expensive individual manufacturing steps. The overall results of redistribution complexity from individual manufacturing technologies into batch manufacturing technologies are dramatic cost reduction, performance and quality improvement and shorter time to market.

  8. Astronomy 2020: A Pragmatic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    In the cinema history of astronomy, we are currently at the stage of the Lumiere brothers with contemporary surveys providing short monochromatic time sequences of the sky. By the end of the next decade, however, panchromatic blockbusters will be commonplace and science will be predominantly driven by the objects that change in successive ``frames''. Web-scale computing resources will be required just to process the torrents of data events but the key to understanding them will be contextualisation --- linking together disparate (sets of) events and relating them to archival and supplementary data in a machine-comprehensible way. Much of the data mining and analysis of such data portfolios will be performed by proxy scientists --- intelligent agent avatars that represent an individual's particular research interests in high-dimension parameter spaces. Although this view might sound like science fiction, in this paper, I will review the technologies that will make it achievable. In particular, I will cover new approaches to web services that will be required to support these massive event streams, social networking techniques that will facilitate science and semantic technologies that will underpin everything.

  9. Approach to managing musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Richard H.; Choquette, Denis; Craig, Brian N.; De Angelis, Carlo; Habal, Flavio; Fulthorpe, Gordon; Stewart, John I.; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Davis, Paul

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians and pharmacists with practical, evidence- and expertise-based guidance on choosing the safest approach to using analgesics to manage patients with musculoskeletal pain. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Health care providers from family practice, rheumatology, gastroenterology, hepatology, internal medicine, and pharmacy participated in an educational needs assessment regarding the management of pain and the safety of commonly used analgesics. Feedback from one-on-one interviews was compiled and distributed to participants who selected key topics. Topics chosen formed the basis for the discussions of this multidisciplinary panel that reviewed data on the safety of analgesics, particularly in regard to comorbidity and concurrent use with other therapies. MAIN MESSAGE Treatment should begin with an effective analgesic with the best safety profile at the lowest dose and escalate to higher doses and different analgesics as required. Acetaminophen is a safe medication that should be considered first-line therapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with potential adverse gastrointestinal, renal, hepatic, and cardiovascular effects. Physicians should not prescribe NSAIDs before taking a careful history and doing a physical examination so they have the information they need to weigh the risks (adverse effects and potential drug interactions) and benefits for individual patients. CONCLUSION Taking a complete and accurate history and doing a physical examination are essential for choosing the safest analgesic for a particular patient. PMID:17872814

  10. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-06-28

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

  11. Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

  12. New approaches to treating pain.

    PubMed

    Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Handler, Norbert; Buschmann, Helmut

    2016-02-15

    Pain is the most common reason for patients seeking medical care resulting in an estimated world market for analgesics of more than USD 50 billion. Pain is a highly complex, heterogeneous and dynamic process characterized by specific patterns of phenotypic sensory neuronal change. Current treatment options for pain include opioids and non-opioid analgesics, acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drug classes such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants and a combination thereof. Novel approaches are focusing on the optimization of side-effect profiles of opioid based analgesics, the improvement of selectivity for specific opioid receptors, or by addressing molecular gateways implicated in pain. Promising candidates in development target various types of voltage-gated ion channels and receptors for capsaicin and analogs. Currently, after decades of pain research it has to be stated that the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain in industrialized countries as well as in low-income and middle-income countries are neither adequate nor equitable. Further research is needed so that specifically chronic pain control can be improved and individualized.

