Science.gov

Sample records for approximate mesoscale information

  1. Using stochastic models calibrated from nanosecond nonequilibrium simulations to approximate mesoscale information

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Janosi, Lorant; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate how the surrogate process approximation (SPA) method can be used to compute both the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate and the associated diffusion coefficient using a relatively small number (10–20) of bidirectional nonequilibrium trajectories coming from a complex system. Our method provides confidence bands which take the variability of the initial configuration of the high-dimensional system, continuous nature of the work paths, and thermal fluctuations into account. Maximum-likelihood-type methods are used to estimate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) approximating the dynamics. For each observed time series, we estimate a new SDE resulting in a collection of SPA models. The physical significance of the collection of SPA models is discussed and methods for exploiting information in the population of estimated SPA models are demonstrated and suggested. Molecular dynamics simulations of potassium ion dynamics inside a gramicidin A channel are used to demonstrate the methodology, although SPA-type modeling has also proven useful in analyzing single-molecule experimental time series [J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 118 (2009)]. PMID:19368472

  2. Information geometry of mean-field approximation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T

    2000-08-01

    I present a general theory of mean-field approximation based on information geometry and applicable not only to Boltzmann machines but also to wider classes of statistical models. Using perturbation expansion of the Kullback divergence (or Plefka expansion in statistical physics), a formulation of mean-field approximation of general orders is derived. It includes in a natural way the "naive" mean-field approximation and is consistent with the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) approach and the linear response theorem in statistical physics.

  3. Interactive information processing for NASA's mesoscale analysis and space sensor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.; Maclean, L.; Reavis, N.; Wilson, G.; Hickey, J. S.; Dickerson, M.; Karitani, S.; Keller, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences Division (ASD) of the Systems Dynamics Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently involved in interactive information processing for the Mesoscale Analysis and Space Sensor (MASS) program. Specifically, the ASD is engaged in the development and implementation of new space-borne remote sensing technology to observe and measure mesoscale atmospheric processes. These space measurements and conventional observational data are being processed together to gain an improved understanding of the mesoscale structure and the dynamical evolution of the atmosphere relative to cloud development and precipitation processes. To satisfy its vast data processing requirements, the ASD has developed a Researcher Computer System consiting of three primary computer systems which provides over 20 scientists with a wide range of capabilities for processing and displaying a large volumes of remote sensing data. Each of the computers performs a specific function according to its unique capabilities.

  4. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  5. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  6. Mesoscale magnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffmann, Axel; Schultheiß, Helmut

    2014-12-17

    Magnetic interactions give rise to a surprising amount of complexity due to the fact that both static and dynamic magnetic properties are governed by competing short-range exchange interactions and long-range dipolar coupling. Even though the underlying dynamical equations are well established, the connection of magnetization dynamics to other degrees of freedom, such as optical excitations, charge and heat flow, or mechanical motion, make magnetism a mesoscale research problem that is still wide open for exploration. Synthesizing magnetic materials and heterostructures with tailored properties will allow to take advantage of magnetic interactions spanning many length-scales, which can be probed with advancedmore » spectroscopy and microscopy and modeled with multi-scale simulations. Finally, this paper highlights some of the current basic research topics in mesoscale magnetism, which beyond their fundamental science impact are also expected to influence applications ranging from information technologies to magnetism based energy conversion.« less

  7. Mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Axel; Schultheiß, Helmut

    2014-12-17

    Magnetic interactions give rise to a surprising amount of complexity due to the fact that both static and dynamic magnetic properties are governed by competing short-range exchange interactions and long-range dipolar coupling. Even though the underlying dynamical equations are well established, the connection of magnetization dynamics to other degrees of freedom, such as optical excitations, charge and heat flow, or mechanical motion, make magnetism a mesoscale research problem that is still wide open for exploration. Synthesizing magnetic materials and heterostructures with tailored properties will allow to take advantage of magnetic interactions spanning many length-scales, which can be probed with advanced spectroscopy and microscopy and modeled with multi-scale simulations. Finally, this paper highlights some of the current basic research topics in mesoscale magnetism, which beyond their fundamental science impact are also expected to influence applications ranging from information technologies to magnetism based energy conversion.

  8. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  9. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  10. An evaluation of the synoptic- and mesoscale predictability of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS 2.0) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Skillman, W. C.; Kocin, P. J.; Wetzel, P. J.; Brill, K. F.

    1983-01-01

    A report is presented regarding the synoptic- and mesoscale predictive capabilities of a regional-scale numerical weather prediction model known as the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS, Version 2.0). The development of this model has been discussed by Kaplan et al. (1982). An evaluation of the performance of MASS 2.0 is based on the study of a sample of approximately thirty 12 h and 24 h forecasts of atmospheric flow patterns over the U.S. during spring and early summer of 1982. A description of model systems is provided, and synoptic-scale evaluation methods are considered along with aspects of mesoscale evaluation methodology, examples of coherent mesoscale information provided by MASS 2.0, the results of a diagnostic study of mesoscale convective systems (MCS), and the results of a limited real-time forecast experiment.

  11. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; ...

    2015-12-10

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O2- and Li+ in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear,more » has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. Finally, the approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.« less

  12. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2015-12-10

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O2- and Li+ in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. Finally, the approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  13. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O{sub 2} battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO{sub 2} formation through reaction of O{sub 2}{sup −} and Li{sup +} in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO{sub 2} concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO{sub 2} particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO{sub 2} has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} deposition, in Li-O{sub 2} batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  14. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Welland, Michael J; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O2(-) and Li(+) in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  15. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O-2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O-2(-) and Li+ in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O-2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  16. A Coupling Methodology for Mesoscale-informed Nuclear Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Dieter Wolf

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes an approach for capturing the effect of microstructural evolution on reactor fuel performance by coupling a mesoscale irradiated microstructure model with a finite element fuel performance code. To achieve this, the macroscale system is solved in a parallel, fully coupled, fully-implicit manner using the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method. Within the JFNK solution algorithm, microstructure-influenced material parameters are calculated by the mesoscale model and passed back to the macroscale calculation. Due to the stochastic nature of the mesoscale model, a dynamic fitting technique is implemented to smooth roughness in the calculated material parameters. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a simple model of a reactor fuel pellet. In the model, INL’s BISON fuel performance code calculates the steady-state temperature profile in a fuel pellet and the microstructure-influenced thermal conductivity is determined with a phase field model of irradiated microstructures. This simple multiscale model demonstrates good nonlinear convergence and near ideal parallel scalability. By capturing the formation of large mesoscale voids in the pellet interior, the multiscale model predicted the irradiation-induced reduction in the thermal conductivity commonly observed in reactors.

  17. A comparison of approximate reasoning results using information uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory; Key, Brian; Zerkle, David; Shevitz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An Approximate Reasoning (AR) model is a useful alternative to a probabilistic model when there is a need to draw conclusions from information that is qualitative. For certain systems, much of the information available is elicited from subject matter experts (SME). One such example is the risk of attack on a particular facility by a pernicious adversary. In this example there are several avenues of attack, i.e. scenarios, and AR can be used to model the risk of attack associated with each scenario. The qualitative information available and provided by the SME is comprised of linguistic values which are well suited for an AR model but meager for other modeling approaches. AR models can produce many competing results. Associated with each competing AR result is a vector of linguistic values and a respective degree of membership in each value. A suitable means to compare and segregate AR results would be an invaluable tool to analysts and decisions makers. A viable method would be to quantify the information uncertainty present in each AR result then use the measured quantity comparatively. One issue of concern for measuring the infornlation uncertainty involved with fuzzy uncertainty is that previously proposed approaches focus on the information uncertainty involved within the entire fuzzy set. This paper proposes extending measures of information uncertainty to AR results, which involve only one degree of membership for each fuzzy set included in the AR result. An approach to quantify the information uncertainty in the AR result is presented.

  18. Mesoscale Ionospheric Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Mesoscale Ionospheric Prediction Gary S. Bust 10000 Burnet Austin Texas, 78758 phone: (512) 835-3623 fax: (512) 835-3808 email: gbust...data assimilation analysis, and the coupling between the model and analysis, is a Mesoscale Assimilative Prediction System (MAPS) that can be used...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30

  19. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-07-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  20. First approximations in avalanche model validations using seismic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig Lafon, Pere; Suriñach, Emma; Bartelt, Perry; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Tapia, Mar; Sovilla, Betty

    2017-04-01

    Avalanche dynamics modelling is an essential tool for snow hazard management. Scenario based numerical modelling provides quantitative arguments for decision-making. The software tool RAMMS (WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF) is one such tool, often used by government authorities and geotechnical offices. As avalanche models improve, the quality of the numerical results will depend increasingly on user experience on the specification of input (e.g. release and entrainment volumes, secondary releases, snow temperature and quality). New model developments must continue to be validated using real phenomena data, for improving performance and reliability. The avalanches group form University of Barcelona (RISKNAT - UB), has studied the seismic signals generated from avalanches since 1994. Presently, the group manages the seismic installation at SLF's Vallée de la Sionne experimental site (VDLS). At VDLS the recorded seismic signals can be correlated to other avalanche measurement techniques, including both advanced remote sensing methods (radars, videogrammetry) and obstacle based sensors (pressure, capacitance, optical sender-reflector barriers). This comparison between different measurement techniques allows the group to address the question if seismic analysis can be used alone, on more additional avalanche tracks, to gain insight and validate numerical avalanche dynamics models in different terrain conditions. In this study, we aim to add the seismic data as an external record of the phenomena, able to validate RAMMS models. The seismic sensors are considerable easy and cheaper to install than other physical measuring tools, and are able to record data from the phenomena in every atmospheric conditions (e.g. bad weather, low light, freezing make photography, and other kind of sensors not usable). With seismic signals, we record the temporal evolution of the inner and denser parts of the avalanche. We are able to recognize the approximate position

  1. Assimilation of scalar versus horizontal gradient information from the VAS into a mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons are made between analyses and forecasts which incorporate VAS geopotential data as either scalar or horizontal gradient information for a case study on the AVE/VAS day of Mar. 6, 1982. On this day, incorporating the VAS information in analysis as a variational constraint on horizontal geopotential gradients significantly mitigated the effects of large data biases which made VAS assimilation by standard scalar methods very difficult. A subsequent forecast made from the gradient assimilation was superior to one made from the standard analysis and of comparable quality in geopotentials to a control forecast from synoptic data. Most impact was noted in the forecasts of vertical motion and precipitation in the gradient vs this control simulation.

  2. Assimilation of scalar versus horizontal gradient information from the VAS into a mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons are made between analyses and forecasts which incorporate VAS geopotential data as either scalar or horizontal gradient information for a case study on the AVE/VAS day of Mar. 6, 1982. On this day, incorporating the VAS information in analysis as a variational constraint on horizontal geopotential gradients significantly mitigated the effects of large data biases which made VAS assimilation by standard scalar methods very difficult. A subsequent forecast made from the gradient assimilation was superior to one made from the standard analysis and of comparable quality in geopotentials to a control forecast from synoptic data. Most impact was noted in the forecasts of vertical motion and precipitation in the gradient vs this control simulation.

  3. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  4. Validation of mesoscale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Bill; Warner, Tom; Benjamin, Stan; Koch, Steve; Staniforth, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: verification of cloud prediction from the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model; results form MAPS/NGM verification comparisons and MAPS observation sensitivity tests to ACARS and profiler data; systematic errors and mesoscale verification for a mesoscale model; and the COMPARE Project and the CME.

  5. Hydrophobic hydration: Heat capacity of solvation from computer simulations and from an information theory approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jonathan W.; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1999-03-01

    Hydrophobic hydration is studied with an information theory approximation, using the first two moments of the number of solvent centers in a cavity in liquid water, calculated from the density and the pair correlation function. The excess chemical potential, entropy, and heat capacity of solvation are determined for three cases: the two-dimensional MB model of water, in both the (i) NPT and (ii) NVT ensembles, and (iii) the central force CF1 model of water in the NPT ensemble. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements from the literature. The information theory approximation, using only the first two moments, accurately determines the excess chemical potential and entropy of solvation but is unable to predict the excess heat capacity of solvation. Little difference is found between the results obtained using the uniform prior and the ideal gas prior. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to calculate the excess chemical potential of solvation of soft-spheres as a function of solute size. These results are compared with the solvation of a hard sphere using the information theory approximation and previous molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones spheres in water. The information theory approximation is found to predict the free energy of solvation as a function of size accurately up to a cavity diameter of approximately 3.5 Å.

  6. Approximate world models: Incorporating qualitative and linguistic information into vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhanez, C.S.; Bobick, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Approximate world models are coarse descriptions of the elements of a scene, and are intended to be used in the selection and control of vision routines in a vision system. In this paper we present a control architecture in which the approximate models represent the complex relationships among the objects in the world, allowing the vision routines to be situation or context specific. Moreover, because of their reduced accuracy requirements, approximate world models can employ qualitative information such as those provided by linguistic descriptions of the scene. The concept is demonstrated in the development of automatic cameras for a TV studio-SmartCams. Results are shown where SmartCams use vision processing of real imagery and information written in the script of a TV show to achieve TV-quality framing.

  7. Two constructions of approximately symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiwang; Mi, Jiafu; Xu, Shanding

    2017-06-01

    Symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) have many applications in quantum information. However, it is not easy to construct SIC-POVMs and there are only a few known classes of them, and we do not even know whether there exists an infinite class of them, thus constructing approximately symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (ASIC-POVMs) has its own meaning. In this paper, we use character sums over finite fields to present two constructions of ASIC-POVMs. We show that there are some classes of infinite families of ASIC-POVMs by using some special functions over finite fields.

  8. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children’s precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the present study we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of two years. Additionally, at the last time point, we tested children’s informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3; Ginsburg & Baroody, 2003). We found that children’s numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned, non-symbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematical reasoning that children come to master through instruction. PMID:24076381

  9. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction.

  10. Approximate reversibility in the context of entropy gain, information gain, and complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-06-01

    There are several inequalities in physics which limit how well we can process physical systems to achieve some intended goal, including the second law of thermodynamics, entropy bounds in quantum information theory, and the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. Recent results provide physically meaningful enhancements of these limiting statements, determining how well one can attempt to reverse an irreversible process. In this paper, we apply and extend these results to give strong enhancements to several entropy inequalities, having to do with entropy gain, information gain, entropic disturbance, and complete positivity of open quantum systems dynamics. Our first result is a remainder term for the entropy gain of a quantum channel. This result implies that a small increase in entropy under the action of a subunital channel is a witness to the fact that the channel's adjoint can be used as a recovery map to undo the action of the original channel. We apply this result to pure-loss, quantum-limited amplifier, and phase-insensitive quantum Gaussian channels, showing how a quantum-limited amplifier can serve as a recovery from a pure-loss channel and vice versa. Our second result regards the information gain of a quantum measurement, both without and with quantum side information. We find here that a small information gain implies that it is possible to undo the action of the original measurement if it is efficient. The result also has operational ramifications for the information-theoretic tasks known as measurement compression without and with quantum side information. Our third result shows that the loss of Holevo information caused by the action of a noisy channel on an input ensemble of quantum states is small if and only if the noise can be approximately corrected on average. We finally establish that the reduced dynamics of a system-environment interaction are approximately completely positive and trace preserving if and only if the data processing

  11. The effect of Fisher information matrix approximation methods in population optimal design calculations.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Eric A; Nyberg, Joakim; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing popularity of optimal design in drug development it is important to understand how the approximations and implementations of the Fisher information matrix (FIM) affect the resulting optimal designs. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact on design performance when using two common approximations to the population model and the full or block-diagonal FIM implementations for optimization of sampling points. Sampling schedules for two example experiments based on population models were optimized using the FO and FOCE approximations and the full and block-diagonal FIM implementations. The number of support points was compared between the designs for each example experiment. The performance of these designs based on simulation/estimations was investigated by computing bias of the parameters as well as through the use of an empirical D-criterion confidence interval. Simulations were performed when the design was computed with the true parameter values as well as with misspecified parameter values. The FOCE approximation and the Full FIM implementation yielded designs with more support points and less clustering of sample points than designs optimized with the FO approximation and the block-diagonal implementation. The D-criterion confidence intervals showed no performance differences between the full and block diagonal FIM optimal designs when assuming true parameter values. However, the FO approximated block-reduced FIM designs had higher bias than the other designs. When assuming parameter misspecification in the design evaluation, the FO Full FIM optimal design was superior to the FO block-diagonal FIM design in both of the examples.

  12. Sparse Estimation of Cox Proportional Hazards Models via Approximated Information Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Juanjuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Summary We propose a new sparse estimation method for Cox (1972) proportional hazards models by optimizing an approximated information criterion. The main idea involves approximation of the ℓ0 norm with a continuous or smooth unit dent function. The proposed method bridges the best subset selection and regularisation by borrowing strength from both. It mimics the best subset selection using a penalised likelihood approach yet with no need of a tuning parameter. We further reformulate the problem with a reparameterisation step so that it reduces to one unconstrained nonconvex yet smooth programming problem, which can be solved efficiently as in computing the maximum partial likelihood estimator (MPLE). Furthermore, the reparameterisation tactic yields an additional advantage in terms of circumventing post-selection inference. The oracle property of the proposed method is established. Both simulated experiments and empirical examples are provided for assessment and illustration. PMID:26873398

  13. Modeling mesoscale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    Mesoscale eddies are not resolved in coarse resolution ocean models and must be modeled. They affect both mean momentum and scalars. At present, no generally accepted model exists for the former; in the latter case, mesoscales are modeled with a bolus velocity u∗ to represent a sink of mean potential energy. However, comparison of u∗(model) vs. u∗ (eddy resolving code, [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]) has shown that u∗(model) is incomplete and that additional terms, "unrelated to thickness source or sinks", are required. Thus far, no form of the additional terms has been suggested. To describe mesoscale eddies, we employ the Navier-Stokes and scalar equations and a turbulence model to treat the non-linear interactions. We then show that the problem reduces to an eigenvalue problem for the mesoscale Bernoulli potential. The solution, which we derive in analytic form, is used to construct the momentum and thickness fluxes. In the latter case, the bolus velocity u∗ is found to contain two types of terms: the first type entails the gradient of the mean potential vorticity and represents a positive contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy; the second type of terms, which is new, entails the velocity of the mean flow and represents a negative contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy, or equivalently, a backscatter process whereby a fraction of the mesoscale potential energy is returned to the original reservoir of mean potential energy. This type of terms satisfies the physical description of the additional terms given by [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]. The mesoscale flux that enters the momentum equations is also contributed by two types of terms of the same physical nature as those entering the thickness flux. The potential vorticity flux is also shown to contain two types of terms: the first is of the gradient-type while the other terms entail the velocity of the mean flow. An expression is derived for the mesoscale

  14. Mesoscale/convective interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, P. A.; Sun, W. Y.

    1988-01-01

    A novel cumulus parameterization scheme (CPS) has been developed in order to account for mesoscale/convective-scale interaction which considers both the mesoscale and convective scale mass and moisture budgets, under the assumption that the heating rate is a maximum for given environmental conditions. The basis of the CPS is a detailed, quasi-one-dimensional cloud model that calculates mass and moisture fluxes similar to those calculated by the Schlesinger (1978) three-dimensional model.

  15. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  16. Dissipation of Mesoscale Energy by Vortex-Topography Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishnu, S.; Dewar, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    Energy is introduced into the oceans primarily at large scales by means of wind, tides and surface buoyancy forcing. This energy is transferred to the smaller mesoscale field through the geostrophic instability processes. The mesoscale field appears not to have accelerated appreciably over the last several decades, so we can assume that the mesoscale loses energy at roughly the same rate it receives energy. Interestingly, how the mesoscale loses energy is not quite clear. We have been exploring topographic interaction as a pathway by which the mesoscale may lose energy to unbalanced forward cascading flows. To demonstrate this phenomenon, an approximate model theory is developed which consists of solving a reduced set of the momentum equations in density coordinates for any topographic configuration. The equations are solved using a high order spectral element technique and the results verified with MITgcm simulations.

  17. Amount of Information Needed for Model Choice in Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Michael; Siol, Mathieu; Lascoux, Martin; De Mita, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) has become a popular technique in evolutionary genetics for elucidating population structure and history due to its flexibility. The statistical inference framework has benefited from significant progress in recent years. In population genetics, however, its outcome depends heavily on the amount of information in the dataset, whether that be the level of genetic variation or the number of samples and loci. Here we look at the power to reject a simple constant population size coalescent model in favor of a bottleneck model in datasets of varying quality. Not only is this power dependent on the number of samples and loci, but it also depends strongly on the level of nucleotide diversity in the observed dataset. Whilst overall model choice in an ABC setting is fairly powerful and quite conservative with regard to false positives, detecting weaker bottlenecks is problematic in smaller or less genetically diverse datasets and limits the inferences possible in non-model organism where the amount of information regarding the two models is often limited. Our results show it is important to consider these limitations when performing an ABC analysis and that studies should perform simulations based on the size and nature of the dataset in order to fully assess the power of the study. PMID:24959900

  18. Anatomically informed mesoscale electrical impedance spectroscopy in southern pine and the electric field distribution for pin-type electric moisture metres

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Samuel V. Glass; Flavio Ruffinatto

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectra of wood taken at macroscopic scales below the fibre saturation point have led to inferences that the mechanism of charge conduction involves a percolation phenomenon. The pathways responsible for charge conduction would necessarily be influenced by wood structure at a variety of sub-macroscopic scales – at a mesoscale – but these questions...

  19. Nano- and mesoscale modeling of cement matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2015-04-01

    Atomistic simulations of cementitious material can enrich our understanding of its structural and mechanical properties, whereas current computational capacities restrict the investigation length scale within 10 nm. In this context, coarse-grained simulations can translate the information from nanoscale to mesoscale, thus bridging the multi-scale investigations. Here, we develop a coarse-grained model of cement matrix using the concept of disk-like building block. The objective is to introduce a new method to construct a coarse-grained model of cement, which could contribute to the scale-bridging issue from nanoscale to mesoscale. PAC codes: 07.05.Tp, 62.25.-g, 82.70.Dd

  20. Nano- and mesoscale modeling of cement matrix.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of cementitious material can enrich our understanding of its structural and mechanical properties, whereas current computational capacities restrict the investigation length scale within 10 nm. In this context, coarse-grained simulations can translate the information from nanoscale to mesoscale, thus bridging the multi-scale investigations. Here, we develop a coarse-grained model of cement matrix using the concept of disk-like building block. The objective is to introduce a new method to construct a coarse-grained model of cement, which could contribute to the scale-bridging issue from nanoscale to mesoscale. PAC codes: 07.05.Tp, 62.25.-g, 82.70.Dd.

  1. Comparison of gradient approximation techniques for optimisation of mutual information in nonrigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Stefan; Staring, Marius; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2005-04-01

    Nonrigid registration of medical images by maximisation of their mutual information, in combination with a deformation field parameterised by cubic B-splines, has been shown to be robust and accurate in many applications. However, the high computation time is a big disadvantage. This work focusses on the optimisation procedure. Many implementations follow a gradient-descent like approach. The time needed for computing the derivative of the mutual information with respect to the B-spline parameters is the bottleneck in this process. We investigate the influence of several gradient approximation techniques on the number of iterations needed and the computation time per iteration. Three methods are studied: a simple finite difference strategy, the so-called simultaneous perturbation method, and a more analytic computation of the gradient based on a continuous, and differentiable representation of the joint histogram. In addition, the effect of decreasing the number of image samples, used for computing the gradient in each iteration, is investigated. Two types of experiments are performed. Firstly, the registration of an image to itself, after application of a known, randomly generated deformation, is considered. Secondly, experiments are performed with 3D ultrasound brain scans, and 3D CT follow-up scans of the chest. The experiments show that the method using an analytic gradient computation outperforms the other two. Furthermore, the computation time per iteration can be extremely decreased, without affecting the rate of convergence and final accuracy, by using very few samples of the image (randomly chosen every iteration) to compute the derivative. With this approach, large data sets (2563) can be registered within 5 minutes on a moderate PC.

  2. Electroencephalogram background activity characterization with approximate entropy and auto mutual information in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto; Espino, Pedro; Escudero, Javier; Gómez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the electroencephalogram (EEG) background activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with two non-linear methods: Approximate Entropy (ApEn) and Auto Mutual Information (AMI). ApEn quantifies the regularity in data, while AMI detects linear and non-linear dependencies in time series. EEGs were recorded from the 19 scalp loci of the international 10-20 system in 11 AD patients and 11 age-matched controls. ApEn was significantly lower in AD patients at electrodes O1, O2, P3 and P4 (p<0.01). The AMI of the AD patients decreased significantly more slowly with time delays than the AMI of normal controls at electrodes T5, T6, O1, O2, P3 and P4 (p<0.01). Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation between the results obtained with both non-linear methods, suggesting that the AMI rate of decrease can be used to estimate the regularity in time series. The decreased irregularity found in AD patients suggests that EEG analysis with ApEn and AMI could help to increase our insight into brain dysfunction in AD.

  3. Approximate entropy and auto mutual information analysis of the electroencephalogram in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, D; Escudero, J; Hornero, R; Gómez, C; Espino, P

    2008-10-01

    We analysed the electroencephalogram (EEG) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with two nonlinear methods: approximate entropy (ApEn) and auto mutual information (AMI). ApEn quantifies regularity in data, while AMI detects linear and nonlinear dependencies in time series. EEGs from 11 AD patients and 11 age-matched controls were analysed. ApEn was significantly lower in AD patients at electrodes O1, O2, P3 and P4 (p < 0.01). The EEG AMI decreased more slowly with time delays in patients than in controls, with significant differences at electrodes T5, T6, O1, O2, P3 and P4 (p < 0.01). The strong correlation between results from both methods shows that the AMI rate of decrease can be used to estimate the regularity in time series. Our work suggests that nonlinear EEG analysis may contribute to increase the insight into brain dysfunction in AD, especially when different time scales are inspected, as is the case with AMI.

  4. Kinematics and thermodynamics of a midlatitude, continental mesoscale convective system and its mesoscale vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knievel, Jason Clark

    The author examines a mesoscale convective system (MCS) and the mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) it generated. The MCS, which comprised a leading convective line and trailing stratiform region, traversed Kansas and Oklahoma on 1 August 1996, passing through the NOAA Wind Profiler Network, as well as four sites from which soundings were being taken every three hours during a field project. The unusually rich data set permitted study of the MCS and MCV over nine hours on scales between those of operational rawinsondes and Doppler radars. The author used a spatial bandpass filter to divide observed wind into synoptic and mesoscale components. The environment-relative, mesoscale wind contained an up- and downdraft and divergent outflows in the lower and upper troposphere. The mesoscale wind was asymmetric about the MCS, consistent with studies of gravity waves generated by heating typical of that in many MCSs. According to a scale-discriminating vorticity budget, both the synoptic and mesoscale winds contributed to the prominent resolved sources of vorticity in the MCV: tilting and convergence. Unresolved sources were also large. The author speculates that an abrupt change in the main source of vorticity in an MCV may appear as an abrupt change in its altitude of maximum vorticity. Distributions of temperature and humidity in the MCS were consistent with its mesoscale circulations. In the terminus of the mesoscale downdraft, advection of drier, potentially warmer air exceeded humidifying and cooling from rain, so profiles of temperature and dew point exhibit onion and double-onion patterns. The mesoscale updraft was approximately saturated with a moist adiabatic lapse rate. Mesoscale drafts and convective drafts vertically mixed the troposphere, partially homogenizing equivalent potential temperature. The MCV contained a column of high potential vorticity in the middle troposphere, with a cold core below the freezing level and a warm core above---a pattern

  5. Evaluation of the synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Skillman, W. C.; Kocin, P. J.; Wetzel, P. J.; Brill, K.; Keyser, D. A.; Mccumber, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance characteristics of a limited area, hydrostatic, fine (52 km) mesh, primitive equation, numerical weather prediction model are determined in anticipation of satellite data assimilations with the model. The synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of version 2.0 of this model, the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS 2.0), were evaluated. The two part study is based on a sample of approximately thirty 12h and 24h forecasts of atmospheric flow patterns during spring and early summer. The synoptic scale evaluation results benchmark the performance of MASS 2.0 against that of an operational, synoptic scale weather prediction model, the Limited area Fine Mesh (LFM). The large sample allows for the calculation of statistically significant measures of forecast accuracy and the determination of systematic model errors. The synoptic scale benchmark is required before unsmoothed mesoscale forecast fields can be seriously considered.

  6. Mesoscale Diffractive Photonics in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    The scattered light by various dielectric particles in atmosphere give information about the type of molecules and particles and their location, which are important to definition of propagation limitations through atmospheric and space weather variations, crisis communications, etc. Although these investigations explain far field properties of disturbed radiations, the solution of the physical problem requires simulations of the interactions in near-field. It has been shown that strongly localized EM field near the surface of single dielectric particle may be form by non-spherical and non-symmetrical mesoscale particles both as in transmitting as in reflection mode. It was also shown that the main lobe is narrower in case of 3 cube chain than single cube in far field, but there are many side-scattering lobes. It was mentioned that unique advantages provided by mesoscale dielectric photonic crystal based particles with three spatial dimensions of arbitrary shape allow developing a new types of micro/nano-probes with subwavelength resolution for ultra compact spectrometer-free sensor for on board a spacecraft or a plane.

  7. Mesoscale ocean dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    mHolm, D.; Alber, M.; Bayly, B.; Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Cockburn, B.; Jones, D.; Lifschitz, A.; Margolin, L.; Marsden, L.; Nadiga, B.; Poje, A.; Smolarkiewicz, P.; Levermore, D.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ocean is a very complex nonlinear system that exhibits turbulence on essentially all scales, multiple equilibria, and significant intrinsic variability. Modeling the ocean`s dynamics at mesoscales is of fundamental importance for long-time-scale climate predictions. A major goal of this project has been to coordinate, strengthen, and focus the efforts of applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computational physicists and engineers (at LANL and a consortium of Universities) in a joint effort addressing the issues in mesoscale ocean dynamics. The project combines expertise in the core competencies of high performance computing and theory of complex systems in a new way that has great potential for improving ocean models now running on the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5 and on the Cray T3D.

  8. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  9. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  10. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.

    2016-06-01

    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  11. Model-independent mean-field theory as a local method for approximate propagation of information.

    PubMed

    Haft, M; Hofmann, R; Tresp, V

    1999-02-01

    We present a systematic approach to mean-field theory (MFT) in a general probabilistic setting without assuming a particular model. The mean-field equations derived here may serve as a local, and thus very simple, method for approximate inference in probabilistic models such as Boltzmann machines or Bayesian networks. Our approach is 'model-independent' in the sense that we do not assume a particular type of dependences; in a Bayesian network, for example, we allow arbitrary tables to specify conditional dependences. In general, there are multiple solutions to the mean-field equations. We show that improved estimates can be obtained by forming a weighted mixture of the multiple mean-field solutions. Simple approximate expressions for the mixture weights are given. The general formalism derived so far is evaluated for the special case of Bayesian networks. The benefits of taking into account multiple solutions are demonstrated by using MFT for inference in a small and in a very large Bayesian network. The results are compared with the exact results.

  12. Approximate Fourier phase information in the phase retrieval problem: what it gives and how to use it.

    PubMed

    Osherovich, Eliyahu; Zibulevsky, Michael; Yavneh, Irad

    2011-10-01

    This work evaluates the importance of approximate Fourier phase information in the phase retrieval problem. The main discovery is that a rough phase estimate (up to π/2 rad) allows development of very efficient algorithms whose reconstruction time is an order of magnitude faster than that of the current method of choice--the hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm. Moreover, a heuristic explanation is provided of why continuous optimization methods like gradient descent or Newton-type algorithms fail when applied to the phase retrieval problem and how the approximate phase information can remedy this situation. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of our analysis and success of our reconstruction method even in cases where the HIO algorithm fails, namely, complex-valued signals without tight support information.

  13. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G.; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C–S–H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C–S–H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C–S–H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C–S–H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C–S–H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  14. Mesoscale Wind Predictions for Wave Model Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    contains the following components for atmospheric analysis and prediction : complex data quality control ; a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30...SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mesoscale Wind Predictions for Wave Model Evaluation

  15. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  16. What environmental conditions encourage shallow mesoscale organization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zuidema, P.

    2012-12-01

    From observations, shallow trade-wind precipitation was found to be associated with mesoscal arcs, which encircled cloud-free cold pools. Here several WRF-LES idealized simulations have been conducted to investigate the factors affecting the mesoscale organizations of shallow trade wind cumuli, including wind shear, cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and environmental moisture. Each of these simulations, employing RICO environment profile, is a 12-hour run in a 30km*30km*4km domain with resolution of 100m horizontally and ~80m vertically. Environment having large wind shear favors the formation of mesoscale organization, whereas shallow cumuli randomly scatter in the environment with small wind shear. Under the former conditions, the wind shear induced separation of cumulus updraft and rain-containing downdraft stimulates the development of cumulus aloft and the attendant cold pool near the surface. But in all wind shear cases, cloud fraction, cloud- and domain-averaged LWP just have a little difference. Given approximately the same amount of water vapor content, CDNC determines the size of cloud droplets and thereafter the precipitation, by suppressing or benefiting the coalescence-collision among cloud droplets. Lack of enough precipitation, in highly aerosol-burdened environment, weakens the cold pool and associated mesoscale organization of shallow cumuli. Moisture is an important constraint on the growth of shallow cumuli. In our simulations with higher environmental moisture, cloud fraction, cloud- and domain- averaged LWP increases, and more precipitation falls down to the surface. Attendant cold pools and associated mesoscale arcs come up much earlier, and they also become stronger and span vaster. Furthermore, the expansion of cold pools, by inhibiting new formation of clouds due to the negative buoyancy in it, also lowers cloud fraction, cloud- and domain averaged LWP.

  17. Computing approximate standard errors for genetic parameters derived from random regression models fitted by average information REML.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Troy M; Gilmour, Arthur R; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2004-01-01

    Approximate standard errors (ASE) of variance components for random regression coefficients are calculated from the average information matrix obtained in a residual maximum likelihood procedure. Linear combinations of those coefficients define variance components for the additive genetic variance at given points of the trajectory. Therefore, ASE of these components and heritabilities derived from them can be calculated. In our example, the ASE were larger near the ends of the trajectory.

  18. Mesoscale aspects of convective storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The structure, evolution and mechanisms of mesoscale convective disturbances are reviewed and observation techniques for "nowcasting" their nature are discussed. A generalized mesometeorological scale is given, classifying both low and high pressure systems. Mesoscale storms are shown often to induce strong winds, but their wind speeds are significantly less than those accompanied by submesoscale disturbances, such as tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts. Mesoscale convective complexes, severe storm wakes, and flash floods are considered. The understanding of the evolution of supercells is essential for improving nowcasting capabilities and a very accurate combination of radar and satellite measurements is required.

  19. Approximating model probabilities in Bayesian information criterion and decision-theoretic approaches to model selection in phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jason; Sullivan, Jack

    2011-01-01

    A priori selection of models for use in phylogeny estimation from molecular sequence data is increasingly important as the number and complexity of available models increases. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and the derivative decision-theoretic (DT) approaches rely on a conservative approximation to estimate the posterior probability of a given model. Here, we extended the DT method by using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo approaches to directly estimate model probabilities for an extended candidate pool of all 406 special cases of the general time reversible + Γ family. We analyzed 250 diverse data sets in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the BIC approximation for model selection under the BIC and DT approaches. Model choice under DT differed between the BIC approximation and direct estimation methods for 45% of the data sets (113/250), and differing model choice resulted in significantly different sets of trees in the posterior distributions for 26% of the data sets (64/250). The model with the lowest BIC score differed from the model with the highest posterior probability in 30% of the data sets (76/250). When the data indicate a clear model preference, the BIC approximation works well enough to result in the same model selection as with directly estimated model probabilities, but a substantial proportion of biological data sets lack this characteristic, which leads to selection of underparametrized models.

  20. Mesoscale Effective Property Simulations Incorporating Conductive Binder

    DOE PAGES

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor E.; ...

    2017-07-26

    Lithium-ion battery electrodes are composed of active material particles, binder, and conductive additives that form an electrolyte-filled porous particle composite. The mesoscale (particle-scale) interplay of electrochemistry, mechanical deformation, and transport through this tortuous multi-component network dictates the performance of a battery at the cell-level. Effective electrode properties connect mesoscale phenomena with computationally feasible battery-scale simulations. We utilize published tomography data to reconstruct a large subsection (1000+ particles) of an NMC333 cathode into a computational mesh and extract electrode-scale effective properties from finite element continuum-scale simulations. We present a novel method to preferentially place a composite binder phase throughout the mesostructure,more » a necessary approach due difficulty distinguishing between non-active phases in tomographic data. We compare stress generation and effective thermal, electrical, and ionic conductivities across several binder placement approaches. Isotropic lithiation-dependent mechanical swelling of the NMC particles and the consideration of strain-dependent composite binder conductivity significantly impact the resulting effective property trends and stresses generated. Lastly, our results suggest that composite binder location significantly affects mesoscale behavior, indicating that a binder coating on active particles is not sufficient and that more accurate approaches should be used when calculating effective properties that will inform battery-scale models in this inherently multi-scale battery simulation challenge.« less

  1. Examples of data assimilation in mesoscale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Fred; Zack, John; Schmidt, Jerry; Snook, John; Benjamin, Stan; Stauffer, David

    1993-01-01

    The keynote address was the problem of physical initialization of mesoscale models. The classic purpose of physical or diabatic initialization is to reduce or eliminate the spin-up error caused by the lack, at the initial time, of the fully developed vertical circulations required to support regions of large rainfall rates. However, even if a model has no spin-up problem, imposition of observed moisture and heating rate information during assimilation can improve quantitative precipitation forecasts, especially early in the forecast. The two key issues in physical initialization are the choice of assimilating technique and sources of hydrologic/hydrometeor data. Another example of data assimilation in mesoscale models was presented in a series of meso-beta scale model experiments with and 11 km version of the MASS model designed to investigate the sensitivity of convective initiation forced by thermally direct circulations resulting from differential surface heating to four dimensional assimilation of surface and radar data. The results of these simulations underscore the need to accurately initialize and simulate grid and sub-grid scale clouds in meso- beta scale models. The status of the application of the CSU-RAMS mesoscale model by the NOAA Forecast Systems Lab for producing real-time forecasts with 10-60 km mesh resolutions over (4000 km)(exp 2) domains for use by the aviation community was reported. Either MAPS or LAPS model data are used to initialize the RAMS model on a 12-h cycle. The use of MAPS (Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System) model was discussed. Also discussed was the mesobeta-scale data assimilation using a triply-nested nonhydrostatic version of the MM5 model.

  2. Visual information and expert's idea in Hurst index estimation of the fractional Brownian motion using a diffusion type approximation.

    PubMed

    Taheriyoun, Ali R; Moghimbeygi, Meisam

    2017-02-14

    An approximation of the fractional Brownian motion based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is used to obtain an asymptotic likelihood function. Two estimators of the Hurst index are then presented in the likelihood approach. The first estimator is produced according to the observed values of the sample path; while the second one employs the likelihood function of the incremental process. We also employ visual roughness of realization to restrict the parameter space and to obtain prior information in Bayesian approach. The methods are then compared with three contemporary estimators and an experimental data set is studied.

  3. Mesoscale resolution capability of altimetry: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufau, Claire; Orsztynowicz, Marion; Dibarboure, Gérald; Morrow, Rosemary; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves

    2016-07-01

    Wavenumber spectra of along-track Sea Surface Height from the most recent satellite radar altimetry missions [Jason-2, Cryosat-2, and SARAL/Altika) are used to determine the size of ocean dynamical features observable with the present altimetry constellation. A global analysis of the along-track 1-D mesoscale resolution capability of the present-day altimeter missions is proposed, based on a joint analysis of the spectral slopes in the mesoscale band and the error levels observed for horizontal wavelengths lower than 20km. The global sea level spectral slope distribution provided by Xu and Fu with Jason-1 data is revisited with more recent altimeter missions, and maps of altimeter error levels are provided and discussed for each mission. Seasonal variations of both spectral slopes and altimeter error levels are also analyzed for Jason-2. SARAL/Altika, with its lower error levels, is shown to detect smaller structures everywhere. All missions show substantial geographical and temporal variations in their mesoscale resolution capabilities, with variations depending mostly on the error level change but also on slight regional changes in the spectral slopes. In western boundary currents where the signal to noise ratio is favorable, the along-track mesoscale resolution is approximately 40 km for SARAL/AltiKa, 45 km for Cryosat-2, and 50 km for Jason-2. Finally, a prediction of the future 2-D mesoscale sea level resolution capability of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is given using a simulated error level.

  4. Non-Markovian dynamics for an open two-level system without rotating wave approximation: indivisibility versus backflow of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, H. S.; Tang, N.; Zheng, Y. P.; Xu, T. T.

    2012-10-01

    By use of the recently presented two measures, the indivisibility and the backflow of information, we study the non-Markovianity of the dynamics for a two-level system interacting with a zero-temperature structured environment without using rotating wave approximation (RWA). In the limit of weak coupling between the system and its reservoir, and by expanding the time-convolutionless (TCL) generator to the forth order with respect to the coupling strength, the time-local non-Markovian master equation for the reduced state of the system is derived. Under the secular approximation, the exact analytic solution is obtained and the sufficient and necessary conditions for the indivisibility and the backflow of information for the system dynamics are presented. In the more general case, we investigate numerically the properties of the two measures for the case of Lorentzian reservoir. Our results show the importance of the counter-rotating terms to the short-time-scale non-Markovian behavior of the system dynamics, further expose the relation between the two measures and their rationality as non-Markovian measures. Finally, the complete positivity of the dynamics of the considered system is discussed.

  5. Mesoscale fabrication and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gregory R.

    A strong link between mechanical engineering design and materials science and engineering fabrication can facilitate an effective and adaptable prototyping process. In this dissertation, new developments in the lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF) process is presented which demonstrates the relationship between these two fields of engineering in the context of two device applications. Within the LM-RIF process, changes in materials processing and mechanical design are updated iteratively, often aided by statistical design of experiments (DOE). The LM-RIF process was originally developed by Antolino and Hayes et al to fabricate mesoscale components. In this dissertation the focus is on advancements in the process and underlying science. The presented advancements to the LM-RIF process include an augmented lithography procedure, the incorporation of engineered aqueous and non-aqueous colloidal suspensions, an assessment of constrained drying forces during LM-RIF processing, mechanical property evaluation, and finally prototype testing and validation. Specifically, the molding procedure within the LM-RIF process is capable of producing molds with thickness upwards of 1mm, as well as multi-layering to create three dimensional structures. Increasing the mold thickness leads to an increase in the smallest feature resolvable; however, the increase in mold thickness and three dimensional capability has expanded the mechanical design space. Tetragonally stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) is an ideal material for mesoscale instruments, as it is biocompatible, exhibits high strength, and is chemically stable. In this work, aqueous colloidal suspensions were formulated with two new gel-binder systems, increasing final natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) instrument yield from 0% to upwards of 40% in the best case scenario. The effects of the gel-binder system on the rheological behavior of the suspension along with the thermal characteristics of the gel

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-SURFACE MODEL PART I: APPLICATION IN A MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterization of land-surface processes and consideration of surface inhomogeneities are very important to mesoscale meteorological modeling applications, especially those that provide information for air quality modeling. To provide crucial, reliable information on the diurn...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-SURFACE MODEL PART I: APPLICATION IN A MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterization of land-surface processes and consideration of surface inhomogeneities are very important to mesoscale meteorological modeling applications, especially those that provide information for air quality modeling. To provide crucial, reliable information on the diurn...

  8. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  9. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  10. A Stochastic Parametrization of Ocean Mesoscale Eddies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanna, L.; Mana, L.

    2013-12-01

    The ocean contains a vigorous mesoscale eddy field important in establishing the ocean's circulation and tracer properties. Mesoscale eddies have spatial scales of approximately 10 to 100km and their effect needs to be parametrized in ocean climate models. Current deterministic parametrizations of mesoscale eddies do not, for example, account for the fluctuations in sub-grid transport or do not represent upscale turbulent cascades therefore leading to model error in the representation of present and future climate change. The goal of our study is to construct a stochastic parametrization of ocean mesoscale eddies in order to include such effects and account for model error associated with the uncertainty in the parameters and the parametrization. The parametrization is constructed by using the output of a high resolution model in order to derive the statistics of the eddy source term as function of the resolved (coarse) scales. The simulations are done in a quasi-geostrophic model in a double-gyre configuration to provide a tractable framework. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the eddy source term conditional on the intrinsic resolved large scale dynamics are calculated and therefore capture the fluctuations associated with mesoscale eddies and their impact on the mean flow. The conditional PDFs are based on a Rivlin-Ericksen tensor and a theory for their mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis is provided as function of the coarse resolution model grid size, its forcing and stratification. The conditional PDFs are then implemented as the basis for a new parametrization of mesoscale eddies in a coarse resolution model. The results of the implementation of the stochastic parametrization are shown to improve the representation of the mean flow, its variability at most frequencies and the kinetic energy power spectrum as function of wavelength.

  11. Mesoscale modeling of solute precipitation and radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Schwen, Daniel; Ke, Huibin; Bai, Xianming; Hales, Jason

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes the low length scale effort during FY 2014 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution in reactor pressure vessels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation-induced defect accumulation and irradiation-enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering-scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. Atomic-scale efforts that supply information for the mesoscale capabilities are also included.

  12. Bayesian methods for quantitative trait loci mapping based on model selection: approximate analysis using the Bayesian information criterion.

    PubMed

    Ball, R D

    2001-11-01

    We describe an approximate method for the analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on model selection from multiple regression models with trait values regressed on marker genotypes, using a modification of the easily calculated Bayesian information criterion to estimate the posterior probability of models with various subsets of markers as variables. The BIC-delta criterion, with the parameter delta increasing the penalty for additional variables in a model, is further modified to incorporate prior information, and missing values are handled by multiple imputation. Marginal probabilities for model sizes are calculated, and the posterior probability of nonzero model size is interpreted as the posterior probability of existence of a QTL linked to one or more markers. The method is demonstrated on analysis of associations between wood density and markers on two linkage groups in Pinus radiata. Selection bias, which is the bias that results from using the same data to both select the variables in a model and estimate the coefficients, is shown to be a problem for commonly used non-Bayesian methods for QTL mapping, which do not average over alternative possible models that are consistent with the data.

  13. Mesoscale Ocean Large Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank

    2015-11-01

    The highest resolution global climate models (GCMs) can now resolve the largest scales of mesoscale dynamics in the ocean. This has the potential to increase the fidelity of GCMs. However, the effects of the smallest, unresolved, scales of mesoscale dynamics must still be parametrized. One such family of parametrizations are mesoscale ocean large eddy simulations (MOLES), but the effects of including MOLES in a GCM are not well understood. In this presentation, several MOLES schemes are implemented in a mesoscale-resolving GCM (CESM), and the resulting flow is compared with that produced by more traditional sub-grid parametrizations. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate flows where the largest scales of turbulent motion are resolved, but the smallest scales are not resolved. LES has traditionally been used to study 3D turbulence, but recently it has also been applied to idealized 2D and quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence. The MOLES presented here are based on 2D and QG LES schemes.

  14. Mesoscale Waves in Jupiter Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    These two images of Jupiter atmosphere were taken with the violet filter of the Solid State Imaging CCD system aboard NASA Galileo spacecraft. Mesoscale waves can be seen in the center of the upper image. The images were obtained on June 26, 1996.

  15. Mesoscale Eddy - Internal Wave Coupling:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The issue of internal wave--mesoscale eddy interactions is revisited. Direct estimates of energy transfer from the Local Dynamics Experiment of the PolyMode field program (Polzin, 2010 JPO) return viscosity estimates of ν h \\cong 50 m2 s-1 and ν v + (f2)/(N^2) Kh \\cong 2.5×10-3 m2 s-1. These estimates indicate that mesoscale eddy-internal wave interactions may play an O(1) role in the mesoscale eddy energy budget as dissipation and the internal wave budget as a source. Radiation balance equation formulations for this coupling (Müller 1976, JFM) are examined. In these formulations permanent transfer of energy and internal wave pseudomomentum for mesoscale eddy potential vorticity is enabled by nonlinearity in the wavefield. Revision of radiation balance equation formulations to account for non-local effects returns predictions of ν h \\cong 50-100 m2 s-1 and ν v + (f2)/(N^2) Kh \\cong -1×10-3 to 4×10-3 m2 s-1. The prediction for the effective vertical viscosity is sensitive to how internal wave energy is distributed in the spectral domain with negative values appropriate to the Garrett and Munk spectrum and positive values appropriate to the background spectrum in the LDE area. Geographic scalings in terms of latitude, stratification and mesoscale eddy variability will be described. The process described here is best interpreted as an amplifier of a pre-existing or externally forced finite amplitude wavefield rather than the spontaneous imbalance of a linear field. Energy, pseudomomentum and vorticity can be transfered from the slow manifold (geostrophically balanced motions) to the fast manifold (internal gravity waves) via linear wave propagation in asymmetric background flows, but that transfer is reversible. The permanent transfer is accomplished by nonlinearity on the fast manifold.

  16. Meso-scale imaging of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grandin, R.; Gray, J.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of composite materials is controlled by the interaction between the individual components as well as the mechanical characteristics of the components themselves. Geometric structure on the meso-scale, where the length-scales are of the same order as the material granularity, plays a key role in controlling material performance and having a quantitative means of characterizing this structure is crucial in developing our understanding of NDE technique signatures of early damage states. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an imaging capability which can resolve these structures for many composite materials. Coupling HRCT with three-dimensional physics-based image processing enables quantitative characterization of the meso-scale structure. Taking sequences of these damage states provides a means to structurally observe the damages evolution. We will discuss the limits of present 3DCT capability and challenges for improving this means to rapidly generate structural information of a composite and of the damage. In this presentation we will demonstrate the imaging capability of HRCT.

  17. Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2000-05-15

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

  18. Dynamically consistent parameterization of mesoscale eddies. Part I: Simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berloff, Pavel

    2015-03-01

    This work aims at developing a framework for dynamically consistent parameterization of mesoscale eddy effects for use in non-eddy-resolving ocean circulation models. The proposed eddy parameterization framework is successfully tested on the classical, wind-driven double-gyre model, which is solved both with explicitly resolved vigorous eddy field and in the non-eddy-resolving configuration with the eddy parameterization replacing the eddy effects. The parameterization locally approximates transient eddy flux divergence by spatially localized and temporally periodic forcing, referred to as the plunger, and focuses on the linear-dynamics flow solution induced by it. The nonlinear self-interaction of this solution, referred to as the footprint, characterizes and quantifies the induced cumulative eddy forcing exerted on the large-scale flow. We find that spatial pattern and amplitude of the footprint strongly depend on the underlying large-scale and the corresponding relationships provide the basis for the eddy parameterization and its closure on the large-scale flow properties. Dependencies of the footprints on other important parameters of the problem are also systematically analyzed. The parameterization utilizes the local large-scale flow information, constructs and scales the corresponding footprints, and then sums them up over the gyres to produce the resulting eddy forcing field, which is interactively added to the model as an extra forcing. The parameterization framework is implemented in the simplest way, but it provides a systematic strategy for improving the implementation algorithm.

  19. A computational approach towards the microscale mouse brain connectome from the mesoscale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tielin; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The wiring diagram of the mouse brain presents an indispensable foundation for the research on basic and applied neurobiology. It is also essential as a structural foundation for computational simulation of the brain. Different scales of the connectome give us different hints and clues to understand the functions of the nervous system and how they process information. However, compared to the macroscale and most recent mesoscale mouse brain connectome studies, there is no complete whole brain microscale connectome available because of the scalability and accuracy of automatic recognition techniques. Different scales of the connectivity data are comprehensive descriptions of the whole brain at different levels of details. Hence connectivity results from a neighborhood scale may help to predict each other. Here we report a computational approach to bring the mesoscale connectome a step forward towards the microscale from the perspective of neuron, synapse and network motifs distribution by the connectivity data at the mesoscale and some facts from the anatomical experiments at the microscale. These attempts make a step forward towards the efforts of microscale mouse brain connectome given the fact that the detailed microscale connectome results are still far to be produced due to the limitation of current nano-scale 3-D reconstruction techniques. The generated microscale mouse brain will play a key role on the understanding of the behavioral and cognitive processes of the mouse brain. In this paper, the conversion method which could get the approximate number of neurons and synapses in microscale is proposed and tested in sub-regions of Hippocampal Formation (HF), and is generalized to the whole brain. As a step forward towards understanding the microscale connectome, we propose a microscale motif prediction model to generate understanding on the microscale structure of different brain region from network motif perspective. Correlation analysis shows that the

  20. Radar analysis of the life cycle of Mesoscale Convective Systems during the 10 June 2000 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigo, T.; Llasat, M. C.

    2005-12-01

    The 10 June 2000 event was the largest flash flood event that occurred in the Northeast of Spain in the late 20th century, both as regards its meteorological features and its considerable social impact. This paper focuses on analysis of the structures that produced the heavy rainfalls, especially from the point of view of meteorological radar. Due to the fact that this case is a good example of a Mediterranean flash flood event, a final objective of this paper is to undertake a description of the evolution of the rainfall structure that would be sufficiently clear to be understood at an interdisciplinary forum. Then, it could be useful not only to improve conceptual meteorological models, but also for application in downscaling models. The main precipitation structure was a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) that crossed the region and that developed as a consequence of the merging of two previous squall lines. The paper analyses the main meteorological features that led to the development and triggering of the heavy rainfalls, with special emphasis on the features of this MCS, its life cycle and its dynamic features. To this end, 2-D and 3-D algorithms were applied to the imagery recorded over the complete life cycle of the structures, which lasted approximately 18 h. Mesoscale and synoptic information were also considered. Results show that it was an NS-MCS, quasi-stationary during its stage of maturity as a consequence of the formation of a convective train, the different displacement directions of the 2-D structures and the 3-D structures, including the propagation of new cells, and the slow movement of the convergence line associated with the Mediterranean mesoscale low.

  1. Mesoscale imaging with cryo-light and X-rays: Larger than molecular machines, smaller than a cell: Mesoscale imaging with cryo-light and X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, Axel A.; Chen, Jian-Hua; Guo, Jessica; McDermott, Gerry; Le Gros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2016-11-14

    In the context of cell biology, the term mesoscale describes length scales ranging from that of an individual cell, down to the size of the molecular machines. In this spatial regime, small building blocks self-organise to form large, functional structures. A comprehensive set of rules governing mesoscale self-organisation has not been established, making the prediction of many cell behaviours difficult, if not impossible. Our knowledge of mesoscale biology comes from experimental data, in particular, imaging. Here, we explore the application of soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to imaging the mesoscale, and describe the structural insights this technology can generate. We also discuss how SXT imaging is complemented by the addition of correlative fluorescence data measured from the same cell. This combination of two discrete imaging modalities produces a 3D view of the cell that blends high-resolution structural information with precise molecular localisation data.

  2. Mesoscale imaging with cryo-light and X-rays: Larger than molecular machines, smaller than a cell: Mesoscale imaging with cryo-light and X-rays

    DOE PAGES

    Ekman, Axel A.; Chen, Jian-Hua; Guo, Jessica; ...

    2016-11-14

    In the context of cell biology, the term mesoscale describes length scales ranging from that of an individual cell, down to the size of the molecular machines. In this spatial regime, small building blocks self-organise to form large, functional structures. A comprehensive set of rules governing mesoscale self-organisation has not been established, making the prediction of many cell behaviours difficult, if not impossible. Our knowledge of mesoscale biology comes from experimental data, in particular, imaging. Here, we explore the application of soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to imaging the mesoscale, and describe the structural insights this technology can generate. We alsomore » discuss how SXT imaging is complemented by the addition of correlative fluorescence data measured from the same cell. This combination of two discrete imaging modalities produces a 3D view of the cell that blends high-resolution structural information with precise molecular localisation data.« less

  3. Information loss in approximately bayesian data assimilation: a comparison of generative and discriminative approaches to estimating agricultural yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data assimilation and regression are two commonly used methods for predicting agricultural yield from remote sensing observations. Data assimilation is a generative approach because it requires explicit approximations of the Bayesian prior and likelihood to compute the probability density function...

  4. Mesoscale modeling of the severe thunderstorm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1988-01-01

    The abilities of limited-area mesoscale models to provide accurate predictions of the environment of midlatitude severe thunderstorms and the possible feedback effects of the storms upon their environment are reviewed. Mesoaplha-scale models, mesobeta models, and terrain-induced mesoscale systems are discussed. The importance of the initial state and model numerics and physics is examined. It is found that mesoscale models must be run locally if they are to be used for short-range forecasting.

  5. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  6. Mesoscale-cloud scale simulation of convective response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, F. J.; Mcnider, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of mesoscale moisture information in the forecasting of weather events is being studied. A test is being prepared with the March 6, 1982 Vertical Atmospheric Sounder/Atmospheric Variability Experiment (VAS/AVE) case study to be run on the sub-synoptic scale model (SSM). Intracomparison of three carefully designed simulations should isolate the role of mesoscale information in the initial conditions for both moisture and vertical motion. Three simulations will be made for the period 1200Z 6 March to 0000Z 7 March starting with the regular synoptic time data of 1200Z. The distinction between the three cases arises from data manipulation at 1800Z midway through the forecast period. Comparison of results for the 1800Z to 0000Z time period will give the information desired.

  7. Anisotropic Shear Dispersion Parameterization for Mesoscale Eddy Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of mesoscale eddies are universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. However, the processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. The Gent-McWilliams/Redi mesoscale eddy parameterization is extended for anisotropy and tested using 1-degree Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations. The sensitivity of the model to anisotropy includes a reduction of temperature and salinity biases, a deepening of the southern ocean mixed-layer depth, and improved ventilation of biogeochemical tracers, particularly in oxygen minimum zones. The parameterization is further extended to include the effects of unresolved shear dispersion, which sets the strength and direction of anisotropy. The shear dispersion parameterization is similar to drifter observations in spatial distribution of diffusivity and high-resolution model diagnosis in the distribution of eddy flux orientation.

  8. Dynamics at threshold in mesoscale lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Vergnet, H.; Puccioni, G. P.; Lippi, G. L.

    2017-07-01

    The threshold properties of very small lasers (down to the nanoscale) are a topic of active research in light of continuous progress in nanofabrication. With the help of a simple rate equation model, we analyze the intrinsic, macroscopic dynamics of threshold crossing for (class B) lasers whose response is adequately described by interplay of the intracavity photon number and the population inversion (energy reservoir). We use the deterministic aspects of the basic rate equations to extract some fundamental time constants from an approximate analysis of laser dynamics in the threshold region. Approximate solutions for the population inversion and the field intensity, up to the point where the latter reaches macroscopic levels, are found and discussed. The resulting time scales characterize the laser's ability to respond to perturbations (external modulation or intrinsic fluctuations in the lasing transition region). Numerical verifications test the accuracy of these solutions and confirm their validity. The predictions are used to interpret experimental results obtained in mesoscale lasers (VCSELs) and to speculate about their extension to nanolasers.

  9. Mesoscale Modeling of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    This briefing represents interim progress towards these goals. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Heterogeneous explosives , Mesoscale dynamics, Level set method...High  Explosives  Research and Development Branch (RWME) – Damage Mechanisms Branch (RWMW) • Goal: Predict survivability of energetic payload of high...the mechanical  behavior of simple  explosive – Pristine – Damaged • Performed simulations on mechanical RVE’s – From XCMT – Idealized • Developed and

  10. Mesoscale flows and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur; Pálmason, Bolli; Vary, Anne; Schettino, Camille; Thomas, Aurelien; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Ágústsson, Hálfdán

    2016-04-01

    Thermally driven mesoscale flows, in particular the sea breeze, and their importance for the climate of a mid-latitude island is assessed by observations from Iceland and numerical simulations over idealized and real topography. Subsequently, an extended summertime period is simulated with surface conditions that correspond to current climate as well as surface conditions that are plausible in a future warmer climate with increased vegetation. A change in the albedo and the Bowen ratio results in changes in the sea breeze, leading to mean temperature changes whose magnitude is more than half the predicted temperature increase in the 21st Century by some GCMs.

  11. Optimizing Scrum Mesoscale Eddy Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    complementary to the Kalman filter techniques being developed by Rutgers scientists. Our long-term scientific goal is to model and predict the mesoscale...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...adjoint-ready". The code resulting from the adjoint compiler must be further modified by hand to make it work . It will also need to be tested against the

  12. Processing short-term and long-term information with a combination of polynomial approximation techniques and time-delay neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Erich; Gruber, Christian; Reitmaier, Tobias; Sick, Bernhard

    2009-09-01

    Neural networks are often used to process temporal information, i.e., any kind of information related to time series. In many cases, time series contain short-term and long-term trends or behavior. This paper presents a new approach to capture temporal information with various reference periods simultaneously. A least squares approximation of the time series with orthogonal polynomials will be used to describe short-term trends contained in a signal (average, increase, curvature, etc.). Long-term behavior will be modeled with the tapped delay lines of a time-delay neural network (TDNN). This network takes the coefficients of the orthogonal expansion of the approximating polynomial as inputs such considering short-term and long-term information efficiently. The advantages of the method will be demonstrated by means of artificial data and two real-world application examples, the prediction of the user number in a computer network and online tool wear classification in turning.

  13. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  14. Variational mesoscale satellite data assimilation and initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Y. K.; Goerss, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of mesoscale satellite data assimilation were examined. Assimilation of satellite data to improve the forecasts made by mesoscale forecast models was undertaken. Assimilation of high resolution satellite derived temperature data into a mesoscale model with horizontal resolution of 50 to 60 km is reported. Unlike global assimilation, in which a small portion of the forecast model domain is subject to data insertion at virtually every time step, the mesoscale assimilation virtually all of the forecast model domain is subject to data insertion at one time step. The mesoscale problem lends itself naturally to intermittent data assimilation and the forecast model is reinitialized whenever a new satellite pass covers its domain with data. The satellite data assimilation as an initialization problem are discussed.

  15. An approach for parameterizing mesoscale precipitating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weissbluth, M.J.; Cotton, W.R.

    1991-12-31

    A cumulus parameterization laboratory has been described which uses a reference numerical model to fabricate, calibrate and verify a cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for use in mesoscale models. Key features of this scheme include resolution independence and the ability to provide hydrometeor source functions to the host model. Thus far, only convective scale drafts have been parameterized, limiting the use of the scheme to those models which can resolve the mesoscale circulations. As it stands, the scheme could probably be incorporated into models having a grid resolution greater than 50 km with results comparable to the existing schemes for the large-scale models. We propose, however, to quantify the mesoscale circulations through the use of the cumulus parameterization laboratory. The inclusion of these mesoscale drafts in the existing scheme will hopefully allow the correct parameterization of the organized mesoscale precipitating systems.

  16. An approach for parameterizing mesoscale precipitating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weissbluth, M.J.; Cotton, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    A cumulus parameterization laboratory has been described which uses a reference numerical model to fabricate, calibrate and verify a cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for use in mesoscale models. Key features of this scheme include resolution independence and the ability to provide hydrometeor source functions to the host model. Thus far, only convective scale drafts have been parameterized, limiting the use of the scheme to those models which can resolve the mesoscale circulations. As it stands, the scheme could probably be incorporated into models having a grid resolution greater than 50 km with results comparable to the existing schemes for the large-scale models. We propose, however, to quantify the mesoscale circulations through the use of the cumulus parameterization laboratory. The inclusion of these mesoscale drafts in the existing scheme will hopefully allow the correct parameterization of the organized mesoscale precipitating systems.

  17. Towards a mesoscale eddy closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    A turbulence closure for the effect of mesoscale eddies in non-eddy-resolving ocean models is proposed. The closure consists of a prognostic equation for the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) that is integrated as an additional model equation, and a diagnostic relation for an eddy length scale ( L), which is given by the minimum of Rhines scale and Rossby radius. Combining EKE and L using a standard mixing length assumption gives a diffusivity ( K), corresponding to the thickness diffusivity in the [Gent, P.R., McWilliams, J.C. 1990. Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20, 150-155] parameterisation. Assuming downgradient mixing of potential vorticity with identical diffusivity shows how K is related to horizontal and vertical mixing processes in the horizontal momentum equation, and also enables us to parameterise the source of EKE related to eddy momentum fluxes. The mesoscale eddy closure is evaluated using synthetic data from two different eddy-resolving models covering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, respectively. The diagnosis shows that the mixing length assumption together with the definition of eddy length scales is valid within certain limitations. Furthermore, implementation of the closure in non-eddy-resolving models of the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean shows consistently that the closure has skill at reproducing the results of the eddy-resolving model versions in terms of EKE and K.

  18. Scalable posterior approximations for large-scale Bayesian inverse problems via likelihood-informed parameter and state reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tiangang; Marzouk, Youssef; Willcox, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Two major bottlenecks to the solution of large-scale Bayesian inverse problems are the scaling of posterior sampling algorithms to high-dimensional parameter spaces and the computational cost of forward model evaluations. Yet incomplete or noisy data, the state variation and parameter dependence of the forward model, and correlations in the prior collectively provide useful structure that can be exploited for dimension reduction in this setting-both in the parameter space of the inverse problem and in the state space of the forward model. To this end, we show how to jointly construct low-dimensional subspaces of the parameter space and the state space in order to accelerate the Bayesian solution of the inverse problem. As a byproduct of state dimension reduction, we also show how to identify low-dimensional subspaces of the data in problems with high-dimensional observations. These subspaces enable approximation of the posterior as a product of two factors: (i) a projection of the posterior onto a low-dimensional parameter subspace, wherein the original likelihood is replaced by an approximation involving a reduced model; and (ii) the marginal prior distribution on the high-dimensional complement of the parameter subspace. We present and compare several strategies for constructing these subspaces using only a limited number of forward and adjoint model simulations. The resulting posterior approximations can rapidly be characterized using standard sampling techniques, e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo. Two numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach: inversion of an integral equation in atmospheric remote sensing, where the data dimension is very high; and the inference of a heterogeneous transmissivity field in a groundwater system, which involves a partial differential equation forward model with high dimensional state and parameters.

  19. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  20. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  1. Anisotropic Mesoscale Eddy Transport in Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Bachman, S.; Bryan, F.; Dennis, J.; Danabasoglu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate models are limited to coarse-resolution representations of large-scale ocean circulation that rely on parameterizations for mesoscale eddies. The effects of eddies are typically introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. Thus, only a single parameter, namely the eddy diffusivity, is used at each spatial and temporal location to impart the influence of mesoscale eddies on the resolved flow. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, potential vorticity barriers, oceanic turbulence, and instabilities, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters to three: a major diffusivity, a minor diffusivity, and the principal axis of alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the newly introduced parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces global temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved even further by parameterizing the anisotropic transport mechanisms in the ocean.

  2. Toward general experimentation and discovery in conditioned laboratory spaces: part IV. Macroscopic information entanglement between sites approximately 6000 miles apart.

    PubMed

    Tiller, William A; Dibble, W E; Orlando, G; Migli, Andrea; Raiteri, G; Oca, J

    2005-12-01

    To demonstrate information entanglement between separated sites of a single experimental system over distances of 5,000-6,000 miles and (2) to provide experimental DeltapH(t)-data, for these various sites that illustrates the information entanglement characteristic of this particular type of measurement. Such information entanglement has profound implications for distant healing. The same as Part I but with two additional experimental sites, 5000-6000 miles distant from any other measurement site. One pH-measurement site with no IIED present for 3 months and now using IIEDs in the UK plus one pH-measurement control site in Italy (no IIED used). One above ground IIED site plus one underground control site. None. Large DeltapH-data variations with time, over a long time duration, for the two new sites. Using pH-measurements, major information entanglement can be demonstrated between U.S. sites and European sites, even at separation distances >6000 miles. Possible enhanced entanglement occurs in remote sites located underground. These discoveries warrant further investigation since a mechanism similar to that occurring during remote healing may be involved.

  3. Mesoscale variations in available wind power potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.J.; Bell, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that mesoscale processes are important in determining available wind energy potential in southern Australia. These effects are quantified by application of a numerical mesoscale model to the Swan coastal plain of Western Australia, illustrating that the wind power potential in this area is dominated by the sea breeze circulation and topographical influences. While sea breezes are a common feature of the summer climate, they are a significant source of wind energy only under weak synoptic flows, whereas mesoscale topographical effects are significant under all synoptic conditions.

  4. Automated mesoscale winds determined from satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A new automated technique for extracting mesoscale fields from GOES visible/infrared satellite imagery was developed. Quality control parameters were defined to allow objective editing of the wind fields. The system can produce equivalent or superior cloud wind estimates compared to the time consuming manual methods used on various interactive meteorological processing systems. Analysis of automated mesoscale cloud wind for a test case yields an estimated random error value one meter per second and produces both regional and mesoscale vector wind field structure and divergence patterns that are consistent in time and highly correlated with subsequent severe thunderstorm development.

  5. In situ burning of oil spills: Mesoscale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    In 1991 a series of 14 mesoscale fire experiments were performed to measure the burning characteristics of crude oil on salt water. These oil burns in a pan ranged in size from 6 m square to 15 m square. Results of the measurements for burning rate, oil temperature, water temperature, smoke particle size distribution, smoke plume trajectory, and smoke particulate yield are provided. The burning rate as indicated by the regression rate of the oil surface was found to be 0.055 (+ or -) 0.005 mm/s and smoke particulate yields were found to be approximately 0.13 of the oil burned on a mass basis.

  6. An explicit mixed numerical method for mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, H.-M.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed numerical method has been developed for mesoscale models. The technique consists of a forward difference scheme for time tendency terms, an upstream scheme for advective terms, and a central scheme for the other terms in a physical system. It is shown that the mixed method is conditionally stable and highly accurate for approximating the system of either shallow-water equations in one dimension or primitive equations in three dimensions. Since the technique is explicit and two time level, it conserves computer and programming resources.

  7. High-Operating-Temperature Direct Ink Writing of Mesoscale Eutectic Architectures.

    PubMed

    Boley, J William; Chaudhary, Kundan; Ober, Thomas J; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Chen, Wei Ting; Hanson, Erik; Kulkarni, Ashish; Oh, Jaewon; Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Zhu, Alexander Y; Capasso, Federico; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2017-02-01

    High-operating-temperature direct ink writing (HOT-DIW) of mesoscale architectures that are composed of eutectic silver chloride-potassium chloride. The molten ink undergoes directional solidification upon printing on a cold substrate. The lamellar spacing of the printed features can be varied between approximately 100 nm and 2 µm, enabling the manipulation of light in the visible and infrared range.

  8. Mesoscale metallic pyramids with nanoscale tips.

    PubMed

    Henzie, Joel; Kwak, Eun-Soo; Odom, Teri W

    2005-07-01

    We report a simple procedure that can generate free-standing mesoscale metallic pyramids composed of one or more materials and having nanoscale tips (radii of curvature of less than 2 nm). Mesoscale holes (100-300 nm) in a chromium film are used as an etch mask to fabricate pyramidal pits and then as a deposition mask to form the metallic pyramids. We have fabricated two- and three-layered pyramids with control over their materials and chemical functionality.

  9. Simulation of Phase Effects in Imaging for Mesoscale NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, Maurice B. III; Barty, Anton; Martz, Harry E. Jr.

    2005-04-09

    High energy density experiments, such as those planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), use mesoscale targets with the goals of studying high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, and the support of national security needs. Mesoscale targets are typically several millimeters in size and have complex micrometer-sized structures composed of high-density metals and low-density foams and ices. These targets are designed with exacting tolerances that are difficult to achieve at present. Deviation from these tolerances can result in compromise of experimental goals and thus it is necessary to determine as-built properties of these targets using NDE techniques. Radiography and computed tomography are being used to investigate these targets, but the mix between phase and absorption information is difficult to separate, making interpretation of results difficult. We have recently improved the HADES radiographic simulation code to include phase in simulations, as an aid for doing NDE on mesoscale targets. In this paper we report on how we extended HADES to incorporate phase effects, and compare simulations with a variety of experimental test results.

  10. Simulation of Phase Effects in Imaging for Mesoscale NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, III, M B; Barty, A; Martz, Jr., H E

    2004-08-26

    High energy density experiments, such as those planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), use mesoscale targets with the goals of studying high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, and the support of national security needs. Mesoscale targets are typically several millimeters in size and have complex micrometer-sized structures composed of high-density metals and low-density foams and ices. These targets are designed with exacting tolerances that are difficult to achieve at present. Deviation from these tolerances can result in compromise of experimental goals and thus it is necessary to determine as-built properties of these targets using NDE techniques. Radiography and computed tomography are being used to investigate these targets, but the mix between phase and absorption information is difficult to separate, making interpretation of results difficult. We have recently improved the HADES radiographic simulation code to include phase in simulations, as an aid for doing NDE on mesoscale targets. In this paper we report on how we extended HADES to incorporate phase effects, and compare simulations with a variety of experimental test results.

  11. On the origin of mesoscale structures in aqueous solutions of tertiary butyl alcohol: the mystery resolved.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Marián; Rak, Dmytro

    2014-03-13

    We have performed a detailed experimental study on aqueous solutions of tertiary butyl alcohol which were a subject of long-standing controversies regarding the puzzling presence of virtually infinitely stable large-scale structures in such solutions occurring at length scales exceeding appreciably dimensions of individual molecules, referred to also as mesoscale structures. A combination of static and dynamic light scattering yielding information on solution structure and dynamics and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry yielding information on chemical composition was used. We show that tertiary butyl alcohol clearly exhibiting such structures upon mixing with water does not contain any propylene oxide, which was previously considered as a source of these structures (an impurity expected to be present in all commercial samples of TBA). More importantly, we show that no mesoscale structures are generated upon addition of propylene oxide to aqueous solutions of TBA. The ternary system TBA/water/propylene oxide exhibits homogeneous mixing of the components on mesoscales. We show that the source of the mesoscale structures is a mesophase separation of appreciably more hydrophobic compounds than propylene oxide. These substances are explicitly analytically identified as well as their disappearance upon filtering out the mesoscale structures by nanopore filtration. We clearly show which substances are disappearing upon filtration and which are not. This enables us to estimate with rather high probability the chemical composition of the mesoscale structures. Visualization of large-scale structures via nanoparticle tracking analysis is also presented. Video capturing the mesoscale particles as well as their Brownian motion can be found in the Supporting Information .

  12. Experiments with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) using the synthetic relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chia-Bo

    1994-01-01

    This study is intended to examine the impact of the synthetic relative humidity on the model simulation of mesoscale convective storm environment. The synthetic relative humidity is derived from the National Weather Services surface observations, and non-conventional sources including aircraft, radar, and satellite observations. The latter sources provide the mesoscale data of very high spatial and temporal resolution. The synthetic humidity data is used to complement the National Weather Services rawinsonde observations. It is believed that a realistic representation of initial moisture field in a mesoscale model is critical for the model simulation of thunderstorm development, and the formation of non-convective clouds as well as their effects on the surface energy budget. The impact will be investigated based on a real-data case study using the mesoscale atmospheric simulation system developed by Mesoscale Environmental Simulations Operations, Inc. The mesoscale atmospheric simulation system consists of objective analysis and initialization codes, and the coarse-mesh and fine-mesh dynamic prediction models. Both models are a three dimensional, primitive equation model containing the essential moist physics for simulating and forecasting mesoscale convective processes in the atmosphere. The modeling system is currently implemented at the Applied Meteorology Unit, Kennedy Space Center. Two procedures involving the synthetic relative humidity to define the model initial moisture fields are considered. It is proposed to perform several short-range (approximately 6 hours) comparative coarse-mesh simulation experiments with and without the synthetic data. They are aimed at revealing the model sensitivities should allow us both to refine the specification of the observational requirements, and to develop more accurate and efficient objective analysis schemes. The goal is to advance the MASS (Mesoscal Atmospheric Simulation System) modeling expertise so that the model

  13. Mesoscale inhomogeneities in aqueous solutions of small amphiphilic molecules.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Deepa; Boughter, Christopher T; Klauda, Jeffery B; Hammouda, Boualem; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-01-01

    Small amphiphilic molecules, also known as hydrotropes, are too small to form micelles in aqueous solutions. However, aqueous solutions of nonionic hydrotropes show the presence of a dynamic, loose, non-covalent clustering in the water-rich region, This clustering can be viewed as "micelle-like structural fluctuations". Although these fluctuations are short ranged (approximately 1 nm) and short lived (10 ps-50 ps), they may lead to thermodynamic anomalies. In addition, many experiments on aqueous solutions of hydrotropes show the occasional presence of mesoscale (approximately 100 nm) inhomogeneities. We have combined results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, small-angle neutron scattering, and dynamic light-scattering experiments carried out on tertiary butyl alcohol (hydrotrope)-water solutions and on tertiary butyl alcohol-water-cyclohexane (hydrophobe) solutions to elucidate the nature and structure of these inhomogeneities. We have shown that stable mesoscale inhomogeneities occur in aqueous solutions of nonionic hydrotropes only when the solution contains a third, more hydrophobic, component. Moreover, these inhomogeneities exist in ternary systems only in the concentration range where structural fluctuations and thermodynamic anomalies are observed in the binary water-hydrotrope solutions. Addition of a hydrophobe seems to stabilize the water-hydrotrope structural fluctuations, and leads to the formation of larger (mesoscopic) droplets. The structure of these mesoscopic droplets is such that they have a hydrophobe-rich core, surrounded by a hydrogen-bonded shell of water and hydrotrope molecules. These droplets can be extremely long-lived, being stable for over a year. We refer to the phenomenon of formation of mesoscopic droplets in aqueous solutions of nonionic hydrotropes containing hydrophobes, as mesoscale solubilization. This phenomenon may represent a ubiquitous feature of nonionic hydrotropes that exhibit clustering in water, and may have

  14. Mesoscale Climate Evaluation Using Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Velho, H. F.; Freitas, S. R.; Souto, R. P.; Charao, A. S.; Ferraz, S.; Roberti, D. R.; Streck, N.; Navaux, P. O.; Maillard, N.; Collischonn, W.; Diniz, G.; Radin, B.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIMARS project is focused to establish an operational environment for seasonal climate prediction for the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The dynamical downscaling will be performed with the use of several software platforms and hardware infrastructure to carry out the investigation on mesoscale of the global change impact. The grid computing takes advantage of geographically spread out computer systems, connected by the internet, for enhancing the power of computation. The ensemble climate prediction is an appropriated application for processing on grid computing, because the integration of each ensemble member does not have a dependency on information from another ensemble members. The grid processing is employed to compute the 20-year climatology and the long range simulations under ensemble methodology. BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model) is a mesoscale model developed from a version of the RAMS (from the Colorado State University - CSU, USA). BRAMS model is the tool for carrying out the dynamical downscaling from the IPCC scenarios. Long range BRAMS simulations will provide data for some climate (data) analysis, and supply data for numerical integration of different models: (a) Regime of the extreme events for temperature and precipitation fields: statistical analysis will be applied on the BRAMS data, (b) CCATT-BRAMS (Coupled Chemistry Aerosol Tracer Transport - BRAMS) is an environmental prediction system that will be used to evaluate if the new standards of temperature, rain regime, and wind field have a significant impact on the pollutant dispersion in the analyzed regions, (c) MGB-IPH (Portuguese acronym for the Large Basin Model (MGB), developed by the Hydraulic Research Institute, (IPH) from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil) will be employed to simulate the alteration of the river flux under new climate patterns. Important meteorological input variables for the MGB-IPH are the precipitation (most relevant

  15. Approximation algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Andreas S.; Shmoys, David B.; Williamson, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing global competition, rapidly changing markets, and greater consumer awareness have altered the way in which corporations do business. To become more efficient, many industries have sought to model some operational aspects by gigantic optimization problems. It is not atypical to encounter models that capture 106 separate “yes” or “no” decisions to be made. Although one could, in principle, try all 2106 possible solutions to find the optimal one, such a method would be impractically slow. Unfortunately, for most of these models, no algorithms are known that find optimal solutions with reasonable computation times. Typically, industry must rely on solutions of unguaranteed quality that are constructed in an ad hoc manner. Fortunately, for some of these models there are good approximation algorithms: algorithms that produce solutions quickly that are provably close to optimal. Over the past 6 years, there has been a sequence of major breakthroughs in our understanding of the design of approximation algorithms and of limits to obtaining such performance guarantees; this area has been one of the most flourishing areas of discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science. PMID:9370525

  16. The influence of coastal shape on winter mesoscale air-sea interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Chou, S.-H.; Byerly, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    In cold air outbreaks, the combination of coastal shape and sea surface isotherms has a profound effect in the establishment of mesoscale atmospheric circulation, due to differential heating resulting from both overwater path length and underlying sea surface temperature (SST) variations. Where coastal effects are dominant, a mesoscale front forms downstream of the point which marks the major bend in the coastline's orientation. The strength of the induced mesoscale circulation depends on the original contrast between the land air temperature and the SST. It is noted that where the coastline and the isotherm pattern are approximately normal to the mean boundary layer flow, and thermal contrast is sufficiently large, the cloud streets formed downstream will be convective in nature, and oriented with the axis of roll vortices along the wind direction.

  17. A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A.; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M.; Mortrud, Marty T.; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A.; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E.; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M.; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Phillips, John W.; Hohmann, John G.; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R.; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R.; Zeng, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of the brain’s wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

  18. Mesoscale acid deposition modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Proctor, F. H.; Zack, John W.; Karyampudi, V. Mohan; Price, P. E.; Bousquet, M. D.; Coats, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in support of the EPA/DOE MADS (Mesoscale Acid Deposition) Project included the development of meteorological data bases for the initialization of chemistry models, the testing and implementation of new planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in the MASS model, the simulation of transport and precipitation for MADS case studies employing the MASS model, and the use of the TASS model in the simulation of cloud statistics and the complex transport of conservative tracers within simulated cumuloform clouds. The work performed in support of the NASA/FAA Wind Shear Program included the use of the TASS model in the simulation of the dynamical processes within convective cloud systems, the analyses of the sensitivity of microburst intensity and general characteristics as a function of the atmospheric environment within which they are formed, comparisons of TASS model microburst simulation results to observed data sets, and the generation of simulated wind shear data bases for use by the aviation meteorological community in the evaluation of flight hazards caused by microbursts.

  19. Visual information and expert’s idea in Hurst index estimation of the fractional Brownian motion using a diffusion type approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheriyoun, Ali R.; Moghimbeygi, Meisam

    2017-02-01

    An approximation of the fractional Brownian motion based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is used to obtain an asymptotic likelihood function. Two estimators of the Hurst index are then presented in the likelihood approach. The first estimator is produced according to the observed values of the sample path; while the second one employs the likelihood function of the incremental process. We also employ visual roughness of realization to restrict the parameter space and to obtain prior information in Bayesian approach. The methods are then compared with three contemporary estimators and an experimental data set is studied.

  20. Visual information and expert’s idea in Hurst index estimation of the fractional Brownian motion using a diffusion type approximation

    PubMed Central

    Taheriyoun, Ali R.; Moghimbeygi, Meisam

    2017-01-01

    An approximation of the fractional Brownian motion based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is used to obtain an asymptotic likelihood function. Two estimators of the Hurst index are then presented in the likelihood approach. The first estimator is produced according to the observed values of the sample path; while the second one employs the likelihood function of the incremental process. We also employ visual roughness of realization to restrict the parameter space and to obtain prior information in Bayesian approach. The methods are then compared with three contemporary estimators and an experimental data set is studied. PMID:28195153

  1. Time- and memory-efficient representation of complex mesoscale potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Grigory; Ostanin, Igor; Oseledets, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    We apply the modern technique of approximation of multivariate functions - tensor train cross approximation - to the problem of the description of physical interactions between complex-shaped bodies in a context of computational nanomechanics. In this note we showcase one particular example - van der Waals interactions between two cylindrical bodies - relevant to modeling of carbon nanotube systems. The potential is viewed as a tensor (multidimensional table) which is represented in compact form with the help of tensor train decomposition. The described approach offers a universal solution for the description of van der Waals interactions between complex-shaped nanostructures and can be used within the framework of such systems of mesoscale modeling as recently emerged mesoscopic distinct element method (MDEM).

  2. Diapycnal mixing by meso-scale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    The mean available potential energy released by baroclinic instability into the meso-scale eddy field has to be dissipated in some way and Tandon and Garrett [Tandon, A., Garrett, C., 1996. On a recent parameterization of mesoscale eddies. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 26 (3), 406-416] suggested that this dissipation could ultimately involve irreversible mixing of buoyancy by molecular processes at the small-scale end of the turbulence cascade. We revisit this idea and argue that the presence of dissipation within the thermocline automatically requires that a component of the eddy flux associated with meso-scale eddies must be associated with irreversible mixing of buoyancy within the thermocline. We offer a parameterisation of the implied diapycnal diffusivity based on (i) the dissipation rate for eddy kinetic energy given by the meso-scale eddy closure of Eden and Greatbatch [Eden, C., Greatbatch, R.J., 2008. Towards a meso-scale eddy closure. Ocean Modell. 20, 223-239.] and (ii) a fixed mixing efficiency. The implied eddy-induced diapycnal diffusivity ( κ) is implemented in a coarse resolution model of the North Atlantic. In contrast to the vertical diffusivity given by a standard vertical mixing scheme, large lateral inhomogeneities can be found for κ in the interior of the ocean. In general, κ is large, i.e. up to o(10) cm 2/s, near the western boundaries and almost vanishing in the interior of the ocean.

  3. The US DOE A2e Mesoscale to Microscale Coupling Project: Nonstationary Modeling Techniques and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, Sue Ellen; Kosovic, Branko; Shaw, William

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the US DOE's Mesoscale-Microscale Coupling (MMC) Project is to develop, verify, and validate physical models and modeling techniques that bridge the most important atmospheric scales that determine wind plant performance and reliability. As part of DOE's Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) program, the MMC project seeks to create a new predictive numerical simulation capability that is able to represent the full range of atmospheric flow conditions impacting wind plant performance. The recent focus of MMC has been on nonstationary conditions over flat terrain. These nonstationary cases are critical for wind energy and represent a primary need for mesoscale meteorological forcing of the microscale models. The MMC team modeled two types of non-stationary cases: 1) diurnal cycles in which the daytime convective boundary layer collapses with the setting of the sun when the surface heat flux changes from positive to negative, passing through a brief period of neutral stability before becoming stable, with smaller scale turbulence and the potential for low level jet (LLJ) formation; and 2) frontal passage as an example of a synoptic weather event that may cause relatively rapid changes in wind speed and direction. The team compared and contrasted two primary techniques for non-stationary forcing of the microscale by the mesoscale model. The first is to use the tendencies from the mesoscale model to directly force the microscale mode. The second method is to couple not only the microscale domain's internal forcing parameters, but also its lateral boundaries, to a mesoscale simulation. While the boundary coupled approach provides the greatest generality, since the mesoscale flow information providing the lateral boundary information for the microscale domain contains no explicit turbulence information, the approach requires methods to accelerate turbulence production at the microscale domain's inflow boundaries. Forefront assessment strategies, including comparing

  4. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  5. Intrinsic Nilpotent Approximation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A1II58 265 INTRINSIC NILPOTENT APPROXIMATION(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST 1/2 OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR INFORMATION AND, DECISION UMCLRSSI SYSTEMS C...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Intrinsic Nilpotent Approximation Technical Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER LIDS-R-1482 7. AUTHOR(.) S...certain infinite-dimensional filtered Lie algebras L by (finite-dimensional) graded nilpotent Lie algebras or g . where x E M, (x,,Z) E T*M/O. It

  6. Impact of submesoscales on surface material distribution in a gulf of Mexico mesoscale eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haza, A. C.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Hogan, P.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding material distribution at the ocean's surface is important for a number of applications, in particular for buoyant pollutants such as oil spills. The main tools to estimate surface flows are satellite altimeters, as well as data-assimilative ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). Current-generation altimeter products rely on the geostrophic approximation to derive surface currents. Recent modeling and experimental work revealed existence of ageostrophic submesoscale motions within the upper ocean boundary layer. The next frontier is how submesoscales influence transport pathways in the upper ocean, which is a multi-scale problem involving the interaction of submesoscale and mesoscale coherent structures. Here we focus on a mesoscale eddy that exhibits submesoscale fluctuations along its rim. The high-resolution OCGM fields are then treated with two filters. A Lanczos filter is applied to velocity fields to remove the kinetic energy over the submesoscales. Then a Gaussian filter is used for the modeled sea surface height to simulate a geostrophic velocity field that would be available from gridded satellite altimeter data. Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) are then generated from full-resolution and filtered fields to compare Lagrangian characteristics corresponding to different realizations of the surface velocity fields. It is found that while mesoscale currents exert a general control over the pathways of the tracer initially launched in the mesoscale eddy, there is a leak across the mesoscale transport barriers, induced by submesoscale motions. This leak is quantified as 20% of the tracer when using the submesoscale filter over one month of advection, while it increases to 50% using the geostrophic velocity field. We conclude that LCS computed from mesoscale surface velocity fields can be considered as a good first-order proxy, but the leakage of material across them in the presence of submesoscales can be significant.

  7. Chemistry on the mesoscale: Modeling and measurement issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne; Pleim, John; Walcek, Christopher; Ching, Jason; Binkowski, Frank; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Dickerson, Russell; Pickering, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) -- a coupled chemistry/mesoscale model; convection in RADM; unresolved issues for mesoscale modeling with chemistry -- nonprecipitating clouds; unresolved issues for mesoscale modeling with chemistry -- aerosols; tracer studies with Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCEM); field observations of trace gas transport in convection; and photochemical consequences of convection.

  8. Anisotropic mesoscale eddy transport in ocean general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, Scott; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2014-11-01

    In modern climate models, the effects of oceanic mesoscale eddies are introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion and potential vorticity barriers, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters from one to three: major diffusivity, minor diffusivity, and alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved by parameterizing the oceanic anisotropic transport mechanisms.

  9. Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Alaska: Observations and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovegno, Peter

    Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Alaska are thought to contribute to the shelf-slope exchange of nutrients and plankton, enhancing biological production. We report on a study of two anticyclonic mesoscale eddies in this region observed through in situ sampling during August and September 2007. Both eddies exhibited in their cores theta-S profiles with warmer, fresher water relative to the properties of the ambient basin water between 150 and 300 m depth. Hydrographic properties and satellite altimetry data were analyzed to identify likely formation regions for each feature. One eddy, sampled near Yakutat, Alaska, originated in the Sitka formation region (221-223° E); the second eddy, sampled south of Kodiak Island, originated near the Kenai Peninsula, southeast of the Kennedy and Stevenson entrances to Cook Inlet—an area not previously studied as a formation region. Subsequent analysis of 16 years of satellite altimeter data (from 1992 to 2008) with an algorithm designed to identify and track eddies revealed approximately 6 Kenai eddies that have formed in this region. Although this number constitutes only 3.2% of the 188 eddies identified by the algorithm during this period, it represents 15.4% of the 39 eddies that formed in or propagated westward into the Alaskan Stream.

  10. Mesoscale variability observed in the Northern Adriatic in autumn 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasaric, Zoran; Iva, Medjugorac; Nastjenka, Supic; Tamara, Djakovac; Mirko, Orlic

    2017-04-01

    Quasi-synoptic measurements of hydrographic properties were performed in the Northern Adriatic along the transect extending from Rovinj to the Po River mouth in an approximately east-west direction. The depth along the transect slowly varies between 30 and 40 m. Three one-day cruises were conducted, the first on 12 Nov, the second on 18 Nov, and the third on 25 Nov 2016. During the first and the third cruise the sampling was done with a CTD probe lowered from the surface to the bottom, at eleven stations placed nearly equidistantly along the transect. Average distance between the stations was 6 km. The second cruise was conducted with a towed yo-yo profiler equipped with the CTD probe and continuously undulating between the surface and some 4 m above the bottom. With roughly three undulations per kilometer, horizontal resolution along the transect was about 200 m. The data suggest that three processes occurred during the cruises: 1) surface cooling and related vertical mixing, 2) intrusion of high-salinity waters into the western part of the transect, and 3) propagation of a mesoscale formation in a westward direction. The existence and propagation of the mesoscale feature is supported by a simple analytical model of topographic Rossby waves. By assuming that the bottom varies linearly in the direction perpendicular to the transect, the propagation speed of O(1 km/day) is obtained - in agreement with the observations.

  11. Dynamic Model of Mesoscale Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovikov, Mikhail S.

    2003-04-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies which are analogs of well known synoptic eddies (cyclones and anticyclones), are studied on the basis of the turbulence model originated by Dubovikov (Dubovikov, M.S., "Dynamical model of turbulent eddies", Int. J. Mod. Phys.B7, 4631-4645 (1993).) and further developed by Canuto and Dubovikov (Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: I. General formalism", Phys. Fluids8, 571-586 (1996a) (CD96a); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: II. Sheardriven flows", Phys. Fluids8, 587-598 (1996b) (CD96b); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S., Cheng, Y. and Dienstfrey, A., "A dynamical model for turbulence: III. Numerical results", Phys. Fluids8, 599-613 (1996c)(CD96c); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Dienstfrey, A., "A dynamical model for turbulence: IV. Buoyancy-driven flows", Phys. Fluids9, 2118-2131 (1997a) (CD97a); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: V. The effect of rotation", Phys. Fluids9, 2132-2140 (1997b) (CD97b); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Wielaard, D.J., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VI. Two dimensional turbulence", Phys. Fluids9, 2141-2147 (1997c) (CD97c); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "Physical regimes and dimensional structure of rotating turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 666-669 (1997d) (CD97d); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Dienstfrey, A., "Turbulent convection in a spectral model", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 662-665 (1997e) (CD97e); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A new approach to turbulence", Int. J. Mod. Phys.12, 3121-3152 (1997f) (CD97f); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "Two scaling regimes for rotating Raleigh-Benard convection", Phys. Rev. Letters78, 281-284, (1998) (CD98); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VII. The five invariants for shear driven flows", Phys. Fluids11, 659-664 (1999a) (CD99a); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Yu, G., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VIII. IR and UV

  12. Mesoscale imaging with cryo-light and X-rays: Larger than molecular machines, smaller than a cell

    PubMed Central

    Ekman, Axel A.; Chen, Jian-Hua; Guo, Jessica; McDermott, Gerry; Le Gros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of cell biology, the term mesoscale describes length scales ranging from that of an individual cell, down to the size of the molecular machines. In this spatial regime, small building blocks self-organise to form large, functional structures. A comprehensive set of rules governing mesoscale self-organisation has not been established, making the prediction of many cell behaviours difficult, if not impossible. Our knowledge of mesoscale biology comes from experimental data, in particular, imaging. Here, we explore the application of soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to imaging the mesoscale, and describe the structural insights this technology can generate. We also discuss how SXT imaging is complemented by the addition of correlative fluorescence data measured from the same cell. This combination of two discrete imaging modalities produces a 3D view of the cell that blends high-resolution structural information with precise molecular localisation data. PMID:27690365

  13. The Role of Mesoscale Variability on Plankton Dynamics in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcon, Veronique C.; Oschlies, Andreas; Doney, Scott C.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Waniek, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    The intensive field observational phase of JGOFS in the North Atlantic Ocean has shown the importance of oceanic mesoscale variability on biogeochemical cycles and on the strength of the ocean biological pump. Mesoscale physical dynamics govern the major time/space scales of bulk biological variability (biomass, production, and export). Mesoscale eddies seem to have a strong impact on the ecosystem structure and functioning, but observational evidence is rather limited. For the signature of the mesoscale features to exist in the ecosystem, the comparison of temporal scales of formation and evolution of mesoscale features and reaction of the ecosystem is a key factor. Biological patterns are driven by active changes in biological source and sink terms rather than simply by passive turbulent mixing. A first modelling assessment of the regional balances between horizontal and vertical eddy-induced nutrient supplies in the euphotic zone shows that the horizontal transport predominates over the vertical route in the subtropical gyre, whereas the reverse holds true for the other biogeochemical provinces of the North Atlantic. Presently, despite some difference in numbers, the net impact of modelled eddies yields an enhancement of the biological productivity in most provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean. Key issues remaining include variation on the mesoscale of subsurface particle and dissolved organic matter remineralization, improved knowledge of the ecological response to patterns of variability, synopticity in mesoscale surveys along with refining measures of biogeochemical time/space variability. Eventual success of assimilation of in situ and satellite data, still in its infancy in coupled physical/biogeochemical models, will be crucial to achieve JGOFS synthesis in answering which data are most informative, standing stocks or rates, and which ones are relevant. Depending on which end of the spectrum quantification of the effect of mesoscale features on production

  14. The Role of Mesoscale Variability on Plankton Dynamics in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcon, Veronique, C.; Oschlies, Andreas; Doney, Scott C.; Mcgillicuddy, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The intensive field observational phase of JGOFS in the North Atlantic Ocean has shown the importance of oceanic mesoscale variability on biogeochemical cycles and on the strength of the ocean biological pump. Mesoscale physical dynamics govern the major time/space scales of bulk biological variability (biomass, production and export). Mesoscale eddies seem to have a strong impact on the ecosystem structure and functioning, but observational evidence is rather limited. For the signature of the mesoscale features to exist in the ecosystem, the comparison of temporal scales of formation and evolution of mesoscale features and reaction of the ecosystem is a key factor. Biological patterns are driven by active changes in biological source and sink terms rather than simply by passive turbulent mixing. A first modelling assessment of the regional balances between horizontal and vertical eddy-induced nutrient supplies in the euphotic zone shows that the horizontal transport predominates over the vertical route in the subtropical gyre, whereas the reverse holds true for the other biogeochemical provinces of the North Atlantic. Presently. despite some difference in numbers, the net impact of modelled eddies yields an enhancement of the biological productivity in most provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean. Key issues remaining include variation on the mesoscale of subsurface particle and dissolved organic matter remineralization, improved knowledge of the ecological response to patterns of variability, synopticity in mesoscale surveys along with refining measures of biogeochemical time/space variability. Eventual success of assimilation of in situ and satellite data, still in its infancy in coupled physical/biogeochemical models, will be crucial to achieve JGOFS synthesis in answering which data are most informative, standing stocks or rates, and which ones are relevant. Depending on which end of the spectrum quantification of the effect of mesoscale features on production

  15. The Role of Mesoscale Variability on Plankton Dynamics in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcon, Veronique C.; Oschlies, Andreas; Doney, Scott C.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Waniek, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    The intensive field observational phase of JGOFS in the North Atlantic Ocean has shown the importance of oceanic mesoscale variability on biogeochemical cycles and on the strength of the ocean biological pump. Mesoscale physical dynamics govern the major time/space scales of bulk biological variability (biomass, production, and export). Mesoscale eddies seem to have a strong impact on the ecosystem structure and functioning, but observational evidence is rather limited. For the signature of the mesoscale features to exist in the ecosystem, the comparison of temporal scales of formation and evolution of mesoscale features and reaction of the ecosystem is a key factor. Biological patterns are driven by active changes in biological source and sink terms rather than simply by passive turbulent mixing. A first modelling assessment of the regional balances between horizontal and vertical eddy-induced nutrient supplies in the euphotic zone shows that the horizontal transport predominates over the vertical route in the subtropical gyre, whereas the reverse holds true for the other biogeochemical provinces of the North Atlantic. Presently, despite some difference in numbers, the net impact of modelled eddies yields an enhancement of the biological productivity in most provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean. Key issues remaining include variation on the mesoscale of subsurface particle and dissolved organic matter remineralization, improved knowledge of the ecological response to patterns of variability, synopticity in mesoscale surveys along with refining measures of biogeochemical time/space variability. Eventual success of assimilation of in situ and satellite data, still in its infancy in coupled physical/biogeochemical models, will be crucial to achieve JGOFS synthesis in answering which data are most informative, standing stocks or rates, and which ones are relevant. Depending on which end of the spectrum quantification of the effect of mesoscale features on production

  16. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  17. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one

  18. Meso-Scale Modeling of Polycrystal Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hojun

    Computational material modeling of material is essential to accelerate material/process design and reduce costs in wide variety of applications. In particular, multi-scale models are gaining momentum in many fields as computers become faster, and finer structures become accessible experimentally. An effective (i.e. sufficiently accurate and fast to have practical impact) multi-scale model of dislocation-based metal plasticity may have many important applications such as metal forming. A two-scale method to predict quantitatively the Hall-Petch effect, as well as dislocation densities and lattice curvatures throughout a polycrystal, has been developed and implemented. Based on a finite element formulation, the first scale is called a Grain-Scale Simulation (GSS) that is standard except for using novel single-crystal constitutive equations that were proposed and tested as part of this work (and which are informed from the second model scale). The GSS allows the determination of local stresses, strains, and slip magnitudes while enforcing compatibility and equilibrium throughout a polycrystal in a finite element sense. The second scale is called here a Meso-Scale Simulation (MSS) which is novel in concept and application. It redistributes the mobile part of the dislocation density within grains consistent with the plastic strain distribution, and enforces slip transmission criteria at grain boundaries that depend on local grain and boundary properties. Stepwise simulation at the two scales proceeds sequentially in order to predict the spatial distribution of dislocation density and the flow stress for each slip system within each grain, and each simulation point. The MSS was formulated with the minimum number of undermined or arbitrary parameters, three. Two of these are related to the shape of the strain hardening curve and the other represents the initial yield. These parameters do not invoke additional length scales. The new model made possible the following

  19. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-08-04

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process.

  20. Flow and Regime Dependent Mesoscale Predictability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    mesoscales is inherently limited. (5) Public response to Hurricane forecast uncertainty along the Texas Coast (Zhang et al. 2007; Morss and Zhang 2007...review process]. 16. Zhang, F., 2007: Inherent uncertainties in hurricane forecast : A case study. Geophysical Research Letters [in review process

  1. Mesoscale landscape model of gypsy moth phenology

    Treesearch

    Joseph M. Russo; John G. W. Kelley; Andrew M. Liebhold

    1991-01-01

    A recently-developed high resolution climatological temperature data base was input into a gypsy moth phenology model. The high resolution data were created from a coupling of 30-year averages of station observations and digital elevation data. The resultant maximum and minimum temperatures have about a 1 km resolution which represents meteorologically the mesoscale....

  2. Practical Limits to Atmospheric Mesoscale Predictability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    is to run a series of numerical model experiments using different data assimilation methods and the same observational samples and determine the...Miller, 2002: Landfalling cyclone forecast sensitivity to varying data assimilation methods in a mesoscale model. Preprints of 10th Conference on Mountain Meteorology, Park City, UT, June 17-21, 2002

  3. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle size histograms, TEM, EDX and electron diffraction data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00158a

  4. Mesoscale Theory of Grains and Cells: Crystal Plasticity and Coarsening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkumnerd, Surachate; Sethna, James P.

    2006-03-01

    Crystals with spatial variations in their axes naturally evolve into cells or grains separated by sharp walls. At high temperatures, polycrystalline grains form from the melt and coarsen with time: the dislocations can both climb and glide. At low temperatures under shear the dislocations (which allow only glide) form into cell structures. We present here a mesoscale theory of dislocation motion. It provides a quantitative description of deformation and rotation, grounded in a microscopic order parameter field exhibiting the topologically conserved quantities. The topological current of the Nye dislocation density tensor is derived from a microscopic theory of glide driven by Peach-Koehler forces between dislocations using a simple closure approximation. The resulting theory is shown to form sharp dislocation walls in finite time, both with and without dislocation climb.

  5. Mesoscale wetfall chemistry around Philadelphia during frontal storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrinos, A. A. N.; Brown, R. M.

    Preliminary results from a mesoscale "acid rain" study are presented. The study concentrates on precipitation-event sampling at a network of ˜40 stations located between 20 km and 60 km from the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with the goal of establishing the contribution of local emissions to the total ionic wet deposition load and of determining the spatial variability of this deposition on the suburban-rural scale. Two storms associated with weak warm fronts and displaying similar meteorological features were sampled successfully. For the first, urban emissions appear to have significantly affected the deposition of several inorganic ionic species, most notably NO3- no effect was evident for the second storm. A possible explanation of the apparent contrast is given in terms of the weekday-weekend emissions variability. A sampling density of approximately one collector per 200 to 300 km² appears adequate for both storms.

  6. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of non-crystallizing filled elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, Ajay B.; Wriggers, Peter; Jungk, Juliane; Hojdis, Nils; Recker, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Elastomers are exceptional materials owing to their ability to undergo large deformations before failure. However, due to their very low stiffness, they are not always suitable for industrial applications. Addition of filler particles provides reinforcing effects and thus enhances the material properties that render them more versatile for applications like tyres etc. However, deformation behavior of filled polymers is accompanied by several nonlinear effects like Mullins and Payne effect. To this day, the physical and chemical changes resulting in such nonlinear effect remain an active area of research. In this work, we develop a heterogeneous (or multiphase) constitutive model at the mesoscale explicitly considering filler particle aggregates, elastomeric matrix and their mechanical interaction through an approximate interface layer. The developed constitutive model is used to demonstrate cluster breakage, also, as one of the possible sources for Mullins effect observed in non-crystallizing filled elastomers.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED AREA AVERAGED VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

  8. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED AREA AVERAGED VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

  9. Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Over Antarctica: The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Jordan G.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Cayette, Arthur M.; Bromwich, David H.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Manning, Kevin W.

    2003-11-01

    *Byrd Polar Research Center Contribution Number 1276In support of the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the Byrd Polar Research Center of The Ohio State University have created the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS): an experimental, real-time mesoscale modeling system covering Antarctica. AMPS has been designed to serve flight forecasters at McMurdo Station, to support science and operations around the continent, and to be a vehicle for the development of physical parameterizations suitable for polar regions. Since 2000, AMPS has been producing high-resolution forecasts (grids to 3.3 km) with the “Polar MM5,” a version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University NCAR Mesoscale Model tuned for the polar atmosphere. Beyond its basic mission of serving the USAP flight forecasters at McMurdo, AMPS has assisted both in emergency operations to save lives and in programs to explore the extreme polar environment. The former have included a medical evacuation from the South Pole and a marine rescue from the continental margin. The latter have included scientific field campaigns and the daily activities of international Antarctic forecasters and researchers. The AMPS program has been a success in terms of advancing polar mesoscale NWP, serving critical logistical operations of the USAP, and, most visibly, assisting in emergency rescue missions to save lives. The history and performance of AMPS are described and the successes of this unique real-time mesoscale modeling system in crisis support are detailed.

  10. Mesoscale cloud phenomena observed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Examples of certain mesoscale cloud features - jet cirrus, eddies/vortices, cloud banding, and wave clouds - were collected from LANDSAT imagery and placed into Mason's four groups of causes of cloud formation based on the mechanism of vertical motion which produces condensation. These groups are as follows: (1) layer clouds formed by widespread regular ascent; (2) layer clouds caused by irregular stirring motions; (3) convective clouds; and (4) clouds formed by orographic disturbances. These mechanisms explain general cloud formation. Once formed, other forces may play a role in the deformation of a cloud or cloud mass into unusual and unique meso- and microscale patterns. Each example presented is followed by a brief discussion describing the synoptic situation, and some inference into the formation and occurrence of the more salient features. No major attempt was made to discuss in detail the meteorological and topographic interplay producing these mesoscale features.

  11. Low Reynolds number hydrodynamics and mesoscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Roland G.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrodynamics and hydrodynamic interactions are fundamental for the motility of microswimmers. This includes the propulsion mechanism itself, the synchronized motion of flagella in flagellar bundles and beating cilia of cilia arrays, and even extends to collective behaviors. The general importance of hydrodynamics has stimulated the development of mesoscale simulation approaches to efficiently study dynamical properties of objects embedded in a fluid. In this minireview, the properties of flows at low Reynolds numbers are discussed, thereby the unsteady acceleration term is typically taken into account (Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes equations). Specifically, the synchronization of microrotors by time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions is discussed and the propulsion of a rotating helix. Moreover, the multiparticle collisions dynamics method (MPC), a mesoscale simulation approach for fluids, is outlined. Simulation results for the flow field of a model E. Coli bacterium and its swimming behavior next to a surface are presented.

  12. Modeling mesoscale circulation of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    An eddy-resolving (1/30)° version of the DieCAST low-dissipative model, adapted to the Black Sea circulation, is presented. Under mean climatological forcing, the model realistically reproduces major dominant large-scale and mesoscale structures of seasonal sea circulation, including the Rim Current, coastal anticyclonic eddies, mushroom currents, etc. Due to its extremely low dissipation and high resolution, the model makes it possible to trace the development of the baroclinic instability along the Turkish and Caucasian coasts, reproduce mesoscale structures generated by this mechanism, and assess the scales of these structures. The model also realistically reproduces short-term effects of bora winds on the evolution of subsurface layer structures.

  13. Influence of Mesoscale Eddies on New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy , Dennis J., Jr.; Robinson, A. R.; Siegel, D. A.; Jannasch, H. W.; Johnson, R.; Dickey, T. D.; McNeil, J.; Michaels, A. F.; Knap, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    It is problematic that geochemical estimates of new production - that fraction of total primary production in surface waters fueled by externally supplied nutrients - in oligotrophic waters of the open ocean surpass that which can be sustained by the traditionally accepted mechanisms of nutrient supply. In the case of the Sargasso Sea, for example, these mechanisms account for less than half of the annual nutrient requirement indicated by new production estimates based on three independent transient-tracer techniques. Specifically, approximately one-quarter to one-third of the annual nutrient requirement can be supplied by entrainment into the mixed layer during wintertime convection, with minor contributions from mixing in the thermocline and wind-driven transport (the potentially important role of nitrogen fixation - for which estimates vary by an order of magnitude in this region - is excluded from this budget). Here we present four lines of evidence - eddy-resolving model simulations, high-resolution observations from moored instrumentation, shipboard surveys, and satellite data - which suggest that the vertical flux of nutrients induced by the dynamics of mesoscale eddies is sufficient to balance the nutrient budget in the Sargasso Sea. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Thermophoresis of colloids by mesoscale simulations.

    PubMed

    Lüsebrink, Daniel; Yang, Mingcheng; Ripoll, Marisol

    2012-07-18

    The motion of a colloid induced by a temperature gradient is simulated by means of multiparticle collision dynamics, a mesoscale simulation technique. Two algorithms to quantify the thermophoretic behavior are employed and contrasted. The validity of the methods is verified as a function of the temperature gradient, system size, and algorithm parameters. The variation of the solvent-colloid interaction from attractive to purely repulsive interestingly results in the change of the colloid behavior from thermophobic to thermophilic.

  15. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  16. A history of mesoscale model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudhia, Jimy

    2014-01-01

    The development of atmospheric mesoscale models from their early origins in the 1970's until the present day is described. Evolution has occurred in dynamical and physics representations in these models. The dynamics has had to change from hydrostatic to fully nonhydrostatic equations to handle the finer scales that have become possible in the last few decades with advancing computer power, which has enabled real-time forecasting to go to finer grid sizes. Meanwhile the physics has also become more sophisticated than the initial representations of the major processes associated with the surface, boundary layer, radiation, clouds and convection. As resolutions have become finer, mesoscale models have had to change paradigms associated with assumptions related to what is considered sub-grid scale needing parameterization, and what is resolved well enough to be explicitly handled by the dynamics. This first occurred with cumulus parameterization as real-time forecast models became able to represent individual updrafts, and is now starting to occur in the boundary layer as future forecast models may be able resolve individual thermals. Beyond that, scientific research has provided a greater understanding of detailed microphysical and land-surface processes that are important to aspects of weather prediction, and these parameterizations have been developing complexity at a steady rate. This paper can just give a perspective of these developments in the broad field of research associated with mesoscale atmospheric model development.

  17. Saharan Cyclogenesis As Seen From Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, K.; Simmer, C.

    In order to study causes of longterm rainfall variability in Northwestafrica in the framework of IMPETUS Westafrica, typical rainfall events--extratropical fronts, oro- graphically triggered thunderstorms, advection of moist tropical air--were examined in detail using the Lokalmodell (LM) of the German Weather Service. One of the most interesting types of rainfall bearing phenomena are Saharan cyclones, which form usu- ally in the lee of the Atlas Mountains. They have been subject to some studies in the past, because they may be connected with severe dust storms and strong rainfall even in the dry season. With their relatively small vertical extent, their short lifetime and - in most cases - their absence of a clearly visible cold front, they seem to be typical mesoscale cyclones. Nevertheless, a closer view shows that these cyclones are con- nected with strong inactive synoptic scale cold fronts. Multiscale interactions, i. e. thunderstorms occurring in the warm sector of Saharan cyclones, rapid movement and synoptic scale forcing makes them to interesting objects for mesoscale modelling. The convection parameterization--which has to be adapted to the mesoscale-- as well as the nesting into initial and boundary data are very important for the development of Saharan cyclones in the model environment.

  18. Southern Hemisphere strong polar mesoscale cyclones in high-resolution datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezza, Alexandre; Sadler, Katherine; Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo; Mesquita, Michel D. S.; Reid, Phil

    2016-09-01

    Mesoscale cyclones are small low-pressure systems (usually <500 km in radius) that often appear embedded in synoptic structures. These events can be weak and short lived or vigorous and destructive. Here we use an automatic tracking scheme to investigate two subsets of Southern Hemisphere mesoscale cyclones that are strong and have the potential to cause damage, namely "polar lows" (i.e., strong and short lived) and "explosive cyclones" (i.e., rapid intensification but not necessarily short lived). A short climatology (2009-2012) is obtained by using high resolution (0.5°) Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) mean sea level pressure. The results show a significant improvement of spatial detail compared to the 0.75° resolution ERA-interim dataset, with a total count approximately 46 % higher in AMPS. The subset of mesoscale cyclones that are explosive is small, with a total genesis number of about 13 % that of polar lows. In addition, only about 1 % of the polar lows are explosive, suggesting that cyclones that undergo rapid intensification tend to become larger longer lived (and hence are no longer regarded as polar lows). Mesoscale cyclones are more frequent in winter, with a maximum concentration around the Antarctic but also occurring as far north as Tasmania and New Zealand. Analysis of sensible heat flux and sea ice extent anomalies during the genesis days shows that there is a large spread of genesis points over both positive and negative flux anomalies in winter, with a somewhat random pattern in the other seasons.

  19. Random-forcing model of the mesoscale oceanic eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berloff, Pavel S.

    2005-04-01

    The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies in driving large-scale currents is studied in an eddy-resolving midlatitude double-gyre ocean model. The reference solution is decomposed into large-scale and eddy components in a way which is dynamically consistent with a non-eddy-resolving ocean model. That is, the non-eddy-resolving solution driven by this eddy-forcing history, calculated on the basis of this decomposition, correctly approximates the original flow. The main effect of the eddy forcing on the large-scale flow is to enhance the eastward-jet extension of the subtropical western boundary current. This is an anti-diffusive process, which cannot be represented in terms of turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the eddy-forcing history can be approximated as a space-time correlated, random-forcing process in such a way that the non-eddy-resolving solution correctly approximates the reference solution. Thus, the random-forcing model can potentially replace the diffusion model, which is commonly used to parameterize eddy effects on the large-scale currents. The eddy-forcing statistics are treated as spatially inhomogeneous but stationary, and the dynamical roles of space-time correlations and spatial inhomogeneities are systematically explored. The integral correlation time, oscillations of the space correlations, and inhomogeneity of the variance are found to be particularly important for the flow response.

  20. Mesoscale Processes in Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    develop improved understanding and prediction of the atmosphere, with particular emphasis on tropical cyclones. Our work encompasses research into basic...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE...and development; an analysis of the predictability of tropical cyclone tracks; the Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting; and several

  1. Mesoscale model forecast verification during monsoon 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrit, Raghavendra; Mohandas, Saji

    2010-08-01

    There have been very few mesoscale modelling studies of the Indian monsoon, with focus on the verification and intercomparison of the operational real time forecasts. With the exception of Das et al (2008), most of the studies in the literature are either the case studies of tropical cyclones and thunderstorms or the sensitivity studies involving physical parameterization or climate simulation studies. Almost all the studies are based on either National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), USA, final analysis fields (NCEP FNL) or the reanalysis data used as initial and lateral boundary conditions for driving the mesoscale model. Here we present a mesoscale model forecast verification and intercomparison study over India involving three mesoscale models: (i) the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), USA, (ii) the MM5 model developed by NCAR, and (iii) the Eta model of the NCEP, USA. The analysis is carried out for the monsoon season, June to September 2008. This study is unique since it is based entirely on the real time global model forecasts of the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) T254 global analysis and forecast system. Based on the evaluation and intercomparison of the mesoscale model forecasts, we recommend the best model for operational real-time forecasts over the Indian region. Although the forecast mean 850 hPa circulation shows realistic monsoon flow and the monsoon trough, the systematic errors over the Arabian Sea indicate an easterly bias to the north (of mean flow) and westerly bias to the south (of mean flow). This suggests that the forecasts feature a southward shift in the monsoon current. The systematic error in the 850 hPa temperature indicates that largely the WRF model forecasts feature warm bias and the MM5 model forecasts feature cold bias. Features common to all the three models include warm bias over northwest India and cold bias over

  2. Turbulence measurements in a rectangular mesoscale confined impinging jets reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somashekar, Vishwanath; Liu, Ying; Fox, Rodney O.; Olsen, Michael G.

    2012-12-01

    Mesoscale chemical reactors capable of operating in the turbulent flow regime, such as confined impinging jets reactors (CIJR), offer many advantages for rapid chemical processing at the microscale. One application where these reactors are used is flash nanoprecipitation, a method for producing functional nanoparticles. Because these reactors often operate in a flow regime just beyond transition to turbulence, modeling flows in these reactors can be problematic. Moreover, validation of computational fluid dynamics models requires detailed and accurate experimental data, the availability of which has been very limited for turbulent microscale flows. In this work, microscopic particle image velocimetry (microPIV) was performed in a mesoscale CIJR at inlet jet Reynolds numbers of 200, 1,000, and 1,500. Pointwise and spacial turbulence statistics were calculated from the microPIV data. The flow was observed to be laminar and steady in the entire reactor at a Reynolds number of 200. However, at jets Reynolds numbers of 1,000 and 1,500, instabilities as a result of the jets impinging along the centerline of the reactor lead to a highly turbulent impingement region. The peak magnitude of the normalized Reynolds normal and shear stresses within this region were approximately the same for the Reynolds numbers of 1,000 and 1,500. The Reynolds shear stress was found to exhibit a butterfly shape, consistent with a flow field dominated by an oblique rocking of the impingement zone about the center of the reactor. Finally, the spatial auto- and cross-correlations velocity fluctuations were calculated and analyzed to obtain an understanding of size of the coherent structures.

  3. Robust parametric models of runoff characteristics at the mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, Luis; Bárdossy, András

    2005-03-01

    Many hydrologic studies report that runoff characteristics such as means or extremes of a given basin may be modified due to climatic and/or land use/cover changes and that the magnitude of these changes largely depends on the geographic location and the scale at which the study is carried out. Identifying the main causes of variability at the mesoscale, however, is a challenging task because of the lack of data regarding the spatial distribution of relevant explanatory variables and, if they exist, because of their high uncertainty. This study proposes a general method to find a robust non-linear model by solving a constrained multiobjective optimization problem whose solution space is composed of all feasible combinations of given explanatory variables. As a result, a model that simultaneously fulfills several criteria such as parsimony, robustness, significance, and overall performance is expected. Furthermore, it does not require assumptions regarding the sampling distributions neither of the parameters nor of the estimators because their p-values are estimated by a non-parametric technique. Finally, there is no limitation with respect to the functional form adopted for a given model and its estimator because a generalized reduced gradient algorithm is used for the calibration of its parameters. The proposed method was tested in the upper catchment of the Neckar River (Germany) covering an area of approximately 4000 km 2. The objective of this study was to detect trends and responses of runoff characteristics in mesoscale catchments due to changes of climatic or land use/cover conditions. In this case, the explained variables are the specific total discharge in summer and winter whereas the explanatory variables comprise several physiographic, land cover and climatic characteristics evaluated for 46 subcatchments during the period 1961-1993. The results of the study indicate a significant gain in performance and robustness of the selected models compared to

  4. On the interactions between planetary geostrophy and mesoscale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian; Julien, Keith; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2011-04-01

    Multiscale asymptotics are used to derive three systems of equations connecting the planetary geostrophic (PG) equations for gyre-scale flow to a quasigeostrophic (QG) equation set for mesoscale eddies. Pedlosky (1984), following similar analysis, found eddy buoyancy fluxes to have only a small effect on the large-scale flow; however, numerical simulations disagree. While the impact of eddies is relatively small in most regions, in keeping with Pedlosky's result, eddies have a significant effect on the mean flow in the vicinity of strong, narrow currents. First, the multiple-scales analysis of Pedlosky is reviewed and amplified. Novel results of this analysis include new multiple-scales models connecting large-scale PG equations to sets of QG eddy equations. However, only introducing anisotropic scaling of the large-scale coordinates allows us to derive a model with strong two-way coupling between the QG eddies and the PG mean flow. This finding reconciles the analysis with simulations, viz. that strong two-way coupling is observed in the vicinity of anisotropic features of the mean flow like boundary currents and jets. The relevant coupling terms are shown to be eddy buoyancy fluxes. Using the Gent-McWilliams parameterization to approximate these fluxes allows solution of the PG equations with closed tracer fluxes in a closed domain, which is not possible without mesoscale eddy (or other small-scale) effects. The boundary layer width is comparable to an eddy mixing length when the typical eddy velocity is taken to be the long Rossby wave phase speed, which is the same result found by Fox-Kemper and Ferrari (2009) in a reduced gravity layer.

  5. Individual nodeʼs contribution to the mesoscale of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimm, Florian; Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Zamora-López, Gorka

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of complex networks is devoted to the statistical characterization of the topology of graphs at different scales of organization in order to understand their functionality. While the modular structure of networks has become an essential element to better apprehend their complexity, the efforts to characterize the mesoscale of networks have focused on the identification of the modules rather than describing the mesoscale in an informative manner. Here we propose a framework to characterize the position every node takes within the modular configuration of complex networks and to evaluate their function accordingly. For illustration, we apply this framework to a set of synthetic networks, empirical neural networks, and to the transcriptional regulatory network of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We find that the architecture of both neuronal and transcriptional networks are optimized for the processing of multisensory information with the coexistence of well-defined modules of specialized components and the presence of hubs conveying information from and to the distinct functional domains.

  6. Mesoscale Simulations of CRYSTAL-FACE 23 July 2002 Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lare, Andrew; Demoz, Belay; Rickenbach, Thomas; Wang, Dong-Hai; Li, Li-Hua; Arnold, G. Thomas; Wang, Yan-Sen

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is to understand the relationships between properties of tropical convective cloud systems and the lifecycle of the extended cirrus anvils they produce. We report here on a case study of 23 July 2002 where a line of land-based convective storms was generated between Lake Okeechobee and the Florida east coast as a result of complex interactions between lake and sea breeze fronts and outflow boundaries. A central goal of this study is to develop a description of convective input to the anvil system and to quantify the ongoing dynamical forcing of anvil processes by mesoscale and large-scale dynamics. This information is then used to force high-resolution cloud simulations with a model that explicitly resolves cloud microphysical processes (bin model) for study of cirrus anvil microphysical development.

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of CRYSTAL-FACE 23 July 2002 Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lare, Andrew; Demoz, Belay; Rickenbach, Thomas; Wang, Dong-Hai; Li, Li-Hua; Arnold, G. Thomas; Wang, Yan-Sen

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is to understand the relationships between properties of tropical convective cloud systems and the lifecycle of the extended cirrus anvils they produce. We report here on a case study of 23 July 2002 where a line of land-based convective storms was generated between Lake Okeechobee and the Florida east coast as a result of complex interactions between lake and sea breeze fronts and outflow boundaries. A central goal of this study is to develop a description of convective input to the anvil system and to quantify the ongoing dynamical forcing of anvil processes by mesoscale and large-scale dynamics. This information is then used to force high-resolution cloud simulations with a model that explicitly resolves cloud microphysical processes (bin model) for study of cirrus anvil microphysical development.

  8. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, Davis L; Bingert, John F; Livescu, Veronica; Luo, Shengnian; Bronkhorst, C A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  9. Toward an extended-geostrophic Euler-Poincare model for mesoscale oceanographic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.S.; Newberger, P.A.; Holm, D.D.

    1998-07-01

    The authors consider the motion of a rotating, continuously stratified fluid governed by the hydrostatic primitive equations (PE). An approximate Hamiltonian (L1) model for small Rossby number {var_epsilon} is derived for application to mesoscale oceanographic flow problems. Numerical experiments involving a baroclinically unstable oceanic jet are utilized to assess the accuracy of the L1 model compared to the PE and to other approximate models, such as the quasigeostrophic (QG) and the geostrophic momentum (GM) equations. The results of the numerical experiments for moderate Rossby number flow show that the L1 model gives accurate solutions with errors substantially smaller than QG or GM.

  10. An investigation of the temporal character of mesoscale perturbations in the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of mesoscale models in explaining perturbations observed in vertical detailed wind profile measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is assessed. The structure and persistence of the data were analyzed and interpreted in terms of several physical models with the goal of establishing explanations for the observed persistent features of the mesoscale flow patterns. The experimental data used in the investigation were obtained by a unique detailed wind profile measurement system. This system is capable of providing resolution of 50 to 100 m wavelengths for the altitude region from approximately 200 m to 18 km. The system consists of a high-resolution tracking radar and special super-pressure balloon configuration known as a Jimsphere.

  11. Mesoscale Design of Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2016-09-09

    This is a final report for a transient program that was issued to Virginia Tech as a new program (DE-SC0001450), rather than as a renewal to our existing program (DE-FG02-06ER46290). The renewal proposal was submitted in November 2014, but because of confusion in the negotiations got issued as a new program. Subsequently, a correction was made where the new program (DE-SC0001450) was terminated, and a renewal to the existing program (DE-FG02-06ER46290) issued. About $8,000 was expended on the new program before the mistake was discovered, and actions begun to correct it. The Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech issued a ‘Letter of Guarantee’ to the University to continue work while the issues were sorted out. The renewal proposal (DE-FG02-06ER46290) that was eventually funded was the same one as the new proposal (DE-SC0001450) that was initially funded. The $8,000 expended on the new proposal was subtracted from the eventual amount given in the renewal proposal. Here, we submit the final report for this new program (DE-SC0001450) that was terminated. Since the Statement of Work was identical to the renewal proposal (DE-FG02-06ER46290), we submit to you as the final report for the new program (DE-SC0001450) the same information that we submitted as our annual report for DE-FG02-06ER46290 that was submitted to the program manager (Refik Kortan) in June 2016.

  12. Detection of mesoscale zones of atmospheric instabilities using remote sensing and weather forecasting model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnicki, I.; Jasinski, J.; Kroszczynski, K.; Pietrek, S.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents elements of research conducted in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy of the Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, concerning application of mesoscale models and remote sensing data to determining meteorological conditions of aircraft flight directly related with atmospheric instabilities. The quality of meteorological support of aviation depends on prompt and effective forecasting of weather conditions changes. The paper presents a computer module for detecting and monitoring zones of cloud cover, precipitation and turbulence along the aircraft flight route. It consists of programs and scripts for managing, processing and visualizing meteorological and remote sensing databases. The application was developed in Matlab® for Windows®. The module uses products of COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) mesoscale non-hydrostatic model of the atmosphere developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory, satellite images acquisition system from the MSG-2 (Meteosat Second Generation) of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and meteorological radars data acquired from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Warsaw, Poland. The satellite images acquisition system and the COAMPS model are run operationally in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy. The mesoscale model is run on an IA64 Feniks multiprocessor 64-bit computer cluster. The basic task of the module is to enable a complex analysis of data sets of miscellaneous information structure and to verify COAMPS results using satellite and radar data. The research is conducted using uniform cartographic projection of all elements of the database. Satellite and radar images are transformed into the Lambert Conformal projection of COAMPS. This facilitates simultaneous interpretation and supports decision making process for safe execution of flights. Forecasts are based on horizontal

  13. Intense mesoscale variability in the Sardinia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Aniello; Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Knoll, Michaela; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Heywood, Karen; Oddo, Paolo; Onken, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    From the 6 to 25 June 2014, the REP14-MED sea trial was conducted by CMRE, supported by 20 partners from six different nations. The at-sea activities were carried out onboard the research vessels Alliance (NATO) and Planet (German Ministry of Defense), comprising a marine area of about 110 x 110 km2 to the west of the Sardinian coast. More than 300 CTD casts typically spaced at 10 km were collected; both ships continuously recorded vertical profiles of currents by means of their ADCPs, and a ScanFish® and a CTD chain were towed for almost three days by Alliance and Planet, respectively, following parallel routes. Twelve gliders from different manufacturers (Slocum, SeaGliderTM and SeaExplorer) were continuously sampling the study area following zonal tracks spaced at 10 km. In addition, six moorings, 17 surface drifters and one ARVOR float were deployed. From a first analysis of the observations, several mesoscale features were identified in the survey area, in particular: (i) a warm-core anticyclonic eddy in the southern part of the domain, about 50 km in diameter and with the strongest signal at about 50-m depth (ii) another warm-core anticyclonic eddy of comparable dimensions in the central part of the domain, but extending to greater depth than the former one, and (iii) a small (less than 15 km in diameter) cold-core cyclonic eddy of Winter Intermediate Water in the depth range between 170 m and 370 m. All three eddies showed intensified currents, up to 50 cm s-1. The huge high-resolution observational data set and the variety of observation techniques enabled the mesoscale features and their variability to be tracked for almost three weeks. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the mesoscale dynamic behaviour and their interactions, assimilation studies with an ocean circulation model are underway.

  14. Subregional characterization of mesoscale eddies across the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; Gaube, Peter; Ruiz, Simón; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Delepoulle, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal and vertical motions associated with coherent mesoscale structures, including eddies and meanders, are responsible for significant global transports of many properties, including heat and mass. Mesoscale vertical fluxes also influence upper ocean biological productivity by mediating the supply of nutrients into the euphotic layer, with potential impacts on the global carbon cycle. The Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) is a western boundary current region in the South Atlantic with intense mesoscale activity. This region has an active role in the genesis and transformation of water masses and thus is a critical component of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The collision between the Malvinas and Brazil Currents over the Patagonian shelf/slope creates an energetic front that translates offshore to form a vigorous eddy field. Recent improvements in gridded altimetric sea level anomaly fields allow us to track BMC mesoscale eddies with high spatial and temporal resolutions using an automated eddy tracker. We characterize the eddies across fourteen 5° × 5° subregions. Eddy-centric composites of tracers and geostrophic currents diagnosed from a global reanalysis of surface and in situ data reveal substantial subregional heterogeneity. The in situ data are also used to compute the evolving quasi-geostrophic vertical velocity (QG-ω) associated with each instantaneous eddy instance. The QG-ω eddy composites have the expected dipole patterns of alternating upwelling/downwelling, however, the magnitude and sign of azimuthally averaged vertical velocity varies among subregions. Maximum eddy values are found near fronts and sharp topographic gradients. In comparison with regional eddy composites, subregional composites provide refined information about mesoscale eddy heterogeneity.

  15. Modeling Mesoscale Eddies in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Yi

    1999-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.

  16. Onset of meso-scale turbulence in active nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Thijssen, Kristian; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-05-01

    Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at low Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatiotemporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the collective behaviour in prominent biological processes, including biofilm formation, morphogenesis and cancer invasion. Despite its crucial role in such physiological processes, understanding meso-scale turbulence and any relation to classical inertial turbulence remains obscure. Here we show how the motion of active matter along a micro-channel transitions to meso-scale turbulence through the evolution of locally disordered patches (active puffs) from an ordered vortex-lattice flow state. We demonstrate that the stationary critical exponents of this transition to meso-scale turbulence in a channel coincide with the directed percolation universality class. This finding bridges our understanding of the onset of low-Reynolds-number meso-scale turbulence and traditional scale-invariant turbulence in confinement.

  17. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System.

  18. Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail

    2012-02-01

    Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.

  19. Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

  20. Urban morphological analysis for mesoscale meteorological and dispersion modeling applications : current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; Ching, J.; Cheuk, M. L.; Yuan, M.; McKinnon, A. T.; Han, W. S.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate predictions of air quality and atmospheric dispersion at high spatial resolution rely on high fidelity predictions of mesoscale meteorological fields that govern transport and turbulence in urban areas. However, mesoscale meteorological models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around buildings and other urban structures that have been shown to modify micro- and mesoscale flow fields (e.g., see review by Bornstein 1987). Mesoscale models therefore have been adapted using numerous approaches to incorporate urban effects into the simulations (e.g., see reviews by Brown 2000 and Bornstein and Craig 2002). One approach is to introduce urban canopy parameterizations to approximate the drag, turbulence production, heating, and radiation attenuation induced by sub-grid scale buildings and urban surface covers (Brown 2000). Preliminary results of mesoscale meteorological and air quality simulations for Houston (Dupont et al. 2004) demonstrated the importance of introducing urban canopy parameterizations to produce results with high spatial resolution that accentuates variability, highlights important differences, and identifies critical areas. Although urban canopy parameterizations may not be applicable to all meteorological and dispersion models, they have been successfully introduced and demonstrated in many of the current operational and research mode mesoscale models, e.g., COAMPS (Holt et al. 2002), HOTMAC (Brown and Williams 1998), MM5 (e.g., Otte and Lacser 2001; Lacser and Otte 2002; Dupont et al. 2004), and RAMS (Rozoff et al. 2003). The primary consequence of implementing an urban parameterization in a mesoscale meteorological model is the need to characterize the urban terrain in greater detail. In general, urban terrain characterization for mesoscale modeling may be described as the process of collecting datasets of urban surface cover physical properties (e.g., albedo, emissivity) and

  1. The use of mesoscale eddies by juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Gaube, Peter; Barceló, Caren; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Domingo, Andrés; Miller, Philip; Giffoni, Bruno; Marcovaldi, Neca; Swimmer, Yonat

    2017-01-01

    Marine animals, such as turtles, seabirds and pelagic fishes, are observed to travel and congregate around eddies in the open ocean. Mesoscale eddies, large swirling ocean vortices with radius scales of approximately 50-100 km, provide environmental variability that can structure these populations. In this study, we investigate the use of mesoscale eddies by 24 individual juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region. The influence of eddies on turtles is assessed by collocating the turtle trajectories to the tracks of mesoscale eddies identified in maps of sea level anomaly. Juvenile loggerhead sea turtles are significantly more likely to be located in the interiors of anticyclones in this region. The distribution of surface drifters in eddy interiors reveals no significant association with the interiors of cyclones or anticyclones, suggesting higher prevalence of turtles in anticyclones is a result of their behavior. In the southern portion of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region, turtle swimming speed is significantly slower in the interiors of anticyclones, when compared to the periphery, suggesting that these turtles are possibly feeding on prey items associated with anomalously low near-surface chlorophyll concentrations observed in those features.

  2. The use of mesoscale eddies by juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the southwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Caren; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Domingo, Andrés; Miller, Philip; Giffoni, Bruno; Marcovaldi, Neca; Swimmer, Yonat

    2017-01-01

    Marine animals, such as turtles, seabirds and pelagic fishes, are observed to travel and congregate around eddies in the open ocean. Mesoscale eddies, large swirling ocean vortices with radius scales of approximately 50–100 km, provide environmental variability that can structure these populations. In this study, we investigate the use of mesoscale eddies by 24 individual juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region. The influence of eddies on turtles is assessed by collocating the turtle trajectories to the tracks of mesoscale eddies identified in maps of sea level anomaly. Juvenile loggerhead sea turtles are significantly more likely to be located in the interiors of anticyclones in this region. The distribution of surface drifters in eddy interiors reveals no significant association with the interiors of cyclones or anticyclones, suggesting higher prevalence of turtles in anticyclones is a result of their behavior. In the southern portion of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region, turtle swimming speed is significantly slower in the interiors of anticyclones, when compared to the periphery, suggesting that these turtles are possibly feeding on prey items associated with anomalously low near-surface chlorophyll concentrations observed in those features. PMID:28249020

  3. Mesoscale Tank Experiments for Investigating Carbon Tetrachloride Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Brady D. Lee; Robert J. Lenhard

    2005-06-01

    Mesoscale tank experiments were performed to simulate bioremediation of saturated zone carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) originating from a vadose zone carbon tetrachloride source. The mesoscale tank is 2-m wide by 2-m high by 3-m long and was constructed of stainless steel, yielding a total volume of 12 m3. Simulated geology within the tank consisted of two unconsolidated sand layers separated by a clay layer containing variable-sized stainless steel tubes that represented fractures within a consolidated porous medium. The thickness of the upper sand layer was approximately 55 cm, the thickness of the virtual fracture layer was 25 cm, and the thickness of the lower sand layer was approximately 98 cm. The water table was located at an elevation of approximately 54 cm from the bottom of the tank. CCl4 was added to the sealed tank by pouring 500 ml of neat CCl4 into a beaker buried approximately 10 cm below the upper sand surface through a stainless steel tube. The CCl4 was then allowed to partition through the reactor over time, eventually coming to equilibrium. Once CCl4 equilibrium had occurred in the saturated zone (~500 ppb); the reactor was bioaugmented with a CCl4 degrading culture enriched from the Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEEL. The culture was grown to a cell density of ~ 1.0 x 108 cells/ml and injected into the simulated aquifer through a center sampling port. Following injection of the culture, an initial aliquot of lactate (1,000 g/L), nitrogen, and phosphorus were added to the reactor. Lactate was injected every 3 – 5 days for one month. After 1 month of operation, a continuous supply of lactate (1,000 g/L) was pumped into the reactor at an average rate of 50 mL/min. CCl4 concentrations in the unsaturated zone were measured using hollow fiber membrane samplers, while liquid samples were analyzed to monitor levels in the simulated aquifer zone. Samples were also taken for analysis of volatile organic acids and cell density. As would be expected

  4. Minimum-Energy Flight Paths for UAVs Using Mesoscale Wind Forecasts and Approximate Dynamic Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    24) ( , ) ( ) ij arc i j D x dx DX=∫ . All of the processes that lead to loss of energy, including drag, will eventually be translated to heating of...the wind field as a function of altitude, up to 10 km, according to a 160 km x 160 km COAMPS forecast over Yucca, Nevada test site, for (a) wind...for two cases: (a) | | 90ijβ γ− ≤ and (b) | | 90ijβ γ− ≥ ..................................................27  x Figure 15.  A circular turn from

  5. The impact of mesoscale data on the simulation of a mesoscale convective weather system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, J. M.; Zhang, D.-L.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the sensitivity of a numerical simulation of a mesoscale convective weather system to the initial conditions; and (2) to provide further evidence of the need for a high resolution observing system that is compatible with numerical-model initial data requirements. To this end, a series of nine numerical-model sensitivity experiments were conducted in which one or more variables from one or more observations (soundings) were omitted and/or adjusted in the model initialization. Two types of surroundings were available for manipulation in the sensitivity experiments. Specifically, for the particular event being simulated (the 1977 Johnstown flash flood), an independent mesoanalysis was available from Bosart and Sanders (1981). In his analysis, Bosart produced a fine-resolution three-dimensional array of data from which soundings that helped to define mesoscale features could be extracted. These 'nonconventional' soundings were added to the conventional sounding data routinely available for model initialization.

  6. The impact of mesoscale data on the simulation of a mesoscale convective weather system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, J. M.; Zhang, D.-L.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the sensitivity of a numerical simulation of a mesoscale convective weather system to the initial conditions; and (2) to provide further evidence of the need for a high resolution observing system that is compatible with numerical-model initial data requirements. To this end, a series of nine numerical-model sensitivity experiments were conducted in which one or more variables from one or more observations (soundings) were omitted and/or adjusted in the model initialization. Two types of surroundings were available for manipulation in the sensitivity experiments. Specifically, for the particular event being simulated (the 1977 Johnstown flash flood), an independent mesoanalysis was available from Bosart and Sanders (1981). In his analysis, Bosart produced a fine-resolution three-dimensional array of data from which soundings that helped to define mesoscale features could be extracted. These 'nonconventional' soundings were added to the conventional sounding data routinely available for model initialization.

  7. Subsurface circulation and mesoscale variability in the Algerian subbasin from altimeter-derived eddy trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudier, Romain; Mourre, Baptiste; Juza, Mélanie; Tintoré, Joaquín.

    2016-08-01

    Algerian eddies are the strongest and largest propagating mesoscale structures in the Western Mediterranean Sea. They have a large influence on the mean circulation, water masses and biological processes. Over 20 years of satellite altimeter data have been analyzed to characterize the propagation of these eddies using automatic detection methods and cross-correlation analysis. We found that, on average, Algerian eddy trajectories form two subbasin scale anticlockwise gyres that coincide with the two Algerian gyres which were described in the literature as the barotropic circulation in the area. This result suggests that altimetry sea surface observations can provide information on subsurface currents and their variability through the study of the propagation of deep mesoscale eddies in semienclosed seas. The analysis of eddy sea level anomalies along the mean pathways reveals three preferred areas of formation. Eddies are usually formed at a specific time of the year in these areas, with a strong interannual variability over the last 20 years.

  8. The Impact of TRMM Data on Mesoscale Numerical Simulation of Super Typhoon Paka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, Zhao-Xia; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Jia, Yiqin; Simpson, Joanne; Braun, Scott A.; Halverson, Jeffrey; Hou, Arthur; Olson, William; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) derived surface rainfall data on the numerical simulation of Super Typhoon Paka (1997). A series of mesoscale numerical simulations is conducted for simulating Super Typhoon Paka during its mature stage by using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 model with initial conditions derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) global analyses with and without assimilation of the TMI surface rainfall data. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that the GEOS analysis with TMI rainfall data leads to a improved MM5 simulation of Typhoon Paka in terms of its intensity and kinematical and precipitation structures, since inclusion of the rainfall data into initial and boundary condition improves the storm environmental conditions (e.g., moisture and circulation). Further improvement can also be obtained by incorporating TMI data with mesoscale bogus vortex information into the initial conditions.

  9. Interpolation and Approximation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaijser, Sten

    1991-01-01

    Introduced are the basic ideas of interpolation and approximation theory through a combination of theory and exercises written for extramural education at the university level. Topics treated are spline methods, Lagrange interpolation, trigonometric approximation, Fourier series, and polynomial approximation. (MDH)

  10. Coupling the PSU EnKF with 4DVar for mesoscale data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poterjoy, J.; Zhang, F.

    2012-12-01

    A fully coupled EnKF-4DVar (E4DVar) data assimilation and prediction system has been developed for the WRF model. The E4DVar system requires that EnKF and 4DVar run independent of one another with two coupling steps; 4DVar uses the ensemble forecast perturbations as an extra constraint at the beginning of the observation time window, and the minimizing solution replaces the posterior EnKF analysis after assimilating the available data. The ensemble perturbations and forward and backward integration of the tangent linear and adjoint models provide two sources of flow-dependent information during each analysis cycle, thus providing more information regarding the background uncertainty than would otherwise be used by a comparable EnKF or 4DVar system. E4DVar may lead to improved analyses and forecasts of mesoscale weather events, such as mid-latitude mesoscale convective systems and tropical cyclones, given its theoretical advantages over the standalone methods. Results are presented from a series of mesoscale data assimilation experiments that examine the performance of E4DVar in assimilating real observations for cases of tropical cyclogenesis.

  11. Mesoscale Theory of Grains and Cells: Crystal Plasticity and Coarsening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkumnerd, Surachate; Sethna, James

    2006-03-01

    Line-like topological defects inside metals are called dislocations. At high temperatures, polycrystalline grains form from the melt and coarsen with time: these dislocations can both climb and glide. At low temperatures under shear the dislocations (which allow only glide) form into cell structures. While both the microscopic laws of dislocation motion and the macroscopic laws of coarsening and plastic deformation are well studied, we have had no simple, continuum explanation for the evolution of dislocations into sharp walls. We present here a mesoscale theory of dislocation motion which provides a quantitative description of deformation and rotation, grounded in a microscopic order parameter field exhibiting the topologically conserved quantities. The topological current of the Nye dislocation density tensor is derived from a microscopic theory of glide driven by Peach-Koehler forces between dislocations using a simple closure approximation. The evolution law leads to singularity formation in finite time, both with and without dislocation climb. Implementation of finite difference simulations using the upwind scheme and the results in one and higher dimensions will be discussed.

  12. Convective cell development and propagation in a mesoscale convective complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    A case study was made of the mesoscale convective complex (MCC) which occurred over southern Oklahoma and northern Texas on 27 May 1981. This storm moved in an eastsoutheasterly direction and during much of its lifetime was observable by radars at Oklahoma City, Ok. and Stephenville, Tx. It was found that the direction of cell (VIP level 3 or more reflectivity) propagation was somewhat erratic but approximately the same as the system (VIP level 1 reflectivity) movement and the ambient wind. New cells developed along and behind the gust front make it appear that once the MCC is initiated, a synergistic relationship exists between the gust front and the MCC. The relationship between rainfall patterns and amounts and the infrared (IR) temperature field in the satellite imagery were examined. The 210 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery was found to encompass the rain area of the storm. The heaviest rainfall was in the vicinity of the VIP level 3 cells and mostly contained within the 205 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery.

  13. Investigating Mesoscale Convective Systems and their Predictability Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, H.; Duffy, D.; Bowen, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is a thunderstorm region that lasts several hours long and forms near weather fronts and can often develop into tornadoes. Here we seek to answer the question of whether these tornadoes are "predictable" by looking for a defining characteristic(s) separating MCSs that evolve into tornadoes versus those that do not. Using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications 2 reanalysis data (M2R12K), we apply several state of the art machine learning techniques to investigate this question. The spatial region examined in this experiment is Tornado Alley in the United States over the peak tornado months. A database containing select variables from M2R12K is created using PostgreSQL. This database is then analyzed using machine learning methods such as Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) and DBSCAN (an unsupervised density-based data clustering algorithm). The incentive behind using these methods is to mathematically define a MCS so that association rule mining techniques can be used to uncover some sort of signal or teleconnection that will help us forecast which MCSs will result in tornadoes and therefore give society more time to prepare and in turn reduce casualties and destruction.

  14. Dynamical Buildup of Lasing in Mesoscale Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T.; Puccioni, G. P.; Lippi, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    The classical description of laser field buildup, based on time-averaged photon statistics of Class A lasers, rests on a statistical mixture of coherent and incoherent photons. Here, applying multiple analysis techniques to temporal streams of data acquired in the threshold region of a Class B mesoscale laser, we conclusively show that new physics is involved in the transition: the lasing buildup is controlled by large dynamical spikes, whose number increases as the pump is raised, evolving into an average coherent field, modulated by population dynamics, and eventually relaxing to a steady state for sufficiently large photon numbers. These results explain inconsistencies observed in small scale devices. Implications for nanolaser coherence properties, threshold identification and regimes of operation, including new potential applications, are discussed. PMID:26511281

  15. Mesoscale Modelling of the Response of Aluminas

    SciTech Connect

    Bourne, N. K.

    2006-07-28

    The response of polycrystalline alumina to shock is not well addressed. There are several operating mechanisms that only hypothesized which results in models which are empirical. A similar state of affairs in reactive flow modelling led to the development of mesoscale representations of the flow to illuminate operating mechanisms. In this spirit, a similar effort is undergone for a polycrystalline alumina. Simulations are conducted to observe operating mechanisms at the micron scale. A method is then developed to extend the simulations to meet response at the continuum level where measurements are made. The approach is validated by comparison with continuum experiments. The method and results are presented, and some of the operating mechanisms are illuminated by the observed response.

  16. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Afonso, C.N.; Feldman, L.C.; Gonella, F.; Haglund, R.F.; Luepke, G.; Magruder, R.H.; Mazzoldi, P.; Osborne, D.H.; Solis, J.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.

  17. Rapid mesoscale multiphoton microscopy of human skin

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Mihaela; Mikami, Hideharu; Hou, Jue; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiphoton microscope designed for mesoscale imaging of human skin. The system is based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation, and images areas of ~0.8x0.8 mm2 at speeds of 0.8 fps (800x800 pixels; 12 frame averages) for high signal-to-noise ratio, with lateral and axial resolutions of 0.5µm and 3.3µm, respectively. The main novelty of this instrument is the design of the scan head, which includes a fast galvanometric scanner, optimized relay optics, a beam expander and high NA objective lens. Computed aberrations in focus are below the Marechal criterion of 0.07λ rms for diffraction-limited performance. We demonstrate the practical utility of this microscope by ex-vivo imaging of wide areas in normal human skin. PMID:27895980

  18. Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Bo

    2014-07-18

    Oceanic transports of heat, salt, fresh water, dissolved CO2, and other tracers regulate global climate change and the distribution of natural marine resources. The time-mean ocean circulation transports fluid as a conveyor belt, but fluid parcels can also be trapped and transported discretely by migrating mesoscale eddies. By combining available satellite altimetry and Argo profiling float data, we showed that the eddy-induced zonal mass transport can reach a total meridionally integrated value of up to 30 to 40 sverdrups (Sv) (1 Sv = 10(6) cubic meters per second), and it occurs mainly in subtropical regions, where the background flows are weak. This transport is comparable in magnitude to that of the large-scale wind- and thermohaline-driven circulation. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Compliant meso-scale grinding of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo

    In this research, the need to create complex three-dimensional free-form shapes in silicon wafers for MEMS applications has been identified. Meso-scale grinding was chosen to perform the three-dimensional machining of silicon, among several other machining methods. Traditionally, ultra-rigid ultra-precision machines are used to machine silicon wafers in order to achieve ductile material removal mode to minimize grinding induced surface and subsurface defects. In this research, however, a compliant grinding methodology has been proposed to realize ductile regime material removal and to reduce grinding induced subsurface defects. A compliant meso-scale grinding apparatus, equipped with computer-controlled 3-axis movement, backlash-free flexure feeding and force monitoring, was developed to perform compliant silicon grinding experiments. Contour grinding, traverse grinding and plunge grinding experiments were carried out on the compliant grinding apparatus. These grinding experiments demonstrate that compliant grinding is capable of achieving good form accuracy and mirror surface finish. Further studies on grinding ductility, grinding induced subsurface defects indicate that compliant grinding can increase silicon ductility by 240.7%, reduce subsurface defects by 55.7% when compared with rigid grinding experiments. Based on off-line force analysis both in time domain and frequency domain, a first-cut detection algorithm was developed to detect wheel/workpiece contact in real-time. The algorithm is capable of adjusting to different motor vibrations and environmental noise levels by self-learning. The first-cut detection algorithm was tested successfully in real-time. To further improve form accuracy obtained on the compliant grinding apparatus, a normal grinding force model and a depth of cut model were developed to account for the large compliance in the grinding system. Numerical simulation was performed to predict actual depths of cut and the results were within 6

  20. From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George; Sarrao, John; Alivisatos, Paul; Barletta, William; Bates, Frank; Brown, Gordon; French, Roger; Greene, Laura; Hemminger, John; Kastner, Marc; Kay, Bruce; Lewis, Jennifer; Ratner, Mark; Anthony, Rollett; Rubloff, Gary; Spence, John; Tobias, Douglas; Tranquada, John

    2012-09-01

    This report explores the opportunity and defines the research agenda for mesoscale science—discovering, understanding, and controlling interactions among disparate systems and phenomena to reach the full potential of materials complexity and functionality. The ability to predict and control mesoscale phenomena and architectures is essential if atomic and molecular knowledge is to blossom into a next generation of technology opportunities, societal benefits, and scientific advances.. The body of this report outlines the need, the opportunities, the challenges, and the benefits of mastering mesoscale science.

  1. Multicloud parametrization of mesoscale convective systems for the ITCZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouider, B.; Moncrieff, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCS), aligned approximately parallel to the background low-level wind shear, are ubiquitous in the Eastern Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). They are believed to control the local Hadley circulation and have a nontrivial momentum feedback on the ambient shear. They also play a central role in the two-way interactions between convection and the synoptic and planetary scale waves. They do so by serving as both the building block for organized convection, which involves congestus cloud decks that moisten and precondition the environment for deep convection which in turn is lagged by stratiform anvils, and as a conveyer belt for convective momentum transport (CMT). Here, we propose an extension of the multicloud model of Khouider and Majda (2006) to make the stratiform anvils more sensitive to the background wind shear profile. We do so by invoking two layers of moisture in the free troposphere instead of one, in addition to the boundary layer. Linear stability, in a wind shear background consisting of both mid-level and low-level easterly jets, representing, simultaneously, the Tropical Easterly and African Easterly jets, features the usual synoptic scale instability of the multicloud model plus two new instability bands at the meso-alpha and meso-beta scales, respectively. The meso-alpha and meso-beta modes constitute a paradigm for the dynamics of shear parallel convective systems with the meso-alpha waves being the quasi-stationary systems. In this talk we will present limited domain 3D simulations, without rotation, of realistic shear parallel lines of convection with parallel stratifrom anvils moving eastward, with a steering level in the upper troposphere, as a mesoscale envelope of the individual convective cells moving inwards, with a steering level in the lower troposphere. This provides, among other things, an excellent example of nontrivial CMT effect on the background low-level wind. It results in a narrow channel

  2. Numerical study of terrain-induced mesoscale motions in a mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Y.-J.; Ueyoshi, K.; Deardorff, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical integrations using a potential enstrophy-conserving scheme are presented for the flow within a mixed layer over hilly terrain using the hydrostatic shallow-water equations with a quadratic drag law. The mesoscale area treated is 150 km on a side; cyclic lateral boundary conditions are used. It is found that for the idealized conditions treated (no surface heating, no entrainment and no pressure adjustments aloft), the topography quickly induces a steady state flow pattern by means of surface friction. Unsteadiness does not occur unless a surface-friction Reynolds number is greater than approximately 100. Effects of varying the Rossby number, Froude number and terrain-height parameter are examined.

  3. Modeling Fluctuating Winds by Blending Mesoscale Model Data with Computational Fluid Dynamics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, S. E.; Zajaczkowski, F. J.; Schmehl, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Wind energy companies require information regarding details of the wind field for both micrositing new wind farms and the specific turbines within them as well as for forecasting power production at particular sites. Although Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models applied on the mesoscale can provide information regarding the general flow characteristics, the very fine scale details (on the order of meters to tens of meters) dependent on local features are not available. That is precisely the realm in which Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models excel. These CFD models are capable of capturing details of the boundary layer dynamics and turbulent structures over a finer range of scales as well as flow around features such as buildings. They are not generally configured, however, to include radiation, moist convection physics, land surface parameterizations, and other physics packages commonly available within the NWP models. The solution proposed here is to blend the information provided by the mesoscale NWP models with the details of CFD by assimilating the NWP data directly into the CFD model. The assimilation occurs both at the boundaries as an inflow condition for the CFD model and internally by assimilating an NWP wind and temperature profile at the vertical gridlines of the mesoscale model run. This internal assimilation uses the Newtonian Relaxation technique, in which the solution is nudged toward the mesoscale values in the vicinity of the grid line while maintaining the internal mass and momentum consistency of the CFD model. The assimilation blending technique is demonstrated in the Rock Springs valley nestled between rolling ridges in the central Pennsylvania countryside in the vicinity of several wind farms. Two specific case days are chosen to represent typical summer and winter characteristics. The WRF-ARW NWP model is run with four dimensional data assimilation to produce a 1.3 km resolution mesoscale analysis. That data provide the basis for

  4. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  5. A mesoscale sixth-order numerical modelling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical simulation system is currently under development for NASA which is intended to improve the modeling of subsynoptic and mesoscale adjustments associated with cyclogenesis, severe storm development and atmospheric transport processes. The model utilizes a standard hydrostatic sigma-p coordinate primitive equation set, with x,y-space differencing accurate to eighth order. A three-step dynamic initialization procedure is employed between the analysis of real-time data and grid interpolation. Results of an 18-hour simulation during which synoptic scale cyclogenesis, subsynoptic scale jet streak adjustments, mesoscale convergence zones and tornadic storms were observed have shown the present model to have the potential for simulating the fine-scale structure of features associated with cyclogenesis and intense squall-line development. The mesoscale model was also found to produce less truncation than the NWS LFM model, although a frictionless version of the mesoscale model somewhat overdeepens and overaccelerates features.

  6. Work done by atmospheric winds on mesoscale ocean eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chi; Zhai, Xiaoming; Shang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous in the ocean and dominate the ocean's kinetic energy. However, physical processes influencing ocean eddy energy remain poorly understood. Mesoscale ocean eddy-wind interaction potentially provides an energy flux into or out of the eddy field, but its effect on ocean eddies has not yet been determined. Here we examine work done by atmospheric winds on more than 1,200,000 mesoscale eddies identified from satellite altimetry data and show that atmospheric winds significantly damp mesoscale ocean eddies, particularly in the energetic western boundary current regions and the Southern Ocean. Furthermore, the large-scale wind stress curl is found to on average systematically inject kinetic energy into anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies in the subtropical (subpolar) gyres while mechanically damps anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies in the subpolar (subtropical) gyres.

  7. A Polar Mars Climate Database Built on Mesoscale Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, A.; Smith, I. B.

    2016-09-01

    Our proposal is to build an online interface to map (and more generally extract) the atmospheric predictions from the LMD martian mesoscale model in the martian polar regions. This conference is an excellent vector to discuss this with the community.

  8. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  9. Assessment of Mixed Layer Mesoscale Parameterization in Eddy Resolving Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayson, C. A.; Luneva, M. V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy resolving simulations we test a mixed layer mesoscale parameterization, developed recently by Canuto and Dubovikov (2011). The parameterization yields the horizontal and vertical mesoscale fluxes in terms of coarse-resolution fields and eddy kinetic energy. An expression for the later in terms of mean fields has been found too to get a closed parameterization in terms of the mean fields only. In 40 numerical experiments we simulated the two types of flows: idealized flows driven by baroclinic instabilities only, and more realistic flows, driven by wind and surface fluxes as well as by inflow-outflow in shallow and narrow straits. The diagnosed quasi-instantaneous horizontal and vertical mesoscale buoyancy fluxes (averaged over 1o - 2o and 10 days) demonstrate a strong scatter typical for turbulent flows, however, the fluxes are highly correlated with the parameterization. After averaged over 3-4 months, diffusivities diagnosed from the eddy resolving simulations, are quite consistent with the parameterization for a broad range of parameters. Diagnosed vertical mesoscale fluxes restratify mixed layer and are in a good agreement with the parameterization unless vertical turbulent mixing in the upper layer becomes strong enough to compare with mesoscale advection. In the later case, numerical simulations demonstrate that the deviation of the fluxes from the parameterization is controlled by the dimensionless parameter γ, estimating the ratio of vertical diffusion term to a mesoscale advection. The empirical dependence of vertical flux on γ is found. An analysis using a modified omega-equation reveals that the effects of the vertical mixing of vorticity is responsible for the two-three fold amplification of vertical mesoscale flux. Possible physical mechanisms, responsible for the amplification of vertical mesoscale flux are discussed.

  10. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Birkan; Verma, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities) of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery).

  11. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.

    2006-12-01

    transport effects from the micro (<1km) to mesoscale (1-100km). Such phenomena are thus well-observed by ASTER and pose transient and severe hazards to aircraft operating in and out of airports near volcanoes (e.g., Anchorage, AK, USA; Catania, Italy; Kagoshima City, Japan). ASTER image data and derived products provide boundary conditions for 3D mesoscale atmospheric transport and chemistry models (e.g., RAMS) for retrospective and prospective studies of volcanic aerosol transport at low altitudes in takeoff and landing corridors near active volcanoes. Putative ASTER direct downlinks in the future could provide real-time mitigation of such hazards. Some examples of mesoscale analyses for threatened airspace near US and non- US airports will be shown. This work was, in part, carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to the NASA Earth Science Research Program and as part of ASTER Science Team activities.

  12. Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2004-01-01

    An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the

  13. Mesoscale ionospheric tomography at the Auroral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, J.; Kokkatil, G. V.

    2008-12-01

    FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) has used observations from the dense GNSS network in Finland for high resolution regional ionospheric tomography. The observation system used in this work is the VRS (Virtual Reference Station) network in Finland operated by Geotrim Ltd. This network contains 86 GNSS ground stations providing two frequency GPS and GLONASS observations with the sampling rate of 1 Hz. The network covers the whole Finland and the sampling of the ionosphere is very good for observing mesoscale ionospheric structures at the Auroral region. The ionospheric tomography software used by FMI is the MIDAS (Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System) algorithm developed and implemented by the University of Bath (Mitchell and Spencer, 2003). MIDAS is a 3-D extension of the 2-D tomography algorithm originally presented by Fremouw et al. (1992). The research at FMI is based on ground based GNSS data collected in December 2006. The impacts of the two geomagnetic storms during the month are clearly visible in the retrieved electron density and TEC maps and they can be correlated with the magnetic field disturbances measured by the IMAGE magnetometer network. This is the first time that mesoscale structures in the ionospheric plasma can be detected from ground based GNSS observations at the Auroral region. The continuous high rate observation data from the Geotrim network allows monitoring of the temporal evolution of these structures throughout the storms. Validation of the high resolution electron density and TEC maps is a challenge as independent reference observations with a similar resolution are not available. FMI has compared the 3-D electron density maps against the 2-D electron density plots retrieved from the observations from the Ionospheric Tomography Chain operated by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO). Additional validation has been performed with intercomparisons with observations from the ground based magnetometer and auroral camera network

  14. Mesoscale and Sub-mesoscale Variability in Phytoplankton Community Composition in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, B.; Richardson, T. L.; Lomas, M. W.

    2016-02-01

    The Sargasso Sea is a highly dynamic physical environment in which strong seasonal variability combines with forcing by mesoscale ( 100 km) eddies. Over four cruises (2011 and 2012), we investigated links between water column structure, nutrient regimes, and phytoplankton community composition at a range of time and space scales in the Sargasso Sea. On all cruises, cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) dominated the phytoplankton numerically and haptophytes were the dominant eukaryotes (up to 60% total chl-a). We demonstrated significant effects of mesoscale and inferred sub-mesoscale forcing on phytoplankton community composition. Downwelling (in anticyclones) was coincident with Prochlorococcus abundances 22-66% higher compared to outside stations. We observed a shift in the taxonomic composition of haptophytes between a coccolithophores dominated community in a cyclone in spring 2012 (C2) and a non-coccolithophore community at BATS. At the center of cyclone C1 (summer 2011), we observed significantly higher haptophyte chl-a (non-coccolithophores) and lower cyanobacteria chl-a biomass at the center and edge as compared to BATS. In summer 2012, downwelling associated with anticyclone AC2 occurred at the edge of the eddy and we found significantly lower Synechococcus abundances and higher eukaryote chl-a compared to the center of AC2 and BATS. These along-transect nuances demonstrate the significance of small-scale perturbations that significantly alter phytoplankton community structure. Therefore, while seasonality in the North Atlantic is the primary driver of broad-scale trends in phytoplankton community composition, the effect of transient events must be considered when studying planktonic food webs in the Sargasso Sea.

  15. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Anter El-Azab

    2013-04-08

    The research under this project focused on a theoretical and computational modeling of dislocation dynamics of mesoscale deformation of metal single crystals. Specifically, the work aimed to implement a continuum statistical theory of dislocations to understand strain hardening and cell structure formation under monotonic loading. These aspects of crystal deformation are manifestations of the evolution of the underlying dislocation system under mechanical loading. The project had three research tasks: 1) Investigating the statistical characteristics of dislocation systems in deformed crystals. 2) Formulating kinetic equations of dislocations and coupling these kinetics equations and crystal mechanics. 3) Computational solution of coupled crystal mechanics and dislocation kinetics. Comparison of dislocation dynamics predictions with experimental results in the area of statistical properties of dislocations and their field was also a part of the proposed effort. In the first research task, the dislocation dynamics simulation method was used to investigate the spatial, orientation, velocity, and temporal statistics of dynamical dislocation systems, and on the use of the results from this investigation to complete the kinetic description of dislocations. The second task focused on completing the formulation of a kinetic theory of dislocations that respects the discrete nature of crystallographic slip and the physics of dislocation motion and dislocation interaction in the crystal. Part of this effort also targeted the theoretical basis for establishing the connection between discrete and continuum representation of dislocations and the analysis of discrete dislocation simulation results within the continuum framework. This part of the research enables the enrichment of the kinetic description with information representing the discrete dislocation systems behavior. The third task focused on the development of physics-inspired numerical methods of solution of the coupled

  16. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  17. Cycloidal meandering of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizner, Ziv; Shteinbuch-Fridman, Biana; Makarov, Viacheslav; Rabinovich, Michael

    2017-08-01

    By applying a theoretical approach, we propose a hypothetical scenario that might explain some features of the movement of a long-lived mesoscale anticyclone observed during 1990 in the Bay of Biscay [R. D. Pingree and B. Le Cann, "Three anticyclonic slope water oceanic eddies (SWODDIES) in the southern Bay of Biscay in 1990," Deep-Sea Res., Part A 39, 1147 (1992)]. In the remote-sensing infrared images, at the initial stage of observations, the anticyclone was accompanied by two cyclonic eddies, so the entire structure appeared as a tripole. However, at later stages, only the anticyclone was seen in the images, traveling generally west. Unusual for an individual eddy were the high speed of its motion (relative to the expected planetary beta-drift) and the presence of almost cycloidal meanders in its trajectory. Although surface satellites seem to have quickly disappeared, we hypothesize that subsurface satellites continued to exist, and the coherence of the three vortices persisted for a long time. A significant perturbation of the central symmetry in the mutual arrangement of three eddies constituting a tripole can make reasonably fast cycloidal drift possible. This hypothesis is tested with two-layer contour-dynamics f-plane simulations and with finite-difference beta-plane simulations. In the latter case, the interplay of the planetary beta-effect and that due to the sloping bottom is considered.

  18. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    PubMed Central

    Wensink, Henricus H.; Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Löwen, Hartmut; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior among the simplest forms of life and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active nonequilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific or which generalizations of the Navier–Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence. PMID:22908244

  19. Elucidate Chromatin Folding at the Mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiangyun

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of chromatin, an active participant of all gene-directed processes, is required to decode its (epi)genetics-structure-function relationships. Albeit often simplified as ``beads-on-a-string'', chromatin possesses daunting complexity in its intricate intra- and inter-nucleosome interactions, as well as the myriad types of molecules acting on it. On the other hand, the folding of chromatin from an extended chain of nucleosomes is highly constrained, e.g., by rather bulky nucleosomes and semi-rigid linker dsDNAs. Further given the well-defined nucleosome and dsDNA structures at the nanometer scale, this creates an opportunity for low-resolution structural methods such as small angle scattering to obtain mesoscale structures of chromatin, which can be further refined computationally to yield atomistic structures of chromatin. Here we present results from our recent studies of recombinant nucleosome arrays with solution small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and ensemble structure modeling.

  20. Mesoscale mechanics of twisting carbon nanotube yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-03-01

    Fabricating continuous macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns with mechanical properties close to individual CNTs remains a major challenge. Spinning CNT fibers and ribbons for enhancing the weak interactions between the nanotubes is a simple and efficient method for fabricating high-strength and tough continuous yarns. Here we investigate the mesoscale mechanics of twisting CNT yarns using full atomistic and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations, considering concurrent mechanisms at multiple length-scales. To investigate the mechanical response of such a complex structure without losing insights into the molecular mechanism, we applied a multiscale strategy. The full atomistic results are used for training a coarse grained model for studying larger systems consisting of several CNTs. The mesoscopic model parameters are updated as a function of the twist angle, based on the full atomistic results, in order to incorporate the atomistic scale deformation mechanisms in larger scale simulations. By bridging across two length scales, our model is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical behavior of twisted yarns while the atomistic level deformations in individual nanotubes are integrated into the model by updating the parameters. Our results focused on studying a bundle of close packed nanotubes provide novel mechanistic insights into the spinning of CNTs. Our simulations reveal how twisting a bundle of CNTs improves the shear interaction between the nanotubes up to a certain level due to increasing the interaction surface. Furthermore, twisting the bundle weakens the intertube interactions due to excessive deformation in the cross sections of individual CNTs in the bundle.

  1. Simultaneous occurrences of floods in mesoscale catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bàrdossy, Andràs

    2016-04-01

    Floods in mesoscale catchments are often the result of intense precipitation of varying duration. The spatial extent of precipitation is linked to the extent of flooding. The simultaneous occurrence of floods in different medium size catchments is often the reason for large scale floods. The spatial behavior of extreme precipitation and discharge can be investigated using copulas and extreme indices. The relationship between intense precipitations measured at different locations depends on the large scale meteorological conditions. Depending on the geographic location and the dominating weather pattern certain catchments have frequent simultaneous extremes while others behave in a complementary fashion. The purpose of this work is to investigate the simultaneous and complementary occurrence of floods in catchments using copulas conditioned on atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). Circulation patterns responsible for simultaneous floods are identified using areal precipitation and/or unusual discharge increases. Patterns are identified using a fuzzy rule based approach based on anomalies of the 700 hPa surfaces. The rules are formed by maximizing the explained variance under the assumption of simultaneous and complementary behavior. The conditional copulas are investigated for extreme behavior. Besides the traditional bivariate investigations higher dimensional dependences are investigated using an entropy based approach.

  2. HYBRID MESOSCALE MODELING OF DYNAMIC GRAIN FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. SWIFT; C. HAGELBERG; M. HILTL

    2001-04-01

    Fines created by grain fragmentation from shaped-charge, jet perforation treatment often plug-up pores in the vicinity of the perforation tunnel. We analyze and model grain damage on samples recovered from impact tests of dry and water saturated sandstone at stress levels and duration similar to that of perforation loading. Analyses of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and laser particle size measurements on portions of the recovered samples characterize grain damage and changes in grain size distribution. Hybrid modeling that combines the Discrete Element Method (DEM) with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), and includes mesoscale representation of grain/pore structure, shows how grain damage evolves for dry and wet conditions. Modeling defines behavior in accord with recovered sample analyses as follows: (1) Increase in grain damage is obtained with an increase in stress level and pulse duration. (2) The grains in dry samples are extremely and irregularly fragmented with extensive reduced porosity. (3) Less grain damage and higher porosity is obtained in saturated samples. The influence of pore fluid mitigates the interaction between grains, thus reducing fragmentation damage. (4) Computed particle size distributions are similar in character to measurements.

  3. Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry.

  4. Using Coupled Mesoscale Experiments and Simulations to Investigate High Burn-Up Oxide Fuel Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Melissa C.; Fromm, Bradley S.; Tonks, Michael R.; Field, David P.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear energy is a mature technology with a small carbon footprint. However, work is needed to make current reactor technology more accident tolerant and to allow reactor fuel to be burned in a reactor for longer periods of time. Optimizing the reactor fuel performance is essentially a materials science problem. The current understanding of fuel microstructure have been limited by the difficulty in studying the structure and chemistry of irradiated fuel samples at the mesoscale. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in experimental capabilities to characterize the microstructure in 3D of irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel taken from two radial positions in the fuel pellet. We also reconstruct these microstructures using Idaho National Laboratory's MARMOT code and calculate the impact of microstructure heterogeneities on the effective thermal conductivity using mesoscale heat conduction simulations. The thermal conductivities of both samples are higher than the bulk MOX thermal conductivity because of the formation of metallic precipitates and because we do not currently consider phonon scattering due to defects smaller than the experimental resolution. We also used the results to investigate the accuracy of simple thermal conductivity approximations and equations to convert 2D thermal conductivities to 3D. It was found that these approximations struggle to predict the complex thermal transport interactions between metal precipitates and voids.

  5. Carrier mobility in mesoscale heterogeneous organic materials: Effects of crystallinity and anisotropy on efficient charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Shirasawa, Raku; Nakamoto, Mitsunori; Hattori, Shinnosuke; Tomiya, Shigetaka

    2017-07-01

    Charge transport in the mesoscale bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) is studied using multiscale simulations in combination with molecular dynamics, the density functional theory, the molecular-level kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method, and the coarse-grained kMC method, which was developed to estimate mesoscale carrier mobility. The effects of the degree of crystallinity and the anisotropy of the conductivity of donors on hole mobility are studied for BHJ structures that consist of crystalline and amorphous pentacene grains that act as donors and amorphous C60 grains that act as acceptors. We find that the hole mobility varies dramatically with the degree of crystallinity of pentacene because it is largely restricted by a low-mobility amorphous region that occurs in the hole transport network. It was also found that the percolation threshold of crystalline pentacene is relatively high at approximately 0.6. This high percolation threshold is attributed to the 2D-like conductivity of crystalline pentacene, and the threshold is greatly improved to a value of approximately 0.3 using 3D-like conductive donors. We propose essential guidelines to show that it is critical to increase the degree of crystallinity and develop 3D conductive donors for efficient hole transport through percolative networks in the BHJs of OPVs.

  6. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  7. Mesoscale imaging with cryo-light and X-rays: Larger than molecular machines, smaller than a cell.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Axel A; Chen, Jian-Hua; Guo, Jessica; McDermott, Gerry; Le Gros, Mark A; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2017-01-01

    In the context of cell biology, the term mesoscale describes length scales ranging from that of an individual cell, down to the size of the molecular machines. In this spatial regime, small building blocks self-organise to form large, functional structures. A comprehensive set of rules governing mesoscale self-organisation has not been established, making the prediction of many cell behaviours difficult, if not impossible. Our knowledge of mesoscale biology comes from experimental data, in particular, imaging. Here, we explore the application of soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to imaging the mesoscale, and describe the structural insights this technology can generate. We also discuss how SXT imaging is complemented by the addition of correlative fluorescence data measured from the same cell. This combination of two discrete imaging modalities produces a 3D view of the cell that blends high-resolution structural information with precise molecular localisation data. © 2016 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Simulation and characterization of the Adriatic Sea mesoscale variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman-Roisin, Benoit; Korotenko, Konstantin A.; Galos, Camelia E.; Dietrich, David E.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents simulations of the Adriatic Sea using the DieCAST model applied on a 1.2-min grid (about 2-km resolution). The simulations resolve the mesoscale variability because the grid size falls below the first baroclinic deformation radius (about 5-10 km) and DieCAST has very low horizontal dissipation. The model is initialized with seasonally averaged temperature and salinity data and forced with climatological winds and surface buoyancy fluxes (both heat flux and evaporation minus precipitation). River discharges are varied daily according to a perpetual year for every river, and the open-boundary conditions at Otranto Strait are obtained by nesting in two larger-scale models. The present simulations demonstrate that the DieCAST model allows mesoscale instabilities to develop at length scales of 5-20 km and over time scales of a few days. The simulated variability exhibits pronounced similarities with the actual mesoscale variability, in terms of location, nature and temporal evolution of the features. Meanders, swirls and eddies are noted along the relatively smooth Italian coast while offshore jets and filaments better describe the mesoscale activity along the more rugged coast of Croatia. In sum, DieCAST is highly suitable for the study of mesoscale variability in the Adriatic Sea. The present simulations also show that the seasonal hydrography of the Adriatic Sea is intrinsically unstable to mesoscale perturbations, and that the mesoscale variability along the Italian coast is the result of baroclinic instability of the Western Adriatic Current. It is shown how the properties of this instability are related to the local bottom topography.

  9. Sea surface height relations from mesoscale to submesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Surface Water / Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will change our perceptions of the ocean, and this can be shown by examining how sea surface height (SSH) has been used in the past, the processes expected to be observed by SWOT and the different dynamical relations. This motivates understanding the implication of the SWOT data in the domain of previously unresolved ocean features. Historically, because of the relatively sparse spatial sampling, SSH observations have been related to mesoscale eddy circulations in the ocean. To first order, mesoscale eddies are in geostrophic and hydrostatic balance. This understanding has enabled mesoscale ocean predictions from global scales such as the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) to the reloctable forecast system (RELO) to the coupled ocean / atmosphere mesoscale prediction system (COAMPS). SWOT will reveal submesoscale eddies that are not in geostrophic balance, and their vertical extent is mainly in the mixed layer rather than to the deep thermocline. High resolution model experiments are used to estimate relationships between the surface height signatures and subsurface structures due to mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, both of which produce clear expressions in the mixed layer depth (figure below). The results from a 1 km resolution ocean model covering the Gulf of Mexico provide the 3D structure representing both mesoscale and submesoscale to begin to understand the correlations throughout the water column. The initial examinations provide insight to the relation between SSH and its spatial gradients to the underlying temperature, salinity and velocity structure within the mixed layer and at the deeper thermocline depths. The model-derived SSH correlations at the thermocline depth and within the mixed layer can lend insight to horizontal length scales to classify mesoscale and submesocale features.

  10. Meso-scale Slow Velocity Features on the Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.

    2016-12-01

    LLSVPs (Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces) are approximately antipodal regions, 1000s of kilometers across on the core-mantle boundary, that are characterized by low rigidity, Vs reductions of 5%, and bounded by strong lateral velocity gradients. Only two LLSVPs exist: one situated beneath the Pacific and the other beneath Africa and the Atlantic. The exact morphology, composition, and origin of LLSVPs remains mysterious. We have applied 3D clustering analysis across the lower mantle and across eight different recent tomographic models, assuming the lower mantle is dominated by three different types of material: 1. LLSVPs 2. Subducted slabs 3. Ambient mantle. The suggested boundaries of the LLSVPs traced out by cluster analysis agree well with local waveform studies. Their boundary morphology shows the two provinces consist of different cone-shaped sub-piles whose topographic slopes range from shallow-dipping, to steep, to overhanging. This suggests that either the provinces have internal compositional variations or that interaction with surrounding convection controls the boundary shape. Outside the two LLSVPs, clustering analysis suggests the existence of multiple slow velocity meso-scale features approximately 1000 km across, beneath Perm (Russia), South Pacific, Kamchatka, and Iceland. Lekic et al. (2012) modeled seismic waveforms to confirm the existence of the Perm anomaly, and show that it has sharp boundaries and a velocity reduction similar to LLSVPs. Here we present evidence of new meso-scale features (e.g. South Pacific anomaly), documenting that they represent a third type of lowermost mantle structure, intermediate in scale between the LLSVPs and ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs). The existence and aspect ratio of such meso-scale regions further constrains the nature of these anomalies. Additionally, the clustering analysis suggests a fourth class: these are slow meso-scale features which appear several hundreds of kilometers above the core

  11. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are functional for giving information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Several mesoscale models and families of models are being used, and each often contains thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. To remedy this problem and for evaluating the capabilities of mesoscale models to estimate site wind conditions, a tailored benchmarking study has been co-organized by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) and the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Programme Wind Energy (EERA JP WIND). EWEA hosted results and ensured that participants were anonymous. The blind evaluation was performed at the Wind Energy Department of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) with the following objectives: (1) To highlight common issues on mesoscale modelling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and (2) To identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. 2. Approach Three experimental sites were selected: FINO 3 (offshore, GE), Høvsore (coastal, DK), and Cabauw (land-based, NL), and three other sites without observations based on . The three mast sites were chosen because the availability of concurrent suitable time series of vertical profiles of winds speed and other surface parameters. The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, etc., at various vertical heights for a complete year. The methodology used to derive the time series was left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a brief description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and

  12. Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.

  13. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Boundary Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    The focus of this dissertation is on studying ocean-atmosphere (OA) interactions in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) and Kuroshio Extension (KE) region using satellite observations and the Scripps Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Regional (SCOAR) model. Within SCOAR, a new technique is introduced by implementing an interactive 2-D spatial smoother within the SST-flux coupler to remove the mesoscale SST field felt by the atmosphere. This procedure allows large-scale SST coupling to be preserved while extinguishing the mesoscale eddy impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This technique provides insights to spatial-scale dependence of OA coupling, and the impact of mesoscale features on both the ABL and the surface ocean. For the HCS, the use of downscaled forcing from SCOAR, as compared to NCEP Reanalysis 2, proves to be more appropriate in quantifying wind-driven upwelling indices along the coast of Peru and Chile. The difference in their wind stress distribution has significant impact on the wind-driven upwelling processes and total upwelling transport along the coast. Although upwelling induced by coastal Ekman transport dominates the wind-driven upwelling along coastal areas, Ekman pumping can account for 30% of the wind-driven upwelling in several coastal locations. Control SCOAR shows significant SST-wind stress coupling during fall and winter, while Smoothed SCOAR shows insignificant coupling throughout, indicating the important role of ocean mesoscale eddies on air-sea coupling in HCS. The SST-wind stress coupling however, did not produce any rectified response on the ocean eddies. Coupling between SST, wind speed and latent heat flux is insignificant on large-scale coupling and full coupling mode. On the other hand, coupling between these three variables are significant on the mesoscale for most of the model run, which suggests that mesoscale SST affects latent heat through direct flux anomalies as well as indirectly through stability changes on the

  14. Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid scale) fluxes for large-scale atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avissar, Roni; Chen, Fei

    1993-01-01

    Generated by landscape discontinuities (e.g., sea breezes) mesoscale circulation processes are not represented in large-scale atmospheric models (e.g., general circulation models), which have an inappropiate grid-scale resolution. With the assumption that atmospheric variables can be separated into large scale, mesoscale, and turbulent scale, a set of prognostic equations applicable in large-scale atmospheric models for momentum, temperature, moisture, and any other gaseous or aerosol material, which includes both mesoscale and turbulent fluxes is developed. Prognostic equations are also developed for these mesoscale fluxes, which indicate a closure problem and, therefore, require a parameterization. For this purpose, the mean mesoscale kinetic energy (MKE) per unit of mass is used, defined as E-tilde = 0.5 (the mean value of u'(sub i exp 2), where u'(sub i) represents the three Cartesian components of a mesoscale circulation (the angle bracket symbol is the grid-scale, horizontal averaging operator in the large-scale model, and a tilde indicates a corresponding large-scale mean value). A prognostic equation is developed for E-tilde, and an analysis of the different terms of this equation indicates that the mesoscale vertical heat flux, the mesoscale pressure correlation, and the interaction between turbulence and mesoscale perturbations are the major terms that affect the time tendency of E-tilde. A-state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model is used to investigate the relationship between MKE, landscape discontinuities (as characterized by the spatial distribution of heat fluxes at the earth's surface), and mesoscale sensible and latent heat fluxes in the atmosphere. MKE is compared with turbulence kinetic energy to illustrate the importance of mesoscale processes as compared to turbulent processes. This analysis emphasizes the potential use of MKE to bridge between landscape discontinuities and mesoscale fluxes and, therefore, to parameterize mesoscale fluxes

  15. Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid scale) fluxes for large-scale atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avissar, Roni; Chen, Fei

    1993-01-01

    Generated by landscape discontinuities (e.g., sea breezes) mesoscale circulation processes are not represented in large-scale atmospheric models (e.g., general circulation models), which have an inappropiate grid-scale resolution. With the assumption that atmospheric variables can be separated into large scale, mesoscale, and turbulent scale, a set of prognostic equations applicable in large-scale atmospheric models for momentum, temperature, moisture, and any other gaseous or aerosol material, which includes both mesoscale and turbulent fluxes is developed. Prognostic equations are also developed for these mesoscale fluxes, which indicate a closure problem and, therefore, require a parameterization. For this purpose, the mean mesoscale kinetic energy (MKE) per unit of mass is used, defined as E-tilde = 0.5 (the mean value of u'(sub i exp 2), where u'(sub i) represents the three Cartesian components of a mesoscale circulation (the angle bracket symbol is the grid-scale, horizontal averaging operator in the large-scale model, and a tilde indicates a corresponding large-scale mean value). A prognostic equation is developed for E-tilde, and an analysis of the different terms of this equation indicates that the mesoscale vertical heat flux, the mesoscale pressure correlation, and the interaction between turbulence and mesoscale perturbations are the major terms that affect the time tendency of E-tilde. A-state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model is used to investigate the relationship between MKE, landscape discontinuities (as characterized by the spatial distribution of heat fluxes at the earth's surface), and mesoscale sensible and latent heat fluxes in the atmosphere. MKE is compared with turbulence kinetic energy to illustrate the importance of mesoscale processes as compared to turbulent processes. This analysis emphasizes the potential use of MKE to bridge between landscape discontinuities and mesoscale fluxes and, therefore, to parameterize mesoscale fluxes

  16. A mesoscale vortex over Halley Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T.A.; Warren, D.E. ); Duncan, C.N. )

    1993-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the evolution and structure of a mesoscale vortex and associated cloud comma that developed at the eastern edge of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the early part of January 1986 is presented. The system remained quasi-stationary for over three days close to the British research station Halley (75[degrees]36'S, 26'42[degrees]W) and gave severe weather with gale-force winds and prolonged snow. The formation and development of the system were investigated using conventional surface and upper-air meteorological observations taken at Halley, analyses from the U.K. Meteorological Office 15-level model, and satellite imagery and sounder data from the TIROS-N-NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites. The thermal structure of the vortex was examined using atmospheric profiles derived from radiance measurements from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder. Details of the wind field were examined using cloud motion vectors derived from a sequence of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer images. The vortex developed inland of the Brunt Ice Shelf in a strong baroclinic zone separating warm air, which had been advected polewards down the eastern Weddell Sea, and cold air descending from the Antarctic Plateau. The system intensified when cold, continental air associated with an upper-level short-wave trough was advected into the vortex. A frontal cloud band developed when slantwise ascent of warm air took place at the leading edge of the cold-air outbreak. Most of the precipitation associated with the low occurred on this cloud band. The small sea surface-atmospheric temperature differences gave only limited heat fluxes and there was no indication of deep convection associated with the system. The vortex was driven by baroclinic forcing and had some features in common with the baroclinic type of polar lows that occur in the Northern Hemisphere. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Convection surrounding mesoscale ionospheric flow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Y.; Moen, J.; Baker, J. B. H.; Carlson, H. C.

    2011-05-01

    We evaluate data from the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Svalbard radar (ESR) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft coupled with data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) polar cap convection patterns in order to study how the ionospheric convection evolves around a sequence of transient, mesoscale flow channel events in the duskside of the cusp inflow region. On a northwestward convection background for the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BY positive and BZ negative, a sequence of three eastward flow channels formed over the course of 1 hour in response to three sharp IMF rotations to IMF BY negative and IMF BZ positive. The first and third channels, due to IMF BY negative periods of ˜13 min and >30 min, respectively, develop in a similar manner: they span the entire ESR field of view and widen poleward with increasing time elapsed since their first appearance until the IMF rotates back. The convection patterns are consistent with the line-of-sight data from the ESR and DMSP within a 10 min adaption time. The flow lines form a twin-vortex flow, with the observed channel being the twin vortices' center flow. The fitting algorithm was pushed to its limits in terms of spatial resolution in this study. During portions of the channel events, the suggested twin-cell flow is not in agreement with our physical interpretation of the flow channels being reconnection events because cell closure is suggested across an anticipated nonreconnecting open-closed boundary. For these segments, we present simulated patterns which have been arrived at by a combination of looking at the raw data and examining the fitted convection patterns.

  18. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  19. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  20. Global Variability of Mesoscale Convective System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.; Houze, R. A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the tropics produce extensive anvil clouds, which significantly affect the transfer of radiation. This study develops an objective method to identify MCSs and their anvils by combining data from three A-train satellite instruments: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for cloud-top size and coldness, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for rain area size and intensity, and CloudSat for horizontal and vertical dimensions of anvils. The authors distinguish three types of MCSs: small and large separated MCSs and connected MCSs. The latter are MCSs sharing a contiguous rain area. Mapping of the objectively identified MCSs shows patterns of MCSs that are consistent with previous studies of tropical convection, with separated MCSs dominant over Africa and the Amazon regions and connected MCSs favored over the warm pool of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans. By separating the anvil from the raining regions of MCSs, this study leads to quantitative global maps of anvil coverage. These maps are consistent with the MCS analysis, and they lay the foundation for estimating the global radiative effects of anvil clouds. CloudSat radar data show that the modal thickness of MCS anvils is about 4--5 km. Anvils are mostly confined to within 1.5--2 times the equivalent radii of the primary rain areas of the MCSs. Over the warm pool, they may extend out to about 5 times the rain area radii. The warm ocean MCSs tend to have thicker non-raining and lightly raining anvils near the edges of their actively raining regions, indicating that anvils are generated in and spread out from the primary raining regions of the MCSs. Thicker anvils are nearly absent over continental regions.

  1. Mesoscale Icefield Breezes over Athbasca Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J. P.; Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Sicart, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics over glaciers are of great interest as they can modify the response of glacier mass balance to large scale climate forcing. A key feature of the glacier ABL is formation of katabatic winds driven by turbulent sensible heat exchange with a cooler underlying ice surface. These winds can markedly alter the spatio-temporal distribution of air temperature over glacier surfaces from the environmental lapse rate, which in turn affects the distribution of melt. An intensive field campaign was conducted over 13 days in June 2015 at Athabasca Glacier, an outlet of Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Multiple automatic weather stations, eddy covariance systems, distributed temperature sensors, SODAR and kite profiling systems were used to characterise how the glacier ABL evolved spatially and temporally, how the differences in glacier ABL properties were related to valley and regional circulation and what effect these differences had on surface lapse rates. In general strong daytime down-glacier winds were observed over the glacier. These winds extended well beyond the glacier into the proglacial area and through the depth of lower ice-free valley. On most days wind speed was consistent or increasing through to the top of the above-glacier profiles (100 to 200 m), indicating a quite well mixed surface boundary layer. A wind speed maximum in the lowest few metres above the glacier surface, characteristic of a katabatic wind, was only observed on one day. The dominant circulation within the valley appears to be what could be termed an 'icefield breeze'; strong down-glacier winds driven by mesoscale pressure gradients that are set up by differential suface heating over the non-glaciated valleys and much the larger Columbia Icefield upstream of the glacier. The effect of the different circulations on lapse rates will be explored with a view to developing variable lapse rates for modelling glacier mass balance.

  2. Onset of meso-scale turbulence in active nematics

    PubMed Central

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Thijssen, Kristian; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at low Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatiotemporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the collective behaviour in prominent biological processes, including biofilm formation, morphogenesis and cancer invasion. Despite its crucial role in such physiological processes, understanding meso-scale turbulence and any relation to classical inertial turbulence remains obscure. Here we show how the motion of active matter along a micro-channel transitions to meso-scale turbulence through the evolution of locally disordered patches (active puffs) from an ordered vortex-lattice flow state. We demonstrate that the stationary critical exponents of this transition to meso-scale turbulence in a channel coincide with the directed percolation universality class. This finding bridges our understanding of the onset of low-Reynolds-number meso-scale turbulence and traditional scale-invariant turbulence in confinement. PMID:28508858

  3. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  4. Mesoscale Predictability and Error Growth in Short Range Ensemble Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Mark

    Although it was originally suggested that small-scale, unresolved errors corrupt forecasts at all scales through an inverse error cascade, some authors have proposed that those mesoscale circulations resulting from stationary forcing on the larger scale may inherit the predictability of the large-scale motions. Further, the relative contributions of large- and small-scale uncertainties in producing error growth in the mesoscales remain largely unknown. Here, 100 member ensemble forecasts are initialized from an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to simulate two winter storms impacting the East Coast of the United States in 2010. Four verification metrics are considered: the local snow water equivalence, total liquid water, and 850 hPa temperatures representing mesoscale features; and the sea level pressure field representing a synoptic feature. It is found that while the predictability of the mesoscale features can be tied to the synoptic forecast, significant uncertainty existed on the synoptic scale at lead times as short as 18 hours. Therefore, mesoscale details remained uncertain in both storms due to uncertainties at the large scale. Additionally, the ensemble perturbation kinetic energy did not show an appreciable upscale propagation of error for either case. Instead, the initial condition perturbations from the cycling EnKF were maximized at large scales and immediately amplified at all scales without requiring initial upscale propagation. This suggests that relatively small errors in the synoptic-scale initialization may have more importance in limiting predictability than errors in the unresolved, small-scale initial conditions.

  5. On the mesoscale monitoring capability of Argo floats in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Román, Antonio; Ruiz, Simón; Pascual, Ananda; Mourre, Baptiste; Guinehut, Stéphanie

    2017-03-01

    In this work a simplified observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) approach is used to investigate which Argo design sampling in the Mediterranean Sea would be necessary to properly capture the mesoscale dynamics in this basin. The monitoring of the mesoscale features is not an initial objective of the Argo network. However, it is an interesting question from the perspective of future network extensions in order to improve the ocean state estimates. The true field used to conduct the OSSEs is provided by a specific altimetry-gridded merged product for the Mediterranean Sea. Synthetic observations were obtained by sub-sampling this Nature Run according to different configurations of the ARGO network. The observation errors required to perform the OSSEs were obtained through the comparison of sea level anomalies (SLAs) from altimetry and dynamic height anomalies (DHAs) computed from the real in situ Argo network. This analysis also contributes to validate satellite SLAs with an increased confidence. The simulation experiments show that a configuration similar to the current Argo array in the Mediterranean (with a spatial resolution of 2° × 2°) is only able to recover the large-scale signals of the basin. Increasing the spatial resolution to nearly 75 km × 75 km, allows the capture of most of the mesoscale signal in the basin and to retrieve the SLA field with a RMSE of 3 cm for spatial scales larger than 150 km, similar to those presently captured by the altimetry. This would represent a theoretical reduction of 40 % of the actual RMSE. Such a high-resolution Argo array composed of around 450 floats, cycling every 10 days, is expected to increase the actual network cost by approximately a factor of 6.

  6. Numerical simulations of geophysical flows under operator splitting: mesoscale turbulence and ageostrophic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Binson; Tse, Kwan-Leung; Mahalov, Alex; Nicolaenko, Basil

    2001-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of three-dimensional primitive equations, under the Boussinesq approximation, for rotating-stratified geophysical flows, utilizing mathematically rigorous asymptotic operator splitting between potential vorticity (PV) and hyperbolic wave dynamics (Babin et al., Theort. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 11 (1998), 215-235). The approach is suitable in long-term integrations, and for attaining high Reynold's numbers (of few thousands with the Taylor microscale). The catalytic interactions of (balanced) quasigeostrophic (QG) PV modes with (unbalanced) ageostrophic (AG) modes are examined using a prognostic equation for QG PV, and equations for divergent velocity potential, and thermal-wind imbalance, with time and space dependent coefficients determined by the PV dynamics. The AG equations are solved using a pseudo-spectral (PS) method, with an energy-conserving time-integration scheme. In our first set of simulations, exploring the modification of large, mesoscale structures, QG dynamics is forced, at some large-scale, by Taylor-Green solutions and PS techniques are employed. We identify one major role played by anisotropic AG energy cascades, driven by nonlinear QG-AG-AG interactions, to small-scales as a concomitant fragmentation of QG structures into more blobby features. Mesoscale turbulence thus needs to be distinguished from balanced turbulence; for instance, vertical velocity is related fundamentally to AG dynamics and PV memory. The second set of our simulations uses the contour-advective semi-Lagrangian (CASL) code of Dritschel and Ambaum (Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 123 (1999), 1097-1130), which resolve efficiently and accurately the filamentary QG PV advective dynamics, coupled with the AG equations, to study how downscale-cascading PV filaments can be modified in the mesoscales by the AG wave dynamics.

  7. Simulating wind energy resources with mesoscale models: Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models over Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are useful because they give information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Various mesoscale models and families of mesoscale models are being used, with thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. We have carried out a blind benchmarking study to evaluate the capabilities of mesoscale models used in wind energy to estimate site wind conditions: to highlight common issues on mesoscale modeling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and to identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. Three experimental sites with tall mast measurements were selected: FINO3 (offshore), Høvsøre (coastal), and Cabauw (land-based). The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed and direction, temperature, etc., at various heights for 2011. The methods used were left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a detailed description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and vertical resolution, model parameterizations, surface roughness length) that could be used to group the models and interpret the results of the intercomparison. The analysis of the time series includes comparison to observations, summarized with well-known measures such as biases, RMSE, correlations, and of sector-wise statistics, and the temporal spectra. The statistics were grouped by the models, their spatial resolution, forcing data, various integration methods, etc. The results show high fidelity of the various entries in simulating the wind climate at the offshore and coastal site. Over land and the statistics of other derived fields

  8. Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in phytoplankton community composition in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotti-Rausch, Bridget E.; Lomas, Michael W.; Lachenmyer, Eric M.; Goldman, Emily A.; Bell, Douglas W.; Goldberg, Stacey R.; Richardson, Tammi L.

    2016-04-01

    The Sargasso Sea is a dynamic physical environment in which strong seasonal variability combines with forcing by mesoscale (~100 km) eddies. These drivers determine nutrient, light, and temperature regimes and, ultimately, the composition and productivity of the phytoplankton community. On four cruises (2011 and 2012; one eddy per cruise), we investigated links between water column structure and phytoplankton community composition in the Sargasso at a range of time and space scales. On all cruises, cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) dominated the phytoplankton numerically, while haptophytes were the dominant eukaryotes (up to 60% of total chl-a). There were substantial effects of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale forcing on phytoplankton community composition in both spring and summer. Downwelling (in anticyclones) resulted in Prochlorococcus abundances that were 22-66% higher than at 'outside' stations. Upwelling (in cyclones) was associated with significantly higher abundances and POC biomass of nanoeukaryotes. In general, however, each eddy had its own unique characteristics. The center of anticyclone AC1 (spring 2011) had the lowest phytoplankton biomass (chl-a) of any eddy we studied and had lower nitrate+nitrite (N+N <5 mmol m-2) and eukaryote chl-a biomass as compared to its edge and to the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series station (BATS). At the center of cyclone C1 (summer 2011), we observed uplift of the 26.5 kg m-3 isopycnal and high nutrient inventories (N+N=74±46 mmol m-2). We also observed significantly higher haptophyte chl-a (non-coccolithophores) and lower cyanobacterial chl-a at the center and edge of C1 as compared to outside the eddy at BATS. Cyclone C2 (spring 2012) exhibited a deep mixed layer, yet had relatively low nutrient concentrations. We observed a shift in the taxonomic composition of haptophytes between a coccolithophore-dominated community in C2 (98% of total haptophyte chl-a) and a non-coccolithophore community at BATS. In

  9. Mesoscale energy deposition footprint model for kiloelectronvolt cluster bombardment of solids.

    PubMed

    Russo, Michael F; Garrison, Barbara J

    2006-10-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to model 5-keV C60 and Au3 projectile bombardment of an amorphous water substrate. The goal is to obtain detailed insights into the dynamics of motion in order to develop a straightforward and less computationally demanding model of the process of ejection. The molecular dynamics results provide the basis for the mesoscale energy deposition footprint model. This model provides a method for predicting relative yields based on information from less than 1 ps of simulation time.

  10. Molecular Origins of Mesoscale Ordering in a Metalloamphiphile Phase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the assembly of soft and deformable molecular aggregates into mesoscale structures is essential for understanding and developing a broad range of processes including rare earth extraction and cleaning of water, as well as for developing materials with unique properties. By combined synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering with large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations we analyze here a metalloamphiphile–oil solution that organizes on multiple length scales. The molecules associate into aggregates, and aggregates flocculate into meso-ordered phases. Our study demonstrates that dipolar interactions, centered on the amphiphile headgroup, bridge ionic aggregate cores and drive aggregate flocculation. By identifying specific intermolecular interactions that drive mesoscale ordering in solution, we bridge two different length scales that are classically addressed separately. Our results highlight the importance of individual intermolecular interactions in driving mesoscale ordering. PMID:27163014

  11. Mesoscale circulation along the Sakhalin Island eastern coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2017-02-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of mesoscale circulation along the eastern coast of the Sakhalin Island in the Okhotsk Sea is investigated using the AVISO velocity field and oceanographic data for the period from 1993 to 2016. It is found that mesoscale cyclones with the horizontal dimension of about 100 km occur there predominantly during summer, whereas anticyclones occur predominantly during fall and winter. The cyclones are generated due to a coastal upwelling forced by northward winds and the positive wind stress curl along the Sakhalin coast. The anticyclones are formed due to an inflow of low-salinity Amur River waters from the Sakhalin Gulf intensified by southward winds and the negative wind stress curl in the cold season. The mesoscale cyclones support the high biological productivity at the eastern Sakhalin shelf in July- August.

  12. Computational homogenization of diffusion in three-phase mesoscale concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilenius, Filip; Larsson, Fredrik; Lundgren, Karin; Runesson, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    A three dimensional (3D) mesoscale model of concrete is presented and employed for computational homogenization in the context of mass diffusion. The mesoscale constituents of cement paste, aggregates and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) are contained within a statistical volume element (SVE) on which homogenization is carried out. The model implementation accounts for ITZ anisotropy thereby the diffusivity tensor depends on the normal of the aggregate surface. The homogenized response is compared between 3D and 2D SVEs to study the influence of the third spatial dimension, and for varying mesoscale compositions to study the influence of aggregate content on concrete diffusivity. The computational results show that the effective diffusivity of 3D SVEs is about 40 % greater than 2D SVEs when ITZ is excluded for the SVE, and 17 % when ITZ is included. The results are in agreement with the upper Hashin-Shtrikman bound when ITZ is excluded, and close to the Taylor assumption when ITZ is included.

  13. The oceanic vertical pump induced by mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Klein, Patrice; Lapeyre, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The motivation to study the vertical exchanges of tracers associated with mesoscale eddies is that the mean concentration of most oceanic tracers changes rapidly with depth. Because mesoscale processes may transport these tracers vertically, biogeochemists hypothesized that these vertical exchanges may strongly affect global tracer budgets. This hypothesis has motivated a large number of biogeochemical studies that we review here by focusing on the significant advances that have been achieved and the remaining issues and uncertainties. The main question that emerges concerns the importance of the submesoscales (10 km in the horizontal) in these vertical exchanges. Independently, in the past decade, fluid dynamicists examined the three-dimensional properties of submesoscales generated by a mesoscale (100 km in the horizontal) turbulent eddy field. We review their results and discuss how the vertical exchanges associated with these submesoscales may answer the issues raised by biogeochemical studies and inspire future directions.

  14. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity in mesoscale convective complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Macgorman, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the evolution of cloud-to-ground lightning discharges attending convective storms in mesoscale convective systems was conducted in the framework of the mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) life cycle. The lightning discharge data were acquired by a commercially available lightning detection and location system. Peak rates averaged 42/min for the MCCs analyzed; these rates are comparable to the highest observed rates within other mesoscale storm systems and are greater than 20 times the rates previously observed in isolated thunderstorms. Lightning damage occurs with half of the MCCs and is most frequent between the development and the mature phases of the MCC life cycle. The most active period is also characterized by the greatest average number of discrete strokes and largest fraction of multiple-stroke discharges. The total cloud-to-ground lightning activity and maximum flashing rate do not appear to be directly related to either the size of the cloud shield or total duration of the MCC.

  15. Green Ampt approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Li, L.; Jeng, D.-S.; Crapper, M.

    2005-10-01

    The solution to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is expressible in terms of the Lambert W-1 function. Approximations for Green and Ampt infiltration are thus derivable from approximations for the W-1 function and vice versa. An infinite family of asymptotic expansions to W-1 is presented. Although these expansions do not converge near the branch point of the W function (corresponds to Green-Ampt infiltration with immediate ponding), a method is presented for approximating W-1 that is exact at the branch point and asymptotically, with interpolation between these limits. Some existing and several new simple and compact yet robust approximations applicable to Green-Ampt infiltration and flux are presented, the most accurate of which has a maximum relative error of 5 × 10 -5%. This error is orders of magnitude lower than any existing analytical approximations.

  16. Comments on the challenge of using mesoscale data in mesoscale numerical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, Louis W.

    1987-01-01

    The dangers of addressing the initialization issues for limited-area mesoscale models by extending the lessons learned during the development of global analysis and prediction systems are discussed. Lack of impact with data inserts at one time suggests that the lateral boundary conditions imposed on the limited-area models might force the model simulation toward a preferred solution, work against the new data being inserted into the model and, therefore, limit the potential impact that this data can have on the model system. The second potential pitfall involves the imposition of balance constraints on the data that are being inserted into the model to compute winds from temperature data and/or temperature from wind data.

  17. Quantifying mesoscale-driven nitrate supply: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidcock, Rosalind E. M.; Martin, Adrian P.; Painter, Stuart. C.; Allen, John T.; Srokosz, Meric A.; Forryan, Alex; Stinchcombe, Mark; Smeed, David A.

    2016-08-01

    The supply of nitrate to surface waters plays a crucial role in maintaining marine life. Physical processes at the mesoscale ( 10-100 km) and smaller scale have been advocated to provide a major fraction of the global supply. While observational studies have focused on well-defined features, such as isolated eddies, the vertical circulation and nutrient supply in a typical 100-200 km square of ocean will involve a turbulent spectrum of interacting, evolving, and decaying features. A crucial step in closing the ocean nitrogen budget is to be able to rank the importance of mesoscale fluxes against other sources of nitrate for surface waters for a representative area of open ocean. While this has been done using models, the vital observational equivalent is still lacking. To illustrate the difficulties that prevent us from putting a global estimate on the significance of the mesoscale observationally, we use data from a cruise in the Iceland Basin where vertical velocity and nitrate observations were made simultaneously at the same high spatial resolution. Local mesoscale nitrate flux is found to be an order of magnitude greater than that due to small-scale vertical mixing and exceeds coincident nitrate uptake rates and estimates of nitrate supply due to winter convection. However, a nonzero net vertical velocity for the region introduces a significant bias in regional estimates of the mesoscale vertical nitrate transport. The need for synopticity means that a more accurate estimate cannot be simply found by using a larger survey area. It is argued that time series, rather than spatial surveys, may be the best means to quantify the contribution of mesoscale processes to the nitrate budget of the surface ocean.

  18. Estimating Mutual Information by Local Gaussian Approximation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    any one-dimensional kernel function . Then the Local Gaussian Density Estimator, or LGDE, of f(x) is given by f̂ (x) = Nd (x;µ(x),Σ(x)) , (6) Here µ,Σ...term in the right hand side of Eq. 8 is the local- ized version of Gaussian log-likelihood. One can see that without the kernel function , Eq. 8 becomes...similar to the global log-likelihood function of the Gaussian parametric family. However, since we do not have sufficient infor- mation to specify a

  19. Approximate Public Key Authentication with Information Hiding

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS,EDWARD V.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes a solution for the problem of authenticating the shapes of statistically variant gamma spectra while simultaneously concealing the shapes and magnitudes of the sensitive spectra. The shape of a spectrum is given by the relative magnitudes and positions of the individual spectral elements. Class-specific linear orthonormal transformations of the measured spectra are used to produce output that meet both the authentication and concealment requirements. For purposes of concealment, the n-dimensional gamma spectra are transformed into n-dimensional output spectra that are effectively indistinguishable from Gaussian white noise (independent of the class). In addition, the proposed transformations are such that statistical authentication metrics computed on the transformed spectra are identical to those computed on the original spectra.

  20. New Mesoscale Fluvial Landscapes - Seismic Geomorphology and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Megafans (100-600 km radius) are very large alluvial fans that cover significant areas on most continents, the surprising finding of recent global surveys. The number of such fans and patterns of sedimentation on them provides new mesoscale architectures that can now be applied on continental fluvial depositional systems, and therefore on. Megafan-scale reconstructions underground as yet have not been attempted. Seismic surveys offer new possibilities in identifying the following prospective situations at potentially unsuspected locations: (i) sand concentrations points, (ii) sand-mud continuums at the mesoscale, (iii) paleo-valley forms in these generally unvalleyed landscapes, (iv) stratigraphic traps, and (v) structural traps.

  1. Recent Applications of Mesoscale Modeling to Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A; Wescott, J; Kung, P; Goldbeck-Wood, G

    2005-02-11

    Mesoscale simulations have traditionally been used to investigate structural morphology of polymer in solution, melts and blends. Recently we have been pushing such modeling methods to important areas of Nanotechnology and Drug delivery that are well out of reach of classical molecular dynamics. This paper summarizes our efforts in three important emerging areas: (1) polymer-nanotube composites; (2) drug diffusivity through cell membranes; and (3) solvent exchange in nanoporous membranes. The first two applications are based on a bead-spring-based approach as encoded in the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) module. The last application used density-based Mesoscale modeling as implemented in the Mesodyn module.

  2. GAP Flow Measurements During the Mesoscale Alpine Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, G.; Armi, L.; Arnold, S.; Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Durran, D. D.; Flamant, C.; Gabersek, S.; Gohm, A.; Mayr, R.; Mobbs, S.; Nance, L. B.; Vergeiner, I.; Vergeiner, J.; Whiteman, Charles D.

    2004-04-30

    This article provides an overview of the Gap Flow sub-program of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme, a major international meteorological field experiment conducted in the European Alps. The article describes the initial results of an investigation of the wind flow through the Brenner Pass gap in the east-west oriented central section of the European Alps under conditions of south foehn. The overview describes the objectives of the experiments, the instrumentation used for the field investigation, and the mesoscale model simulations. Initial findings of the scientific program are provided.

  3. Mesoscale modeling of molecular machines: cyclic dynamics and hydrodynamical fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Andrew; Togashi, Yuichi; Mikhailov, Alexander S; Kapral, Raymond

    2008-05-01

    Proteins acting as molecular machines can undergo cyclic internal conformational motions that are coupled to ligand binding and dissociation events. In contrast to their macroscopic counterparts, nanomachines operate in a highly fluctuating environment, which influences their operation. To bridge the gap between detailed microscopic and simple phenomenological descriptions, a mesoscale approach, which combines an elastic network model of a machine with a particle-based mesoscale description of the solvent, is employed. The time scale of the cyclic hinge motions of the machine prototype is strongly affected by hydrodynamical coupling to the solvent.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov

    With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and

  5. Improving Accuracy of Acoustic Prediction in the Philippine Sea through Incorporation of Mesoscale Environmental Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    OF ACOUSTIC PREDICTION IN THE PHILIPPINE SEA THROUGH INCORPORATION OF MESOSCALE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS by Kimberly M. Freitas June 2008...in the Philippine Sea through Incorporation of Mesoscale Environmental Effects 6. AUTHOR(S) Kimberly Freitas 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...warfare. In the tactically important Philippine Sea , powerful mesoscale eddies can have strong effects on acoustic fields. To quantify eddy effects, a

  6. Variation of stream temperature among mesoscale habitats within stream reaches: southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    S. Lynsey Long; C. Rhett. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Stream mesoscale habitats have systematic topographic relationships to hyporheic flow patterns, which may create predictable temperature variation between mesoscale habitat types. We investigated whether systematic differences in temperature metrics occurred between mesoscale habitats within reaches of small streams tributary to the upper Little Tennessee River,...

  7. Numerical simulations of mesoscale precipitation systems. Final progress report, 1 April-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dingle, A.N.

    1982-05-12

    A numerical model designed for the study of mesoscale weather phenomena is presented. It is a three-dimensional, time-dependent model based upon a mesoscale primitive-equation system, and it includes parameterizations of cloud and precipitation processes, boundary-layer transfers, and ground surface energy and moisture budgets. This model was used to simulate the lake-effect convergence over and in the lee of Lake Michigan in late fall and early winter. The lake-effect convergence is created in advected cold air as it moves first from cold land to the warm constant-temperature lake surface, and then on to cold land. A numerical experiment with a prevailing northwesterly wind is conducted for a period of twelve hours. Two local maxima of the total precipitation are observed along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. The results in this hypothetical case correspond quite well to the observed precipitation produced by a real event in which the hypothetical conditions are approximately fulfilled.

  8. Synoptic environment, mesoscale configurations and forecast parameters for hailstorms in Southwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; García-Ortega, E.; López, L.; Sánchez, J. L.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Forecasting hailstorms is an important challenge. Improving these forecasts is of vital importance to reduce the risks that this phenomenon causes to the environment and the population. This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of hailstorms in different scales by means of: the definition of the synoptic environment favorable to convection, the establishment of mesoscale configurations on hailstorm days, and an analysis of prediction parameters for the presence of hail. Simulations with the WRF model were done for 100 study days in which hailstorms were produced in the Middle Ebro Valley. The synoptic environment was defined from the average geopotential and temperature fields at 500 hPa. Using multivariate techniques of the Principal Component Analysis in T-Mode and a Cluster Analysis, four mesoscale configurations were defined for the fields of convective instability, water vapor flux divergence and wind flow and humidity at low layers. Finally, the study included several hail forecast parameters: CAPE, Storm Relative Helicity between 0 and 3 km (SRH0-3), Energy-Helicity Index (EHI) and Showalter Index (SI); making a comparison between hail/hail-free grid points, which allowed us to determine their values and thresholds in order to discern the presence of hail within convective precipitation areas. The analysis, along with these three basic ingredients, provides a very useful tool that allows for a good approximation for predicting storms with hail in the study area.

  9. The Use of Mesoscale Eddies and Gulf Stream Meanders by White Sharks Carcharodon carcharias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaube, P.; Thorrold, S.; Braun, C.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Lawson, G. L.; Skomal, G. B.

    2016-02-01

    Large pelagic fishes like sharks, tuna, swordfish, and billfish spend a portion of their lives in the open ocean, yet their spatial distribution in this vast habitat remains relatively unknown. Mesoscale ocean eddies, rotating vortices with radius scales of approximately 100 km, structure open ocean ecosystems from primary producers to apex predators by influencing nutrient distributions and transporting large trapped parcels of water over long distances. Recent advances in both the tagging and tracking of marine animals combined with improved detection and tracking of mesoscale eddies has shed some light on the oceanographic features influencing their migrations. Here we show that white sharks use the interiors of anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies differently, a previously undocumented behavior. While swimming in warm, subtropical water, white sharks preferentially inhabit anticyclonic eddies compared to cyclonic eddies. In the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, the depth and duration of dives recorded by an archival temperature- and depth-recording tag affixed to a large female are shown to be significantly deeper and longer in anticyclonic eddies compared to those in cyclonic eddies. This asymmetry is linked to positive subsurface temperature anomalies generated by anticyclonic eddies that are more than 7 degrees C warmer than cyclonic eddies, thus reducing the need for these animals to expend as much energy regulating their internal temperature. In addition, anticyclonic eddies may be regions of enhance foraging success, as suggested by a series of acoustics surveys in the North Atlantic which indicated elevated mesopelagic fish biomass in anticyclones compared to cyclones.

  10. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  11. Mesoscale eddies and related processes in the northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Anna I.; Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Krivosheya, Vladimir G.; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Soloviev, Dmitry M.; Stanichny, Sergey V.; Yakubenko, Valeriy G.

    2002-04-01

    Mesoscale dynamics in the northeastern Black Sea in Autumn 1993 and 1997 is considered on the basis of analysis of the NOAA AVHRR imagery together with relevant hydrographic measurements and meteorological information. Over the course from 6 September to 8 October 1997, five near-shore anticyclonic eddies (NAEs) about 40 km in diameter were observed within the region between Tuapse and the Kerch Strait, their movement speed reaching about 15 cm/s at separate parts of their trajectories. Separation of an NAE (NAE-1) from the coast in the region of a widening shelf/slope west of Novorossiysk and its transformation into deep-sea eddy was traced. Lifetime of the anticyclone was no less than 1 month, its mean offshore speed was about 4.3 cm/s. According to the SeaWiFS data, the increased chlorophyll a concentration (compared with the mean concentration at the center of the eastern part of the sea) was observed on 8 October 1997 in four "young" NAEs after an intense precipitation, the decreased one at the same time occurred in NAE-1, which was depleted of supply by shelf waters. In Summer 1993, a large NAE (about 95 km in diameter) was observed in the region between Tuapse and Gelendzhik. Evolution of the eddy from 3 June to 8 November 1993 was traced. Lifetime of the eddy exceeded 5 months. Its mean offshore speed to the southwest since its separation from the coast (around 17 August) in the Novorossiysk region was about 1.2 cm/s. The difference between dynamic situations in the same season (autumn) of 2 years, 1997 and 1993, was likely associated with peculiarities of atmospheric circulation and related intensity of cyclonic circulation in the Black Sea.

  12. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and

  13. Variational assimilation of VAS data into a mesoscale model Assimilation method and sensitivity experiments. [Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cram, J. M.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The assimilation of temperature and moisture gradient information from the Visible IR Spin-Scan Radiometer's Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) into a mesoscale model is presently undertaken by means of a variational method and followed by tests of the sensitivity of both diabatic and adiabatic versions of the model to VAS data assimilations for the case of July 20-21, 1981. The synoptic scale effects of the assimilation of VAS data are noted to be negligible; the greatest impact was instead on mesoscale forecasts of convective instability patterns. The additional assimilation of relative humidity gradients did not significantly change the patterns of the forecast instabilities. The greatest improvements from assimilation resulted from the resolution of the strong mesoscale temperature gradients by the asynoptic VAS data.

  14. Producing approximate answers to database queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrbsky, Susan V.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a query processor, called APPROXIMATE, that makes approximate answers available if part of the database is unavailable or if there is not enough time to produce an exact answer. The accuracy of the approximate answers produced improves monotonically with the amount of data retrieved to produce the result. The exact answer is produced if all of the needed data are available and query processing is allowed to continue until completion. The monotone query processing algorithm of APPROXIMATE works within the standard relational algebra framework and can be implemented on a relational database system with little change to the relational architecture. We describe here the approximation semantics of APPROXIMATE that serves as the basis for meaningful approximations of both set-valued and single-valued queries. We show how APPROXIMATE is implemented to make effective use of semantic information, provided by an object-oriented view of the database, and describe the additional overhead required by APPROXIMATE.

  15. Anomalous diffraction approximation limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Chýlek, Petr

    It has been reported in a recent article [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res., 41, pp. 63-69] that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy does not depend on particle refractive index, but instead is dependent on the particle size parameter. Since this is at odds with previous research, we thought these results warranted further discussion.

  16. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  17. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  18. Fast approximate stochastic tractography.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Thompson, Paul M; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Tu, Zhuowen

    2012-01-01

    Many different probabilistic tractography methods have been proposed in the literature to overcome the limitations of classical deterministic tractography: (i) lack of quantitative connectivity information; and (ii) robustness to noise, partial volume effects and selection of seed region. However, these methods rely on Monte Carlo sampling techniques that are computationally very demanding. This study presents an approximate stochastic tractography algorithm (FAST) that can be used interactively, as opposed to having to wait several minutes to obtain the output after marking a seed region. In FAST, tractography is formulated as a Markov chain that relies on a transition tensor. The tensor is designed to mimic the features of a well-known probabilistic tractography method based on a random walk model and Monte-Carlo sampling, but can also accommodate other propagation rules. Compared to the baseline algorithm, our method circumvents the sampling process and provides a deterministic solution at the expense of partially sacrificing sub-voxel accuracy. Therefore, the method is strictly speaking not stochastic, but provides a probabilistic output in the spirit of stochastic tractography methods. FAST was compared with the random walk model using real data from 10 patients in two different ways: 1. the probability maps produced by the two methods on five well-known fiber tracts were directly compared using metrics from the image registration literature; and 2. the connectivity measurements between different regions of the brain given by the two methods were compared using the correlation coefficient ρ. The results show that the connectivity measures provided by the two algorithms are well-correlated (ρ = 0.83), and so are the probability maps (normalized cross correlation 0.818 ± 0.081). The maps are also qualitatively (i.e., visually) very similar. The proposed method achieves a 60x speed-up (7 s vs. 7 min) over the Monte Carlo sampling scheme, therefore

  19. An open-source distributed mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Zink, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Schrön, Martin; Musuuza, Jude; Prykhodko, Vladyslav; Dalmasso, Giovanni; Attinger, Sabine; Spieler, Diana; Rakovec, Oldrich; Craven, John; Langenberg, Ben

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale hydrological model (mHM) is based on numerical approximations of dominant hydrological processes that have been tested in various hydrological models such as: HBV and VIC. In general, mHM simulates the following processes: canopy interception, snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics (n-horizons), infiltration and surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation, deep percolation and baseflow, and discharge attenuation and flood routing. The main characteristic of mHM is the treatment of the sub-grid variability of input variables and model parameters which clearly distinguishes this model from existing precipitation-runoff models or land surface models. It uses a Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) to account for the sub-grid variability and to avoid continuous re-calibration. Effective model parameters are location and time dependent (e.g., soil porosity). They are estimated through upscaling operators that link sub-grid morphologic information (e.g., soil texture) with global transfer-function parameters, which, in turn, are found through multi-basin optimization. Global parameters estimated with the MPR technique are quasi-scale invariant and guarantee flux-matching across scales. mHM is an open source code, written in Fortran 2003 (standard), fully modular, with high computational efficiency, and parallelized. It is portable to multiple platforms (Linux, OS X, Windows) and includes a number of algorithms for sensitivity analysis, analysis of parameter uncertainty (MCMC), and optimization (DDS, SA, SCE). All simulated state variables and outputs can be stored as netCDF files for further analysis and visualization. mHM has been evaluated in all major river basins in Germany and over 80 US and 250 European river basins. The model efficiency (NSE) during validation at proxy locations is on average greater than 0.6. During last years, mHM had been used for number of hydrologic applications such as

  20. Mesoscale Variability in Coastal Stratocumulus Clouds Observed During Uppef2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    STRATOCUMULUS MESOSCALE VARIABILITY Stratocumulus clouds have convective circulations that are very organized and result from processes occurring at...coincides with low and strong subsidence inversions due to subsiding air within the downward branches of global scale atmospheric motions such as Hadley ...aloft, rather than heating from below. Regardless of the forcing, the resulting convective circulations typically organize into quazi-hexagonal cells

  1. Balanced dynamics of mesoscale vortices produced in simulated convective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.A.; Weisman, M.L. )

    1994-07-01

    Long-lived, mesoscale convective systems are known to occasionally produce Mesoscale Convective Vortices (MCVs) in the lower to middle troposphere with horizontal scales averaging 100-200 km. The formation of MCVs is investigated using fully three-dimensional cloud model simulations of idealized, Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), initialized with a finite length line of unstable perturbations. In agreement with observations, the authors find that environmental conditions favoring MCV formation exhibit weak vertical shear confined to roughly the lowest 3 km, provided the Coriolis parameter (f) is chosen appropriate for midlatitudes. With f = 0, counterrotating vortices form on the line ends, positive to the north and negative to the south with westerly environmental shear. The MCV and end vortices are synonymous with anomalies of potential vorticity (PV). Using PV inversion techniques, the authors show that the vortices are nearly balanced, even with f = 0. However, the formation of mesoscale vortices depends upon the unbalanced, sloping, front-to-rear and rear inflow circulations of the mature squall line. End vortices form partly from the tilting of ambient shear but more from the tilting of the perturbation horizontal vorticity inherent in the squall line circulation. With the addition of earth's rotation, an asymmetric structure results with the cyclonic vortex dominant on the northern end of the line.

  2. Driving Mesoscale Processes with Global Data Assimilative Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bust, G. S.; Comberiate, J.; Datta-Barua, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global large scale ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) data assimilation methods have evolved to the point where they are able to estimate several IT state variables simultaneously over the entire globe.The large scale state variables estimated by data assimilative techniques can then be used to drive physical models of mesoscale and small scale processes. This allows for the possibility of being able to accurately predict mesoscale and small scale processes and structures from knowledge of the large scale driving physics. However, the accuracy of any such predictions will depend a) upon the accuracy of the estimated large scale state variables from data assimilation as well as b) the accuracy of the mesoscale and small scale models. In this presentation, we will focus upon the current capability of the data assimilation models IDA4D and EMPIRE to accurately estimate large scale IT state variables at equatorial latitudes. We will then discuss how these large scale state variables can be used to drive mesoscale models of the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere. Results will be presented of large scale estimates of equatorial electron density and electric potential from analysis of IDA4D/EMPIRE and ingestion of C/NOFS observations

  3. Using weather prediction data for simulation of mesoscale atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, Andrey A.; Starchenko, Alexander V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents an approach to specify initial and boundary conditions from the output data of global model SLAV for mesoscale modelling of atmospheric processes in areas not covered by meteorological observations. From the data and the model equations for a homogeneous atmospheric boundary layer the meteorological and turbulent characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer are calculated.

  4. Parameterization of Cumulus Convective Cloud Systems in Mesoscale Forecast Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Parameterization of Cumulus Convective Cloud Systems in...parameterization of cumulus convective clouds in mesoscale numerical weather prediction models OBJECTIVES Conduct detailed studies of cloud ...microphysical processes in order to develop a unified parameterization of boundary layer stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus convective clouds . Develop

  5. Mesoscale aspects of storms producing floods over regions of arid mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houze, R.; Romatschke, U.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    We have used the TRMM satellite's Precipitation Radar (PR) to develop a climatology of extreme convection in the regions of the Andes and Himalayas. This work shows that intense convection often occurs in arid regions but does not usually produce large amounts of rain. Large quantities of rain falling in mountainous regions is associated with the convective systems that have the greatest horizontal scales. When such wide systems occur over arid mountains, they can produce lethal floods. The Pakistan flood of 2010 is a case in point. Wide convective systems with large stratiform components became situated over the arid mountains of that region, with the result of the Indus River overflowed with disastrous consequences over a huge area. The potential of heavy rain in the region could have been inferred from the forecast synoptic-scale circulation, which indicated the occurrence of a great buildup of moisture in the region. Although the synoptic conditions were well forecast, that information alone was insufficient for predicting the flood conditions. It would have been necessary to anticipate also the mesoscale structure of the storms. Our TRMM satellite climatology of rainstorm structures in this region indicated that the mesoscale convective rainstorms responsible for the floods were of a type that does not normally occur in this region. Rather, this type of storm usually occurs and produces copious monsoon rain far to the east, over the mountains and wetlands of northeastern India and Bangladesh. In this event, catastrophic runoff and flooding resulted as these rainstorms occurred far to the west of where they usually occur, over an arid and mountainous region unaccustomed to such storms. This study indicates that taking into account the mesoscale structures of the cloud systems as well as the synoptic conditions in which they are embedded is essential for forecasting floods in this region of complex terrain.

  6. The role of mesoscale instabilities and frontolytic circulations in Sting-Jet dynamics: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonté, Ambrogio; Clark, Peter; Gray, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Sting jets (SJ) occur as an additional region of low-level strong winds present in some Shapiro-Keyser extratropical cyclones. While it is now widely accepted that those winds are not part of the warm or cold conveyor belts, the precise mechanisms responsible for their occurrence are yet to be fully understood. The key aspect of the current research concerns the dependence of SJ generation and strengthening upon the release of mesoscale instabilities and upon the balanced dynamics in the frontolytic region. The work to be presented tackles this question using a case study, windstorm Tini (affecting the UK on 12 February 2014), in which a SJ has been identified. The related investigation is carried out through simulations run with the MetUM and Lagrangian trajectories are used to gain further information on the dynamics of the SJ. Particular attention is devoted to the evolution of mesoscale atmospheric instabilities (e.g. symmetric and inertial instabilities) in the region where the descending airstream originates. The analysis of frontogenesis field, along with the use of vorticity budgets and of potential vorticity tracers, highlights the processes leading to the development of these instabilities and the banded structure in the cloud head. The results of this case study suggest that the SJ undergoes a process of destabilisation that enhances its descent and acceleration, adding to the strong winds already generated by the balanced dynamics. The same destabilisation does not occur in a coarser-resolution simulation, resulting in a weaker wind jet in the frontolytic region. This analysis thus reveals the synergy between the balanced dynamics and mesoscale instabilities in SJ formation.

  7. Meso-scale simulation of shocked particle laden flows and construction of metamodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2015-06-01

    In a typical multi-scale modeling problem, such as shock interaction with a dusty gas, information needs to be communicated between disparate length scales, for example between the system scale (order of meters) and the particle scale (order of microns). For the passage of a shock through a cloud of particles, the particle-gas interphase transfer terms in the macro-scale equations are typically based on empirical models of the drag force around a single particle embedded in a shocked flow. Often physical experiments to construct empirical models are restricted in parameter space and difficult or even impossible to perform for a wide range of parameters (Mach number, solid fraction, Reynolds numbers etc.). The goal of the current work is to use high-resolution meso-scale computational experiments as surrogates to physical experiments; a metamodeling approach is developed to ``lift'' information from the particle scale to the macro-scale. The research compares different metamodeling techniques and demonstrates the efficient use of metamodels to close the macro-scale equations; the meso-scale simulations provide a numerical drag law which can be readily used as a source term in macro-scale governing equations. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant Number FA9550-12-1-0115 and the National Science Foundation under Grant Number DMS-115631.

  8. Refinement of a mesoscale model for large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasset, Nicolas

    With the advent of wind energy technology, several methods have become mature and are seen today as standard for predicting and forecasting the wind. However, their results are still site dependent, and the increasing sizes of both modern wind turbines and wind farms tackle limits of existing methods. Some triggered processes extend to the junction between microscales and mesoscales.The main objectives of this thesis are thus to identify, implement and evaluate an approach allowing for microscale and mesoscale ABL flow modelling considering the various challenges of modern wind energy applications. A literature review of ABL flow modelling from microscales to mesoscales first provides an overview of the specificities and abilities of existing methods. The combined mesoscale/large eddy simulation (LES) modelling appears to be the most promising approach, and the Compressible Community Mesoscale Model (MC2) is elected as the basis of the method in which the components required for LES are added and implemented. A detailed description of the mathematical model and the numerical aspects of the various components of the LES-capable MC2 are then presented so that a complete view of the proposed approach along with the specificities of its implementation are provided. This further allows to introduce the enhancements and new components of the method (separation of volumetric and deviatoric Reynolds tensor terms, vertical staggering, subgrid scale models, 3D turbulent diffusion, 3D turbulent kinetic energy equation), as well as the adaptation of its operating mode to allow for LES (initialization, large scale geostrophic forcing, surface and lateral boundaries). Finally, fundamental aspects and new components of the proposed approach are evaluated based on theoretical 1D Ekman boundary layer and 3D unsteady shear and buoyancy driven homogeneous surface full ABL cases. The model behaviour at high resolution as well as the components required for LES in MC2 are all finely

  9. Covariant approximation averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  10. Nonlinear Influence of Mesoscale Land Use on Weather and Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, R. A.; Dalu, G. A.; Snook, J. S.; Lee, T. J.; Kittel, T. G. F.

    1991-11-01

    This paper demonstrates that the influence of mesoscale landscape spatial variability on the atmosphere must be parameterized (or explicitly modeled) in larger-scale atmospheric model simulations including general circulation models. The mesoscale fluxes of heat that result from this variability are shown to be of the same order of magnitude but with a different vertical structure than found for the turbulent fluxes. These conclusions are based on experiments in which no phase changes of water were permitted. When, for example, cumulus clouds organized in response to the landscape pattern develop, the mesoscale influence on larger-scale climate is likely to be even more important.To parameterize surface thermal inhomogeneities, the influence of landscape must be evaluated using spectral analysis or an equivalent procedure. For horizontal scales much less than the local Rossby radius, based on the results of Dalu and Pielke, the surface heat fluxes over the different land surfaces can be proportionately summed and an average grid-area value used as proposed by Avissar and Pielke. Moisture fluxes can probably be represented in the same fashion as for heat fluxes. For larger-scale spatial variability, however, the mesoscale fluxes must also be included as shown in this paper. While the linear effect could be parameterized using a procedure such as presented in Dalu and Pielke, where the spectral analysis is used to fractionally weight the contributions of the different spatial scales, the complete vertical mesoscale heat flux requires the incorporation of nonlinear advective effects. To include the nonlinear contribution of each scale, numerical model simulations for the range of observed surface and overlying atmospheric conditions must be performed.

  11. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M. Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D.; Dickerson, James H.

    2014-05-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation.We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization procedures, TEM/XRD of samples prepared at different temperature and water content, table of nitrogen adsorption-desorption values of different samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06154j

  12. Mesoscale analysis of failure in quasi-brittle materials: comparison between lattice model and acoustic emission data.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, David; Verdon, Laura; Lefort, Vincent; Grassl, Peter; Saliba, Jacqueline; Regoin, Jean-Pierre; Loukili, Ahmed; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles

    2015-10-25

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the development and the evolution of the fracture process zone during fracture and damage in quasi-brittle materials. A model taking into account the material details at the mesoscale is used to describe the failure process at the scale of the heterogeneities. This model is used to compute histograms of the relative distances between damaged points. These numerical results are compared with experimental data, where the damage evolution is monitored using acoustic emissions. Histograms of the relative distances between damage events in the numerical calculations and acoustic events in the experiments exhibit good agreement. It is shown that the mesoscale model provides relevant information from the point of view of both global responses and the local failure process. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Approximate Bayesian Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisewski, Jessi

    2015-08-01

    Explicitly specifying a likelihood function is becoming increasingly difficult for many problems in astronomy. Astronomers often specify a simpler approximate likelihood - leaving out important aspects of a more realistic model. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) provides a framework for performing inference in cases where the likelihood is not available or intractable. I will introduce ABC and explain how it can be a useful tool for astronomers. In particular, I will focus on the eccentricity distribution for a sample of exoplanets with multiple sub-populations.

  14. Observation of Sub-Mesoscale Eddies over Baltic Sea Using TerraSAR-X and Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavri, Aikaterini; Singha, Singha; Lehner, Susanne; Topouzelis, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    currents circulation altered. On the Northern part of the basin, during winter season, sub-mesoscale eddies due to ice interaction were detected close to density and temperature front regions. These formations presented high backscatter coefficient values and smoother texture than the other sub- mesoscale eddies categories. Their diameter varied from 2 to 7 km. Most of the detected sub-mesoscale eddies were smaller or equal to baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation, which was varying from 1.5 to 7.2 km annually. The detected oceanic spirals were both cyclonically and anti-cyclonically rotated at the same abundance. In conjunction with acquisition date of the SAR images, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (chl-a) concentration images from MODIS were collected for each date of detected oceanic eddies. In addition, wind speed data and current model data for surface circulation with sufficient spatial resolution were analysed in order to detect changes and correlations in the regions of the spiral formation detection. This approach was quite challenging due to different spatial resolutions of the datasets. From each dataset, plots and maps were generated, showing the overall conditions in the basin, as well as in the region were eddies detected. The majority of the sub-mesoscale eddies were located in regions of sharp shear changes or surface temperature fronts. From the combined information layers, strong correlation was concluded for eddies presenting low backscatter signatures with high temperatures and chlorophyll concentration. In contrast, the other two categories of eddies were generated in regions with low temperature and strong wind and current velocities, formed away from the coastline. As overall, the number of detected eddies was significantly lower than in studies focused on previews years. The detected categories of sub-mesoscale eddies were related to separable physical conditions and the presents results could help in their identification on SAR

  15. Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Murata, Atsuo; Li, Guo-Dong; Nagai, Masatake

    Conventional set approximations are based on a set of attributes; however, these approximations cannot relate an object to the corresponding attribute. In this study, a new model for set approximation based on individual attributes is proposed for interval-valued data. Defining an indiscernibility relation is omitted since each attribute value itself has a set of values. Two types of approximations, single- and multiattribute approximations, are presented. A multi-attribute approximation has two solutions: a maximum and a minimum solution. A maximum solution is a set of objects that satisfy the condition of approximation for at least one attribute. A minimum solution is a set of objects that satisfy the condition for all attributes. The proposed set approximation is helpful in finding the features of objects relating to condition attributes when interval-valued data are given. The proposed model contributes to feature extraction in interval-valued information systems.

  16. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  17. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  18. On Stochastic Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Hans

    This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…

  19. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  20. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  1. Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-01-01

    We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment

  2. Estimating the Spatiotemporal Constraints and Uncertainties in a Mesoscale Inversion of Methane Emissions During SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.; Liu, Z.; Brioude, J. F.; Cui, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Our ability to properly interpret trace gas source inversions and to accurately assess their uncertainty is often hindered by, on one hand, the absence of a robust theoretical and computational framework to define the observational constraints, and, on the other hand, the necessity to rely on simplistic assumptions for the probability distributions in order to accommodate the high-dimensionality of the problems (e.g., Gaussian distributions for the prior emissions). In this study, we apply a novel dimension reduction technique to a mesoscale inversion of methane sources from shale production during the Southeast Nexus of Climate Change and Air Quality (SENEX) field campaign (June-July, 2013) that allows us to rigorously characterize the spatiotemporal emission patterns that are independently and most constrained by the observations. This information allows us to define an optimal reduced basis set of emissions, which is then incorporated into a Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC) sampling method. The latter approach enables to relax the Gaussian assumption for the prior distribution and to fully sample the posterior distribution of the estimated methane fluxes. Several prior distribution scenarios that are more representative of the true prior uncertainties in the methane fluxes over shale production facilities (e.g., log-normal, multi-modal) are tested in order to provide a better characterization of errors in the posterior fluxes arising from the simplified Gaussian framework generally adopted in mesoscale inversions.

  3. System enhancements of Mesoscale Analysis and Space Sensor (MASS) computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.; Karitani, S.

    1985-01-01

    The interactive information processing for the mesoscale analysis and space sensor (MASS) program is reported. The development and implementation of new spaceborne remote sensing technology to observe and measure atmospheric processes is described. The space measurements and conventional observational data are processed together to gain an improved understanding of the mesoscale structure and dynamical evolution of the atmosphere relative to cloud development and precipitation processes. A Research Computer System consisting of three primary computers was developed (HP-1000F, Perkin-Elmer 3250, and Harris/6) which provides a wide range of capabilities for processing and displaying interactively large volumes of remote sensing data. The development of a MASS data base management and analysis system on the HP-1000F computer and extending these capabilities by integration with the Perkin-Elmer and Harris/6 computers using the MSFC's Apple III microcomputer workstations is described. The objectives are: to design hardware enhancements for computer integration and to provide data conversion and transfer between machines.

  4. Applied Routh approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Routh approximation technique for reducing the complexity of system models was applied in the frequency domain to a 16th order, state variable model of the F100 engine and to a 43d order, transfer function model of a launch vehicle boost pump pressure regulator. The results motivate extending the frequency domain formulation of the Routh method to the time domain in order to handle the state variable formulation directly. The time domain formulation was derived and a characterization that specifies all possible Routh similarity transformations was given. The characterization was computed by solving two eigenvalue-eigenvector problems. The application of the time domain Routh technique to the state variable engine model is described, and some results are given. Additional computational problems are discussed, including an optimization procedure that can improve the approximation accuracy by taking advantage of the transformation characterization.

  5. Topics in Metric Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  6. The use of DFDR information in the analysis of a turbulence incident over Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter F.; Sen, Orhan; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Digital flight data recorder (DFDR) tapes from commercial aircraft can provide useful information about the mesoscale environment of severe turbulence incidents. Air motion computations from these data and their errors are briefly described. An example of mesoscale meteorological information available from DFDR tapes is presented for a case of turbulence in mountain waves over the Greenland icecap.

  7. New Approaches to the Parameterization of Gravity-Wave and Flow-Blocking Drag due to Unresolved Mesoscale Orography Guided by Mesoscale Model Predictability Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    and Flow-Blocking Drag due to Unresolved Mesoscale Orography Guided by Mesoscale Model Predictability Research Stephen D. Eckermann Geospace ...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Geospace Science & Technology Branch

  8. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  9. Neighbourhood approximation using randomized forests.

    PubMed

    Konukoglu, Ender; Glocker, Ben; Zikic, Darko; Criminisi, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Leveraging available annotated data is an essential component of many modern methods for medical image analysis. In particular, approaches making use of the "neighbourhood" structure between images for this purpose have shown significant potential. Such techniques achieve high accuracy in analysing an image by propagating information from its immediate "neighbours" within an annotated database. Despite their success in certain applications, wide use of these methods is limited due to the challenging task of determining the neighbours for an out-of-sample image. This task is either computationally expensive due to large database sizes and costly distance evaluations, or infeasible due to distance definitions over semantic information, such as ground truth annotations, which is not available for out-of-sample images. This article introduces Neighbourhood Approximation Forests (NAFs), a supervised learning algorithm providing a general and efficient approach for the task of approximate nearest neighbour retrieval for arbitrary distances. Starting from an image training database and a user-defined distance between images, the algorithm learns to use appearance-based features to cluster images approximating the neighbourhood structured induced by the distance. NAF is able to efficiently infer nearest neighbours of an out-of-sample image, even when the original distance is based on semantic information. We perform experimental evaluation in two different scenarios: (i) age prediction from brain MRI and (ii) patch-based segmentation of unregistered, arbitrary field of view CT images. The results demonstrate the performance, computational benefits, and potential of NAF for different image analysis applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation: Mesoscale to Microscale Wind Farm Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick; Churchfield, Matthew; Kosović, Branko; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Hahmann, Andrea; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Rife, Daran

    2016-08-31

    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150 m diameter and hub heights above 100 m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm design tools and meteorological models. The challenge is how to build the bridge between atmospheric and wind engineering model communities and how to establish a comprehensive evaluation process that identifies relevant physical phenomena for wind energy applications with modeling and experimental requirements. A framework for model verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification is established to guide this process by a systematic evaluation of the modeling system at increasing levels of complexity. In terms of atmospheric physics, 'building the bridge' means developing models for the so-called 'terra incognita,' a term used to designate the turbulent scales that transition from mesoscale to microscale. This range of scales within atmospheric research deals with the transition from parameterized to resolved turbulence and the improvement of surface boundary-layer parameterizations. The coupling of meteorological and wind engineering flow models and the definition of a formal model evaluation methodology, is a strong area of research for the next generation of wind conditions assessment and wind farm and wind turbine design tools. Some fundamental challenges are identified in order to guide future research in this area.

  11. Nonlinear influence of mesoscale land use on weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, R. A.; Lee, T. J.; Dalu, G. A.; Snook, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the influence of mesoscale landscape spatial variability on the atmosphere must be parameterized or explicitly modeled in larger-scale atmospheric model simulations including general circulation models. The mesoscale fluxes of heat that result from this variability are shown to be of the same order of magnitude but with a different vertical structure than found for the turbulent fluxes. These conclusions are based on experiments in which no phase changes of water were permitted. To parameterize surface thermal inhomogeneities, the influence of landscape must be evaluated using spectral analysis or an equivalent procedure. To include the nonlinear contribution of each scale, numerical model simulations for the range of observed surface and overlying atmospheric conditions must be performed.

  12. Investigation of mesoscale cloud features viewed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherr, P. E. (Principal Investigator); Feteris, P. J.; Lisa, A. S.; Bowley, C. J.; Fowler, M. G.; Barnes, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some 50 LANDSAT images displaying mesoscale cloud features were analyzed. This analysis was based on the Rayleigh-Kuettner model describing the formation of that type of mesoscale cloud feature. This model lends itself to computation of the average wind speed in northerly flow from the dimensions of the cloud band configurations measured from a LANDSAT image. In nearly every case, necessary conditions of a curved wind profile and orientation of the cloud streets within 20 degrees of the direction of the mean wind in the convective layer were met. Verification of the results by direct observation was hampered, however, by the incompatibility of the resolution of conventional rawinsonde observations with the scale of the banded cloud patterns measured from LANDSAT data. Comparison seems to be somewhat better in northerly flows than in southerly flows, with the largest discrepancies in wind speed being within 8m/sec, or a factor of two.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of mesoscale convective systems observed during BAMEX

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, James; Arritt, R.

    2008-11-01

    Dropsonde observations from the Bow-echo and Mesoscale convective vortex EXperiment (BAMEX) are used to document the spatio-temporal variability of temperature, moisture and wind within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Onion type sounding structures are found throughout the stratiform region of MCSs but the temperature and moisture variability is large. Composite soundings were constructed and statistics of thermodynamic variability were generated within each sub-region of the MCS. The calculated air vertical velocity helped identify subsaturated downdrafts. We found that lapse rates within the cold pool varied markedly throughout the MCS. Layered wet bulb potential temperature profiles seem to indicate that air within the lowest several km comes from a variety of source regions. We also found that lapse rate transitions across the 0 C level were more common than isothermal, melting layers. We discuss the implications these findings have and how they can be used to validate future high resolution numerical simulations of MCSs.

  14. Assessment of MARMOT. A Mesoscale Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, M. R.; Schwen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Chakraborty, P.; Bai, X.; Fromm, B.; Yu, J.; Teague, M. C.; Andersson, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    MARMOT is the mesoscale fuel performance code under development as part of the US DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Program. In this report, we provide a high level summary of MARMOT, its capabilities, and its current state of validation. The purpose of MARMOT is to predict the coevolution of microstructure and material properties of nuclear fuel and cladding. It accomplished this using the phase field method coupled to solid mechanics and heat conduction. MARMOT is based on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), and much of its basic capability in the areas of the phase field method, mechanics, and heat conduction come directly from MOOSE modules. However, additional capability specific to fuel and cladding is available in MARMOT. While some validation of MARMOT has been completed in the areas of fission gas behavior and grain growth, much more validation needs to be conducted. However, new mesoscale data needs to be obtained in order to complete this validation.

  15. Mesoscale temperature and moisture fields from satellite infrared soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillger, D. W.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The combined use of radiosonde and satellite infrared soundings can provide mesoscale temperature and moisture fields at the time of satellite coverage. Radiance data from the vertical temperature profile radiometer on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites can be used along with a radiosonde sounding as an initial guess in an iterative retrieval algorithm. The mesoscale temperature and moisture fields at local 9 - 10 a.m., which are produced by retrieving temperature profiles at each scan spot for the BTPR (every 70 km), can be used for analysis or as a forecasting tool for subsequent weather events during the day. The advantage of better horizontal resolution of satellite soundings can be coupled with the radiosonde temperature and moisture profile both as a best initial guess profile and as a means of eliminating problems due to the limited vertical resolution of satellite soundings.

  16. Digital processing of mesoscale analysis and space sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.; Karitani, S.

    1985-01-01

    The mesoscale analysis and space sensor (MASS) data management and analysis system on the research computer system is presented. The MASS data base management and analysis system was implemented on the research computer system which provides a wide range of capabilities for processing and displaying large volumes of conventional and satellite derived meteorological data. The research computer system consists of three primary computers (HP-1000F, Harris/6, and Perkin-Elmer 3250), each of which performs a specific function according to its unique capabilities. The overall tasks performed concerning the software, data base management and display capabilities of the research computer system in terms of providing a very effective interactive research tool for the digital processing of mesoscale analysis and space sensor data is described.

  17. Signature of microscale kinetics in mesoscale description of epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Joshua P.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2017-08-01

    We describe the effect of kinetic interactions of adsorbed atoms in a mesoscale model of epitaxial growth without elasticity. Our goal is to understand how atomic correlations due to kinetics leave their signature in mechanisms governing the motion of crystal line defects (steps) at the nanoscale. We focus on the key atomistic processes related to external material deposition, desorption, and asymmetric energy barriers on a stepped surface. By starting with a kinetic, restricted solid-on-solid model in 1+1 dimensions, we derive laws that govern the motion of a single step when deposition is nearly balanced out by desorption. These mesoscale laws reveal how kinetic processes, e.g., bond breaking at the step edge, influence step motion via the correlated motion of atoms.

  18. Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Moti; Arritt, Raymond W.

    1997-01-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate by numerical modeling various possible mesoscale circulation on Mars and related atmospheric boundary layer processes. The study was in collaboration with J. Tillman of the University of Washington (who supported the study observationally). Interaction has been made with J. Prusa of Iowa State University in numerical modeling investigation of dynamical effects of topographically-influenced flow. Modeling simulations included evaluations of surface physical characteristics on: (i) the Martian atmospheric boundary layer and (ii) their impact on thermally and dynamically forced mesoscale flows. Special model evaluations were made in support of selection of the Pathfinder landing sites. J. Tillman's finding of VL-2 inter-annual temperature difference was followed by model simulations attempting to point out the forcing for this feature. Publication of the results in the reviewed literature in pending upon completion of the manuscripts in preparation as indicated later.

  19. Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Arritt, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies concerning mesoscale topographical effects on Martian flows examined low-level jets in the near equatorial latitudes and the dynamical intensification of flow by steep terrain. Continuation of work from previous years included evaluating the dissipation of cold air mass outbreaks due to enhanced sensible heat flux, further sensitivity and scaling evaluations for generalization of the characteristics of Martian mesoscale circulation caused by horizontal sensible heat-flux gradients, and evaluations of the significance that non-uniform surface would have on enhancing the polar CO2 ice sublimation during the spring. The sensitivity of maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures to changes in wind speed, surface albedo, and deep soil temperature was investigated.

  20. Estimation of Eddy Dissipation Rates from Mesoscale Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eddy Dissipation Rate is an important metric for representing the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and is used as an input parameter for predicting the decay of aircraft wake vortices. In this study, the forecasts of eddy dissipation rates obtained from the current state-of-the-art mesoscale model are evaluated for terminal area applications. The Weather Research and Forecast mesoscale model is used to simulate the planetary boundary layer at high horizontal and vertical mesh resolutions. The Bougeault-Lacarrer and the Mellor-Yamada-Janji schemes implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast model are evaluated against data collected during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Memphis Wake Vortex Field Experiment. Comparisons with other observations are included as well.

  1. Mechanical Characterization of Mesoscale Interfaces Using Indentation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidindi, Surya R.; Mohan, Soumya; Rossi, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Mesoscale interfaces and interphases play a central role in controlling the many macroscale mechanical properties and performance characteristics of structural materials. Modern instrumented indenters present an unprecedented opportunity to measure, reliably and consistently, the local mechanical responses at a multitude of length scales ranging from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. When these high-fidelity measurements are combined with rigorous data analyses protocols, it is possible to systematically study the mechanical role of individual mesoscale interfaces and quantify their contributions to the overall mechanical response of the material system . The advantages of these new measurement and analyses protocols as well as the potential for development and implementation of novel high-throughput assays is discussed.

  2. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  3. Numerical Archetypal Parameterization for Mesoscale Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical shear tends to organize atmospheric moist convection into multiscale coherent structures. Especially, the counter-gradient vertical transport of horizontal momentum by organized convection can enhance the wind shear and transport kinetic energy upscale. However, this process is not represented by traditional parameterizations. The present paper sets the archetypal dynamical models, originally formulated by the second author, into a parameterization context by utilizing a nonhydrostatic anelastic model with segmentally-constant approximation (NAM-SCA). Using a two-dimensional framework as a starting point, NAM-SCA spontaneously generates propagating tropical squall-lines in a sheared environment. A high numerical efficiency is achieved through a novel compression methodology. The numerically-generated archetypes produce vertical profiles of convective momentum transport that are consistent with the analytic archetype.

  4. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  5. Electrical and kinematic structure of an Oklahoma mesoscale convective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steven M.; Schuur, Terry J.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The case study examines the dynamics and kinematics of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) by comparing its meteorological parameters with in situ electrical measurements. Conventional MCS characteristics are reported including a rear inflow jet, wake low, and a bipolar cloud-to-ground pattern, but some nonclassical conditions are also reported. Horizontally long cloud-to-ground electrical strikes are noted which demonstrate that cloud-to-ground electrical data alone cannot entirely characterize stratiform electrification in MCSs.

  6. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  7. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, John Bohdan; Lieberthal, Brandon; Srewart, Donald S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  8. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  9. Coastal (Sub)Mesoscale Eddies in the Gulf of Lion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. Y.; Doglioli, A. M.; Petrenko, A. A.; Marsaleix, P.; Dekeyser, I.

    2009-04-01

    The LAgrangian Transport EXperiment (LATEX) project (2008-2011) has been initiated in order to study the role of (sub)mesoscale structures on shelf-offshore exchanges in the Gulf of Lion. The strategy will combine use of data from an inert tracer release (SF6), Lagrangian drifters, satellites and Eulerian moorings with numerical modeling. In this work, we present a shelf-scale model of high resolution (1-km) nested in a regional-scale model (3-km). We use an upwind-type advection-diffusion scheme, in which the numerical diffusion term is adjusted by an attenuation coefficient. Sensitivity tests have been carried out, varying the model spatial resolution and the attenuation coefficient to reproduce the (sub)mesoscale structures. A wavelet technique is applied on model outputs to identify eddies and to define their area, position and tracking duration. Comparisons between the modeled eddies and those observed by satellite have allowed us to choose the best model configuration. With this setup, single and combined effects of wind forcing, bathymetry and mesoscale circulation are investigated to propose a generation process of these simulated eddies. Then, simulations are run for long period to obtain annual variability and statistics of the coastal eddies. These coastal (sub)mesoscale eddies potentially interact with the distal plume of the Rhône river and the Northern Current. Numerical modeling sets the foundation to understand the eddies' dynamics and helps us set up the sampling strategy of the cruises. The in situ measurements combined with the modeling results will allow us to evaluate the eddies' potential impact on the coastal-offshore transfer of matter and energy.

  10. Numerical prediction experiments simulating the impact of mesoscale satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreitzberg, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in mesometeorology are summarized to place this research in perspective. Recent advances in computer analysis and forecast system development that provide the basis for the simulation tests are discussed. The impact of NIMBUS-6 humidity data on analyses off the West Coast are shown and incorporation of geopotential gradient data is discussed. Experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating satellite-derived wind fields in mesoscale severe storm models are mentioned briefly.

  11. Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma 100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110...calculations are performed by project-supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. The required innovation data are collected by project...AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMMS , University of Oklahoma,,100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110),,Norman,,OK,73019 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  12. Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110...by project-supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. The required innovation data were collected by Drs. Edward Barker and...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMMS , University of Oklahoma

  13. Mesoscale Modeling of LX-17 Under Isentropic Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, H K; Willey, T M; Friedman, G; Fried, L E; Vandersall, K S; Baer, M R

    2010-03-06

    Mesoscale simulations of LX-17 incorporating different equilibrium mixture models were used to investigate the unreacted equation-of-state (UEOS) of TATB. Candidate TATB UEOS were calculated using the equilibrium mixture models and benchmarked with mesoscale simulations of isentropic compression experiments (ICE). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) data provided the basis for initializing the simulations with realistic microstructural details. Three equilibrium mixture models were used in this study. The single constituent with conservation equations (SCCE) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The single constituent equation-of-state (SCEOS) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the equation-of-state of the constituents. The kinetic energy averaging (KEA) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted particle velocity mixture rule and the conservation equations. The SCEOS model yielded the stiffest TATB EOS (0.121{micro} + 0.4958{micro}{sup 2} + 2.0473{micro}{sup 3}) and, when incorporated in mesoscale simulations of the ICE, demonstrated the best agreement with VISAR velocity data for both specimen thicknesses. The SCCE model yielded a relatively more compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2} + 4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) and the KEA model yielded the most compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2}+4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) of all the equilibrium mixture models. Mesoscale simulations with the lower density TATB adiabatic EOS data demonstrated the least agreement with VISAR velocity data.

  14. Beyond the Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto

    1989-01-01

    The three most successful models for describing scattering from random rough surfaces are the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), the small-perturbation method (SPM), and the two-scale-roughness (or composite roughness) surface-scattering (TSR) models. In this paper it is shown how these three models can be derived rigorously from one perturbation expansion based on the extinction theorem for scalar waves scattering from perfectly rigid surface. It is also shown how corrections to the KA proportional to the surface curvature and higher-order derivatives may be obtained. Using these results, the scattering cross section is derived for various surface models.

  15. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  16. Mesoscale Fracture Analysis of Multiphase Cementitious Composites Using Peridynamics.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Amin; Chorzepa, Mi G; Kim, S Sonny; A, Stephan

    2017-02-10

    Concrete is a complex heterogeneous material, and thus, it is important to develop numerical modeling methods to enhance the prediction accuracy of the fracture mechanism. In this study, a two-dimensional mesoscale model is developed using a non-ordinary state-based peridynamic (NOSBPD) method. Fracture in a concrete cube specimen subjected to pure tension is studied. The presence of heterogeneous materials consisting of coarse aggregates, interfacial transition zones, air voids and cementitious matrix is characterized as particle points in a two-dimensional mesoscale model. Coarse aggregates and voids are generated using uniform probability distributions, while a statistical study is provided to comprise the effect of random distributions of constituent materials. In obtaining the steady-state response, an incremental and iterativesolverisadopted for the dynamic relaxation method. Load-displacement curves and damage patterns are compared with available experimental and finite element analysis (FEA) results.Although the proposed model uses much simpler material damage models and discretization schemes, the load-displacementcurvesshownodifferencefromtheFEAresults. Furthermore,nomeshrefinement is necessary, as fracture is inherently characterized by bond breakages. Finally, a sensitivity study is conducted to understand the effect of aggregate volume fraction and porosity on the load capacity of the proposed mesoscale model.

  17. Modeling the mesoscale variability in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    2007-06-01

    A new high-resolution (<2 km) version of the DieCAST fourth-accuracy-order model for the ocean circulation is proposed for the study of the general circulation, mesoscale structures, and their variability in the Adriatic Sea. The model uses mean seasonal data on the temperature, salinity, buoyancy fluxes, and wind. The data of the COAMPS system with a 4-km resolution were used for the simulation of the sea response to the effects of various winds: Sirocco, Maestro, and two types of boras. The mean monthly runoffs from 38 rivers and mean daily runoffs from 12 main rivers throughout the year were given in the model. The conditions at the open boundary of the Strait of Otranto were given on the basis of the hierarchy of two coarser models for the Adriatic and Mediterranean seas. Due to the extremely weak dissipation and the high resolution (the mesh size is less than the baroclinic radius of deformation, 5 10 km), the model allows one to trace the development of a baroclinic instability along the Italian coast, to simulate mesoscale structures associated with the instability, and to estimate the scales of the structures. Mesoscale filaments, meanders, mushroom-like currents, fronts, and intrusions known from satellite observations were simulated and explained. The scenario of the anomalous upwelling near the Italian coast observed in the summer of 2003 was also simulated and analyzed.

  18. Computer Experiments for Function Approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C

    2007-10-15

    This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.

  19. A mesoscale numerical forecast of an intense convective snowburst along the East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocin, P. J.; Uccellini, L. W.; Zack, J. W.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Mesoscale numerical forecasts utilizing the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) are documented for a convective snowburst in the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, Maryland, region on March 8, 1984 that was associated with secondary cyclogenesis along the East Coast. The forecasts are presented to demonstrate the ability of a mesoscale model to simulate dynamical interactions and diabatic process for a wintertime convective event that was inadequately predicted by local forecasters and to note some of the possible benefits of using mesoscale models for day-to-day forecasting. The results from this and other recent mesoscale modeling studies indicate that three-hourly output of key model fields, when combined with other data sources, can be a valuable aid to forecasters concerned with predicting weather events that are mesoscale in character.

  20. Contribution of mesoscale eddies to Black Sea ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2017-04-01

    The shoaling of the Black Sea oxycline is one of the most urgent environmental issues in the Black Sea. The permanent oxycline derives directly from the Black Sea permanent stratification and has shoaled alarmingly in the last decades, due to a shifting balance between oxygen consumption and ventilation processes (Capet et al. 2016). The understanding of this balance is thus of the utmost importance and requires to quantify 1) the export of nutrients and organic materials from the shelf regions to the open sea and 2) the ventilation processes. These two processes being influenced by mesoscale features, it is critical to understand the role of the semi-permanent mesoscale structures in horizontal (center/periphery) and vertical (diapycnal and isopycnal) exchanges. A useful insight can be obtained by merging observations from satellite altimeter and in situ profilers (ARGO). In such composite analyses, eddies are first automatically identified and tracked from altimeter data (Mason et al. 2014, py-eddy-tracker). Vertical ARGO profiles are then expressed in terms of their position relative to eddy centers and radii. Derived statistics indicate how consistently mesoscale eddies alter the vertical structure, and provide a deeper understanding of the associated horizontal and vertical fluxes. However, this data-based approach is limited in the Black Sea due to the lower quality of gridded altimetric products in the vicinity of the coast, where semi-permanent mesoscale structures prevail. To complement the difficult analysis of this sparse dataset, a compositing methodology. is also applied to model outputs from the 5km GHER-BHAMBI Black Sea implementation (CMEMS BS-MFC). Characteristic biogeochemical anomalies associated with eddies in the model are analyzed per se, and compared to the observation-based analysis. Capet, A., Stanev, E. V., Beckers, J.-M., Murray, J. W., and Grégoire, M.: Decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory, Biogeosciences, 13, 1287-1297, doi:10

  1. Coastal wind in the transition from turbulence to mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne-Philippe, MichèLe

    1989-06-01

    During the second survey of the Travaux d'Océanographie Spatiale: Capteurs actifs dans l'Atlantique Nord-Est (TOSCANE T) experiment (February 14 to April 17, 1985), seven wind masts were operated on the shore of the "Baie d'Audierne." Distances between them ranged from 1.5 to 13.7 km, and the data were sampled at 3 s. An important portion of the data was recorded under severe weather conditions. Results from 27 cases of wind blowing from the sea, which corresponded to synoptically stationary wind regimes, show that for both horizontal components the spectral energy in the transition region between mesoscale and Kolmogorov turbulence takes the shape of a well-marked dip when weather types are stable or slightly unstable. But, in more convective cases the dip disappears and the transition region becomes almost horizontal; spectral energy density follows an n-1 law (where n is equal to frequency) until the Kolmogorov region is reached. Coherences and cross correlations between masts show that in the 6-s to 1-hour period range, only mesoscale fluctuations are coherent. Turbulent fluctuations are not correlated for the separation distances of the masts. Under synoptically steady or slightly unstable conditions, such single-point measurements could reliably be time-averaged for use in satellite wind sensor calibration. In more convective conditions, especially for the ubiquitous open mesoscale cells found over mid-latitude oceans in cold air advections, interpretation problems might occur because mesoscale events, as time-averaged from coastal masts, buoys, or ships, could be different from those spatially integrated in the footprint of a satellite sensor. In these cases, some relationship must be used to relate single-point averaging times to the area illuminated by the satellite. To do so, Taylor's hypothesis is commonly extended to the mesoscale; but, the present data show that such an extension cannot be made under usual actual conditions because of the structure of

  2. Enhanced Techniques for Mesoscale Cyclone Studies using Satellite Multi-sensor Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotskikh, E.; Bobylev, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mesoscale cyclones, also known as polar lows, are short-living intensive mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing over marine areas in both hemispheres. They are usually accompanied by gale winds and intensive air-sea interaction. Conventional observations are too sparse in the areas of polar low development, and the spatial resolution of most numerical models are too low to catch even intensive small polar lows. The most informative polar low studies include the comprehensive joint analysis of satellite data from various instruments providing the most complete information about storm development A multi-sensor approach for polar low study, considered in the work, includes usage of most available data: Envisat ASAR, QuikSCAT SeaWinds and Metop ASCAT, Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR, DMSP SSMIS and Aqua AMSR-E, NOAA AMSU-B, surface weather maps, NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data. Independence of time of the day and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in the polar regions make satellite passive microwave data one of the most appropriate information sources for study of polar lows. Advanced algorithms are considered for retrievals of several important parameters, used for polar low studies, such as sea surface wind speed, total atmospheric water vapour content, total cloud liquid water content. It is shown in several case studies that analysis of atmospheric water vapour fields allows detection of vortex structures accompanying polar low development whereas sea surface wind speed retrievals confirm high wind speeds typical for these events. Thus, satellite passive microwave remote sensing presents a promising tool for detection, study and monitoring of polar lows.

  3. Hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Brandon M.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful technique for estimating the posterior distribution of a model’s parameters. It is especially important when the model to be fit has no explicit likelihood function, which happens for computational (or simulation-based) models such as those that are popular in cognitive neuroscience and other areas in psychology. However, ABC is usually applied only to models with few parameters. Extending ABC to hierarchical models has been difficult because high-dimensional hierarchical models add computational complexity that conventional ABC cannot accommodate. In this paper we summarize some current approaches for performing hierarchical ABC and introduce a new algorithm called Gibbs ABC. This new algorithm incorporates well-known Bayesian techniques to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the ABC approach for estimation of hierarchical models. We then use the Gibbs ABC algorithm to estimate the parameters of two models of signal detection, one with and one without a tractable likelihood function. PMID:24297436

  4. Approximate strip exchanging.

    PubMed

    Roy, Swapnoneel; Thakur, Ashok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have been modelled by a variety of primitives such as reversals, transpositions, block moves and block interchanges. We consider such a genome rearrangement primitive Strip Exchanges. Given a permutation, the challenge is to sort it by using minimum number of strip exchanges. A strip exchanging move interchanges the positions of two chosen strips so that they merge with other strips. The strip exchange problem is to sort a permutation using minimum number of strip exchanges. We present here the first non-trivial 2-approximation algorithm to this problem. We also observe that sorting by strip-exchanges is fixed-parameter-tractable. Lastly we discuss the application of strip exchanges in a different area Optical Character Recognition (OCR) with an example.

  5. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cerovecki, Ivana; McClean, Julie; Koracin, Darko

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  6. Three-compartment structure of subsurface-intensified mesoscale eddies in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengguang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Mesoscale eddies are energetically dominant and pervasive over most of the world's oceans. Among them, many are subsurface intensified with strongest signals in the ocean interior such as mode-water eddies, which trap water masses with distinctive properties and carry them over long distances. With both Argo profiling floats and atmospheric reanalysis data we showed that the structure of these eddies obeys a universal rule. Hence their three-dimensional hydrographic fields can be readily reconstructed from very limited information. More interestingly, the volume of water trapped and moved by a mode-water eddy is much greater than previously thought; it has a three-compartment structure in the vertical with the mode water being sandwiched between two layers of notably different properties and accounting for only a portion of the total trapped volume.

  7. Convectively Generated Meso-Scale Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The MMS and MTP data from ER-2 observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign are analyzed to retrieve meso-scale gravity wave information at the aircraft flight level. For a given flight segment, the S-transform is used to locate small-scale (10-25 km) gravity wave events. The Stokes method and the MTP method are then used to determine the horizontal propagation directions, and the vertical scales of the wave events, respectively. Other wave parameters, such as horizontal scales, group velocities, can also be derived. From the estimated propagation directions, group velocities, and the ground-based radar reflectivity observations, some wave events are traced back to convectively active regions, suggesting convection as the source of the waves.

  8. Hybrid Approximate Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Sundeep; Fletcher, Alyson K.; Goyal, Vivek K.; Byrne, Evan; Schniter, Philip

    2017-09-01

    The standard linear regression (SLR) problem is to recover a vector $\\mathbf{x}^0$ from noisy linear observations $\\mathbf{y}=\\mathbf{Ax}^0+\\mathbf{w}$. The approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm recently proposed by Donoho, Maleki, and Montanari is a computationally efficient iterative approach to SLR that has a remarkable property: for large i.i.d.\\ sub-Gaussian matrices $\\mathbf{A}$, its per-iteration behavior is rigorously characterized by a scalar state-evolution whose fixed points, when unique, are Bayes optimal. AMP, however, is fragile in that even small deviations from the i.i.d.\\ sub-Gaussian model can cause the algorithm to diverge. This paper considers a "vector AMP" (VAMP) algorithm and shows that VAMP has a rigorous scalar state-evolution that holds under a much broader class of large random matrices $\\mathbf{A}$: those that are right-rotationally invariant. After performing an initial singular value decomposition (SVD) of $\\mathbf{A}$, the per-iteration complexity of VAMP can be made similar to that of AMP. In addition, the fixed points of VAMP's state evolution are consistent with the replica prediction of the minimum mean-squared error recently derived by Tulino, Caire, Verd\\'u, and Shamai. The effectiveness and state evolution predictions of VAMP are confirmed in numerical experiments.

  9. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    by a substrate. Numerous challenges were overcome that relate to the application of photoresist on a refractory substrate capable of withstanding the high temperatures needed to sinter the ceramic parts. Strength of approximately 1 GPa was achieved for the first parts produced, which demonstrated the feasibility of the LM-RIF process. Although respectable, a 1GPa strength is not as strong as would be predicted based on the small size (332 x 26 x 17 microm) of the parts. An effort to identify and eliminate the largest flaws in the specimen produced by the LM-RIF process was undertaken, which ultimately increased the average strength to 2.35 GPa. Geometric defects, previously unreported in ceramic microfabrication techniques, were degrading the strength of the early parts. An in-depth characterization of these defects by optical profilometry and then eliminating the underlying cause was the key to obtaining this high strength. One interesting phenomena discovered in this work was the role that the substrate plays in the sintering of the ceramic part through the enhanced diffusion pathways created by the more intimate contact of the mesoscale parts compared to macroscale analogs. Impurities of alumina and silica were found to adversely affect the sintering kinetics of mesoscale parts causing localized grain growth or exaggerated grain growth depending on the sintering conditions. The role that the microstructure, specifically the grain size, plays in determining the strength versus the role that the surface flaw population plays, as characterized by the surface roughness, was determined through isothermal sintering experiments. It was found that the strength of mesoscale ceramics lies in the transition region between the flaw-dominated stress intensity effect and the Hall-Petch microstructural effect. This proves that processing science and microstructural refinement about equally determine the strength of particulate based mesoscale materials. The hierarchical approach

  10. Countably QC-Approximating Posets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuxin; Xu, Luoshan

    2014-01-01

    As a generalization of countably C-approximating posets, the concept of countably QC-approximating posets is introduced. With the countably QC-approximating property, some characterizations of generalized completely distributive lattices and generalized countably approximating posets are given. The main results are as follows: (1) a complete lattice is generalized completely distributive if and only if it is countably QC-approximating and weakly generalized countably approximating; (2) a poset L having countably directed joins is generalized countably approximating if and only if the lattice σc(L)op of all σ-Scott-closed subsets of L is weakly generalized countably approximating. PMID:25165730

  11. Spatial patterns of stream temperatures and electric conductivity in a mesoscale catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2017-04-01

    Stream temperature and electric conductivity (EC) are both relatively easily measured and can provide valuable information on runoff generation processes and catchment storage.This study investigates the spatial variability of stream temperature and EC in a mesoscale basin. We focus on the mesoscale (sub-catchments and reach scale), and long term (seasonal / annual) stream temperature and EC patterns. Our study basin is the Attert catchment in Luxembourg (288km2), which contains multiple sub-catchments of different geology, topography and land use patterns. We installed 90 stream temperature and EC sensors at sites across the basin in summer 2015. The collected data is complemented by land use and discharge data and an extensive climate data set. Thermal sensitivity was calculated as the slope of daily air temperature-water-temperature regression line and describes the sensitivity of stream temperature to long term environmental change. Amplitude sensitivity was calculated as slope of the daily air and water temperature amplitude regression and describes the short term warming capacity of the stream. We found that groups with similar long term thermal and EC patterns are strongly related to different geological units. The sandstone reaches show the coldest temperatures and lowest annual thermal sensitivity to air temperature. The slate reaches are characterized by comparably low EC and high daily temperature amplitudes and amplitude sensitivity. Furthermore, mean annual temperatures and thermal sensitivities increase exponentially with drainage area, which can be attributed to the accumulation of heat throughout the system. On the reach scale, daily stream temperature fluctuations or sensitivities were strongly influenced by land cover distribution, stream shading and runoff volume. Daily thermal sensitivities were low for headwater streams; peaked for intermediate reaches in the middle of the catchment and then decreased again further downstream with increasing

  12. Effect of surface mesoscale eddies on deep-sea currents and mixing in the northeastern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Jianru; Liang, Xinfeng

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that deep-reaching surface-generated eddies result in anomalous current velocities in the deep sea, and ultimately lead to energy transfer from mesoscale to small-scale motions. Here we examine the influence of mesoscale eddies on deep-sea subinertial and near-inertial currents, and on possible enhanced oceanic mixing in the deep South China Sea (SCS). We analyzed current velocity data for nearly a full water column. Data were obtained using acoustic Doppler current profilers and recording current meters on a deep-sea mooring system at a depth of 2100 m in the northeastern SCS from October 2012 to May 2013. A highly nonlinear southwestward-propagating anticyclonic eddy was detected via a resolved sea-surface-level anomaly. This eddy induced pronounced subinertial currents with a characteristic time scale of 1-2 months and a maximum velocity of up to 0.2 m s-1 at the subsurface and 0.1 m s-1 at great depth. Near-inertial energy co-occurring with subinertial flows showed a distinctive vertical propagation trend during strong subinertial oscillations in the deep sea. During periods of strong subinertial and near-inertial kinetic energy, estimates of diapycnal diffusivity in the deep ocean showed approximately 10-fold enhancement, with a mean value of 1.2×10-3 m2 s-1 compared to the background value of 1.4×10-4 m2 s-1. The results provide observational evidence of the effect of surface-observed mesoscale motions on benthic currents and ocean mixing in the deep SCS.

  13. Distribution pattern of picoplankton carbon biomass linked to mesoscale dynamics in the southern gulf of Mexico during winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linacre, Lorena; Lara-Lara, Rubén; Camacho-Ibar, Víctor; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Bazán-Guzmán, Carmen; Ferreira-Bartrina, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    In order to characterize the carbon biomass spatial distribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton populations linked to mesoscale dynamics, an investigation over an extensive open-ocean region of the southern Gulf of Mexico (GM) was conducted. Seawater samples from the mixed layer were collected during wintertime (February-March 2013). Picoplankton populations were counted and sorted using flow cytometry analyses. Carbon biomass was assessed based on in situ cell abundances and conversion factors from the literature. Approximately 46% of the total picoplankton biomass was composed of three autotrophic populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and pico-eukaryotes), while 54% consisted of heterotrophic bacteria populations. Prochlorococcus spp. was the most abundant pico-primary producer (>80%), and accounted for more than 60% of the total pico-autotrophic biomass. The distribution patterns of picoplankton biomass were strongly associated with the mesoscale dynamics that modulated the hydrographic conditions of the surface mixed layer. The main features of the carbon distribution pattern were: (1) the deepening of picoplankton biomass to layers closer to the nitracline base in anticyclonic eddies; (2) the shoaling of picoplankton biomass in cyclonic eddies, constraining the autoprokaryote biomasses to the upper layers, as well as accumulating the pico-eukaryote biomass in the cold core of the eddies; and (3) the increase of heterotrophic bacteria biomass in frontal regions between counter-paired anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Factors related to nutrient preferences and light conditions may as well have contributed to the distribution pattern of the microbial populations. The findings reveal the great influence of the mesoscale dynamics on the distribution of picoplankton populations within the mixed layer. Moreover, the significance of microbial components (especially Prochlorococcus) in the southern GM during winter conditions was revealed

  14. Robust and exploratory analysis of active mesoscale tectonic zones in Japan utilizing the nationwide GPS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toya, Yuzo; Kasahara, Minoru

    2005-05-01

    A monitoring GPS array recently developed in Japan can yield nationwide maps of active inland tectonic zones (ATZs) on a mesoscale, approximately 70 to several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. But it has been difficult to characterize ATZs in Japan, as they are in fact operational on multiple scales and our efforts are often hindered by various irregularities in the data. The key to overcoming these problems would be to gain an insight into the available data before any precise kinematic modeling is performed with indefinite assumptions. In this study, horizontal velocity fields, deduced from the nationwide GPS array, were treated with a set of techniques in robust smoothing and exploratory data analysis that brought out exceptionally powerful mesoscale ATZs, and made them easier to characterize. The resolved ATZs were then retrospectively monitored to study their regional and temporal variations, using a set of approx. 840 observation stations, about 30 km apart, for a 4-year series of fixed observation time-intervals, 810 days each. The smoothing operation involved three steps: (1) imputation of the velocity fields for the purpose of anti-aliasing, (2) robust smoothing of the velocity fields with the median operative, and (3) visualization of deformation-rate distributions in several coordinate independent parameters, and post-filtering. The geometrical resolvability of mesoscale ATZs was confirmed by calibrating the smoothing scheme against synthetic tectonic boundary models before it was applied to the case study in Japan. ATZs in Japan, which are essentially visible as systematic deviations in the velocity fields on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) and as strain rate anomalies, were highlighted sharply along some known tectonic zones, chains of active volcanoes, and areas above low seismic velocity anomalies in the crust and upper mantle, all of which generally paralleled the offshore trench axes. The geometrical agreements among the

  15. Wavelet Approximation in Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of the state of the atmosphere with the Kalman filter remains a distant goal because of high computational cost of evolving the error covariance for both linear and nonlinear systems. Wavelet approximation is presented here as a possible solution that efficiently compresses both global and local covariance information. We demonstrate the compression characteristics on the the error correlation field from a global two-dimensional chemical constituent assimilation, and implement an adaptive wavelet approximation scheme on the assimilation of the one-dimensional Burger's equation. In the former problem, we show that 99%, of the error correlation can be represented by just 3% of the wavelet coefficients, with good representation of localized features. In the Burger's equation assimilation, the discrete linearized equations (tangent linear model) and analysis covariance are projected onto a wavelet basis and truncated to just 6%, of the coefficients. A nearly optimal forecast is achieved and we show that errors due to truncation of the dynamics are no greater than the errors due to covariance truncation.

  16. Genesis of Typhoon Nari (2001) from a mesoscale convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Lin; Tian, Liqing; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the origin and genesis of Typhoon Nari (2001) as well as its erratic looping track, are examined using large-scale analysis, satellite observations, and a 4 day nested, cloud-resolving simulation with the finest grid size of 1.33 km. Observational analysis reveals that Nari could be traced 5 days back to a diurnally varying mesoscale convective system with growing cyclonic vorticity and relative humidity in the lower troposphere and that it evolved from a mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) as moving over a warm ocean under the influence of a subtropical high, a weak westerly baroclinic disturbance, an approaching-and-departing Typhoon Danas to the east, and the Kuroshio Current. Results show that the model reproduces the genesis, final intensity, looping track, and the general convective activity of Nari during the 4 day period. It also captures two deep subvortices at the eye-eyewall interface that are similar to those previously observed, a few spiral rainbands, and a midget storm size associated with Nari's relatively dry and stable environment. We find that (1) continuous convective overturning within the MCV stretches the low-level vorticity and moistens a deep mesoscale column that are both favorable for genesis; (2) Nari's genesis does not occur until after the passage of the baroclinic disturbance; (3) convective asymmetry induces a smaller-sized vortex circulation from the preexisting MCV; (4) the vortex-vortex interaction with Danas leads to Nari's looping track and temporal weakening; and (5) midlevel convergence associated with the subtropical high and Danas accounts for the generation of a nearly upright eyewall.

  17. Mesoscale cyclogenesis dynamics over the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Jorge F.; Bromwich, David H.

    1993-07-01

    Previous work has shown that frequent mesoscale cyclogenesis adjacent to Franklin Island is linked to the strong and persistent katabatic winds from East Antarctica which funnel into Terra Nova Bay and then blow out over the southwestern Ross Sea. Four mesoscale cyclones that formed near Terra Nova Bay between February 16 and 20, 1988 are examined to more clearly define the governing mechanisms. These events are investigated using all available observations, including automatic weather station data, high-resolution satellite images, satellite soundings, and hemispheric synoptic analyses. The first two cyclones formed on low-level baroclinic zones established by the synoptic scale advection of warm moist air toward the cold continental air blowing gently from East Antarctica. In the second case, baroclinic instability of this small-scale cold front was apparently triggered by the enhanced upward vertical motion associated with the approach of a midtropospheric trough. The third mesocyclone formed shortly after on a baroclinic zone over the polar plateau; the second vortex completely disrupted the usual katabatic drainage over the plateau and forced warm moist air over the coastal slopes. All three cyclones moved to the north in the prevailing cyclonic flow, but the plateau vortex lasted for only 6 hours. The fourth mesoscale low formed in conjunction with an abrupt and intense surge of katabatic air from Terra Nova Bay which resharpened the coastal baroclinic zone. At the same time a transiting midtropospheric trough probably associated with lower tropospheric upward vertical motion apparently accelerated the katabatic winds and triggered the vortex formation. A similar katabatic wind-forced mesocyclone formed near Byrd Glacier. The two vortices moved to the east-southeast and northeast, respectively, apparently being steered by the generating katabatic airstreams, and merged just to the north of the Ross Ice Shelf. The combined vortex reintensified as another

  18. Multiscale models for synoptic-mesoscale interactions in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian; Shafer Smith, K.; Majda, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    Multiscale analysis is used to derive two sets of coupled models, each based on the same distinguished limit, to represent the interaction of the midlatitude oceanic synoptic scale-where coherent features such as jets and rings form-and the mesoscale, defined by the internal deformation scale. The synoptic scale and mesoscale overlap at low and mid latitudes, and are hence synonymous in much of the oceanographic literature; at higher latitudes the synoptic scale can be an order of magnitude larger than the deformation scale, which motivates our asymptotic approach and our nonstandard terminology. In the first model the synoptic dynamics are described by ‘Large Amplitude Geostrophic’ (LAG) equations while the eddy dynamics are quasigeostrophic. This model has order one isopycnal variation on the synoptic scale; the synoptic dynamics respond to an eddy momentum flux while the eddy dynamics respond to the baroclinically unstable synoptic density gradient. The second model assumes small isopycnal variation on the synoptic scale, but allows for a planetary scale background density gradient that may be fixed or evolved on a slower time scale. Here the large-scale equations are just the barotropic quasigeostrophic equations, and the mesoscale is modeled by the baroclinic quasigeostrophic equations. The synoptic dynamics now respond to both eddy momentum and buoyancy fluxes, but the small-scale eddy dynamics are simply advected by the synoptic-scale flow-there is no baroclinic production term in the eddy equations. The energy budget is closed by deriving an equation for the slow evolution of the eddy energy, which ensures that energy gained or lost by the synoptic-scale flow is reflected in a corresponding loss or gain by the eddies. This latter model, aided by the eddy energy equation-a key result of this paper-provides a conceptual basis through which to understand the classic baroclinic turbulence cycle.

  19. The Effect of Mesoscale Eddies On Oceanic Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallis, G. K.; Henning, C. C.

    Understanding the structure of the subtropical thermocline is an important, indeed classical, problem in dynamical oceanography. Many models have fallen into two camps -- diffusive theories, following Robinson and Stommel, and advective theo- ries, following Welander. More recently it has been shown that, at least in the absence of mesoscale eddies, the subtropical thermocline consists of an advective upper part (a 'ventilated thermocline'), with a diffusive base -- that is, the lower part of the main thermocline is an internal boundary layer. The thermocline in the Southern Ocean is a rather different beast, because the lack of meridional boundaries means that the gyre circulation is largely absent and such classical theories do not directly apply. Further- more, it has been suggested that the dynamics of the Southern Ocean might greatly influence the thermocline worldwide. However, these theories are not complete. Among the most egregious omissions is that of the potential effect of mesoscale eddies, and here we explore that problem. We integrate to equilibrium a wind- and buoyancy-driven eddy-resolving primitive- equations ocean model, both in an idealized basin and in a circumpolar channel. We find that mesoscale eddies do have a significant quantitative affect on the structure of the thermocline. In the subtropics, the signature of the two-thermocline model (an advective upper thermocline and a diffusive base) remains, even in the presence of vigorous eddying activity, whereas in the circumpolar channel the eddies appear to be a dominant process determining the stratification. We discuss the dynamics and thermodynamics of these flows, and present some simple theoretical ideas to partially explain some of our results.

  20. Synoptic- and Mesoscale Weather Situations Associated with Tornadoes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Graf, M.; Moore, R.

    2009-04-01

    Tornadoes are mainly associated with the United States, but they occur all over the world. In this study, focus is given to the synoptic- and mesoscale environment which leads to tornadoes in Europe. Three aspects are discussed: (a) Which weather situation is found during severe tornado events?; (b) Are the US tornado indices applicable in Europe?; and (c) What specific synoptic- and mesoscale forcing mechanisms are discernible in the European setting, and how do they compare to the US mechanisms. Tornado data for Europe are taken from the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD), which includes the date, time, location and intensity on the Fujita scale of the event. Consideration is given only to 23 major events (here defined to be of scale F2) between 2005 and 2006 and in a band north of the Alps and extending from eastern France to Poland, with focus on Germany. The synoptic- and mesoscale weather situation is analysed with the the ECMWF operational analysis and the German Weather Service surface weather charts (for frontal locations).The appropriateness of ECMWF is validated by comparison of near-tornado radio-soundings with ECMWF pseudo-soundings. In a first part, each of the 23 tornadoes is characterised with respect to upper-level (jet streaks, PV anomalies) and low-level (fronts) forcings. Moreover, the synoptic-scale situation is analysed. Then, consideration is given to typical tornado indices used in the US: convective available potential energy (CAPE), storm-relative helicity (SRH) and the energy helicity index (EHI). It will be shown that the indices are only partly applicable in a European settings. Finally, some very distinctive dynamical signals related to potential vorticity and vorticity are shown and their interpretation discussed.

  1. Utilization of satellite data in mesoscale modeling of severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Thomas T.

    1987-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) data were used to model the 36 hour cyclogenesis period over the Pacific Ocean. Various combinations of VAS data, conventional radiosonde data, and gridded data from the National Weather Service global analysis were used in successive-correction and variational objective-analysis procedures. The Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model was used to test the impact of the VAS data on a 12 hour forecast of convective precipitation in the midweastern U.S.

  2. Three Dimensional Visualization of a Coastal Mesoscale Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    thankful to Karen, my wife, who managed to keep the faith as well as grow a beautiful daughter, Danielle Tayler Sampson -- our first. Danielle, I ...No I I TITLE (include secutray class•ncarronii Three Dimensional Visualization of a Coastal Mesoscale Model 12 PERSONAl. AUTHOR(S) Sampson, R. Mark 1...3a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (year, monA daiv; I PAGE COUN.NT Master’s Thesis Fr To 93 December 70 16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION

  3. Adaptation of Mesoscale Weather Models to Local Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dianic, Allan V.; Wheeler, Mark W.; Zack, John W.; Nutter, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for (1) configuring mesoscale numerical weather-prediction models for execution on high-performance computer workstations to make short-range weather forecasts for the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and (2) evaluating the performances of the models as configured. These methodologies have been implemented as part of a continuing effort to improve weather forecasting in support of operations of the U.S. space program. The models, methodologies, and results of the evaluations also have potential value for commercial users who could benefit from tailoring their operations and/or marketing strategies based on accurate predictions of local weather. More specifically, the purpose of developing the methodologies for configuring the models to run on computers at KSC and CCAFS is to provide accurate forecasts of winds, temperature, and such specific thunderstorm-related phenomena as lightning and precipitation. The purpose of developing the evaluation methodologies is to maximize the utility of the models by providing users with assessments of the capabilities and limitations of the models. The models used in this effort thus far include the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS), the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Eta Model ( Eta for short). The configuration of the MASS and RAMS is designed to run the models at very high spatial resolution and incorporate local data to resolve fine-scale weather features. Model preprocessors were modified to incorporate surface, ship, buoy, and rawinsonde data as well as data from local wind towers, wind profilers, and conventional or Doppler radars. The overall evaluation of the MASS, Eta, and RAMS was designed to assess the utility of these mesoscale models for satisfying the weather-forecasting needs of the U.S. space program. The evaluation methodology includes

  4. Designing artificial enzymes from scratch: Experimental study and mesoscale simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, Pavel V.; Zaborina, Olga E.; Klimova, Tamara P.; Lozinsky, Vladimir I.; Khalatur, Pavel G.; Khokhlov, Alexey R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a new concept for designing biomimetic analogs of enzymatic proteins; these analogs are based on the synthetic protein-like copolymers. α-Chymotrypsin is used as a prototype of the artificial catalyst. Our experimental study shows that in the course of free radical copolymerization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers the target globular nanostructures of a "core-shell" morphology appear in a selective solvent. Using a mesoscale computer simulation, we show that the protein-like globules can have a large number of catalytic centers located at the hydrophobic core/hydrophilic shell interface.

  5. A multiparameter radar examination of a mesoscale convective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. D.; Goodman, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in the rainrates of various cells embedded within a mesoscale convective system on July 13, 1986 during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological experiment are examined. The NCAR CP2 S-band polarimetric radar deployed near Huntsville, Alabama, is used to characterize the rainfall field. Rainfall estimates are compared and contrasted using the single-parameter Marshall and Palmer (1948) method with the Illingworth and Caylor (1989) dual-polarization technique (ILC). The primary differences in the rainrate estimates are shown to be associated with the differences in the drop size distributions, derived from the ILC technique, that occur within the various storms.

  6. Transient luminous events above two mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Timothy; Rutledge, Steve; Lyons, Walt; Cummer, Steve; Li, Jingbo; Macgorman, Don

    2010-05-01

    Two warm-season mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were analyzed with respect to production of transient luminous events (TLEs), mainly sprites. Sprites were documented over the lightning mapping array (LMA) network in Oklahoma, USA, using highly sensitive optical cameras operated at Yucca Ridge in Ft. Collins, Colorado, as part of our Sprites 2007 field campaign. Information about charge moment changes in lightning flashes was obtained by the National Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN). Cloud-to-ground lightning data were obtained from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The 20 June 2007 symmetric MCS produced 282 observed TLEs over a 4-h period, during which time the storm's intense convection weakened and its stratiform region strengthened. In contrast to previous sprite studies, the stratiform charge layer involved in producing the TLE-parent positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning flash was situated at upper levels as opposed to near the melting level. This layer was physically connected to an even higher upper-level convective positive charge region via a downward-sloping pathway. The average altitude discharged by TLE-parent flashes during TLE activity was 8.2 km above mean sea level (MSL; -25 °C). The 9 May 2007 asymmetric MCS produced 25 observed TLEs over a 2-h period, during which the storm's convection rapidly weakened before recovering later. The 9 May storm best fit the conventional model of low-altitude positive charge playing the dominant role in sprite production; however, the average altitude discharged during the TLE phase of flashes still was higher than the melting level: 6.1 km MSL (-15 °C). The average TLE-parent +CG flash in the symmetric 20 June case initiated at higher altitude, discharged a substantially larger area, had a larger peak current, and tapped positive charge at higher altitude compared to the asymmetric 9 May case. Analysis of full charge moment change (CMC) data from TLE-parent +CGs in these two cases

  7. Evaluation of surface sensible heat flux effects on the generation and modification of mesoscale circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.; Mahrer, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Mesoscale thermal-induced circulations generated by horizontal gradients in surface characteristics as well as significant perturbations on land and sea breezes and mountain-valley winds due to substantial modifications in the thermal forcing are introduced. It is suggested that these types of mesoscale situations are generally ignored in forecasting but that they may have important implications in very short range predictions.

  8. Using Landsat-Derived Land Cover, Restructured Vegetation, and Atmospheric Mesoscale Modeling in Environmental and Global Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyaert, L. T.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.

    The USGS and Colorado State University (CSU) have used historical land cover data sets in CSU's regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) to investigate the potential effects of human-induced land cover change on land surface processes and regional climate variability for two study areas: South Florida and the eastern United States. Over the past 200 years, these areas have experienced significant land cover change including clearing of native forests, agricultural expansion, farm abandonment, reforestation, landscape fragmentation, growing urbanization, and altered wetlands. Understanding the potential effects of past and future land use changes is of interest to the environmental modeling, land resource management, and global change science communities. This paper summarizes the land cover data analysis, mesoscale modeling considerations, and potential benefits from using Landsat-derived products. Historical data sets were developed for the modeling simulations in each study area. The primary source of current land cover and land use data was the USGS 30-m National Land Cover Data (NLCD) which was developed for the conterminous United States from 1992/93 Landsat TM scenes. The NLCD data were selectively merged with the USGS and University of Florida 30-m GAP land cover product that was developed from 1992-94 Landsat TM scenes and extensive field data analysis. The resulting 100-m aggregated data set permitted a more complete representation of Florida's complex vegetation and wetlands conditions for the modeling. The pre-disturbance late-1800's natural vegetation scenario for the Florida simulations was based on an analysis of various historical maps of the Everglades, adjustments to these maps based on USGS paleo-vegetation analysis from sedimentary core samples, ancillary information, and analysis of Kuchler's potential natural vegetation data. Historical reconstructed vegetation scenarios for the 1850 and 1920 timeframes in the eastern United States were

  9. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    geomorphology characterize Africa's older surfaces, many of which qualify as palimpsests: overwritten and reshaped repeatedly over timescales of 10 000-100 000 000 yr. Inheritance, equifinality, and exhumation are commonly invoked to explain such landscape patterns, but are difficult to measure and thus test; here Africa's vast, deep regoliths epitomize the starkness of these challenges facing researchers across much of the continent. These deficiencies and problems are magnified when we consider the knowledge we seek of African landscape evolution toward resolving the complex history of the African plate since its individuation. The credentials of this knowledge are prescribed by the evidence needed to test competing hypotheses, especially invoking first order determinants of landscape dynamics e.g. membrane tectonics (Oxburgh ER & Turcotte DL 1974. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22:133-140) versus plumes (Foulger G 2013. Plates vs Plumes: A Geological Controversy. Wiley Blackwell). The evidence needed to test such competing hypotheses demands robust reconstructions of the individuated histories of landforms; in the African context, robustness pertains to the representativeness of events reconstructed in form and space (up to continental scales) and back through time from the Neogene into the Late Mesozoic. The ideal map of quantitative evidence must aim to integrate salient details in the trajectories of individuated landforms representing the principal landscapes of all Africa's margins, basins and watersheds. This in turn demands measurements - in mesoscale detail - of relief, drainage and regolith back though time, wherever keystone packages of evidence have survived Gondwana break up and its aftermath. Such a strategy is indeed ambitious, and it may well be dismissed as impractical. Nevertheless, the alternatives fall short. If it is to be representative of the history it purports to explain, we need the mesoscale facts to inform any narrative of a larger landscape (regional

  10. Initialization of a mesoscale model for April 10, 1979, using alternative data sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    A 35 km grid limited area mesoscale model was initialized with high density SESAME radiosonde data and high density TIROS-N satellite temperature profiles for April 10, 1979. These data sources were used individually and with low level wind fields constructed from surface wind observations. The primary objective was to examine the use of satellite temperature data for initializing a mesoscale model by comparing the forecast results with similar experiments employing radiosonde data. The impact of observed low level winds on the model forecasts was also investigated with experiments varying the method of insertion. All forecasts were compared with each other and with mesoscale observations for precipitation, mass and wind structure. Several forecasts produced convective precipitation systems with characteristics satisfying criteria for a mesoscale convective complex. High density satellite temperature data and balanced winds can be used in a mesoscale model to produce forecasts which verify favorably with observations.

  11. A meso-scale model of the central and southern North Sea: Consequences of an improved resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Results of a meso-scale model with a resolution of approximately 3 km of the central and southern North Sea are presented. The effect of the meso-scale resolution is depicted by comparing these results with data obtained from a 20 km resolution model. The validation of the model by means of observed SST data and of temperature data from a hydrographic transect demonstrates that the meso-scale model is able to reproduce the observations reasonably well. A comparison of the 3 km resolution results with 20 km results additionally shows that the large-scale model is not able to reproduce all the observed features of the SST with the same accuracy, in particular in the near-coastal areas along the Dutch and German coast. The parameters, which are investigated in more detail in this study, are temperature and salinity as well as the mean and eddy kinetic energy of the residual flow. The comparison between meso-scale and large-scale results demonstrates that not only the temperature and salinity distribution but also the kinetic energy is strongly affected by the chosen grid resolution. With respect to the generated mean kinetic energy of the residual flow the refined model resolution produces an increase up to 100% in the eastern parts of the North Sea, whereas in the Humber/Wash and Southern Bight region a decrease by up to 200% was obtained. In the northern part of the North Sea the finer resolution does not lead to large changes in the mean kinetic energy because here the large-scale features of the circulation dominate which also can be resolved by the large-scale model. This also explains that the mean kinetic energy differences between small- and large-scale model results are larger in summer than in winter because in winter due to the stronger winds the large-scale circulation is more dominant than in summer. The additional eddy kinetic energy of the residual flow (defined here as the kinetic energy contained in the spatial scales between 3 and 20 km) in general

  12. Mesoscale Eddies, Satellite Altimetry, and New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Fields, Erik A.

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and hydrographic observations are used to characterize the mesoscale eddy field in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda and to address the role of physical processes on the supply of new nutrients to the euphotic zone. The observed sea level anomaly (SLA) field is dominated by the occurrence of westward propagating features with SLA signatures as large as 25 cm, Eulerian temporal scales of roughly a month, lifetimes of several months, spatial scales of approximately 200 km, and a propagation of approximately 5 cm/s. Hydrographic estimates of dynamic height anomaly (referenced to 4000 dbar) are well correlated with satellite SLA (r(exp 2) = 0.65), and at least 85% of the observed dynamic height variability is associated with the first baroclinic mode of motion. This allows us to apply the satellite observations to remotely sensed estimate isopycnal displacements and the flux of nutrients into the euphotic zone due to eddy pumping. Eddy pumping is the process by which mesoscale eddies induce isopycnal displacements that lift nutrient-replete waters into the euphotic zone, driving new primary production. A kinematic approach to the estimation of the eddy pumping results in a flux of 0.24 +/- 0.1 mol N/sq m (including a scale estimate for the small contribution due to 18 deg water eddies). This flux is more than an order of magnitude larger than the diapycnal diffusive flux as well as scale estimates for the vertical transport due to isopycnal mixing along sloping isopycnal surfaces. Eddy pumping and wintertime convection are the two dominant mechanisms transporting new nutrients into the euphotic zone, and the sum of all physical new nutrient supply fluxes effectively balances previous geochemical estimates of annual new production for this site. However, if biological transports (e.g., nitrogen fixation, etc.) are significant, the new nitrogen supply budget will be in excess of geochemical new production estimates. This suggests that the various physical

  13. Mesoscale Eddies, Satellite Altimetry, and New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Fields, Erik A.

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and hydrographic observations are used to characterize the mesoscale eddy field in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda and to address the role of physical processes on the supply of new nutrients to the euphotic zone. The observed sea level anomaly (SLA) field is dominated by the occurrence of westward propagating features with SLA signatures as large as 25 cm, Eulerian temporal scales of roughly a month, lifetimes of several months, spatial scales of approximately 200 km, and a propagation of approximately 5 cm/s . Hydrographic estimates of dynamic height anomaly (referenced to 4000 dbar) are well correlated with satellite SLA (r(sup 2) = 0.65), and at least 85% of the observed dynamic height variability is associated with the first baroclinic mode of motion. This allows us to apply the satellite observations to remotely estimate isopycnal displacements and the flux of nutrients into the euphotic zone due to eddy pumping. Eddy pumping is the process by which mesoscale eddies induce isopycnal displacements that lift nutrient- replete waters into the euphotic zone, driving new primary production. A kinematic approach to the estimation of the eddy pumping results in a flux of 0.24+/-0.1 mol N/sq m/yr (including a scale estimate for the small contribution due to 18 deg water eddies). This flux is more than an order of magnitude larger than the diapycnal diffusive flux as well as scale estimates for the vertical transport due to isopycnal mixing along sloping isopycnal surfaces. Eddy pumping and wintertime convection are the two dominant mechanisms transporting new nutrients into the euphotic zone, and the sum of all physical new nutrient supply fluxes effectively balances previous geochemical estimates of annual new production for this site. However, if biological transports (e.g., nitrogen fixation, etc.) are significant, the new nitrogen supply budget will be in excess of geochemical new production estimates. This suggests that the various physical and

  14. Mesoscale Eddies, Satellite Altimetry, and New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Fields, Erik A.

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and hydrographic observations are used to characterize the mesoscale eddy field in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda and to address the role of physical processes on the supply of new nutrients to the euphotic zone. The observed sea level anomaly (SLA) field is dominated by the occurrence of westward propagating features with SLA signatures as large as 25 cm, Eulerian temporal scales of roughly a month, lifetimes of several months, spatial scales of approximately 200 km, and a propagation of approximately 5 cm/s . Hydrographic estimates of dynamic height anomaly (referenced to 4000 dbar) are well correlated with satellite SLA (r(sup 2) = 0.65), and at least 85% of the observed dynamic height variability is associated with the first baroclinic mode of motion. This allows us to apply the satellite observations to remotely estimate isopycnal displacements and the flux of nutrients into the euphotic zone due to eddy pumping. Eddy pumping is the process by which mesoscale eddies induce isopycnal displacements that lift nutrient- replete waters into the euphotic zone, driving new primary production. A kinematic approach to the estimation of the eddy pumping results in a flux of 0.24+/-0.1 mol N/sq m/yr (including a scale estimate for the small contribution due to 18 deg water eddies). This flux is more than an order of magnitude larger than the diapycnal diffusive flux as well as scale estimates for the vertical transport due to isopycnal mixing along sloping isopycnal surfaces. Eddy pumping and wintertime convection are the two dominant mechanisms transporting new nutrients into the euphotic zone, and the sum of all physical new nutrient supply fluxes effectively balances previous geochemical estimates of annual new production for this site. However, if biological transports (e.g., nitrogen fixation, etc.) are significant, the new nitrogen supply budget will be in excess of geochemical new production estimates. This suggests that the various physical and

  15. Mesoscale Eddies, Satellite Altimetry, and New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Fields, Erik A.

    1999-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and hydrographic observations are used to characterize the mesoscale eddy field in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda and to address the role of physical processes on the supply of new nutrients to the euphotic zone. The observed sea level anomaly (SLA) field is dominated by the occurrence of westward propagating features with SLA signatures as large as 25 cm, Eulerian temporal scales of roughly a month, lifetimes of several months, spatial scales of approximately 200 km, and a propagation of approximately 5 cm/s. Hydrographic estimates of dynamic height anomaly (referenced to 4000 dbar) are well correlated with satellite SLA (r(exp 2) = 0.65), and at least 85% of the observed dynamic height variability is associated with the first baroclinic mode of motion. This allows us to apply the satellite observations to remotely sensed estimate isopycnal displacements and the flux of nutrients into the euphotic zone due to eddy pumping. Eddy pumping is the process by which mesoscale eddies induce isopycnal displacements that lift nutrient-replete waters into the euphotic zone, driving new primary production. A kinematic approach to the estimation of the eddy pumping results in a flux of 0.24 +/- 0.1 mol N/sq m (including a scale estimate for the small contribution due to 18 deg water eddies). This flux is more than an order of magnitude larger than the diapycnal diffusive flux as well as scale estimates for the vertical transport due to isopycnal mixing along sloping isopycnal surfaces. Eddy pumping and wintertime convection are the two dominant mechanisms transporting new nutrients into the euphotic zone, and the sum of all physical new nutrient supply fluxes effectively balances previous geochemical estimates of annual new production for this site. However, if biological transports (e.g., nitrogen fixation, etc.) are significant, the new nitrogen supply budget will be in excess of geochemical new production estimates. This suggests that the various physical

  16. Nonlinear natural engine: Model for thermodynamic processes in mesoscale systems

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, John; Buchanan, D. S.; Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Hofler, T.

    1985-01-01

    To develop intuition on the possible application of concepts from thermodynamic heat engines to mesoscale systems, we have constructed and studied a model thermoacoustic heat engine. The model consists of a chain of coupled nonlinear acoustic vibrators in which the primary thermodynamic medium is argon gas, the secondary thermodynamic medium is constituted by solids bounding the gas, and frequencies are ca. 3 × 102 Hz. The nonlinear elements are the necks, made flexible by means of an oil-loaded DuPont Kapton film, of Helmholtz resonators. When the primary medium is driven uniformly by an acoustic driver at a frequency somewhat below the low-amplitude resonant frequency and at a high enough driving amplitude, stationary localized or solitary states appear irreversibly on the chain. These are characterized by a higher vibrational amplitude than that in surrounding vibrators, where the amplitude can decrease; by the appearance of deep subharmonics of the drive frequency, corresponding to driven low-frequency vibrations of the Kapton film-oil systems; and by the pumping of heat toward the localized states. Possible implications of these results for mesoscale systems consisting of chains of molecular vibrators are then discussed. Images PMID:16593625

  17. Nonlinear natural engine: model for thermodynamic processes in mesoscale systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, J.; Buchanan, D.S.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Hofler, T.

    1985-12-01

    To develop intuition on the possible application of concepts from thermodynamic heat engines to mesoscale systems, the authors have constructed and studied a model thermoacoustic heat engine. The model consists of a chain of coupled nonlinear acoustic vibrators in which the primary thermodynamic medium is argon gas, the secondary thermodynamic medium is constituted by solids bounding the gas, and frequencies are ca. 3 x 10/sup 2/ Hz. The nonlinear elements are the necks, made flexible by means of an oil-loaded DuPont Kapton film, of Helmholtz resonators. When the primary medium is driven uniformly by an acoustic driver at a frequency somewhat below the low-amplitude resonant frequency and at a high enough driving amplitude, stationary localized or solitary states appear irreversibly on the chain. These are characterized by a higher vibrational amplitude than that in surrounding vibrators, where the amplitude can decrease; by the appearance of deep subharmonics of the drive frequency, corresponding to driven low-frequency vibrations of the Kapton film-oil systems; and by the pumping of heat toward the localized states. Possible implications of these results for mesoscale systems consisting of chains of molecular vibrators are then discussed. 19 references, 3 figures.

  18. Nonlinear natural engine: Model for thermodynamic processes in mesoscale systems.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, J; Buchanan, D S; Swift, G W; Migliori, A; Hofler, T

    1985-12-01

    To develop intuition on the possible application of concepts from thermodynamic heat engines to mesoscale systems, we have constructed and studied a model thermoacoustic heat engine. The model consists of a chain of coupled nonlinear acoustic vibrators in which the primary thermodynamic medium is argon gas, the secondary thermodynamic medium is constituted by solids bounding the gas, and frequencies are ca. 3 x 10(2) Hz. The nonlinear elements are the necks, made flexible by means of an oil-loaded DuPont Kapton film, of Helmholtz resonators. When the primary medium is driven uniformly by an acoustic driver at a frequency somewhat below the low-amplitude resonant frequency and at a high enough driving amplitude, stationary localized or solitary states appear irreversibly on the chain. These are characterized by a higher vibrational amplitude than that in surrounding vibrators, where the amplitude can decrease; by the appearance of deep subharmonics of the drive frequency, corresponding to driven low-frequency vibrations of the Kapton film-oil systems; and by the pumping of heat toward the localized states. Possible implications of these results for mesoscale systems consisting of chains of molecular vibrators are then discussed.

  19. Mesoscale Eddies Are Oases for Higher Trophic Marine Life

    PubMed Central

    Godø, Olav R.; Samuelsen, Annette; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Patel, Ruben; Hjøllo, Solfrid Sætre; Horne, John; Kaartvedt, Stein; Johannessen, Johnny A.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life. PMID:22272294

  20. Evaluation of an Urban Canopy Parameterization in a Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Leone, Jr., J M; Walker, H; Nasstrom, J; Brown, M J

    2004-03-18

    A modified urban canopy parameterization (UCP) is developed and evaluated in a three-dimensional mesoscale model to assess the urban impact on surface and lower atmospheric properties. This parameterization accounts for the effects of building drag, turbulent production, radiation balance, anthropogenic heating, and building rooftop heating/cooling. USGS land-use data are also utilized to derive urban infrastructure and urban surface properties needed for driving the UCP. An intensive observational period with clear-sky, strong ambient wind and drainage flow, and the absence of land-lake breeze over the Salt Lake Valley, occurring on 25-26 October 2000, is selected for this study. A series of sensitivity experiments are performed to gain understanding of the urban impact in the mesoscale model. Results indicate that within the selected urban environment, urban surface characteristics and anthropogenic heating play little role in the formation of the modeled nocturnal urban boundary layer. The rooftop effect appears to be the main contributor to this urban boundary layer. Sensitivity experiments also show that for this weak urban heat island case, the model horizontal grid resolution is important in simulating the elevated inversion layer. The root mean square errors of the predicted wind and temperature with respect to surface station measurements exhibit substantially larger discrepancies at the urban locations than the rural counterparts. However, the close agreement of modeled tracer concentration with observations fairly justifies the modeled urban impact on the wind direction shift and wind drag effects.

  1. Validation of an Urban Parameterization in a Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.J.; Chin, H.

    2001-07-19

    The Atmospheric Science Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses the Naval Research Laboratory's Couple Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) for both operations and research. COAMPS is a non-hydrostatic model, designed as a multi-scale simulation system ranging from synoptic down to meso, storm and local terrain scales. As model resolution increases, the forcing due to small-scale complex terrain features including urban structures and surfaces, intensifies. An urban parameterization has been added to the Naval Research Laboratory's mesoscale model, COAMPS. The parameterization attempts to incorporate the effects of buildings and urban surfaces without explicitly resolving them, and includes modeling the mean flow to turbulence energy exchange, radiative transfer, the surface energy budget, and the addition of anthropogenic heat. The Chemical and Biological National Security Program's (CBNP) URBAN field experiment was designed to collect data to validate numerical models over a range of length and time scales. The experiment was conducted in Salt Lake City in October 2000. The scales ranged from circulation around single buildings to flow in the entire Salt Lake basin. Data from the field experiment includes tracer data as well as observations of mean and turbulence atmospheric parameters. Wind and turbulence predictions from COAMPS are used to drive a Lagrangian particle model, the Livermore Operational Dispersion Integrator (LODI). Simulations with COAMPS and LODI are used to test the sensitivity to the urban parameterization. Data from the field experiment, including the tracer data and the atmospheric parameters, are also used to validate the urban parameterization.

  2. Optogenetic stimulation of a meso-scale human cortical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, Prashanth; Szeri, Andrew; Sleigh, Jamie; Kirsch, Heidi

    2015-03-01

    Neurological phenomena like sleep and seizures depend not only on the activity of individual neurons, but on the dynamics of neuron populations as well. Meso-scale models of cortical activity provide a means to study neural dynamics at the level of neuron populations. Additionally, they offer a safe and economical way to test the effects and efficacy of stimulation techniques on the dynamics of the cortex. Here, we use a physiologically relevant meso-scale model of the cortex to study the hypersynchronous activity of neuron populations during epileptic seizures. The model consists of a set of stochastic, highly non-linear partial differential equations. Next, we use optogenetic stimulation to control seizures in a hyperexcited cortex, and to induce seizures in a normally functioning cortex. The high spatial and temporal resolution this method offers makes a strong case for the use of optogenetics in treating meso scale cortical disorders such as epileptic seizures. We use bifurcation analysis to investigate the effect of optogenetic stimulation in the meso scale model, and its efficacy in suppressing the non-linear dynamics of seizures.

  3. Studies of coastal mesoscale winds using SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Pierson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The variability of the mesoscale wind fields near coastlines which can be caused by mountains that shadow offshore wind and by valleys that enhance them. These wind, provide relatively fixed patterns that must be considered in the development of algorithms for future spaceborne scatterometer systems; mesoscale variability over the offshore regions is random and must be averaged out for forecasting yet nearshore fixed patterns are treated differently. Before the patterns of interest can be defined quantitatively, the scattering response of the ocean to winds at the L-band frequency and SIR-B angles of incidence must be developed from the SIR-B data. Patterns can be analyzed on the images both in regions selected for high probability of the occurrence of suitable patterns, and in other regions where the patterns are observed. The patterns are analyzed for topographic effects and the distance to sea over which these effects cause variations in the oceanic wind patterns. The results are interpreted in terms of quantitative description of the processes involved and in for need of modifications of future scatterometer algorithms.

  4. Mesoscale Modelling of Westafrican Precipitation In Impetus Westafrica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, K.; Bachner, S.; Haase, G.; Hübener, H.; Paeth, H.; Sogalla, M.

    The objective of the IMPETUS Westafricaproject is the research on water availability, water use and management and future impacts of expected climate changes on the socio-economic development in two critical regions of Westafrica: On the northern side of the Sahara in the catchment of the Qued Drâa in Morocco, south of the Sahara and Sahel in the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin. Precipitation is the most important input to the hydrological cycle in these regions. For any hydrologic or economic modeling we need spatially distributed precipitation fields as accurate as possible. Therefore, precipitation modeling is one scope for the meteorologists participating in IMPETUS. For detailed studies on the influence of land use changes on soil hydrology and plant growth, the spatial scale of used models should be as small as possible. Therefore, the use of mesoscale models for regional climate modelling is tested and further developped. Since causes of rainfall variability are multiscale phenomena--teleconnections with ENSO and NAO steer the rainfall variability as well as local changes like deforestation--a hierachy of models, from the global scale down to the Meso- /Micro- scale, was set up to study processes affecting rainfall variability in the regions of interest. This model chain is described in some detail, first results and fu- ture aims of research activities in the area of mesoscale modeling are shown.

  5. Characterization of mesoscale coiled-coil peptide-porphyrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Pepe-Mooney, Brian J; Kokona, Bashkim; Fairman, Robert

    2011-12-12

    Photoelectronically conductive self-assembling peptide-porphyrin assemblies have great potential in their use as biomaterials, owing largely to their environmentally responsive properties. We have successfully designed a coiled-coil peptide that can self-assemble to form mesoscale filaments and serve as a scaffold for porphyrin interaction. In our earlier work, peptide-porphyrin-based biomaterials were formed at neutral pH, but the structures were irregular at the nano- to microscale size range, as judged by atomic force microscopy. We identified a pH in which mesoscale fibrils were formed, taking advantage of the types of porphyrin interactions that are present in well-characterized J-aggregates. We used UV-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy to characterize these self-assembling biomaterials. We propose a new assembly paradigm that arises from a set of unique porphyrin-porphyrin and porphyrin-peptide interactions whose structure may be readily modulated by changes in pH or peptide concentration.

  6. Fabrication of vertically aligned ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride mesoscale rod arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Dongjin; Hong, Seungbum; Hong, Jongin; ...

    2013-05-14

    Here, we have fabricated vertically aligned ferroelectric PVDF mesoscale rod arrays comprising and phases using a 200 nm diameter anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the porous template. We could synthesize the ferroelectric phase in mesoscale rod forms by combining the well-established recipe for crystallizing the phase using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at low temperature and template-guided infiltration processing for the rods using AAO. We also measured the dimensions of the PVDF rods by scanning electron microscopy and identified the polymorph phases by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The length of the rods varied from 3.82 m to 1.09 mmore » and the diameter from 232 nm to 287 nm when the volume ratio between DMSO and acetone changed from 5 : 5 to 10 : 0. We obtained well-defined piezoresponse hysteresis loops for all rods with remnant piezoresponse ranging from 2.12 pm/V to 5.04 pm/V and coercive voltage ranging from 2.29 V to 2.71 V using piezoresponse force microscopy. These results serve as a processing platform for flexible electronic devices that need high capacitance and piezoelectric functionalities such as flexible memory devices or body energy harvesting devices for intelligent systems. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3842-3848, 2013« less

  7. Use of ground-based wind profiles in mesoscale forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is presented of recent uses of ground-based wind profile data in mesoscale forecasting. Some of the applications are in real time, and some are after the fact. Not all of the work mentioned here has been published yet, but references are given wherever possible. As Gage and Balsley (1978) point out, sensitive Doppler radars have been used to examine tropospheric wind profiles since the 1970's. It was not until the early 1980's, however, that the potential contribution of these instruments to operational forecasting and numerical weather prediction became apparent. Profiler winds and radiosonde winds compare favorably, usually within a few m/s in speed and 10 degrees in direction (see Hogg et al., 1983), but the obvious advantage of the profiler is its frequent (hourly or more often) sampling of the same volume. The rawinsonde balloon is launched only twice a day and drifts with the wind. In this paper, I will: (1) mention two operational uses of data from a wind profiling system developed jointly by the Wave Propagation and Aeronomy Laboratories of NOAA; (2) describe a number of displays of these same data on a workstation for mesoscale forecasting developed by the Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (PROFS); and (3) explain some interesting diagnostic calculations performed by meteorologists of the Wave Propagation Laboratory.

  8. Assessing Meso-Scale Equivalent Temperature in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, K.; Mahmood, R.; Goodrich, G. B.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate meso-scale equivalent temperatures (TE) in Kentucky and potential land cover influences. There is a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind in Kentucky because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 65 research grade in situ weather and climate observing stations across the commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high quality observations from 34 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet also offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than any of the previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (TE-T) were greatest in summer, with averages of 40ºC, and smallest in winter, with averages of 10ºC. The higher TE values in the summer are attributed to increased atmospheric moisture content. Spatial patterns of these differences were also analyzed by season. In general, the differences were found to be larger in the Loess Plains (far western KY), Crawford-Mammoth Cave Uplands (western and south central KY), Western Highland Rim (western KY), and Eastern Highland Rim (south central KY). These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture. Results of this research will improve understanding of how land use/land cover potentially affects meso-scale atmospheric heat content. Additionally, these results can be applied to areas located in similar climate zones, with comparable land cover attributes that do not have a comprehensive mesonet to conduct this type of research.

  9. Inferring the effect of catchment complexity on mesoscale hydrologic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FröHlich, Holger L.; Breuer, Lutz; Vaché, Kellie B.; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2008-09-01

    The effect of catchment complexity on hydrologic and hydrochemical catchment response was characterized in the mesoscale Dill catchment (692 km2), Germany. This analysis was developed using multivariate daily stream concentration and discharge data at the basin outlet, in connection with less frequently sampled catchment-wide end-member chemistries. The link between catchment-wide runoff sources and basin output was observed through a combination of concentration-discharge (C-Q) analysis and multivariate end-member projection. Subsurface stormflow, various groundwater and wastewater sources, as well as urban surface runoff emerged in catchment output chemistry. Despite the identification of multiple sources, several runoff sources observed within the catchment failed to display consistent links with the output chemistry. This failure to associate known source chemistry with outlet chemistry may have resulted from a lack of hydraulic connectivity between sources and basin outlet, from different arrival times of subbasin-scale runoff contributions, and also from an overlap of source chemistries that subsumed discrete runoff sources in catchment output. This combination of catchment heterogeneity and complexity simply suggests that the internal spatial organization of the catchment impeded the application of lumped mixing calculations at the 692 km2 outlet. Given these challenges, we suggest that in mesoscale catchment research, the potential effects of spatial organization should be included in any interpretation of highly integrated response signals, or when using those signals to evaluate numerical rainfall-runoff models.

  10. Mesoscale modelling of crack-induced diffusivity in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilenius, Filip; Larsson, Fredrik; Lundgren, Karin; Runesson, Kenneth

    2015-02-01

    Cracks have large impact on the diffusivity of concrete since they provide low-resistance pathways for moisture and chloride ions to migrate through the material. In this work, crack-induced diffusivity in concrete is modelled on the heterogeneous mesoscale and computationally homogenized to obtain macroscale diffusivity properties. Computations are carried out using the finite element method on three-dimensional statistical volume elements (SVEs) comprising the mesoscale constituents in terms of cement paste, aggregates and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). The SVEs are subjected to uni-axial tension loading and cracks are simulated by use of an isotropic damage model. In a damaged finite element, the crack plane is assumed to be perpendicular to the largest principle strain, and diffusivity properties are assigned to the element only in the in-plane direction of the crack by anisotropic constitutive modelling. The numerical results show that the macroscale diffusivity of concrete can be correlated to the applied mechanical straining of the SVE and that the macroscale diffusivity increases mainly in the transversal direction relative to the axis of imposed mechanical straining.

  11. Fabrication of vertically aligned ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride mesoscale rod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongjin; Hong, Seungbum; Hong, Jongin; Choi, Yoon-Young; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, Moonkyu; Sung, Tae-hyun; No, Kwangsoo

    2013-05-14

    Here, we have fabricated vertically aligned ferroelectric PVDF mesoscale rod arrays comprising and phases using a 200 nm diameter anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the porous template. We could synthesize the ferroelectric phase in mesoscale rod forms by combining the well-established recipe for crystallizing the phase using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at low temperature and template-guided infiltration processing for the rods using AAO. We also measured the dimensions of the PVDF rods by scanning electron microscopy and identified the polymorph phases by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The length of the rods varied from 3.82 m to 1.09 m and the diameter from 232 nm to 287 nm when the volume ratio between DMSO and acetone changed from 5 : 5 to 10 : 0. We obtained well-defined piezoresponse hysteresis loops for all rods with remnant piezoresponse ranging from 2.12 pm/V to 5.04 pm/V and coercive voltage ranging from 2.29 V to 2.71 V using piezoresponse force microscopy. These results serve as a processing platform for flexible electronic devices that need high capacitance and piezoelectric functionalities such as flexible memory devices or body energy harvesting devices for intelligent systems. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3842-3848, 2013

  12. Overlooked Role of Mesoscale Winds in Powering Ocean Diapycnal Mixing.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Wu, Lixin; Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping

    2016-11-16

    Diapycnal mixing affects the uptake of heat and carbon by the ocean as well as plays an important role in global ocean circulations and climate. In the thermocline, winds provide an important energy source for furnishing diapycnal mixing primarily through the generation of near-inertial internal waves. However, this contribution is largely missing in the current generation of climate models. In this study, it is found that mesoscale winds at scales of a few hundred kilometers account for more than 65% of near-inertial energy flux into the North Pacific basin and 55% of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate in the thermocline, suggesting their dominance in powering diapycnal mixing in the thermocline. Furthermore, a new parameterization of wind-driven diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior for climate models is proposed, which, for the first time, successfully captures both temporal and spatial variations of wind-driven diapycnal mixing in the thermocline. It is suggested that as mesoscale winds are not resolved by the climate models participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) due to insufficient resolutions, the diapycnal mixing is likely poorly represented, raising concerns about the accuracy and robustness of climate change simulations and projections.

  13. Overlooked Role of Mesoscale Winds in Powering Ocean Diapycnal Mixing

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zhao; Wu, Lixin; Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diapycnal mixing affects the uptake of heat and carbon by the ocean as well as plays an important role in global ocean circulations and climate. In the thermocline, winds provide an important energy source for furnishing diapycnal mixing primarily through the generation of near-inertial internal waves. However, this contribution is largely missing in the current generation of climate models. In this study, it is found that mesoscale winds at scales of a few hundred kilometers account for more than 65% of near-inertial energy flux into the North Pacific basin and 55% of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate in the thermocline, suggesting their dominance in powering diapycnal mixing in the thermocline. Furthermore, a new parameterization of wind-driven diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior for climate models is proposed, which, for the first time, successfully captures both temporal and spatial variations of wind-driven diapycnal mixing in the thermocline. It is suggested that as mesoscale winds are not resolved by the climate models participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) due to insufficient resolutions, the diapycnal mixing is likely poorly represented, raising concerns about the accuracy and robustness of climate change simulations and projections. PMID:27849059

  14. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling of mesoscale eddy deflection.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope. The acoustic field was propagated through two years (1992 and 1993) of the eddy-permitting ocean state estimation ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) system. The range of deflection of the back-azimuth was 1.8° with a root-mean-square of 0.34°. The refraction due to mesoscale oceanography could therefore have significant impacts upon localization of distant low-frequency sources, such as seismic or nuclear test events.

  15. Mesoscale eddies are oases for higher trophic marine life.

    PubMed

    Godø, Olav R; Samuelsen, Annette; Macaulay, Gavin J; Patel, Ruben; Hjøllo, Solfrid Sætre; Horne, John; Kaartvedt, Stein; Johannessen, Johnny A

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies stimulate biological production in the ocean, but knowledge of energy transfers to higher trophic levels within eddies remains fragmented and not quantified. Increasing the knowledge base is constrained by the inability of traditional sampling methods to adequately sample biological processes at the spatio-temporal scales at which they occur. By combining satellite and acoustic observations over spatial scales of 10 s of km horizontally and 100 s of m vertically, supported by hydrographical and biological sampling we show that anticyclonic eddies shape distribution and density of marine life from the surface to bathyal depths. Fish feed along density structures of eddies, demonstrating that eddies catalyze energy transfer across trophic levels. Eddies create attractive pelagic habitats, analogous to oases in the desert, for higher trophic level aquatic organisms through enhanced 3-D motion that accumulates and redistributes biomass, contributing to overall bioproduction in the ocean. Integrating multidisciplinary observation methodologies promoted a new understanding of biophysical interaction in mesoscale eddies. Our findings emphasize the impact of eddies on the patchiness of biomass in the sea and demonstrate that they provide rich feeding habitat for higher trophic marine life.

  16. Mesoscale variability of the Upper Colorado River snowpack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, C.-H.; Josberger, E.G.; Thorndike, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    In the mountainous regions of the Upper Colorado River Basin, snow course observations give local measurements of snow water equivalent, which can be used to estimate regional averages of snow conditions. We develop a statistical technique to estimate the mesoscale average snow accumulation, using 8 years of snow course observations. For each of three major snow accumulation regions in the Upper Colorado River Basin - the Colorado Rocky Mountains, Colorado, the Uinta Mountains, Utah, and the Wind River Range, Wyoming - the snow course observations yield a correlation length scale of 38 km, 46 km, and 116 km respectively. This is the scale for which the snow course data at different sites are correlated with 70 per cent correlation. This correlation of snow accumulation over large distances allows for the estimation of the snow water equivalent on a mesoscale basis. With the snow course data binned into 1/4?? latitude by 1/4?? longitude pixels, an error analysis shows the following: for no snow course data in a given pixel, the uncertainty in the water equivalent estimate reaches 50 cm; that is, the climatological variability. However, as the number of snow courses in a pixel increases the uncertainty decreases, and approaches 5-10 cm when there are five snow courses in a pixel.

  17. Overlooked Role of Mesoscale Winds in Powering Ocean Diapycnal Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhao; Wu, Lixin; Ma, Xiaohui; Chang, Ping

    2016-11-01

    Diapycnal mixing affects the uptake of heat and carbon by the ocean as well as plays an important role in global ocean circulations and climate. In the thermocline, winds provide an important energy source for furnishing diapycnal mixing primarily through the generation of near-inertial internal waves. However, this contribution is largely missing in the current generation of climate models. In this study, it is found that mesoscale winds at scales of a few hundred kilometers account for more than 65% of near-inertial energy flux into the North Pacific basin and 55% of turbulent kinetic dissipation rate in the thermocline, suggesting their dominance in powering diapycnal mixing in the thermocline. Furthermore, a new parameterization of wind-driven diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior for climate models is proposed, which, for the first time, successfully captures both temporal and spatial variations of wind-driven diapycnal mixing in the thermocline. It is suggested that as mesoscale winds are not resolved by the climate models participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) due to insufficient resolutions, the diapycnal mixing is likely poorly represented, raising concerns about the accuracy and robustness of climate change simulations and projections.

  18. Climatological aspects of mesoscale cyclogenesis over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice shelf regions of Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, J.F.; Bromwich, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    A one-year (1988) statistical study of mesoscale cyclogenesis near Terra Nova Bay and Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, was conducted using high-resolution digital satellite imagery and automatic weather station data. Results indicate that on average two (one) mesoscale cyclones form near Terra Nova Bay (Byrd Glacier) each week, confirming these two locations as mesoscale cyclogeneis areas. The maximum (minimum) weekly frequency of mesoscale cyclones occurred during the summer (winter). The satellite survey of mesoscale vortices was extended over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf. Results suggest southern Marie Byrd Land as another area of mesoscale cyclone formation. Also, frequent mesoscale cyclonic activity was noted over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf, where, on average, six and three mesoscale vortices were observed each week, respectively, with maximum (minimum) frequency during summer (winter) in both regions. The majority (70-80%) of the vortices were of comma-cloud type and were shallow. Only around 10% of the vortices near Terra Nova Bay and Byrd Glacier were classified as deep vortices, while over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf around 20% were found to be deep. The average large-scale pattern associated with cyclogenesis days near Terra Nova Bay suggests a slight decrease in the sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height to the northwest of this area with respect to the annual average. This may be an indication of the average position of synoptic-scale cyclones entering the Ross Sea region. Comparison with a similar study but for 1984-85 shows that the overall mesoscale cyclogenesis activity was similar during the three years, but 1985 was found to be the year with greater occurrence of {open_quotes}significant{close_quotes} mesoscales cyclones. The large-scale pattern indicates that this greater activity is related to a deeper circumpolar trough and 500-hPa polar vortex for 1985 in comparison to 1984 and 1988. 64 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. DALI: Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellentin, Elena

    2015-07-01

    DALI (Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods) is a fast approximation of non-Gaussian likelihoods. It extends the Fisher Matrix in a straightforward way and allows for a wider range of posterior shapes. The code is written in C/C++.

  20. Bronchopulmonary segments approximation using anatomical atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busayarat, Sata; Zrimec, Tatjana

    2007-03-01

    Bronchopulmonary segments are valuable as they give more accurate localization than lung lobes. Traditionally, determining the segments requires segmentation and identification of segmental bronchi, which, in turn, require volumetric imaging data. In this paper, we present a method for approximating the bronchopulmonary segments for sparse data by effectively using an anatomical atlas. The atlas is constructed from a volumetric data and contains accurate information about bronchopulmonary segments. A new ray-tracing based image registration is used for transferring the information from the atlas to a query image. Results show that the method is able to approximate the segments on sparse HRCT data with slice gap up to 25 millimeters.

  1. Taylor Approximations and Definite Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of approximating the value of a definite integral by approximating the integrand rather than using numerical methods to approximate the value of the definite integral. Particular cases considered include examples where the integral is improper, such as an elliptic integral. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)

  2. Taylor Approximations and Definite Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of approximating the value of a definite integral by approximating the integrand rather than using numerical methods to approximate the value of the definite integral. Particular cases considered include examples where the integral is improper, such as an elliptic integral. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)

  3. Approximate equilibria for Bayesian games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallozzi, Lina; Pusillo, Lucia; Tijs, Stef

    2008-07-01

    In this paper the problem of the existence of approximate equilibria in mixed strategies is central. Sufficient conditions are given under which approximate equilibria exist for non-finite Bayesian games. Further one possible approach is suggested to the problem of the existence of approximate equilibria for the class of multicriteria Bayesian games.

  4. Programmable Potentials: Approximate N-body potentials from coarse-level logic

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Gunjan S.; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic method for constructing an N-body potential, approximating the true potential, that accurately captures meso-scale behavior of the chemical or biological system using pairwise potentials coming from experimental data or ab initio methods. The meso-scale behavior is translated into logic rules for the dynamics. Each pairwise potential has an associated logic function that is constructed using the logic rules, a class of elementary logic functions, and AND, OR, and NOT gates. The effect of each logic function is to turn its associated potential on and off. The N-body potential is constructed as linear combination of the pairwise potentials, where the “coefficients” of the potentials are smoothed versions of the associated logic functions. These potentials allow a potentially low-dimensional description of complex processes while still accurately capturing the relevant physics at the meso-scale. We present the proposed formalism to construct coarse-grained potential models for three examples: an inhibitor molecular system, bond breaking in chemical reactions, and DNA transcription from biology. The method can potentially be used in reverse for design of molecular processes by specifying properties of molecules that can carry them out. PMID:27671683

  5. Programmable Potentials: Approximate N-body potentials from coarse-level logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Gunjan S.; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a systematic method for constructing an N-body potential, approximating the true potential, that accurately captures meso-scale behavior of the chemical or biological system using pairwise potentials coming from experimental data or ab initio methods. The meso-scale behavior is translated into logic rules for the dynamics. Each pairwise potential has an associated logic function that is constructed using the logic rules, a class of elementary logic functions, and AND, OR, and NOT gates. The effect of each logic function is to turn its associated potential on and off. The N-body potential is constructed as linear combination of the pairwise potentials, where the “coefficients” of the potentials are smoothed versions of the associated logic functions. These potentials allow a potentially low-dimensional description of complex processes while still accurately capturing the relevant physics at the meso-scale. We present the proposed formalism to construct coarse-grained potential models for three examples: an inhibitor molecular system, bond breaking in chemical reactions, and DNA transcription from biology. The method can potentially be used in reverse for design of molecular processes by specifying properties of molecules that can carry them out.

  6. Towards monitoring biodiversity in Amazonian forests: how regular samples capture meso-scale altitudinal variation in 25 km2 plots.

    PubMed

    Norris, Darren; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and sampling optima are context and location specific. Novel applications (e.g. biodiversity monitoring for environmental service payments) call for renewed efforts to establish reliable and robust monitoring in biodiversity rich areas. As there is little information on the distribution of biodiversity across the Amazon basin, we used altitude as a proxy for biological variables to test whether meso-scale variation can be adequately represented by different sample sizes in a standardized, regular-coverage sampling arrangement. We used Shuttle-Radar-Topography-Mission digital elevation values to evaluate if the regular sampling arrangement in standard RAPELD (rapid assessments ("RAP") over the long-term (LTER ["PELD" in Portuguese])) grids captured patters in meso-scale spatial variation. The adequacy of different sample sizes (n = 4 to 120) were examined within 32,325 km2/3,232,500 ha (1293×25 km2 sample areas) distributed across the legal Brazilian Amazon. Kolmogorov-Smirnov-tests, correlation and root-mean-square-error were used to measure sample representativeness, similarity and accuracy respectively. Trends and thresholds of these responses in relation to sample size and standard-deviation were modeled using Generalized-Additive-Models and conditional-inference-trees respectively. We found that a regular arrangement of 30 samples captured the distribution of altitude values within these areas. Sample size was more important than sample standard deviation for representativeness and similarity. In contrast, accuracy was more strongly influenced by sample standard deviation. Additionally, analysis of spatially interpolated data showed that spatial patterns in altitude were also recovered within areas using a regular arrangement of 30 samples. Our findings show that the logistically feasible sample used in the RAPELD system successfully recovers meso-scale altitudinal patterns. This suggests that the sample size and regular arrangement

  7. Mesoscale architecture shapes initiation and richness of spontaneous network activity.

    PubMed

    Okujeni, Samora; Kandler, Steffen; Egert, Ulrich

    2017-03-14

    Spontaneous activity in the absence of external input, including propagating waves of activity, is a robust feature of neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. The neurophysiological and anatomical requirements for initiation and persistence of such activity, however, are poorly understood, as is their role in the function of neuronal networks. Computational network studies indicate that clustered connectivity may foster the generation, maintenance and richness of spontaneous activity. Since this mesoscale architecture cannot be systematically modified in intact tissue, testing these predictions is impracticable in vivo. Here, we investigate how the mesoscale structure shapes spontaneous activity in generic networks of rat cortical neurons in vitro. In these networks, neurons spontaneously arrange into local clusters with high neurite density and form fasciculating long-range axons. We modified this structure by modulation of protein kinase C, an enzyme regulating neurite growth and cell migration. Inhibition of protein kinase C reduced neuronal aggregation and fasciculation of axons, i.e. promoted uniform architecture. Conversely, activation of protein kinase C promoted aggregation of neurons into clusters, local connectivity and bundling of long-range axons. Supporting predictions from theory, clustered networks were more spontaneously active and generated diverse activity patterns. Neurons within clusters received stronger synaptic inputs and displayed increased membrane potential fluctuations. Intensified clustering promoted the initiation of synchronous bursting events but entailed incomplete network recruitment. Moderately clustered networks appear optimal for initiation and propagation of diverse patterns of activity. Our findings support a crucial role of the mesoscale architectures in the regulation of spontaneous activity dynamics.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTComputational studies predict richer and persisting spatio-temporal patterns of spontaneous activity in

  8. Role of mesoscale eddies on exchanges between coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersalé, M.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Nencioli, F.; Bouffard, J.; Dekeyser, I.

    2012-04-01

    The general circulation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea is characterized by a cyclonic circulation. The northern part of this gyre is formed by the Northern Current (NC), which flows along the continental slope from the Ligurian Sea towards the Catalan Shelf. The NC has an important influence on the Gulf of Lion (GoL), a large continental margin in the northern part of the basin. The NC constitutes an effective dynamical barrier which blocks coastal waters on the continental shelf. The western part of the GoL is a key region for regulating the outflow from the continental shelf to the Catalan Basin. These exchanges are mainly induced by partially ageostrophic processes originating from the interaction between the NC and mesoscale activity like meanders, filaments and eddies. Both GoL and Catalan shelf are characterized by an intense mesoscale activity. Eddies in the GoL are baroclinic structures extending throughout the mixed layer (30 to 50m), often elliptic in shape and about 20-30km in diameter. Catalan eddies are characterized by a vertical extension between 70 and 100m and a diameter of about 45km. The LAgrangian Transport EXperiment (LATEX, 2008-2011) was designed to study the mechanisms of formation of anticyclones in the western part of the GoL and their influence on cross-shelf exchanges. Mesoscale anticyclones have been observed in the western part of the GoL and over the Catalan shelf by the combined use of data from satellite observations, in situ measurements and numerical modeling. Recent numerical experiments show an anticyclonic circulation extending over a large part of the coastal area (latitudinal range : 41°50' to 43°N ; longitudinal range : 3°10' to 4°10'E). Interaction with a meander of the NC induces the separation of this circulation in two different eddies, one in the GoL and the other in the Catalan shelf. These eddies exhibit strong interaction between them, resulting in important exchanges between the two coastal regions. On

  9. Mesoscale Convective Systems: Structure, Development and Storm-Environment Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, Edward N.

    1988-12-01

    This study describes Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), clusterings of thunderstorms associated with significant weather events. Analyses focused on several objectives: a documentation of the conditions in which MCSs form; an elucidation of the life cycle and internal structure of a mid-latitude Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC); and a systematic comparison of the precipitation structures and environments of many MCSs. In meeting the objectives the evolution of an episode of five MCSs over West Texas was investigated using as a principal source data collected by Texas Tech University as a participant in the Texas High Plains Cooperative Program (HIPLEX). Results of the study show that the first MCS formed near a cold front where lifting along an elevated dew-point front released instability. Surface outflows from the MCSs advanced the surface baroclinic zone associated with the cold front and helped initiate subsequent convection. Convection in the mature MCSs was uncoupled from the surface layer and occurred just ahead of mid-level short-wave perturbations. The third MCS in the sequence formed from isolated echoes over the mountains which merged and grew into an MCC with a low-level precipitation pattern whose organization resembled that of tropical MCSs, extended about 500 km across and had a lifetime of about 24 hours. Behind a squall line and a transition zone near the leading edge occurred an extensive region of precipitation that was organized during the system's mature stage as a set of curved rainbands. A composite wind analysis shows a center of cyclonic inflow at 500 mb near the common center of curvature of the rainbands. Upward motion in the middle - and upper-level cloud and a mesoscale unsaturated downdraft below are diagnosed. MCSs consisting of a squall line followed by a wide range of lighter rain develop in an environment where the relative flow of 300 mb is moist and directed from front to rear. Rainbands embedded in the trailing stratiform

  10. Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Tonks, Michael; Biner, Bullent; Millet, Paul; Tikare, Veena; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Andersson , David

    2012-04-11

    A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of different numerical methods used to represent microstructure behavior at the mesoscale for irradiated material using an idealized benchmark problem. The purpose of the mesoscale benchmark problem was to provide a common basis to assess several mesoscale methods with the objective of identifying the strengths and areas of improvement in the predictive modeling of microstructure evolution. In this work, mesoscale models (phase-field, Potts, and kinetic Monte Carlo) developed by PNNL, INL, SNL, and ORNL were used to calculate the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuel under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. The benchmark problem was constructed to include important microstructural evolution mechanisms on the kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubble behavior such as the atomic diffusion of Xe atoms, U vacancies, and O vacancies, the effect of vacancy capture and emission from defects, and the elastic interaction of non-equilibrium gas bubbles. An idealized set of assumptions was imposed on the benchmark problem to simplify the mechanisms considered. The capability and numerical efficiency of different models are compared against selected experimental and simulation results. These comparisons find that the phase-field methods, by the nature of the free energy formulation, are able to represent a larger subset of the mechanisms influencing the intra-granular bubble growth and coarsening mechanisms in the idealized benchmark problem as compared to the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. It is recognized that the mesoscale benchmark problem as formulated does not specifically highlight the strengths of the discrete particle modeling used in the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Future efforts are recommended to construct increasingly more complex mesoscale benchmark problems to further verify and validate the predictive capabilities of the mesoscale modeling

  11. Modelling NOX concentrations through CFD-RANS in an urban hot-spot using high resolution traffic emissions and meteorology from a mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Beatriz; Santiago, Jose Luis; Martilli, Alberto; Martin, Fernando; Borge, Rafael; Quaassdorff, Christina; de la Paz, David

    2017-08-01

    Air quality management requires more detailed studies about air pollution at urban and local scale over long periods of time. This work focuses on obtaining the spatial distribution of NOx concentration averaged over several days in a heavily trafficked urban area in Madrid (Spain) using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. A methodology based on weighted average of CFD simulations is applied computing the time evolution of NOx dispersion as a sequence of steady-state scenarios taking into account the actual atmospheric conditions. The inputs of emissions are estimated from the traffic emission model and the meteorological information used is derived from a mesoscale model. Finally, the computed concentration map correlates well with 72 passive samplers deployed in the research area. This work reveals the potential of using urban mesoscale simulations together with detailed traffic emissions so as to provide accurate maps of pollutant concentration at microscale using CFD simulations.

  12. Vertical heat fluxes generated by mesoscale atmospheric flow induced by thermal inhomogeneities in the PBL

    SciTech Connect

    Dalu, G.A. IFA-CNR, Rome ); Pielke, R.A. )

    1993-03-15

    An analytical evaluation of the vertical heat fluxes associated with the mesoscale flow generated by thermal inhomogeneities in the PBL in the absence of a synoptic wind is presented. Results show that the mesoscale fluxes are of the same order as the diabatic beat fluxes. In the sea-breeze case, results show that in the lower layer of the atmosphere the heat flux is positive over the land and negative over the sea with an overall positive horizontal average. In the free atmosphere above the PBL, the mesoscale vertical heat flux is negative over the land and over the sea. The mesoscale flow contributes to the weakening of the atmospheric stability within a region that extends a Rossby radius distance from the coastline and up to an altitude larger than twice the depth of the convective PBL. The average momentum flux equals zero. Sinusoidally periodic thermal inhomogeneities induce periodic atmospheric cells of the same horizontal scale. The intensity of mesoscale cells increases for increasing values of the wavenumber, maximizes when the wavelength of the forcing is of the order of the local Rossby radius, and then decreases as the wavelength of the forcing decreases. The intensity of the vertical velocity and vertical fluxes is only a weak function of the wavenumber, at large wavenumber. The intensity of the mesoscale heat flux does not decrease substantially at high wavenumbers; however, the transport of cool air over small heated patches of land may cut off the temperature gradient in the atmosphere between the land and water early in the day, thereby reducing the duration of the mesoscale activity. Horizontal diffusion of heat in the convective boundary layer can significantly weaken horizontal temperature gradients for large wavenumbers. Periodic square-wave thermal inhomogeneities are more effective than sinusoidal waves in generating mesoscale cells. When dealing with low resolution models the mesoscale heat fluxes have to be introduced in a parametric form.

  13. Influence of Mesoscale Eddies on New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Robinson, A. R.; Siegel, D. A.; Jannasch, H. W.; Johnson, R.; Dickey, T. D.; McNeil, J.; Michaels, A. F.; Knap, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    It is problematic that geochemical estimates of new production, that fraction of total primary production in surface waters fueled by externally supplied nutrients, in oligotrophic waters of the open ocean surpass that which can be sustained by the traditionally accepted mechanisms of nutrient supply. In the cam of the Sargasso Sea, for example, these mechanisms account for less than half of the annual nutrient requirement indicated by new production estimates based on three independent transient-tracer techniques. Specifically, approximately one-quarter to one-third of the annual nutrient requirement can be supplied by entrainment into the mixed layer during wintertime convection, with minor contributions from mixing in the thermocline and wind-driven transport (the potentially important role of nitrogen fixation- for which estimates vary by an order of magnitude in this region- is excluded from this budget). Here we present four lines of evidence-eddy-resolving model simulations, high-resolution observations from moored instrumentation, shipboard surveys and satellite data-which suggest that the vertical flux of nutrients induced by the dynamics of mesoscale eddies is sufficient to balance the nutrient budget in the Sargasso Sea.

  14. Mesoscale thermal-mechanical analysis of shocked induced granular explosives and polymer-bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinjie; Wu, Yanqing; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-06-01

    The thermal-mechanical response of HMX-based granular explosives (GXs) and polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) with variable number of crystals from 10 to 100 under impact loading is investigated with finite element software ABAQUS. A series of three dimensional mesoscale calculations are carried out with the crystal plasticity constitutive model for HMX crystals that accounts for nonlinear elasticity and crystalline plasticity and the viscoelastic model for the polymer binder. To make the analysis comparable, the morphology and the size of HMX crystals are kept the same for both GXs and PBXs. In order to quantify the effect of polymer binder under different strain rate, the calculation models are impacted with initial boundary velocities from 10 to 100 m/s. The results shows that the average pressure of PBXs is approximately 50% higher than GXs and that the localized stress and temperature is highly increased with the polymer binder, which indicates the crystal anisotropy as well as the polymer binder plays an important role in influencing the stress and thermal response of HMX crystals. The thermal-mechanical response analyzed here is essential to predict the formation of hot spot and the ignition of explosives.

  15. Mesoscale and severe storms (Mass) data management and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.; Karitani, S.; Dickerson, M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress on the Mesoscale and Severe Storms (MASS) data management and analysis system is described. An interactive atmospheric data base management software package to convert four types of data (Sounding, Single Level, Grid, Image) into standard random access formats is implemented and integrated with the MASS AVE80 Series general purpose plotting and graphics display data analysis software package. An interactive analysis and display graphics software package (AVE80) to analyze large volumes of conventional and satellite derived meteorological data is enhanced to provide imaging/color graphics display utilizing color video hardware integrated into the MASS computer system. Local and remote smart-terminal capability is provided by installing APPLE III computer systems within individual scientist offices and integrated with the MASS system, thus providing color video display, graphics, and characters display of the four data types.

  16. Observation Denial and Performance of a Local Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    .Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) wind tower network and the CCAFS (XMR) daily rawinsonde observations (RAOB) to issue and verify wind advisories and warnings for operations. These observations are also used by the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) in Houston, Texas and the NWS Melbourne, Florida (NWS MLB) to initialize their locally-run mesoscale models. In addition, SMG uses these observations to support shuttle landings at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Due to impending budget cuts, some or all of the wind towers on the east-central Florida mainland and the XMR RAOBs may be eliminated. The locations of the mainland towers and XMR RAOB site are shown in Figure 1. The loss of these data may impact the forecast capability of the 45 WS, SMG and NWS MLB.

  17. Mesoscale simulations of shockwave energy dissipation via chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Antillon, Edwin; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-02-28

    We use a particle-based mesoscale model that incorporates chemical reactions at a coarse-grained level to study the response of materials that undergo volume-reducing chemical reactions under shockwave-loading conditions. We find that such chemical reactions can attenuate the shockwave and characterize how the parameters of the chemical model affect this behavior. The simulations show that the magnitude of the volume collapse and velocity at which the chemistry propagates are critical to weaken the shock, whereas the energetics in the reactions play only a minor role. Shock loading results in transient states where the material is away from local equilibrium and, interestingly, chemical reactions can nucleate under such non-equilibrium states. Thus, the timescales for equilibration between the various degrees of freedom in the material affect the shock-induced chemistry and its ability to attenuate the propagating shock.

  18. Sea breeze-induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between thunderstorm activity during the summer months along coastal regions of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the dry sea breeze circulation was investigated. Satellite composites of thunderstorm activity for synoptically undisturbed conditions have been obtained for south Florida for a series of days in the summer of 1983. These data were catalogued into different low level synoptic flow regimes. Five synoptic flow regimes were found from the data. A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model was used for each sysnoptic flow regime to quantitatively predict the location of enhanced thunderstorm activity. This model includes a parameterization of vegetation and soil moisture feedbacks as well as a sophisticated planetary boundary layer representation. Using the results of the satellite image composites, spatial and temporal characteristics of deep convective cloud patterns and their variation with synoptic flow are described. The results from the numerical model have provided explanations for the observed patterns.

  19. The impacts of mineral dust on organized mesoscale deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigel, Robert Brian

    The overarching goal of this research is to investigate how mineral dust can impact organized deep moist convection using numerical modeling. This is achieved through four modeling studies that each address a different aspect of organized mesoscale DMC. The first study uses the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate a supercell storm in order to examine the pathways in which mineral dust is entrained into DMC. This is achieved by simulating a supercell within three commonly observed dust regimes. Results indicate that the supercell in EXP-BACKGROUND ingests large dust concentrations ahead of the rear-flank downdraft (RFD) cold pool. Conversely, dust lofted by the cold pool in EXP-STORM is ingested by the supercell in relatively small amounts via a narrow corridor generated by turbulent mixing between the RFD cold pool and ambient air. The addition of a convergence boundary in EXP-BOUNDARY is found to act as an additional source of dust for the supercell and represents the case between EXP-BACKGROUND and EXP-STORM. Results demonstrate the importance of using an appropriate dust parameterization when modeling DMC, especially within more arid regions. The second study utilizes an idealized simulation of a nocturnal squall line to assess and isolate the individual responses in a squall line that arise (1) from radiation, (2) from dust altering the microphysics, as well as (3) from the synergistic effects between (1) and (2). To accomplish these tasks, we again use RAMS set up as a cloud-resolving model (CRM). Results indicate that RADIATION acts to increase precipitation, intensify the cold pool, and enhance the mesoscale organization of the squall line due to radiation-induced changes in the microphysics that appear to initiate from cloud top cooling. Conversely, DUST MICRO decreases precipitation, weakens the cold pool, and weakens the mesoscale organization of the squall line due to an enhancement of the warm rain process. SYNERGY shows little

  20. Introduction to focus issue: mesoscales in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Almendral, Juan A; Criado, Regino; Leyva, Inmaculada; Buldú, Javier M; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Although the functioning of real complex networks is greatly determined by modularity, the majority of articles have focused, until recently, on either their local scale structure or their macroscopical properties. However, neither of these descriptions can adequately describe the important features that complex networks exhibit due to their organization in modules. This Focus Issue precisely presents the state of the art on the study of complex networks at that intermediate level. The reader will find out why this mesoscale level has become an important topic of research through the latest advances carried out to improve our understanding of the dynamical behavior of modular networks. The contributions presented here have been chosen to cover, from different viewpoints, the many open questions in the field as different aspects of community definition and detection algorithms, moduli overlapping, dynamics on modular networks, interplay between scales, and applications to biological, social, and technological fields.

  1. Simulation of Day-time Mesoscale Disturbances Over Metro Manila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebre, C.

    Mesoscale disturbances initiated by surface in homogeneities, which include sea and land breezes, mountain and valley winds and urban circulations occurring over Metro Manila, were studied by utilizing an observation program and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) numerical model developed by the University of Oklahoma, USA. The former was used in the verification of the model, and was conducted during the hot season. It is aimed to examine the structure of the lower atmosphere during the day. Upper air data were collected thru mobile radiosonde and pilot balloon observations. Surface data such as wind, temperature and relative humidity were also gathered. Various experiments to determine the effect of prevailing wind, terrain, land use and sounding were conducted to determine how the prevailing conditions develop.

  2. Predicting mesoscale microstructural evolution in electron beam welding

    DOE PAGES

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Tikare, Veena; ...

    2016-03-16

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. As a result, the simulations provide anmore » opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.« less

  3. Damage cluster distributions in numerical concrete at the mesoscale.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Okan; Derlet, Peter Michael; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the size distribution of damage clusters in concrete under uniaxial tension loading conditions. Using the finite-element method, the concrete is modeled at the mesoscale by a random distribution of elastic spherical aggregates within an elastic mortar paste. The propagation and coalescence of damage zones are then simulated by means of dynamically inserted cohesive elements. Dynamic failure analysis shows that the size distribution of damage clusters follows a power law when a system-spanning cluster is first observed, with an exponent close to that of percolation theory. This is found for a range of selected mesostructural parameters, material defects, and applied strain rates. In all cases, the system-spanning cluster occurs prior to the onset of local decohesion, a regime of crack nucleation and propagation, and eventual material failure. The resulting fully damaged crack surfaces after failure are found to be only weakly correlated with the percolated damage region structures.

  4. Damage cluster distributions in numerical concrete at the mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Okan; Derlet, Peter Michael; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the size distribution of damage clusters in concrete under uniaxial tension loading conditions. Using the finite-element method, the concrete is modeled at the mesoscale by a random distribution of elastic spherical aggregates within an elastic mortar paste. The propagation and coalescence of damage zones are then simulated by means of dynamically inserted cohesive elements. Dynamic failure analysis shows that the size distribution of damage clusters follows a power law when a system-spanning cluster is first observed, with an exponent close to that of percolation theory. This is found for a range of selected mesostructural parameters, material defects, and applied strain rates. In all cases, the system-spanning cluster occurs prior to the onset of local decohesion, a regime of crack nucleation and propagation, and eventual material failure. The resulting fully damaged crack surfaces after failure are found to be only weakly correlated with the percolated damage region structures.

  5. Predicting Mesoscale Microstructural Evolution in Electron Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, T. M.; Madison, J. D.; Tikare, V.; Maguire, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. The simulations provide an opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.

  6. The Caribbean Rossby Whistle: Mesoscale Influence on Coastal Sea Level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Hughes, C. W.; Hibbert, A.; Boening, C.; Oram, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    We show that there is a resonant baroclinic Rossby basin mode in the Caribbean Sea, with a period of 120 days. The mode is excited by mesoscale instability of the Caribbean Current, so is analogous in operation to a whistle. It consists of a wavenumber 2 Rossby wave propagating to the west across the basin. The wave interacts with topographically-steered currents along the continental slope, meaning that as it fades on the west of the basin, it is reborn on the east. This interaction with boundary currents leads to the mode being a major source of coastal sea level variability. Because the basin is not closed, it also produces a basinwide bottom pressure signal which dominates bottom pressure variability in the region.

  7. Predicting mesoscale microstructural evolution in electron beam welding

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Tikare, Veena; Maguire, Michael C.

    2016-03-16

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. As a result, the simulations provide an opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.

  8. Global variability of the wavenumber spectrum of oceanic mesoscale turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Fu, L.

    2010-12-01

    The wavenumber spectra of sea surface height from the Jason-1 satellite observations have revealed complex spatial variability and significant departure from the predictions of existing theories over many parts of the world oceans. Near the edge of the core regions of high eddy energy, agreement is observed with the prediction of the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) turbulence theory which has fundamental differences from that of the traditional quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence theory. In the core regions of high eddy energy, the spectra are consistent with frontogenesis that is not fully accounted for by the SQG theory. However, the observations in the vast ocean interior of low eddy energy exhibit substantial differences from the predictions of existing theories of oceanic mesoscale turbulence. The observations presented in this work serve as a test bed for new theories and ocean general circulation models.

  9. Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pizza, Gianmarco; Frouzakis, Christos E.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Mantzaras, John; Tomboulides, Ananias G.

    2008-10-15

    Direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and transport is used to study the stabilization and dynamics of lean ({phi}=0.5) premixed hydrogen/air atmospheric pressure flames in mesoscale planar channels. Channel heights of h=2, 4, and 7 mm, and inflow velocities in the range 0.3{<=}U{sub IN}{<=}1100cm/ s are investigated. Six different burning modes are identified: mild combustion, ignition/extinction, closed steady symmetric flames, open steady symmetric flames, oscillating and, finally, asymmetric flames. Chaotic behavior of cellular flame structures is observed for certain values of U{sub IN}. Stability maps delineating the regions of the different flame types are finally constructed. (author)

  10. Mesoscale STM Study of Thermally Annealed Copper Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarajlic, Olesya; Mani, Ramesh

    2012-02-01

    The growth of high quality graphene has become a topic of significance. There have been utilized several methods of material growth including the epitaxial growth on SiC, method of exfoliation of graphite, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The CVD approach typically utilizes foils of copper or nickel that are exposed to organic compounds at a high temperature. The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of the metal surface morphology during the growth process, relative grain size before and after thermal treatment, and relative flatness of the substrate after annealing. We investigated the effects of thermal annealing of polycrystalline Cu foil at the mesoscale using an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Prolonged low-temperature and rapid high-temperature annealing of the samples is being carried out and the resulting surface morphology will be reported. The STM observations reveal that the film quality is limited by grain boundaries.

  11. Modelling the Shock Response of Polycrystals at the Mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Simon; Horie, Yuki

    2006-07-01

    Simulation of the shock compression of a copper polycrystal at the mesoscale has been carried out using a Discrete Element code. Grains were aligned in three crystal orientations with respect to the shock direction; <100>, <110>, and <111>. The polycrystal had an average grain diameter of 14μm and was impacted by a single crystal of copper at 200m/s. Results show the presence of a Particle Velocity Dispersion which attains its maximum magnitude of 8m/s at the plastic wave rise, and which is quantitatively of the same order as experimentally observed values. Non-planar elastic and plastic wave fronts are present. The shock front position distribution increases with propagation distance until its standard deviation is 0.4μm at a propagation distance of 80μm.

  12. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Morphological Variations within a Mesoscale Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Walter W.

    1996-01-01

    Cirrus cloud optical and structural properties were measured above southern Wisconsin in two time segments between 18:07 and 21:20 GMT on December 1, 1989 by the volume imaging lidar (VIL) and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) on GOES. A new technique was used to calculate the cirrus cloud visible aerosol backscatter cross sections for a single channel elastic backscatter lidar. Cirrus clouds were viewed simultaneously by the VIL and the HSRL. This allowed the HSRL aerosol backscatter cross sections to be directly compared to the VIL single channel backscattered signal. This first attempt resulted in an adequate calibration. The calibration was extended to all the cirrus clouds in the mesoscale volume imaged by the VIL.

  13. Isentropic Compression Experiments for Mesoscale Studies of Energetic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, M. R.; Hall, C. A.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Hooks, D. E.; Sheffield, S. A.

    2006-07-01

    New experimental diagnostics and computational modeling provide an unprecedented means for improving the understanding of energetic material behavior at the mesoscale (grain or crystal ensemble levels). This study focuses on the determination of appropriate constitutive and EOS property data of the constituents of an energetic composite at high stress and moderate strain-rate states. The Sandia Z accelerator is used to determine the mechanical response of energetic composites via isentropic ramp wave compression loading. In this paper we describe an energy source method in CTH that models ramp loading for the analysis of ICE experiments. This approach is applied to design experimental configurations to probe the constituent response of PBX 9501 subjected to ˜40 Kbar ramp load over 300 ns duration. Multiple VISAR are used to determine the averaged response of the composite material in comparison to the individual constituents including the effects of anisotropy of HMX crystals and the interactions of fine crystallites with binder material.

  14. Mesoscale characteristics of monsoonal convection and associated stratiform precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, Thomas D.; Rutledge, Steven A.

    1993-01-01

    Observations undertaken on 12 January 1990 at Darwin (Australia) are used to document the structure of a monsoonal rainband in a low convective available potential energy low-shear tropical environment. Dual-Doppler radar analyses are employed to investigate the structure and kinematics of the convective and stratiform regions. A system with the characteristics of a relatively short-lived squall line in which warm rain processes play a significant role in the production of precipitation is evident. Planetary boundary layer cold-pool production is important in the organization and motion of the system. A trailing stratiform region is evident with a mean updraft-downdraft circulation, but is composed of in situ decaying convective cells. A storm-relative mesoscale cyclonic circulation is also observed within the stratiform cloud. This vortex was maintained by thermodynamically induced midlevel convergence, convectively generated storm-scale circulations, and their interaction with the background monsoon flow.

  15. Global MHD Simulation of Mesoscale Structures at the Magnetospheric Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, Jean

    1998-01-01

    The research carried out for this protocol was focused on the study of mesoscales structures at the magnetospheric boundary. We investigated three areas: (1) the structure of the magnetospheric boundary for steady solar wind conditions; (2) the dynamics of the dayside magnetospheric boundary and (3) the dynamics of the distant tail magnetospheric boundary. Our approach was to use high resolution three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. We first considered simple variations of the interplanetary conditions to obtain generic cases that helped us in establishing the basic cause and effect relationships for steady solar wind conditions. Subsequently, we used actual solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters measured by an upstream spacecraft as input to the simulations and compared the simulation results with sequences of events observed by another or several other spacecraft located downstream the bow shock. In particular we compared results with observations made when spacecraft crossed the magnetospheric boundary.

  16. Mesoscale current variability in the Otranto Straits, Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastanos, Nikos; Ferentinos, George

    1991-05-01

    The study of satellite infrared images and analysis of current measurements in the Strait of Otranto using time and space correlation and power spectra tecniques, has shown the existence of a horizontal velocity shear zone, formed between a northward and a southward flowing current. The shear zone extends from the surface to the seabed along an inclined plane. Time and space scales in the northerly and southerly flowing currents are much larger than those in the shear zone. In the unstable flow field of the shear zone, mesoscale eddies and strong near-inertial waves are generated. These advective phenomena seem to be the result of mainly barotropic instability processes. The near-inertial waves are found to be trapped inside the shear zone, and their frequency is found to be affected by the passage of the energy containing eddies and the background flow field vorticity.

  17. Air Pollutant Distribution and Mesoscale Circulation Systems During Escompte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmeier, Ch.; Kalthoff, N.; Corsmeier, U.; Robin, D.; Thürauf, J.; Hofherr, T.; Hasel, M.

    The distribution of pollutants observed with an Dornier 128 instrumented aircraft and from AIRMARAIX ground stations during one day of the Escompte experiment (June 25, 2001) is analysed in relation to the mesoscale wind systems and vertical mixing from aircraft and radiosonde data. The ESCOMPTE-experiment (http://medias.obs- mip.fr/escompte) was carried out in June and July 2001 in the urban area of Marseille and its rural surroundings to investigate periods with photosmog conditions. The over- all aim is to produce an appropriate high quality 3-D data set which includes emission, meteorological, and chemical data. The data is used for the validation of mesoscale models and for chemical and meteorological process studies. The evolution of pho- tosmog episodes with high ozone concentrations depends on both chemical transfor- mation processes and meteorological conditions. As Marseille is situated between the Mediterranean Sea in the south and mountainous sites in the north, under weak large- scale flow the meteorological conditions are dominated by thermally driven circula- tion systems which strongly influence the horizontal transport of air pollutants. Ad- ditionally, vertically exchange processes like mountain venting and slope winds may contribute in the temporal evolution of the trace gas concentration of the city plume in the atmospheric boundary layer and are particularly studied by the Dornier flight measurements. Therefore the experiment was designed to measure both, the chemi- cal species and meteorological parameters with high resolution in space and time by surface stations, aircraft and vertical profiling systems like radiosondes, sodars and lidars. Results are shown (a) on the evolution of the wind field and the ozone concen- trations during June 25, when an ozone maximum develops about 60 km in the lee site of Marseille and (b) the vertical transport of air pollutants between the boundary layer and the free troposphere.

  18. Lidar use in mesoscale studies near the shore line

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, I.; Parvanov, O.; Kaprielov, B.

    1996-12-31

    A variety of mesoscale meteorological phenomena often determine the transport, transformation and diffusion of many pollutant species, generated in urban, rural, mountain and coastal areas. Coastal zone observation is a scientific area where the remote monitoring means and techniques find an ever widening application. A number of investigations were carried out using radars and sodars. Several experiments were carried out in Bulgaria`s Black Sea coastal zone. The present work is the mesoscale phenomenon of sea breeze circulation with the aim a more detailed monitoring the formation of sea breeze circulation. A scanning aerosol lidar was used, placed in the meteorological station at 10-12 m above sea level and about 100-120 m away from the shoreline. The lidar measurements are accompanied by the wind velocity profiles measurements using pilot balloons. A micro meteorological surface layer station was used to measure air and soil temperatures, humidity, horizontal and vertical wind velocity, total solar radiation and radiation balance in air. The lidar observation results are compared with the data from the ground meteorological measurements and a correlation is then sought between the spatial and temporal variations of the lidar signal and the variations of the wind speed and direction and the heat and humidity fluxes. The combined interpretation of the lidar and direct measured data show that the formation of the breeze circulation in this region of the coastal zone during this period undergo several phases. Finally, we state that the role of the radiation and convective processes and their interaction are different during the different phases. The phases evolution can better be studied in detail using multichannel tools: in our case lidar-meteorological equipment.

  19. Dynamics of Clouds and Mesoscale Circulations over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Wang, S.; Xian, P.; Reid, J. S.; Nachamkin, J.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades Southeast Asia (SEA) has seen rapid economic growth as well as increased biomass burning, resulting in high air pollution levels and reduced air qual-ity. At the same time clouds often prevent accurate air-quality monitoring and analysis using satellite observations. The Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7SEAS) field campaign currently underway over SEA provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the com-plex interplay between aerosol and clouds. 7SEAS is a comprehensive interdisciplinary atmospheric sciences program through international partnership of NASA, NRL, ONR and seven local institutions including those from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. While the original goal of 7SEAS is to iso-late the impacts of aerosol particles on weather and the environment, it is recognized that better understanding of SEA meteorological conditions, especially those associated with cloud formation and evolution, is critical to the success of the campaign. In this study we attempt to gain more insight into the dynamic and physical processes associated with low level clouds and atmospheric circulation at the regional scale over SEA, using the Navy’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS® ), a regional forecast model in operation at FNMOC since 1998. This effort comprises two main components. First, multiple-years of COAMPS operational forecasts over SEA are analyzed for basic climatology of atmospheric fea-tures. Second, mesoscale circulation and cloud properties are simulated at relatively higher resolution (15-km) for selected periods in the Gulf of Tonkin and adjacent coastal areas. Simulation results are compared to MODIS cloud observations and local sound-ings obtained during 7SEAS for model verifications. Atmospheric boundary layer proc-esses are examined in relation to spatial and temporal variations of cloud fields. The cur-rent work serves as an important step toward improving our

  20. Impact of Land Surface Heterogeneity on Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yuling; Nair, Udaysankar S.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; McNider, Richard T.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Anantharaj, Valentine G.

    2009-01-01

    Prior numerical modelling studies show that atmospheric dispersion is sensitive to surface heterogeneities, but past studies do not consider the impact of a realistic distribution of surface heterogeneities on mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. While these focussed on dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the present work also considers dispersion in the nocturnal boundary layer and above. Using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) coupled to the Eulerian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), the impact of topographic, vegetation, and soil moisture heterogeneities on daytime and nighttime atmospheric dispersion is examined. In addition, the sensitivity to the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived spatial distributions of vegetation characteristics on atmospheric dispersion is also studied. The impact of vegetation and terrain heterogeneities on atmospheric dispersion is strongly modulated by soil moisture, with the nature of dispersion switching from non-Gaussian to near- Gaussian behaviour for wetter soils (fraction of saturation soil moisture content exceeding 40%). For drier soil moisture conditions, vegetation heterogeneity produces differential heating and the formation of mesoscale circulation patterns that are primarily responsible for non-Gaussian dispersion patterns. Nighttime dispersion is very sensitive to topographic, vegetation, soil moisture, and soil type heterogeneity and is distinctly non-Gaussian for heterogeneous land-surface conditions. Sensitivity studies show that soil type and vegetation heterogeneities have the most dramatic impact on atmospheric dispersion. To provide more skillful dispersion calculations, we recommend the utilisation of satellite-derived vegetation characteristics coupled with data assimilation techniques that constrain soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models to generate realistic spatial distributions of surface energy fluxes.

  1. New Efficient Sparse Space Time Algorithms for Superparameterization on Mesoscales

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Majda, Andrew J.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.

    2009-12-01

    Superparameterization (SP) is a large-scale modeling system with explicit representation of small-scale and mesoscale processes provided by a cloud-resolving model (CRM) embedded in each column of a large-scale model. New efficient sparse space-time algorithms based on the original idea of SP are presented. The large-scale dynamics are unchanged, but the small-scale model is solved in a reduced spatially periodic domain to save the computation cost following a similar idea applied by one of the authors for aquaplanet simulations. In addition, the time interval of integration of the small-scale model is reduced systematically for the same purpose, which results in a different coupling mechanism between the small- and large-scale models. The new algorithms have been applied to a stringent two-dimensional test suite involving moist convection interacting with shear with regimes ranging from strong free and forced squall lines to dying scattered convection as the shear strength varies. The numerical results are compared with the CRM and original SP. It is shown here that for all of the regimes of propagation and dying scattered convection, the large-scale variables such as horizontal velocity and specific humidity are captured in a statistically accurate way (pattern correlations above 0.75) based on space-time reduction of the small-scale models by a factor of 1/3; thus, the new efficient algorithms for SP result in a gain of roughly a factor of 10 in efficiency while retaining a statistical accuracy on the large-scale variables. Even the models with 1/6 reduction in space-time with a gain of 36 in efficiency are able to distinguish between propagating squall lines and dying scattered convection with a pattern correlation above 0.6 for horizontal velocity and specific humidity. These encouraging results suggest the possibility of using these efficient new algorithms for limited-area mesoscale ensemble forecasting.

  2. Mesoscale Simulation Data for Initializing Fast-Time Wake Transport and Decay Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Mathew J.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    The fast-time wake transport and decay models require vertical profiles of crosswinds, potential temperature and the eddy dissipation rate as initial conditions. These inputs are normally obtained from various field sensors. In case of data-denied scenarios or operational use, these initial conditions can be provided by mesoscale model simulations. In this study, the vertical profiles of potential temperature from a mesoscale model were used as initial conditions for the fast-time wake models. The mesoscale model simulations were compared against available observations and the wake model predictions were compared with the Lidar measurements from three wake vortex field experiments.

  3. Covariation of Mesoscale Ocean Color and Sea-Surface Temperature Patterns in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Kosnyrev, V. K.; Ryan, J. P.; Yoder, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    During the lifetime of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, there were 21 instances in which both satellite-derived ocean color and sea-surface temperature are simultaneously available over large areas of the Sargasso Sea. These images reveal close correspondence between mesoscale structures observed in temperature and pigment fields. In general, higher (lower) pigment biomass occurs in mesoscale features consisting of cold (warm) temperature anomalies. This relationship is consistent with the idea that upward displacement of isopycnals at the base of the euphotic zone by mesoscale eddies is an important mechanism of nutrient supply in the region.

  4. Recent examples of mesoscale numerical forecasts of severe weather events along the east coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocin, P. J.; Uccellini, L. W.; Zack, J. W.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Mesoscale numerical forecasts utilizing the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) are documented for two East Coast severe weather events. The two events are the thunderstorm and heavy snow bursts in the Washington, D.C. - Baltimore, MD region on 8 March 1984 and the devastating tornado outbreak across North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984. The forecasts are presented to demonstrate the ability of the model to simulate dynamical interactions and diabatic processes and to note some of the problems encountered when using mesoscale models for day-to-day forecasting.

  5. Release of potential instability by mesoscale triggering - An objective model simulation. [in precipitation numerical weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of mesoscale triggering on organized nonsevere convective cloud systems in the High Plains are considered. Two experiments were conducted to determine if a one-dimensional quasi-time dependent model could (1) detect soundings which were sensitive to mesoscale triggering, and (2) discriminate between cases which had mesoscale organized convection and those with no organized convection. The MESOCU model was used to analyze the available potential instability and thermodynamic potential for cloud growth. It is noted that lifting is a key factor in the release of available potential instability on the High Plains.

  6. Lagrangian simulation and tracking of the mesoscale eddies contaminated by Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Budyansky, Maxim V.; Uleysky, Michael Y.

    2017-06-01

    A Lagrangian methodology is developed to simulate, track, document and analyze the origin and history of water masses in ocean mesoscale features. It aims to distinguish whether water masses inside the mesoscale eddies originated from the main currents in the Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence zone. By computing trajectories for a large number of synthetic Lagrangian particles advected by the AVISO velocity field after the Fukushima accident, we identify and track the mesoscale eddies which were sampled in the cruises in 2011 and 2012 and estimate their risk of being contaminated by Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The simulated results are compared with in situ measurements, showing a good qualitative correspondence.

  7. Release of potential instability by mesoscale triggering - An objective model simulation. [in precipitation numerical weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of mesoscale triggering on organized nonsevere convective cloud systems in the High Plains are considered. Two experiments were conducted to determine if a one-dimensional quasi-time dependent model could (1) detect soundings which were sensitive to mesoscale triggering, and (2) discriminate between cases which had mesoscale organized convection and those with no organized convection. The MESOCU model was used to analyze the available potential instability and thermodynamic potential for cloud growth. It is noted that lifting is a key factor in the release of available potential instability on the High Plains.

  8. Mesoscale Organization and the Stratocumulus Cloud Radiative Effect in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2016-12-01

    Low clouds and in particular marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds exert stronger leverage over reflected solar radiation compared to other cloud types. Their response to climate change and the resulting feedback to Earth's radiation budget is a leading source of uncertainty in climate projections. MBL clouds exhibit spatial organization on scales of 10 to 100 km, appearing as horizontal patterns in satellite imagery. We use large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the contribution of mesoscale organization to the cloud radiative effect in a coastal stratocumulus cloud, characterize the associated mesoscale dynamics, and quantify the role of mesoscale organization in the response of the cloud radiative effect to a + 2 K climate warming.

  9. Covariation of Mesoscale Ocean Color and Sea-Surface Temperature Patterns in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy, D. J.; Kosnyrev, V. K.; Ryan, J. P.; Yoder, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    During the lifetime of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, there were 21 instances in which both satellite-derived ocean color and sea-surface temperature are simultaneously available over large areas of the Sargasso Sea. These images reveal close correspondence between mesoscale structures observed in temperature and pigment fields. In general, higher (lower) pigment biomass occurs in mesoscale features consisting of cold (warm) temperature anomalies. This relationship is consistent with the idea that upward displacement of isopycnals at the base of the euphotic zone by mesoscale eddies is an important mechanism of nutrient supply in the region.

  10. A sediment record of barrier estuary behaviour at the mesoscale: Interpreting high-resolution particle size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David W.; Boyle, John F.; Chiverrell, Richard C.; Lario, Javier; Plater, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    At present, limited understanding of mesoscale (years-decades-centuries) back-barrier lagoon, barrier estuary behaviour is a critical shortcoming for resource managers and decision makers. In this paper, high-resolution particle size analysis of a sediment core from an intermittently open and closed barrier estuary is utilised to reconstruct a history of back-barrier environmental change at mesoscale temporal resolution. Sediments from Pescadero Marsh, California, were analysed for their particle size distribution at consecutive 2-mm intervals down-core. Site selection, informed by a time series of maps and aerial photographs coupled with a robust core chronology, ensured that the particle size data primarily reflect changing hydrodynamics of the back-barrier area over the European-American era (1850 to the present). Following more traditional plotting of particle size data and summary statistics, and statistical analysis of particle size end-members, visual analysis and categorisation of particle size distribution curves (PSDCs) provide an effective basis for the identification of recurring modal sizes and subpopulations. These particle size windows (PSWs) are interpreted as reflecting different modes of sediment transport and deposition, i.e., suspension and saltation loads, the varying prominence of which is interpreted as being modified by barrier integrity. When considered together, the down-core mean particle size (MPS) trend and individual PSDCs offer considerable insight into mesoscale system behaviour at subannual resolution over multiple years. This behaviour is expressed in the recurrence of characteristic barrier estuarine environments (closed lagoon, tidal lagoon, tidal marsh, and open estuary) and the overall barrier regime, and their persistence over the last c. 150 years. Subannual and multiannual fluctuations in back-barrier environmental configuration are seen to be superimposed on a longer-term quasi-stable barrier regime, demonstrating the value

  11. Spatial distribution and frequency of precipitation during an extreme event: July 2006 mesoscale convective complexes and floods in southeastern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Webb, Robert H.; Pytlak, Erik; Troch, Peter A.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2009-07-01

    An extreme, multiday rainfall event over southeastern Arizona during 27-31 July 2006 caused record flooding and a historically unprecedented number of slope failures and debris flows in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. An unusual synoptic weather pattern induced repeated nocturnal mesoscale convective systems over southeastern Arizona for five continuous days, generating multiday rainfall totals up to 360 mm. Analysis of point rainfall and weather radar data yielded storm totals for the southern Santa Catalina Mountains at 754 grid cells approximately 1 km × 1 km in size. Precipitation intensity for the 31 July storms was not unusual for typical monsoonal precipitation in this region (recurrence interval (RI) < 1 year), but multiday rainfall where slope failures occurred had RI > 50 years and individual grid cells had RI exceeding 1000 years. The 31 July storms caused the watersheds to be essentially saturated following 4 days of rainfall.

  12. Spatial distribution and frequency of precipitation during an extreme event: July 2006 mesoscale convective complexes and floods in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Magirl, C.S.; Webb, R.H.; Pytlak, E.; Troch, Peter A.; Lyon, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    An extreme, multiday rainfall event over southeastern Arizona during 27-31 July 2006 caused record flooding and a historically unprecedented number of slope failures and debris flows in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. An unusual synoptic weather pattern induced repeated nocturnal mesoscale convective systems over southeastern Arizona for five continuous days, generating multiday rainfall totals up to 360 mm. Analysis of point rainfall and weather radar data yielded storm totals for the southern Santa Catalina Mountains at 754 grid cells approximately 1 km ?? 1 km in size. Precipitation intensity for the 31 July storms was not unusual for typical monsoonal precipitation in this region (recurrence interval (RI) < 1 year), but multiday rainfall where slope failures occurred had RI > 50 years and individual grid cells had RI exceeding 1000 years. The 31 July storms caused the watersheds to be essentially saturated following 4 days of rainfall. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Evaluation of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System based on snow accumulation observations over the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihui; Wang, Yetang; Ding, Minghu; Sun, Weijun; Zhang, Tong; Xu, Yuetong

    2017-05-01

    Recent snow height measurements (2008-15) from nine automatic weather stations (AWSs) on the Ross Ice Shelf are used to examine the synoptic and seasonal variability in snow accumulation, and also to evaluate the performance of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) for precipitation. The number of snow accumulation events varies from one station to another between 2008 and 2015, thus demonstrating geographic dependence. The interannual variability in snow accumulation is too high to determine its seasonality based on the current AWS observations with limited time coverage. Comparison between the AMPS and AWS snow height measurements show that approximately 28% of the AWS events are reproduced by AMPS. Furthermore, there are significant correlations between AMPS and AWS coincident event sizes at five stations (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that AMPS has a certain ability to represent actual precipitation events.

  14. Mesoscale ensemble sensitivity analysis for predictability studies and observing network design in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    Ensemble sensitivity analysis (ESA) is emerging as a viable alternative to adjoint sensitivity. Several open issues face ESA for forecasts dominated by mesoscale phenomena, including (1) sampling error arising from finite-sized ensembles causing over-estimated sensitivities, and (2) violation of linearity assumptions for strongly nonlinear flows. In an effort to use ESA for predictability studies and observing network design in complex terrain, we present results from experiments designed to address these open issues. Sampling error in ESA arises in two places. First, when hypothetical observations are introduced to test the sensitivity estimates for linearity. Here the same localization that was used in the filter itself can be simply applied. Second and more critical, localization should be considered within the sensitivity calculations. Sensitivity to hypothetical observations, estimated without re-running the ensemble, includes regression of a sample of a final-time (forecast) metric onto a sample of initial states. Derivation to include localization results in two localization coefficients (or factors) applied in separate regression steps. Because the forecast metric is usually a sum, and can also include a sum over a spatial region and multiple physical variables, a spatial localization function is difficult to specify. We present results from experiments to empirically estimate localization factors for ESA to test hypothetical observations for mesoscale data assimilation in complex terrain. Localization factors are first derived for an ensemble filter following the empirical localization methodology. Sensitivities for a fog event over Salt Lake City, and a Colorado downslope wind event, are tested for linearity by approximating assimilation of perfect observations at points of maximum sensitivity, both with and without localization. Observation sensitivity is then estimated, with and without localization, and tested for linearity. The validity of the

  15. Combining global and local approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on a linear approximation to a scaling factor, designated the 'global-local approximation' (GLA) method, is presented and shown capable of extending the range of usefulness of derivative-based approximations to a more refined model. The GLA approach refines the conventional scaling factor by means of a linearly varying, rather than constant, scaling factor. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for a simple beam example with a crude and more refined FEM model.

  16. Combining global and local approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Haftka, R.T. )

    1991-09-01

    A method based on a linear approximation to a scaling factor, designated the 'global-local approximation' (GLA) method, is presented and shown capable of extending the range of usefulness of derivative-based approximations to a more refined model. The GLA approach refines the conventional scaling factor by means of a linearly varying, rather than constant, scaling factor. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for a simple beam example with a crude and more refined FEM model. 6 refs.

  17. Phenomenological applications of rational approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Solís, Sergi; Masjuan, Pere

    2016-08-01

    We illustrate the powerfulness of Padé approximants (PAs) as a summation method and explore one of their extensions, the so-called quadratic approximant (QAs), to access both space- and (low-energy) time-like (TL) regions. As an introductory and pedagogical exercise, the function 1 zln(1 + z) is approximated by both kind of approximants. Then, PAs are applied to predict pseudoscalar meson Dalitz decays and to extract Vub from the semileptonic B → πℓνℓ decays. Finally, the π vector form factor in the TL region is explored using QAs.

  18. Toward Improved Parameterization of a Meso-Scale Hydrologic Model in a Discontinuous Permafrost, Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endalamaw, A. M.; Bolton, W. R.; Young, J. M.; Morton, D.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-arctic environment can be characterized as being located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Although the distribution of permafrost is site specific, it dominates many of the hydrologic and ecologic responses and functions including vegetation distribution, stream flow, soil moisture, and storage processes. In this region, the boundaries that separate the major ecosystem types (deciduous dominated and coniferous dominated ecosystems) as well as permafrost (permafrost verses non-permafrost) occur over very short spatial scales. One of the goals of this research project is to improve parameterizations of meso-scale hydrologic models in this environment. Using the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) as the test area, simulations of the headwater catchments of varying permafrost and vegetation distributions were performed. CPCRW, located approximately 50 km northeast of Fairbanks, Alaska, is located within the zone of discontinuous permafrost and the boreal forest ecosystem. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was selected as the hydrologic model. In CPCRW, permafrost and coniferous vegetation is generally found on north facing slopes and valley bottoms. Permafrost free soils and deciduous vegetation is generally found on south facing slopes. In this study, hydrologic simulations using fine scale vegetation and soil parameterizations - based upon slope and aspect analysis at a 50 meter resolution - were conducted. Simulations were also conducted using downscaled vegetation from the Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning (SNAP) (1 km resolution) and soil data sets from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (approximately 9 km resolution). Preliminary simulation results show that soil and vegetation parameterizations based upon fine scale slope/aspect analysis increases the R2 values (0.5 to 0.65 in the high permafrost (53%) basin; 0.43 to 0.56 in the low permafrost (2%) basin) relative to parameterization based on

  19. A Study of Mesoscale Gravity Waves over the North Atlantic with Satellite Observations and a Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2004-01-01

    Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.

  20. Case study of Mesoscale Convective Systems over Hungary on 29 June 2006 with satellite, radar and lightning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putsay, Mária; Szenyán, Ildikó; Simon, André

    On 29 June 2006 two Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) crossed Hungary causing severe weather, heavy precipitation, hail and strong wind. The first MCS transformed to a Mesoscale Convective Vortex (MCV) in its dissipating phase. The case was analyzed using different remote sensing devices: satellites, radars and a lightning detection system. Visible images from the METEOSAT-8 satellite were used to discriminate thin and thick parts of the anvil and to identify the overshooting tops. Structures like cold rings and cold-U/V shapes detected from infrared imagery indicate possible penetration of the storm top into the tropopause or lower stratosphere. The near and medium infrared solar channels (and some thermal IR channel differences) provide information on cloud top microphysics. The spatial distribution of the cloud top ice crystal size was investigated with the use of the so called "convective storms" composite imagery obtained from brightness temperature and reflectivity differences of water vapor, infrared and short-wave channels. The MODIS band 1 (0.645 µm) image of the TERRA satellite shows gravity wave generation at the top of the thunderstorm cloud, which could be connected to the strength and pulsations of the updraft. Satellite images were overlaid with radar reflectivities, which are characterized by an asymmetric bow echo. It is concluded that composites of satellite, radar and lightning data help to assess relative locations of main up- and downdrafts and important features of the severe storm.

  1. Mesoscale distributions of UV spectral irradiance obtained by merging satellite remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Melanie A.; Slusser, James R.

    2003-11-01

    Global atmospheric trends in ozone column amount has focused attention on the environmental risk of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Monitoring UV irradiance in diverse and remote locations is necessary to understand the variability of exposure, dose rates and resultant vulnerability of ecological systems. The USDA UV-B Monitoring Program maintains a wide network for ground-based continuous measurement of solar radiation in several wavelengths of interest for photosynthesis, plant growth and UV exposure to humans. This network provides data for analysis of UV climatology and trends at those sites. A satellite-based technique for producing mesoscale-resolution mapped distributions of UV spectral irradiance has been developed for extending this information into a region surrouding the network sites. The methodology combines radiative transfer modeling, multispectral image pixel classification, cloud optical depth retrievals and auxiliary remote sensing data. The results of the method are compared with ground-based measurements and utilized to examine the role of cloud distribution and surface albedo in determining mesoscale variability of UV exposure in high-latitude and high-altitude environments.

  2. Approximating Functions with Exponential Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of approximating a function with a linear combination of exponential functions of the form e[superscript x], e[superscript 2x], ... is considered as a parallel development to the notion of Taylor polynomials which approximate a function with a linear combination of power function terms. The sinusoidal functions sin "x" and cos "x"…

  3. Structural optimization with approximate sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, S. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Coroneos, R.

    1994-01-01

    Computational efficiency in structural optimization can be enhanced if the intensive computations associated with the calculation of the sensitivities, that is, gradients of the behavior constraints, are reduced. Approximation to gradients of the behavior constraints that can be generated with small amount of numerical calculations is proposed. Structural optimization with these approximate sensitivities produced correct optimum solution. Approximate gradients performed well for different nonlinear programming methods, such as the sequence of unconstrained minimization technique, method of feasible directions, sequence of quadratic programming, and sequence of linear programming. Structural optimization with approximate gradients can reduce by one third the CPU time that would otherwise be required to solve the problem with explicit closed-form gradients. The proposed gradient approximation shows potential to reduce intensive computation that has been associated with traditional structural optimization.

  4. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  5. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  6. Machining, Assembly, and Characterization of a Meso-Scale Double Shell Target

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Hibbard, R L

    2003-10-21

    Several issues related to the manufacture of precision meso-scale assemblies have been identified as part of an effort to fabricate an assembly consisting of machined polymer hemispherical shells and machined aerogel. The assembly, a double shell laser target, is composed of concentric spherical layers that were machined on a lathe and then assembled. This production effort revealed several meso-scale manufacturing techniques that worked well, such as the machining of aerogel with cutting tools to form low density structures, and the development of an assembly manipulator that allows control of the assembly forces to within a few milliNewtons. Limitations on the use of vacuum chucks for meso-scale components were also identified. Many of the lessons learned in this effort are not specific to double shell targets and may be relevant to the production of other meso-scale devices.

  7. URBAN MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS FOR MESOSCALE METEOROLOGICAL AND DISPERSION MODELING APPLICATIONS: CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Representing urban terrain characteristics in mesoscale meteorological and dispersion models is critical to produce accurate predictions of wind flow and temperature fields, air quality, and contaminant transport. A key component of the urban terrain representation is the charac...

  8. Simulation of the atmospheric thermal circulation of a martian volcano using a mesoscale numerical model.

    PubMed

    Rafkin, Scot C R; Sta Maria, Magdalena R V; Michaels, Timothy I

    2002-10-17

    Mesoscale (<100 km) atmospheric phenomena are ubiquitous on Mars, as revealed by Mars Orbiter Camera images. Numerical models provide an important means of investigating martian atmospheric dynamics, for which data availability is limited. But the resolution of general circulation models, which are traditionally used for such research, is not sufficient to resolve mesoscale phenomena. To provide better understanding of these relatively small-scale phenomena, mesoscale models have recently been introduced. Here we simulate the mesoscale spiral dust cloud observed over the caldera of the volcano Arsia Mons by using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. Our simulation uses a hierarchy of nested models with grid sizes ranging from 240 km to 3 km, and reveals that the dust cloud is an indicator of a greater but optically thin thermal circulation that reaches heights of up to 30 km, and transports dust horizontally over thousands of kilometres.

  9. Use of observational and model-derived fields and regime model output statistics in mesoscale forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Various empirical and statistical weather-forecasting studies which utilize stratification by weather regime are described. Objective classification was used to determine weather regime in some studies. In other cases the weather pattern was determined on the basis of a parameter representing the physical and dynamical processes relevant to the anticipated mesoscale phenomena, such as low level moisture convergence and convective precipitation, or the Froude number and the occurrence of cold-air damming. For mesoscale phenomena already in existence, new forecasting techniques were developed. The use of cloud models in operational forecasting is discussed. Models to calculate the spatial scales of forcings and resultant response for mesoscale systems are presented. The use of these models to represent the climatologically most prevalent systems, and to perform case-by-case simulations is reviewed. Operational implementation of mesoscale data into weather forecasts, using both actual simulation output and method-output statistics is discussed.

  10. Use of observational and model-derived fields and regime model output statistics in mesoscale forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Various empirical and statistical weather-forecasting studies which utilize stratification by weather regime are described. Objective classification was used to determine weather regime in some studies. In other cases the weather pattern was determined on the basis of a parameter representing the physical and dynamical processes relevant to the anticipated mesoscale phenomena, such as low level moisture convergence and convective precipitation, or the Froude number and the occurrence of cold-air damming. For mesoscale phenomena already in existence, new forecasting techniques were developed. The use of cloud models in operational forecasting is discussed. Models to calculate the spatial scales of forcings and resultant response for mesoscale systems are presented. The use of these models to represent the climatologically most prevalent systems, and to perform case-by-case simulations is reviewed. Operational implementation of mesoscale data into weather forecasts, using both actual simulation output and method-output statistics is discussed.

  11. Use of VAS data to diagnose the mesoscale environment of convective storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehr, Raymond M.; Purdom, James F. W.; Weaver, John F.; Green, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) retrieval datasets for mesoscale analysis is explored. A detailed mesoscale air mass analysis method is presented in which VAS soundings, satellite imagery, and conventional surface data are used to diagnose mesoscale differences in air mass character. Comparisons are made with radiosonde observations of the same air mass differences. A mesoscale air mass analysis is presented with a discussion of the role that the various air masses play in subsequent convective development. In a second technique, several VAS-derived thermodynamic parameters, such as positive and negative buoyant energy, are shown to be well suited to operational forecasting of convective storm development and evolution. The derivation of these parameters and their applications in forecasting are illustrated.

  12. URBAN MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS FOR MESOSCALE METEOROLOGICAL AND DISPERSION MODELING APPLICATIONS: CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Representing urban terrain characteristics in mesoscale meteorological and dispersion models is critical to produce accurate predictions of wind flow and temperature fields, air quality, and contaminant transport. A key component of the urban terrain representation is the charac...

  13. The Impact of TRMM Data on Numerical Forecast of Mesoscale Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, Zhao-Xia; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2002-01-01

    The impact of surface rainfall data derived from the TRMM Microwave Image (TMI) on the numerical forecast of mesoscale systems is evaluated. A series of numerical experiments are performed that assimilate TMI rainfall data into the Penn State University/National Centers for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) using a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) technique. Experiments are conducted incorporating TMI rainfall data into the mesoscale model to improve hurricane initialization. It is found that assimilation of rainfall data into the model is beneficial in producing a more realistic eye and rain bands and also helps to improve the intensity forecast for the hurricane. Further 4DVAR experiments are performed on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Detailed results and related issues will be presented during the conference.

  14. Congruence Approximations for Entrophy Endowed Hyperbolic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Building upon the standard symmetrization theory for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, congruence properties of the symmetrized system are explored. These congruence properties suggest variants of several stabilized numerical discretization procedures for hyperbolic equations (upwind finite-volume, Galerkin least-squares, discontinuous Galerkin) that benefit computationally from congruence approximation. Specifically, it becomes straightforward to construct the spatial discretization and Jacobian linearization for these schemes (given a small amount of derivative information) for possible use in Newton's method, discrete optimization, homotopy algorithms, etc. Some examples will be given for the compressible Euler equations and the nonrelativistic MHD equations using linear and quadratic spatial approximation.

  15. Development of In-Mold Assembly Methods for Producing Mesoscale Revolute Joints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    positioning methods to realize cavity shape change to avoid damage to delicate mesoscale parts created during molding, (3) developing a method to...premolded component, this process may lead to irreparable damages to the first stage part. As a result, cavity morphing methods are the only feasible... damage to the part. Figure 4.3 Mold design iterations for second stage injection When the mesoscale pin is molded first, there is a concern that the

  16. Electric and kinematic structure of the Oklahoma mesoscale convective system of 7 June 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steven M.; Schur, Terry J.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    Balloon soundings of electric field in Oklahoma mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were obtained by the National Severe Storms Laboratory in the spring of 1989. This study focuses on a sounding made in the rearward edge of an MCS stratiform rain area on 7 June 1989. Data from Doppler radars, a lightning ground-strike location system, satellite, and other sources is used to relate the mesoscale attributes of the MCS to the observed electric-field profile.

  17. Characterization of Mesoscale Variability in WRF - a Coastal Low-Level Jet Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, K.; Lundquist, J. K.; Skote, M.; Koh, T. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mesoscale weather models have increasingly been featured in wind resource assessment development. The incorporation of real meteorological conditions into such assessments allow a more realistic, physical determination of the wind loads that will be experienced within a wind farm site. Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) confers the advantage of representing finer scale turbulence, such as wake effects. However, nesting LES within real mesoscale simulations is still in the nascent stage of development. One of the difficulties lies in providing accurate mesoscale forcing boundaries for the LES domain. This study aims to characterize the mesoscale variability in WRF to lay the groundwork for future mesoscale-LES nested simulations. A low-level jet (LLJ) event that was observed during the CBLAST-Low 2001 campaign (07 Aug to 09 Aug) provides a robust case study to test the capabilities of and characterize the mesoscale variabilities in WRF. The dynamical interaction of a frontal passage with a stable boundary layer over a coastal region makes this an interesting and challenging case for real mesoscale simulation and future LES nested simulations. Sensitivities to vertical resolution, PBL schemes and initial forcing datasets were tested. This presentation will describe and explain the factors that influence the simulation of this frontal passage and the resulting LLJ. The initial forcing datasets have a major influence on spatial and temporal characteristics, as seen in Figure 1, introducing larger differences than the PBL schemes do. Furthermore, the mesoscale simulation also showed a strong dependence on the vertical resolution: increasing the vertical resolution within the atmospheric boundary layer resulted in a more accurate vertical profile for wind speed. Lastly, the simulations did show a dependency on the PBL scheme selected however, the variability between PBL schemes were not large, especially compared to the variability introduced by the boundary and initial

  18. Results from a limited area mesoscale numerical simulation for 10 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented from a nine-hour limited area fine mesh (35-km) mesoscale model simulation initialized with SESAME-AVE I radiosonde data for Apr. 10, 1979 at 2100 GMT. Emphasis is on the diagnosis of mesoscale structure in the mass and precipitation fields. Along the Texas/Oklahoma border, independent of the short wave, convective precipitation formed several hours into the simulation and was organized into a narrow band suggestive of the observed April 10 squall line.

  19. Simulating mesoscale transport and diffusion of radioactive noble gases using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Song, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Song, Sang-Keun

    2008-10-01

    In order to simulate the impact of mesoscale wind fields and to assess potential capability of atmospheric Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) as an emergency response model for the decision supports, two different simulations of LPDM with the mesoscale prognostic model MM5 (Mesoscale Model ver. 5) were driven. The first simulation of radioactive noble gas (85Kr exponent) emitted during JCO accident occurred from 30 September to 3 October 1999 at Tokai, Japan showed that the first arriving short pulse was found in Tsukuba located at 60 km away from the accidental area. However, the released radioactive noble gas was transported back to the origin site about 2 days later due to the mesoscale meteorological wind circulation, enhancing the levels of 85Kr with the secondary peak in Tsukuba. The second simulation of atmospheric dilution factors (the ratio of concentration to the emission rate, chi/Q), during the underground nuclear test (UNT) performed by North Korea showed that high chi/Q moved to the eastward and extended toward southward in accordance with the mesoscale atmospheric circulations generated by mesoscale prognostic model MM5. In comparison with the measurements, the simulated horizontal distribution patterns of 85Kr during the JCO are well accord with that of observation in Tsukuba such as the existence of secondary peak which is associated with the mesoscale circulations. However, the simulated level of 85Kr anomaly was found to be significantly lower than the observations, and some interpretations on these discrepancies were described. Applications of LPDM to two mesoscale emergency response dispersion cases suggest the potential capability of LPDM to be used as a decision support model provided accurate emission rate of accident in case of a large accident.

  20. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB).In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  1. Stationary mesoscale eddies, upgradient eddy fluxes, and the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianhua; Wang, Fuchang; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    The mesoscale eddies of which parameterization is needed in coarse-resolution ocean models include not only the transient eddies akin to baroclinic instability but also the stationary eddies associated with topography. By applying a modified Lorenz-type decomposition to the eddy-permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate, we show that the stationary mesoscale eddies contribute a significant part to the total eddy kinetic energy, eddy enstrophy, and the total eddy-induced isopycnal thickness and potential vorticity fluxes. We find that beneath middepth (about 1000 m) the upgradient eddy fluxes, or so-called "negative" eddy diffusivities, are mainly attributed to the stationary mesoscale eddies, whereas the remaining transient eddy diffusivity is positive, for which the Gent and McWilliams (1990) parameterization scheme applies well. A quantitative method of measuring the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity is presented. The effect of stationary mesoscale eddies is one of major sources responsible for the anisotropy of eddy diffusivity. We suggest that an independent parameterization scheme for stationary mesoscale eddies may be needed for coarse-resolution ocean models, although the transient eddies remain the predominant part of mesoscale eddies in the oceans.

  2. A cumulus parameterization including mass fluxes, vertical momentum dynamics, and mesoscale effects

    SciTech Connect

    Donner, L.J. )

    1993-03-15

    A formulation for parameterizing cumulus convection, which treats cumulus vertical momentum dynamics and mass fluxes consistently, is presented. This approach predicts the penetrative extent of cumulus updrafts on the basis of their vertical momentum and provides a basis for treating cumulus microphysics using formulations that depend on vertical velocity. Treatments for cumulus microphysics are essential if the water budgets of convective systems are to be evaluated for treating mesoscale stratiform processes associated with convection, which are important for radiative interactions influencing climate. The water budget of the cumulus updrafts is used to drive a semi-empirical parameterization for the large-scale effects of the mesoscale circulations associated with deep convection. The parameterization was applied to two tropical thermodynamic profiles whose diagnosed forcing by convective systems differed significantly. The deepest of the updrafts penetrated the upper troposphere, while the shallower updrafts penetrated into the region of the mesoscale anvil. The relative numbers of cumulus updrafts of characteristic vertical velocities comprising the parameterized ensemble corresponded well with available observations. The large-scale heating produced by the ensemble without mesoscale circulations was concentrated at lower heights than observed or was characterized by excessive peak magnitudes. An unobserved large-scale source of water vapor was produced in the middle troposphere. When the parameterization for mesoscale effects was added, the large-scale thermal and moisture forcing predicted by the parameterization agreed well with observations for both cases. The significance of mesoscale processes suggests that future cumulus parameterization development will need to treat some radiative processes.

  3. Coupled Mesoscale Modeling of the Atmosphere and Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodur, Richard

    2002-08-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS^TM). COAMPS is comprised of separate atmosphere and ocean data assimilation systems. The atmospheric portion of COAMPS has been in operational use at the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) since 1998, and it has been found to be useful for the prediction of mesoscale weather events in the coastal zone, and in areas of significant topography. A multivariate optimum interpolation (MVOI) analysis is used to construct analyses of the atmosphere using observations from radiosondes, satellites, ships, buoys, aircraft, etc.. Using these analyses, the COAMPS atmospheric model solves the nonhydrostatic form of the primitive equations using moving, multi-nested grids and sophisticated physical parameterizations for boundary layer, precipitation, and radiation. Although the original design of COAMPS was for shared-memory, vector-processor computers, NRL recently teamed with scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to adapt COAMPS for distributed-memory architecture computers. The new version of the COAMPS atmospheric model now supports distributed memory across nodes using the message-passing-interface (MPI), and shared memory across processors using OpenMP. Any arbitrary horizontal domain decomposition and number of halo points can be used for each nest. Tests have demonstrated that the atmospheric model scales to at least 200 processors. The ocean component of COAMPS uses a 3-dimensional MVOI analysis that can assimilate in-situ and remotely-sensed observations, as well as incorporate subsurface thermohaline structure through the use of the Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) synthetic database. The hydrostatic NRL Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) is the COAMPS ocean model. NCOM uses a hybrid z/sigma vertical coordinate, and uses a 2-dimensional domain decomposition and MPI for use on distributed memory

  4. Approximating subtree distances between phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Maria Luisa; St John, Katherine; Mahindru, Ruchi; Amenta, Nina

    2006-10-01

    We give a 5-approximation algorithm to the rooted Subtree-Prune-and-Regraft (rSPR) distance between two phylogenies, which was recently shown to be NP-complete. This paper presents the first approximation result for this important tree distance. The algorithm follows a standard format for tree distances. The novel ideas are in the analysis. In the analysis, the cost of the algorithm uses a "cascading" scheme that accounts for possible wrong moves. This accounting is missing from previous analysis of tree distance approximation algorithms. Further, we show how all algorithms of this type can be implemented in linear time and give experimental results.

  5. Ancilla-approximable quantum state transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri

    2015-04-15

    We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We not only consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive ε, but also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation.

  6. Operational Assimilation of GOES Data into a Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) within the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) since 1 November 1998. We performed the assimilation on a model grid centered over the Southeastern US. In addition, a control run without assimilation was performed to provide insight into the performance of the assimilation technique. Bulk verification statistics (BIAS and RMSE) of surface air temperature and relative humidity of more than 250 case days has been performed to date. Results show that assimilation of the satellite data results reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. We are working with forecasters at the National Weather Service Forecast Office located in Birmingham, AL to evaluate the impact of the assimilation on precipitation forecasts. In addition

  7. Mesoscale Variations of Biogeochemical Properties in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy Dennis J., Jr.; Johnson, R.; Siegel, D. A.; Michaels, A. F.; Bates, N. R.; Knap, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    A mesoscale resolution biogeochemical survey was carried out in the vicinity of the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site during the summer of 1996. Real-time nowcasting and forecasting of the flow field facilitated adaptive sampling of several eddy features in the area. Variations in upper ocean nutrient and pigment distributions were largely controlled by vertical isopycnal displacements associated with the mesoscale field. Shoaling density surfaces tended to introduce cold, nutrient-rich water into the euphotic zone, while deepening isopycnals displaced nutrient-depleted water downward. Chlorophyll concentration was generally enhanced in the former case and reduced in the latter. Eddy-induced upwelling at the base of the euphotic zone was affected by features of two different types captured in this survey: (1) a typical mid-ocean cyclone in which doming of the main thermocline raised the near-surface stratification upward; and (2) a mode water eddy composed of a thick lens of 18 C water, which pushed up the seasonal thermocline and depressed the main thermocline. Model hindcasts using all available data provide a four-dimensional context in which to interpret temporal trends at the BATS site and two other locations during the two weeks subsequent to the survey. Observed changes in near-surface structure at the BATS site included shoaling iscpycnals, increased nutrient availability at the base of the euphotic zone, and enhanced chlorophyll concentration within the euphotic zone. These trends are explicable in terms of a newly formed cyclone that impinged upon the site during this time period. These observations reveal that eddy upwelling has a demonstrable impact on the way in which the nitrate-density relationship changes with depth from the aphotic zone into the euphotic zone. A similar transition is present in the BATS record, suggesting that eddy-driven upwelling events are present in the time series of upper ocean

  8. Mesoscale Variations of Biogeochemical Properties in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy, D. J.; Johnson, R.; Siegel, D. A.; Michaels, A. F.; Bates, N. R.; Knap, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    A mesoscale resolution biogeochemical survey was carried out in the vicinity of the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site during the summer of 1996. Real-time nowcasting and forecasting of the flow field facilitated adaptive sampling of several eddy features in the area. Variations in upper ocean nutrient and pigment distributions were largely controlled by vertical isopycnal displacements associated with the mesoscale field. Shoaling density surfaces tended to introduce cold, nutrient-rich water into the euphotic zone, while deepening isopycnals displaced nutrient-depleted water downward. Chlorophyll concentration was generally enhanced in the former case and reduced in the latter. Eddy-induced upwelling at the base of the euphotic zone was affected by features of two different types captured in this survey-, (1) a typical mid-ocean cyclone in which doming of the main thermocline raised the near-surface stratification upward and (2) a mode water eddy composed of a thick lens of 18C water, which pushed up the seasonal thermocline and depressed the main thermocline. Model hindcasts using all available data provide a four-dimensional context in which to interpret temporal trends at the BATS site and two other locations during the 2 weeks subsequent to the survey. Observed changes in near-surface structure at the BATS site included shoaling isopycnals, increased nutrient availability at the base of the euphotic zone, and enhanced chlorophyll concentration within the cuphotic zone. These trends are explicable in terms of a newly formed cyclone that impinged upon the site during this time period. These observations reveal that eddy upwelling has a demonstrable impact on the way in which the nitrate-density relationship changes with depth from the aphotic zone into the euphotic zone. A similar transition is present in the BATS record, suggesting that eddy-driven upwelling events are present in the time series of upper ocean

  9. Polar Cap Precursor of Nightside Meso-scale Auroral Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Although the large-scale auroral oval has been well examined, what controls the occurrence of meso-scale enhanced auroras remains ambiguous. The answer is critical for forecasting ionospheric scintillation and remote-sensing magnetospheric disturbances. One important meso-scale auroral enhancement is poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs), which are intensifications along the poleward boundary of the nightside auroral oval and are produced by magnetic reconnection, a fundamental energy conversion process in the magnetosphere. This thesis is dedicated to understand when and where PBIs and the associated magnetotail reconnection occur, spontaneously or driven by external forcing, based on coordinated observations of all-sky imagers (ASIs) and radars. We found that the occurrence of PBIs is consistently accompanied with narrow and fast flows near the auroral poleward boundary in the polar cap. They occur simultaneously with or 1--2 min before PBIs near the PBI longitude, and direct equatorward toward the auroral poleward boundary. They have a duration and width comparable to those of PBIs. Although the prior flow evolution could not be obtained based on the limited radar field-of-view, a polar cap ASI can substantially expand our observing area by enabling flow tracing using airglow patches and polar cap arcs. It shows that deep in the polar cap, localized fast flows typically propagate at ˜600 m/s, persist tens of minutes to hours, and are of a few hundred km width. They appear as channels of flow enhancements that are elongated in the noon-midnight meridian, and significantly contribute to magnetic flux convection across the polar cap. The mosaic ASI images further show that as these fast flow propagate equatorward from the magnetic pole and impinge on the nightside auroral poleward boundary, they are followed by intensifications within the auroral oval that are spatially connected to them and occur within a few minutes and <˜10° longitudes. Such

  10. Metal-mediated molecular materials at the nano- and mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Itzia Zoraida

    The synthesis of materials via self-assembly is a powerful bottom-up approach for assembling matter from subnanometer up to micrometer scales. This methodology involves the spontaneous and reversible organization of small molecules to create larger structures driven by non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and metal-ligand coordination interactions. In this dissertation we developed the synthetic methods to generate materials at the nano- and meso-scale using coordination-directed strategies for molecular self-assembly in solid-state and in water. In addition, we produced materials with a modular increased complexity with potential applications in advanced technologies and medicine. Molecular materials in the solid-state were engineered using the coordination directed approach by synthesizing organic ligands with well-defined geometries and symmetries that self-assembly with transition metals in aprotic media into supra-molecular arrays. These structures were crystallized and characterized by techniques such as X-ray Crystallography, Multi-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry (MS), Infrared (IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) Spectroscopies. Potential application as hydrogen storage systems was evaluated using 2H NMR spectroscopy. Coordination-directed molecular materials that self-assembly in water were achieved by combining coordination capable amphiphilic molecules and designing their chemistry so that they can rearrange in water to produce different lyotropic phases. We characterized these materials using Extended X-ray Absorbance Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS), Dynamic Light Scattering, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Optical Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The new class of metallo-liposomes was used as a DNA delivery system and demonstrated to be effective for the transfection of pEGFP-N1 plasmid into HEK 293-T cells. Modular molecular

  11. Systematic multiscale models for deep convection on mesoscales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Rupert; Majda, Andrew J.

    2006-11-01

    This paper builds on recent developments of a unified asymptotic approach to meteorological modeling [ZAMM, 80: 765 777, 2000, SIAM Proc. App. Math. 116, 227 289, 2004], which was used successfully in the development of Systematic multiscale models for the tropics in Majda and Klein [J. Atmosph. Sci. 60: 393 408, 2003] and Majda and Biello [PNAS, 101: 4736 4741, 2004]. Biello and Majda [J. Atmosph. Sci. 62: 1694 1720, 2005]. Here we account for typical bulk microphysics parameterizations of moist processes within this framework. The key steps are careful nondimensionalization of the bulk microphysics equations and the choice of appropriate distinguished limits for the various nondimensional small parameters that appear. We are then in a position to study scale interactions in the atmosphere involving moist physics. We demonstrate this by developing two systematic multiscale models that are motivated by our interest in mesoscale organized convection. The emphasis here is on multiple length scales but common time scales. The first of these models describes the short-time evolution of slender, deep convective hot towers with horizontal scale ~ 1 km interacting with the linearized momentum balance on length and time scales of (10 km/3 min). We expect this model to describe how convective inhibition may be overcome near the surface, how the onset of deep convection triggers convective-scale gravity waves, and that it will also yield new insight into how such local convective events may conspire to create larger-scale strong storms. The second model addresses the next larger range of length and time scales (10 km, 100 km, and 20 min) and exhibits mathematical features that are strongly reminiscent of mesoscale organized convection. In both cases, the asymptotic analysis reveals how the stiffness of condensation/evaporation processes induces highly nonlinear dynamics. Besides providing new theoretical insights, the derived models may also serve as a theoretical devices

  12. On the response to tropical cyclones in mesoscale oceanic eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Benjamin

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) often change intensity as they move over mesoscale oceanic features, as a function of the oceanic mixed layer (OML) thermal response (cooling) to the storm's wind stress. For example, observational evidence indicates that TCs in the Gulf of Mexico rapidly weaken over cyclonic cold core eddies (CCEs) where the cooling response is enhanced, and they rapidly intensify over anticyclonic warm features such as the Loop Current (LC) and Warm Core Eddies (WCEs) where OML cooling is reduced. Understanding this contrasting thermal response has important implications for oceanic feedback to TCs' intensity in forecasting models. Based on numerical experimentation and data acquired during hurricanes Katrina and Rita, this dissertation delineates the contrasting velocity and thermal response to TCs in mesoscale oceanic eddies. Observational evidence and model results indicate that, during the forced stage, the wind-driven horizontal current divergence under the storm's eye is affected by the underlying geostrophic circulation. Upwelling (downwelling) regimes develop when the wind stress vector is with (against) the geostrophic OML velocity vector. During the relaxation stage, background geostrophic circulations modulate vertical dispersion of OML near-inertial energy. The near-inertial velocity response is subsequently shifted toward more sub-inertial frequencies inside WCEs, where rapid vertical dispersion prevents accumulation of kinetic energy in the OML that reduces vertical shears and layer cooling. By contrast, near-inertial oscillations are vertically trapped in OMLs inside CCEs that increases vertical shears and entrainment. Estimates of downward vertical radiation of near-inertial wave energies were significantly stronger in the LC bulge (12.1x10-2 W m-2) compared to that in CCEs (1.8x10-2 W m-2). The rotational and translation properties of the geostrophic eddies have an important impact on the internal wave wake produced by TCs. More near

  13. Operational Assimilation of GOES Data into a Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) within the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) since 1 November 1998. We performed the assimilation on a model grid centered over the Southeastern US. In addition, a control run without assimilation was performed to provide insight into the performance of the assimilation technique. Bulk verification statistics (BIAS and RMSE) of surface air temperature and relative humidity of more than 250 case days has been performed to date. Results show that assimilation of the satellite data results reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. We are working with forecasters at the National Weather Service Forecast Office located in Birmingham, AL to evaluate the impact of the assimilation on precipitation forecasts. In addition

  14. Synoptic- and Mesoscale Weather Situations Associated with Tornadoes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, M.; Sprenger, M.; Moore, R. W.

    2010-09-01

    Tornado research is mainly practiced in and focused on the United States, but tornadoes occur all over the world and cause damage and casualties. In this study, the focus is given to the synoptic- and mesoscale environment which leads to tornadoes in Central Europe. Consideration is given to 15 significant events (defined to be equal to F2 tornadoes) between 2005 and 2006 and in a band north of the Alps and extending from Eastern France to Poland with focus on Germany. Tornado data are taken from the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD), which includes the date, time, location and intensity on the Fujita scale of the event. Three aspects are discussed: (a) The synoptic- and mesoscale weather situation is analysed. The tornado events are characterised with respect to upper-level (jet streaks, PV anomalies) and low-level (fronts) forcings by operational ECMWF analysis data. Moreover, satellite data and surface weather charts of the German Weather Service are taken into account. In many cases, tornadoes took place close to an upper-level PV anomaly (streamer or cut-off). Most events occur under the cyclonic left side (exit and entrance region) of the jet stream. (b) The applicability of US tornado indices is investigated. Consideration is given to typical tornado indices used in the US: convective available potential energy (CAPE), storm-relative helicity (SRH) and the energy helicity index (EHI). It will be shown that the indices are only partly applicable to European settings. On average all indices are significantly lower than in the US. (c) Factors that predetermine the atmosphere for severe convection and tornadoes are discussed. For this reason, regions of moisture source are determined by Lagrangian backward trajectories. In most cases European trajectories start over the Atlantic, whereas US trajectories origin in the Gulf of Mexico. Due to the Alps the moisture transport from the Mediterranean is hindered. Moreover, it can be shown that the destabilization

  15. Rytov approximation in electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehl, Jonas; Lubk, Axel

    2017-06-01

    In this work we introduce the Rytov approximation in the scope of high-energy electron scattering with the motivation of developing better linear models for electron scattering. Such linear models play an important role in tomography and similar reconstruction techniques. Conventional linear models, such as the phase grating approximation, have reached their limits in current and foreseeable applications, most importantly in achieving three-dimensional atomic resolution using electron holographic tomography. The Rytov approximation incorporates propagation effects which are the most pressing limitation of conventional models. While predominately used in the weak-scattering regime of light microscopy, we show that the Rytov approximation can give reasonable results in the inherently strong-scattering regime of transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Dual approximations in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Ianculescu, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    A dual approximation for the solution to an optimal control problem is analyzed. The differential equation is handled with a Lagrange multiplier while other constraints are treated explicitly. An algorithm for solving the dual problem is presented.

  17. Exponential approximations in optimal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belegundu, A. D.; Rajan, S. D.; Rajgopal, J.

    1990-01-01

    One-point and two-point exponential functions have been developed and proved to be very effective approximations of structural response. The exponential has been compared to the linear, reciprocal and quadratic fit methods. Four test problems in structural analysis have been selected. The use of such approximations is attractive in structural optimization to reduce the numbers of exact analyses which involve computationally expensive finite element analysis.

  18. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  19. Approximation techniques for neuromimetic calculus.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, V; Barret, C

    1999-06-01

    Approximation Theory plays a central part in modern statistical methods, in particular in Neural Network modeling. These models are able to approximate a large amount of metric data structures in their entire range of definition or at least piecewise. We survey most of the known results for networks of neurone-like units. The connections to classical statistical ideas such as ordinary least squares (LS) are emphasized.

  20. Mesoscale boundaries and storm development in Southwestern Ontario during ELBOW 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Lisa Susan

    The Effects of Lake Breezes on Weather (ELBOW) 2001 project was conducted in Southwestern Ontario, during summer 2001. Project goals included: understanding how lake breezes interact with one another, other mesoscale boundaries and synoptic fronts, understanding how lake breezes affect storm development, and helping to improve regional forecasts by transferring findings to forecasters. Radar, Satellite, Mesonet and Integrated (considering all data sets) analyses were each used to identify the mesoscale boundaries that occurred during the study period. A contingency table approach, for lake breeze occurrence, was used to evaluate each of the analyses against a Final 'Truth' Set. Findings showed that the Integrated analysis performed the best. Advantages and drawbacks of each analysis became apparent. Evaluation of the analyses was also done by studying the in land penetration distances of the lake breeze fronts. This revealed that most the analyses had good correlation to the Final 'Truth' Set. The Mesonet analysis was the least accurate for pinpointing lake breeze fronts, due to lack of information between surface stations. The boundary analysis showed that lake breeze fronts, originating from one or more of the surrounding lakes, occurred in the study area on 73 out of 86 days, or 85% of the days (for 1800 UTC). Exeter radar data (CAPPI and MAXR) were run through URP cell identification and tracking algorithms. The locations of storm cells, when they reached a 40 dBZ level, were measured relative to the closest boundary. Considering study days without warm front influence, 70.4% of the 40 dBZ CAPPI cell initiations and 68.5% of the 40 dBZ MAXR cell initiations occurred at a distance of 20 km or less from a boundary. Cell distribution plots were created to show the locations of the 40 dBZ cell initiations in front or behind a specified boundary type or boundary classification. Nowcasting techniques considering cumulus cloud development and Lifted Index values in