  13. A practical approach to fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Brecher, L S; Cymet, T C

    2001-04-01

    The term fibromyalgia refers to a collection of symptoms with no clear physiologic cause, but the symptoms together constitute a clearly recognizable and distinct pathologic entity. The diagnosis is made through the examiner's clinical observations. The differential diagnosis must include other somatic syndromes as well as disease entities, including hepatitis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Diagnostic criteria serve as guidelines for diagnosis, not as absolute requirements. Treatment of fibromyalgia, which is an ongoing process, remains individualized, relying on a good physician-patient relationship. It is goal-oriented, directed at helping patients get restorative sleep, alleviating the somatic pains, keeping patients productive, and regulating schedules. It can be achieved through a goal-oriented agreement between patient and provider. Because fibromyalgia is chronic and may affect all areas of an individual's functioning, the physician needs to also evaluate the social support systems of patients with fibromyalgia. The approach to treatment should integrate patient education as well as non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic modalities. To keep patients well educated and involved in their healthcare, physicians should provide patients with adequate sources for reliable information.

  14. Glioblastoma Multiforme: Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fialho, Arsenio M.; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Manna, Sunil; Mahali, Sidharth; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

    2012-01-01

    The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme involves total surgical resection followed by combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide. Unfortunately, the efficacy for such current therapy is limited, and newer approaches are sorely needed to treat this deadly disease. We have recently described the isolation of bacterial proteins and peptides with anticancer activity. In phase I human clinical trials, one such peptide, p28, derived from a bacterial protein azurin, showed partial and complete regression of tumors in several patients among 15 advanced-stage cancer patients with refractory metastatic tumors where the tumors were no longer responsive to current conventional drugs. An azurin-like protein called Laz derived from Neisseria meningitides demonstrates efficient entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Laz differs from azurin in having an additional 39-amino-acid peptide called an H.8 epitope, which allows entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Since p28 has been shown to have very little toxicity and high anti-tumor activity in advanced-stage cancer patients, it will be worthwhile to explore the use of H.8-p28, H.8-azurin, and Laz in toxicity studies and glioblastoma therapy in preclinical and human clinical trials. PMID:22462021

  15. Hamiltonian approach to frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Kenneth J.

    2008-07-01

    A Hamiltonian approach makes the phenomenon of frame dragging apparent “up front” from the appearance of the drag velocity in the Hamiltonian of a test particle in an arbitrary metric. Hamiltonian (1) uses the inhomogeneous force equation (4), which applies to non-geodesic motion as well as to geodesics. The Hamiltonian is not in manifestly covariant form, but is covariant because it is derived from Hamilton’s manifestly covariant scalar action principle. A distinction is made between manifest frame dragging such as that in the Kerr metric, and hidden frame dragging that can be made manifest by a coordinate transformation such as that applied to the Robertson-Walker metric in Sect. 2. In Sect. 3 a zone of repulsive gravity is found in the extreme Kerr metric. Section 4 treats frame dragging in special relativity as a manifestation of the equivalence principle in accelerated frames. It answers a question posed by Bell about how the Lorentz contraction can break a thread connecting two uniformly accelerated rocket ships. In Sect. 5 the form of the Hamiltonian facilitates the definition of gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric potentials.

  16. A selectionist approach to reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, J W; Burgos, J E; Palmer, D C

    1993-01-01

    We describe a principle of reinforcement that draws upon experimental analyses of both behavior and the neurosciences. Some of the implications of this principle for the interpretation of behavior are explored using computer simulations of adaptive neural networks. The simulations indicate that a single reinforcement principle, implemented in a biologically plausible neural network, is competent to produce as its cumulative product networks that can mediate a substantial number of the phenomena generated by respondent and operant contingencies. These include acquisition, extinction, reacquisition, conditioned reinforcement, and stimulus-control phenomena such as blocking and stimulus discrimination. The characteristics of the environment-behavior relations selected by the action of reinforcement on the connectivity of the network are consistent with behavior-analytic formulations: Operants are not elicited but, instead, the network permits them to be guided by the environment. Moreover, the guidance of behavior is context dependent, with the pathways activated by a stimulus determined in part by what other stimuli are acting on the network at that moment. In keeping with a selectionist approach to complexity, the cumulative effects of relatively simple reinforcement processes give promise of simulating the complex behavior of living organisms when acting upon adaptive neural networks. PMID:8354965

  17. Pharmacosynthetics: Reimagining the pharmacogenetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Martilias S.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacology, in its broadest interpretation, is defined as the study of the interaction between physiological entities and drugs. In modern neuropsychopharmacology, this interaction is viewed as the drug itself on one side and signal transducer (receptor), the signal transduction cascade (effector proteins, second messengers), the cellular response (transcriptional regulation, activity modulation), the organ response (brain circuitry modulation), and, finally, the whole organism response (behavior) on the other. In other words, pharmacology has structured itself around the idea that the exogenous molecule (the drug) encodes a “signal” leading to everything on the other side including, in extreme renditions, a physiological response. The inference is that engaging a particular signal transduction pathway in a defined cell type leads inexorably to a prototypic physiological response. Thus, for instance, serotonergic activation of 5-HT2A receptors in rat aortic smooth muscle cells leads to an increase in intracellular Ca++ (via IP3 release) and smooth muscle contraction (Roth et al., 1986). Here, we suggest that the invention of synthetic ligand – GPCR pairs (aka DREADDs, RASSLS, ‘pharmacogenetics’) permits the study of pharmacology using a shifted equation: more of the signal transduction elements moved to the left and, subsequently, under experimental control. For the purposes of disambiguation and to clarify this new interpretation as a creation of pharmacological manipulation, we present the term pharmacosynthetics to describe what has heretofore been called pharmacogenetics or chemicogenetics. This review discusses this new interpretation and reviews recent applications of the technology and considerations of the approach. PMID:23063887

  18. Enzymatic approach to biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2007-10-31

    The need for alternative energy sources that combine environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity, renewability, and less dependence on petroleum products has never been greater. One such energy source is referred to as biodiesel. This can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, microalgal oils, waste products of vegetable oil refinery or animal rendering, and used frying oils. Chemically, they are known as monoalkyl esters of fatty acids. The conventional method for producing biodiesel involves acid and base catalysts to form fatty acid alkyl esters. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods and alternative substrates. Enzymatic reactions involving lipases can be an excellent alternative to produce biodiesel through a process commonly referred to alcoholysis, a form of transesterification reaction, or through an interesterification (ester interchange) reaction. Protein engineering can be useful in improving the catalytic efficiency of lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. The use of recombinant DNA technology to produce large quantities of lipases, and the use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells, may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. In addition, the enzymatic approach is environmentally friendly, considered a "green reaction", and needs to be explored for industrial production of biodiesel.

  19. Natural approach to quantum dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taj, David; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2015-12-01

    The dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several reservoirs is usually described in terms of a Lindblad generator. The popularity of this approach is certainly due to the linear character of the latter. However, while such linearity finds justification from an underlying Hamiltonian evolution in some scaling limit, it does not rely on solid physical motivations at small but finite values of the coupling constants, where the generator is typically used for applications. The Markovian quantum master equations we propose are instead supported by very natural thermodynamic arguments. They themselves arise from Markovian master equations for the system and the environment which preserve factorized states and mean energy and generate entropy at a non-negative rate. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic map, called modular, which introduces nonlinearity. The generated modular dynamical semigroup (MDS) guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, and a positive Onsager matrix with symmetry relations arising from Green-Kubo formulas. We show that the celebrated Davies Lindblad generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. In doing so we also provide a nonlinear MDS which is supported by a weak coupling argument and is free from the limitations of the Davies generator.

  20. Comet Jacques Approaches the Sun

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA's Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory, STEREO has observed the recently discovered Comet Jacques as it passed by its nearest approach to the Sun (July 1-6, 2014). The wide field instrument on board STEREO (Ahead) showed the comet with its elongated tail being stretched and pummeled by the gusty solar wind streaming from the Sun. Also visible near the center of the image is the bright planet Venus. The Sun is just out of the field of view to the right. Comet Jacques is traveling through space at about 180,000 km per hour (110,000 mph). It may brighten enough to be seen with the naked eye. High res still here: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/14710024276/ Download original file: sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/pickoftheweek/old/11jul2014/ Credit: NASA/Goddard/STEREO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram