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Sample records for aps topical group

  1. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2001-06-01

    To provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock-compressed condensed matter, a group of APS members worked within the Society to make this technical field an active part of APS. Individual papers were given at APS meetings starting in the 1950’s and then later whole sessions were organized starting at the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA where George Duvall and Dennis Hayes were co-chairs. Most all early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1985 were official APS meetings. In 1984, after consulting with a number of people in the shock wave field, Robert Graham circulated a petition to form an APS topical group. He obtained signatures from a balanced cross-section of the community. William Havens, the executive secretary of APS, informed Robert Graham by letter on November 28, 1984 that the APS Council had officially accepted the formation of this topical group at its October 28, 1984 meeting. The first election occurred July 23, 1985 where Robert Graham was elected chairman, William Nellis vice-chairman, and Jerry Forbes secretary/treasurer. The topical group remains viable today by holding a topical conference in odd numbered years and shock wave sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years A major benefit of being an official unit of APS is the allotment of APS fellows every year. The APS shock compression award established in 1987, has also provided broad recognition of many major scientific accomplishments in this field.

  2. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W

    2001-05-02

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wave/high pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  3. History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W

    2001-10-19

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wavehigh pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  4. The History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2002-07-01

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wave/high pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  5. PREFACE: Second Meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, David; de Jager, Kees; Roberts, Craig; Sheldon, Paul; Swanson, Eric

    2007-06-01

    The Second Meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics was held on 22-24 October 2006 at the Opryland Resort in Nashville, Tennessee. Keeping with tradition, the meeting was held in conjunction with the Fall meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics. Approximately 90 physicists participated in the meeting, presenting 25 talks in seven plenary sessions and 48 talks in 11 parallel sessions. These sessions covered a wide range of topics related to strongly interacting matter. Among these were charm spectroscopy, gluonic exotics, nucleon resonance physics, RHIC physics, electroweak and spin physics, lattice QCD initiatives, and new facilities. Brad Tippens and Brad Keister provided perspective from the funding agencies. The organisers are extremely grateful to the following institutions for financial and logistical support: the American Physical Society, Jefferson Lab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Vanderbilt University. We thank the following persons for assisting in organising the parallel sessions: Ted Barnes, Jian-Ping Chen, Ed Kinney, Krishna Kumar, Harry Lee, Mike Leitch, Kam Seth, and Dennis Weygand. We also thank Gerald Ragghianti for designing the conference poster, Will Johns for managing the audio-visual equipment and for placing the talks on the web, Sandy Childress for administrative expertise, and Vanderbilt graduate students Eduardo Luiggi and Jesus Escamillad for their assistance. David Ernst, Kees de Jager, Craig Roberts (Chair), Paul Sheldon and Eric Swanson Editors

  6. PREFACE: The first meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ted; Godfrey, Steve; Petrov, Alexey A.; Swanson, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The first meeting of the APS Topical Group on Hadronic Physics (`GHP') took place on 24-26 October 2004, at Fermilab. Two factors contributed to the decision to hold this meeting. First, the Topical Group on Hadronic Physics had recently been established, and there was general agreement that a conference devoted to the physics of hadrons was an important group activity. Second, many exciting new experimental results on hadron spectroscopy had been announced recently, and there was intense interest in these new developments. The meeting was very well attended, with over 120 scientists participating; this was triple our original estimate of the likely audience for this meeting. The plenary sessions covered a broad range of topics, as we considered it important to promote communication between the communities pursuing research in different areas of hadron physics. The topics discussed included new results from RHIC on the QGP, the status of experiments on the flavour-exotic pentaquark and other new baryons, the new open-charm Ds and hidden-charm X states, conventional light quark resonances, glueballs and hybrids, and new facilities. Finally, a `town meeting' was held to discuss funding prospects for hadronic physics and related issues, which included a panel discussion with representatives from DOE, NSF and JLab. These plenary sessions were supplemented by 14 parallel sessions, giving a total of approximately 80 presentations. To make the conference more accessible to younger researchers, as well as to simiplify administration, there was no conference fee for this meeting. This was possible as a result of the generous financial support of our hosts at Fermilab, for which we are very appreciative. We are also grateful to Larry Cardman for arranging Jlab assistance in producing and distributing the conference poster, to Gerald Ragghianti for designing the poster and proceedings cover, and to Lali Chatterjee and the Institute of Physics for arranging publication of the

  7. Pro/antioxidant status and AP-1 transcription factor in murine skin following topical exposure to cumene hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Murray, A R; Kisin, E R; Kommineni, C; Vallyathan, V; Castranova, V; Shvedova, A A

    2007-07-01

    Organic peroxides, widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, can act as skin tumor promoters and cause epidermal hyperplasia. They are also known to trigger free radical generation. The present study evaluated the effect of cumene hydroperoxide (Cum-OOH) on the induction of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is linked to the expression of genes regulating cell proliferation, growth and transformation. Previously, we reported that topical exposure to Cum-OOH caused formation of free radicals and oxidative stress in the skin of vitamin E-deficient mice. The present study used JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells and AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice to identify whether exposure to Cum-OOH caused activation of AP-1, oxidative stress, depletion of antioxidants and tumor formation during two-stage carcinogenesis. In vitro studies found that exposure to Cum-OOH reduced the level of glutathione (GSH) in mouse epidermal cells (JB6 P+) and caused the induction of AP-1. Mice primed with dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) were topically exposed to Cum-OOH (82.6 micromol) or the positive control, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 17 nmol), twice weekly for 29 weeks. Activation of AP-1 in skin was detected as early as 2 weeks following Cum-OOH or TPA exposure. No AP-1 expression was found 19 weeks after initiation. Papilloma formation was observed in both the DMBA-TPA- and DMBA-Cum-OOH-exposed animals, whereas skin carcinomas were found only in the DMBA-Cum-OOH-treated mice. A greater accumulation of peroxidative products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), inflammation and decreased levels of GSH and total antioxidant reserves were also observed in the skin of DMBA-Cum-OOH-exposed mice. These results suggest that Cum-OOH-induced carcinogenesis is accompanied by increased AP-1 activation and changes in antioxidant status.

  8. Expansion and Functional Divergence of AP2 Group Genes in Spermatophytes Determined by Molecular Evolution and Arabidopsis Mutant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Li, Meiping; Shi, Jisen; Lu, Ye; Laux, Thomas; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The APETALA2 (AP2) genes represent the AP2 group within a large group of DNA-binding proteins called AP2/EREBP. The AP2 gene is functional and necessary for flower development, stem cell maintenance, and seed development, whereas the other members of AP2 group redundantly affect flowering time. Here we study the phylogeny of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes. Spermatophyte AP2 group genes can be classified into AP2 and TOE types, six clades, and we found that the AP2 group homologs in gymnosperms belong to the AP2 type, whereas TOE types are absent, which indicates the AP2 type gene are more ancient and TOE type was split out of AP2 type and losing the major function. In Brassicaceae, the expansion of AP2 and TOE type lead to the gene number of AP2 group were up to six. Purifying selection appears to have been the primary driving force of spermatophyte AP2 group evolution, although positive selection occurred in the AP2 clade. The transition from exon to intron of AtAP2 in Arabidopsis mutant leads to the loss of gene function and the same situation was found in AtTOE2. Combining this evolutionary analysis and published research, the results suggest that typical AP2 group genes may first appear in gymnosperms and diverged in angiosperms, following expansion of group members and functional differentiation. In angiosperms, AP2 genes (AP2 clade) inherited key functions from ancestors and other genes of AP2 group lost most function but just remained flowering time controlling in gene formation. In this study, the phylogenies of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes was analyzed, which supported the evidence for the research of gene functional evolution of AP2 group. PMID:27703459

  9. On Constructing, Grouping and Using Topical Ontology for Semantic Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan; de Baer, Peter; Zhao, Gang; Meersman, Robert

    An ontology topic is used to group concepts from different contexts (or even from different domain ontologies). This paper presents a pattern-driven modeling methodology for constructing and grouping topics in an ontology (PAD-ON methodology), which is used for matching similarities between competences in the human resource management (HRM) domain. The methodology is supported by a tool called PAD-ON. This paper demonstrates our recent achievement in the work from the EC Prolix project. The paper approach is applied to the training processes at British Telecom as the test bed.

  10. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  11. Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group: 2004 Industry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosewich, Tania; Essenmacher, Victoria L.; Lynch, Christina Olenik; Williams, Jennifer E.; Doino-Ingersoll, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG) has a membership of over eight hundred individuals who generally work as sole proprietors, in partnerships, or in small consulting firms. Well over a decade ago, the IC TIG conducted a survey of its membership (Bonnet, 1992). To gather current data…

  12. Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group: 2004 Industry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosewich, Tania; Essenmacher, Victoria L.; Lynch, Christina Olenik; Williams, Jennifer E.; Doino-Ingersoll, Jo Ann

    2006-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG) has a membership of over eight hundred individuals who generally work as sole proprietors, in partnerships, or in small consulting firms. Well over a decade ago, the IC TIG conducted a survey of its membership (Bonnet, 1992). To gather current data…

  13. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  14. 77 FR 22622 - AP Henderson Group, BPO Management Services, Inc., Capital Mineral Investors, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AP Henderson Group, BPO Management Services, Inc., Capital Mineral Investors, Inc., CardioVascular... current and accurate information concerning the securities of CardioVascular BioTherapeutics, Inc. because...

  15. Flexible Unicast-Based Group Communication for CoAP-Enabled Devices †

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Van den Abeele, Floris; Rossey, Jen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Smart embedded objects will become an important part of what is called the Internet of Things. Applications often require concurrent interactions with several of these objects and their resources. Existing solutions have several limitations in terms of reliability, flexibility and manageability of such groups of objects. To overcome these limitations we propose an intermediately level of intelligence to easily manipulate a group of resources across multiple smart objects, building upon the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). We describe the design of our solution to create and manipulate a group of CoAP resources using a single client request. Furthermore we introduce the concept of profiles for the created groups. The use of profiles allows the client to specify in more detail how the group should behave. We have implemented our solution and demonstrate that it covers the complete group life-cycle, i.e., creation, validation, flexible usage and deletion. Finally, we quantitatively analyze the performance of our solution and compare it against multicast-based CoAP group communication. The results show that our solution improves reliability and flexibility with a trade-off in increased communication overhead. PMID:24901978

  16. Flexible unicast-based group communication for CoAP-enabled devices.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Van den Abeele, Floris; Rossey, Jen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2014-06-04

    Smart embedded objects will become an important part of what is called the Internet of Things. Applications often require concurrent interactions with several of these objects and their resources. Existing solutions have several limitations in terms of reliability, flexibility and manageability of such groups of objects. To overcome these limitations we propose an intermediately level of intelligence to easily manipulate a group of resources across multiple smart objects, building upon the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). We describe the design of our solution to create and manipulate a group of CoAP resources using a single client request. Furthermore we introduce the concept of profiles for the created groups. The use of profiles allows the client to specify in more detail how the group should behave. We have implemented our solution and demonstrate that it covers the complete group life-cycle, i.e., creation, validation, flexible usage and deletion. Finally, we quantitatively analyze the performance of our solution and compare it against multicast-based CoAP group communication. The results show that our solution improves reliability and flexibility with a trade-off in increased communication overhead.

  17. A Comparison of College Performance of Matched AP® and Non-AP Student Groups. Research Report No. 2009-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to compare the college performance of three groups of Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students who took the AP Exam and either earned course credit, did not earn course credit, or earned course credit but elected to take the entry-level college course to three groups of Non-AP student groups matched on SAT…

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP. PMID:27455262

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-07-21

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP.

  20. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on divisibility using manipulative materials, cyclic groups of functions, Horner's method of synthetic division, arc lengths of cycloids and cardioids, number squares, and students' concepts of mathematics. (MM)

  1. Group and Topic Discovery from Relations and Their Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Education + Domestic and with a small group of maverick Re- publicans on Foreign and Social Security + Medicare. Sen. Shelby, together with Sen. Heflin, is...Indonesia Thailand Cyprus... Iran... Philippines... Thailand USA Belarus Philippines Israel Turkmenistan 5 Malaysia Palau Azerbaijan Nigeria Uruguay Tunisia

  2. Joint Group and Topic Discovery from Relations and Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Yugoslavia Indonesia Mexico Azerbaijan Thailand Indonesia Cyprus Philippines Iran Thailand Belarus USA Philippines Turkmenistan Israel 5 Malaysia Azerbaijan...GSIs. Sen. Shelby(D-AL) votes with the Republicans on Economic, with the Democrats on Education + Domestic and with a small group of maverick

  3. LDA-Based Unified Topic Modeling for Similar TV User Grouping and TV Program Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Shinjee; Kim, Eunhui; Kim, Munchurl

    2015-08-01

    Social TV is a social media service via TV and social networks through which TV users exchange their experiences about TV programs that they are viewing. For social TV service, two technical aspects are envisioned: grouping of similar TV users to create social TV communities and recommending TV programs based on group and personal interests for personalizing TV. In this paper, we propose a unified topic model based on grouping of similar TV users and recommending TV programs as a social TV service. The proposed unified topic model employs two latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) models. One is a topic model of TV users, and the other is a topic model of the description words for viewed TV programs. The two LDA models are then integrated via a topic proportion parameter for TV programs, which enforces the grouping of similar TV users and associated description words for watched TV programs at the same time in a unified topic modeling framework. The unified model identifies the semantic relation between TV user groups and TV program description word groups so that more meaningful TV program recommendations can be made. The unified topic model also overcomes an item ramp-up problem such that new TV programs can be reliably recommended to TV users. Furthermore, from the topic model of TV users, TV users with similar tastes can be grouped as topics, which can then be recommended as social TV communities. To verify our proposed method of unified topic-modeling-based TV user grouping and TV program recommendation for social TV services, in our experiments, we used real TV viewing history data and electronic program guide data from a seven-month period collected by a TV poll agency. The experimental results show that the proposed unified topic model yields an average 81.4% precision for 50 topics in TV program recommendation and its performance is an average of 6.5% higher than that of the topic model of TV users only. For TV user prediction with new TV programs, the average

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of topical sertaconazole versus topical terbinafine in localized dermatophytosis: A randomized, observer-blind, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Dattatreyo; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Sen, Sukanta; Sarkar, Saswati; Hazra, Avijit; De, Radharaman

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal dermatophyte infections most commonly manifest as tinea corporis or tinea cruris. Topical azole antifungals are commonly used in their treatment but literature suggests that most require twice-daily application and provide lower cure rates than the allylamine antifungal terbinafine. We conducted a head-to-head comparison of the effectiveness of the once-daily topical azole, sertaconazole, with terbinafine in these infections. We conducted a randomized, observer-blind, parallel group study (Clinical Trial Registry India [CTRI]/2014/09/005029) with adult patients of either sex presenting with localized lesions. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by potassium hydroxide smear microscopy of skin scrapings. After baseline assessment of erythema, scaling, and pruritus, patients applied either of the two study drugs once daily for 2 weeks. If clinical cure was not seen at 2 weeks, but improvement was noted, application was continued for further 2 weeks. Patients deemed to be clinical failure at 2 weeks were switched to oral antifungals. Overall 88 patients on sertaconazole and 91 on terbinafine were analyzed. At 2 weeks, the clinical cure rates were comparable at 77.27% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.52%-86.03%) for sertaconazole and 73.63% (95% CI 64.57%-82.68%) for terbinafine (P = 0.606). Fourteen patients in either group improved and on further treatment showed complete healing by another 2 weeks. The final cure rate at 4 weeks was also comparable at 93.18% (95% CI 88.75%-97.62%) and 89.01% (95% CI 82.59%-95.44%), respectively (P = 0.914). At 2 weeks, 6 (6.82%) sertaconazole and 10 (10.99%) terbinafine recipients were considered as "clinical failure." Tolerability of both preparations was excellent. Despite the limitations of an observer-blind study without microbiological support, the results suggest that once-daily topical sertaconazole is as effective as terbinafine in localized tinea infections.

  5. Tomorrow's Journalists: In-Groups, Out-Groups, and News Topic Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netzley, Sara Baker; Banning, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored whether student journalists believed they shared news topic preferences with the public. Previous research suggests journalists are very different from the audiences they serve, which may influence their perceptions of audience story preferences because of the social identity theory and the social distance corollary. A national…

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of topical sertaconazole versus topical terbinafine in localized dermatophytosis: A randomized, observer-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Dattatreyo; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Sen, Sukanta; Sarkar, Saswati; Hazra, Avijit; De, Radharaman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Epidermal dermatophyte infections most commonly manifest as tinea corporis or tinea cruris. Topical azole antifungals are commonly used in their treatment but literature suggests that most require twice-daily application and provide lower cure rates than the allylamine antifungal terbinafine. We conducted a head-to-head comparison of the effectiveness of the once-daily topical azole, sertaconazole, with terbinafine in these infections. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, observer-blind, parallel group study (Clinical Trial Registry India [CTRI]/2014/09/005029) with adult patients of either sex presenting with localized lesions. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by potassium hydroxide smear microscopy of skin scrapings. After baseline assessment of erythema, scaling, and pruritus, patients applied either of the two study drugs once daily for 2 weeks. If clinical cure was not seen at 2 weeks, but improvement was noted, application was continued for further 2 weeks. Patients deemed to be clinical failure at 2 weeks were switched to oral antifungals. Results: Overall 88 patients on sertaconazole and 91 on terbinafine were analyzed. At 2 weeks, the clinical cure rates were comparable at 77.27% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.52%–86.03%) for sertaconazole and 73.63% (95% CI 64.57%–82.68%) for terbinafine (P = 0.606). Fourteen patients in either group improved and on further treatment showed complete healing by another 2 weeks. The final cure rate at 4 weeks was also comparable at 93.18% (95% CI 88.75%–97.62%) and 89.01% (95% CI 82.59%–95.44%), respectively (P = 0.914). At 2 weeks, 6 (6.82%) sertaconazole and 10 (10.99%) terbinafine recipients were considered as “clinical failure.” Tolerability of both preparations was excellent. Conclusion: Despite the limitations of an observer-blind study without microbiological support, the results suggest that once-daily topical sertaconazole is as effective as terbinafine in localized tinea

  7. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  8. What's all the talk about? Topic modelling in a mental health Internet support group.

    PubMed

    Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Reynolds, Julia; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2016-10-28

    The majority of content in an Internet Support Group (ISG) is contributed by 1 % of the users ('super users'). Computational methods, such as topic modelling, can provide a large-scale quantitative objective description of this content. Such methods may provide a new perspective on the nature of engagement on ISGs including the role of super users and their possible effect on other users. A topic model was computed for all posts (N = 131,004) in the ISG BlueBoard using Latent Dirichlet Allocation. A model containing 25 topics was selected on the basis of intelligibility as determined by diagnostic metrics and qualitative investigation. This model yielded 21 substantive topics for further analysis. Two chi-square tests were conducted separately for each topic to ascertain: (i) if the odds of super users' and other users' posting differed for each topic; and (ii) if for super users the odds of posting differed depending on whether the response was to a super user or to another user. The 21 substantive topics covered a range of issues related to mental health and peer-support. There were significantly higher odds that super users wrote content on 13 topics, with the greatest effects being for Parenting Role (OR [95%CI] = 7.97 [7.85-8.10]), Co-created Fiction (4.22 [4.17-4.27]), Mental Illness (3.13 [3.11-3.16]) and Positive Change (2.82 [2.79-2.84]). There were significantly lower odds for super users on 7 topics, with the greatest effects being for the topics Depression (OR = 0.27 [0.27-0.28]), Medication (0.36 [0.36-0.37]), Therapy (0.55 [0.54-0.55]) and Anxiety (0.55 [0.55-0.55]). However, super users were significantly more likely to write content on 5 out of these 7 topics when responding to other users than when responding to fellow super users. The findings suggest that super users serve the role of emotionally supportive companions with a focus on topics broadly resembling the consumer/carer model of recovery. Other users engage in topics with a

  9. Transcription of ColE1Ap mbeC induced by conjugative plasmids from twelve different incompatibility groups.

    PubMed Central

    Selvaratnam, S; Gealt, M A

    1993-01-01

    Although nonconjugative mobilizable plasmids require helping functions of conjugative plasmids in order to be mobilized into recipients, at least some genes from the nonconjugative plasmids may be induced to assist in the DNA transfer process. Conjugative plasmids from 12 different incompatibility groups mobilized the nonconjugative plasmid ColE1Ap between Escherichia coli strains. Introduction of any of the conjugative plasmids into the ColE1Ap-containing strain resulted in an induction of mbeC, the product of which is a component of the mobilization relaxation complex. Each of the conjugative plasmids caused protein to bind specifically to mbe promoter DNA, suggesting a direct regulatory interaction. Images PMID:8226641

  10. A Comparison of College Performances of AP® and Non-AP Student Groups in 10 Subject Areas. Research Report No. 2008-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Leslie; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to compare the performance of students in the College Board Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) compared to non-AP students on a number of college outcome measures. Ten individual AP Exams were examined in this study of students in four entering classes (1998-2001) at the University of Texas at Austin. The four main groups of…

  11. Top 10 Topics for School Counselors: Favorite Group Activities for Grades 3-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusmer, Roxanne

    2005-01-01

    New and experienced school counselors will find this handbook to be a valuable resource that addresses most of the challenging situations they confront everyday. "Top 10 Topics" will also interest counselor educators who train graduate students to do group-work. This book is filled with reproducible activities, in-depth discussion questions,…

  12. Online but Off-Topic: Negotiating Common Ground in Small Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Trena M.

    2009-01-01

    There is not yet a great deal of research in formal online learning environments focusing on the seemingly "off-topic" conversations that small groups engage in as they complete learning tasks together. This study uses the theory of common ground as a framework to explore what participants are talking about when not discussing the concepts to be…

  13. Topical-steroid-induced iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the pediatric age group: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashish; Goel, Manjusha; Pal, Pankaj; Gohiya, Poorva

    2013-10-01

    Cushing syndrome, a systemic disorder, is the result of abnormally high blood level of cortisol or other glucocorticoids. The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is prolonged exogenous administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Prolonged use of topical corticosteroids, particularly in children, may cause Cushing syndrome and suppression of the hypothalamopituitory-adrenal axis, which is less common than that of oral or parenteral route. However, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the infantile age group due to topical steroid is very rare and only a few patients have been reported to date in the literature. Here we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome due to topical steroid application in a 5-month-old female child admitted to the hospital for repeated episodes of fever and cough.

  14. Topic Negotiation in Peer Group Oral Assessment Situations: A Conversation Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong; Davison, Chris; Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the production of topical talk in peer collaborative negotiation in an interactive assessment innovation context. The ability to stay on topic, to move from topic to topic and to introduce new topics appropriately is at the core of communicative competence. Applying conversation analysis (CA), we describe and analyze how one…

  15. Topic Negotiation in Peer Group Oral Assessment Situations: A Conversation Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong; Davison, Chris; Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the production of topical talk in peer collaborative negotiation in an interactive assessment innovation context. The ability to stay on topic, to move from topic to topic and to introduce new topics appropriately is at the core of communicative competence. Applying conversation analysis (CA), we describe and analyze how one…

  16. Is combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid superior than topical, intravenous tranexamic acid alone and control groups for blood loss controlling after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunmei; Qi, Yingmei; Jie, Li; Li, Hong-biao; Zhao, Xi-cheng; Qin, Lei; Jiang, Xin-qiang; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Ma, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) versus topical, intravenous TXA alone or control for reducing blood loss after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: In May 2016, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Wanfang database. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria. Only patients prepared for primary TKA that administration combined topical with intravenous TXA with topical TXA, intravenous (IV) TXA, or control group for reducing blood loss were included. Eligible criteria were published RCTs about combined topical with intravenous TXA with topical alone or intravenous alone. The primary endpoint was the total blood loss and need for transfusion. The complications of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were also compiled to assess the safety of combined topical TXA with intravenous TXA. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated for dichotomous outcomes, and mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs for continuous outcomes. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to appraise a risk of bias. Stata 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. Results: Fifteen studies involving 1495 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled meta-analysis indicated that combined topical TXA with intravenous TXA can reduce the total blood loss compared with placebo with a mean of 458.66 mL and the difference is statistically significant (MD = −458.66, 95% CI: −655.40 to 261.91, P < 0.001). Compared with intravenous TXA, combined administrated TXA can decrease the total blood loss, and the difference is statistically significant (MD = −554.03, 95% CI: −1066.21 to −41.85, P = 0

  17. Comparison of Collaboration and Performance in Groups of Learners Assembled Randomly or Based on Learners' Topic Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela, Karina L.; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Teachers and instructional designers frequently incorporate collaborative learning approaches into their e-learning environments. A key factor of collaborative learning that may affect learner outcomes is whether the collaborative groups are assigned project topics randomly or based on a shared interest in the topic. This is a particularly…

  18. Comparison of Collaboration and Performance in Groups of Learners Assembled Randomly or Based on Learners' Topic Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela, Karina L.; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Teachers and instructional designers frequently incorporate collaborative learning approaches into their e-learning environments. A key factor of collaborative learning that may affect learner outcomes is whether the collaborative groups are assigned project topics randomly or based on a shared interest in the topic. This is a particularly…

  19. APS Editorial Q&A: APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review C, D, Letters, and X, Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, and Reviews of Modern Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  20. Climate Change on Twitter: Topics, Communities and Conversations about the 2013 IPCC Working Group 1 Report

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Warren; Holmberg, Kim; Hellsten, Iina; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    In September 2013 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published its Working Group 1 report, the first comprehensive assessment of physical climate science in six years, constituting a critical event in the societal debate about climate change. This paper analyses the nature of this debate in one public forum: Twitter. Using statistical methods, tweets were analyzed to discover the hashtags used when people tweeted about the IPCC report, and how Twitter users formed communities around their conversational connections. In short, the paper presents the topics and tweeters at this particular moment in the climate debate. The most used hashtags related to themes of science, geographical location and social issues connected to climate change. Particularly noteworthy were tweets connected to Australian politics, US politics, geoengineering and fracking. Three communities of Twitter users were identified. Researcher coding of Twitter users showed how these varied according to geographical location and whether users were supportive, unsupportive or neutral in their tweets about the IPCC. Overall, users were most likely to converse with users holding similar views. However, qualitative analysis suggested the emergence of a community of Twitter users, predominantly based in the UK, where greater interaction between contrasting views took place. This analysis also illustrated the presence of a campaign by the non-governmental organization Avaaz, aimed at increasing media coverage of the IPCC report. PMID:24718388

  1. ICD-11 for quality and safety: overview of the WHO Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group.

    PubMed

    Ghali, William A; Pincus, Harold A; Southern, Danielle A; Brien, Susan E; Romano, Patrick S; Burnand, Bernard; Drösler, Saskia E; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Moskal, Lori; Forster, Alan J; Gurevich, Yana; Quan, Hude; Colin, Cyrille; Munier, William B; Harrison, James; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Ustün, T Bedirhan

    2013-12-01

    This paper outlines the approach that the WHO's Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC) network is undertaking to create ICD-11. We also outline the more focused work of the Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group, whose activities include the following: (i) cataloguing existing ICD-9 and ICD-10 quality and safety indicators; (ii) reviewing ICD morbidity coding rules for main condition, diagnosis timing, numbers of diagnosis fields and diagnosis clustering; (iii) substantial restructuring of the health-care related injury concepts coded in the ICD-10 chapters 19/20, (iv) mapping of ICD-11 quality and safety concepts to the information model of the WHO's International Classification for Patient Safety and the AHRQ Common Formats; (v) the review of vertical chapter content in all chapters of the ICD-11 beta version and (vi) downstream field testing of ICD-11 prior to its official 2015 release. The transition from ICD-10 to ICD-11 promises to produce an enhanced classification that will have better potential to capture important concepts relevant to measuring health system safety and quality-an important use case for the classification.

  2. Climate change on Twitter: topics, communities and conversations about the 2013 IPCC Working Group 1 report.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Warren; Holmberg, Kim; Hellsten, Iina; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    In September 2013 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published its Working Group 1 report, the first comprehensive assessment of physical climate science in six years, constituting a critical event in the societal debate about climate change. This paper analyses the nature of this debate in one public forum: Twitter. Using statistical methods, tweets were analyzed to discover the hashtags used when people tweeted about the IPCC report, and how Twitter users formed communities around their conversational connections. In short, the paper presents the topics and tweeters at this particular moment in the climate debate. The most used hashtags related to themes of science, geographical location and social issues connected to climate change. Particularly noteworthy were tweets connected to Australian politics, US politics, geoengineering and fracking. Three communities of Twitter users were identified. Researcher coding of Twitter users showed how these varied according to geographical location and whether users were supportive, unsupportive or neutral in their tweets about the IPCC. Overall, users were most likely to converse with users holding similar views. However, qualitative analysis suggested the emergence of a community of Twitter users, predominantly based in the UK, where greater interaction between contrasting views took place. This analysis also illustrated the presence of a campaign by the non-governmental organization Avaaz, aimed at increasing media coverage of the IPCC report.

  3. Got AP?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digby, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Families, especially those considering sending their children to a private four-year university, need all the help they can get in funding college. Annmarie Guzy's essay "AP, Dual Enrollment, and the Survival of Honors Education" in this issue powerfully spells out the financial benefits that accrue from using AP courses to satisfy…

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP

    PubMed Central

    Cubeta, Marc A.; Dean, Ralph A.; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M.; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B.; Pakala, Suchitra M.; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  5. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  6. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  7. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, Maria G

    2009-06-01

    Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency.

  8. Topics in mode conversion theory and the group theoretical foundations of path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew Stephen

    This dissertation reports research about the phase space perspective for solving wave problems, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of mode conversion in multicomponent wave systems, and the mathematics which underlie the phase space perspective. Part I of this dissertation gives a review of the phase space theory of resonant mode conversion. We describe how the WKB approximation is related to geometrical structures in phase space, and how in particular ray-tracing algorithms can be used to construct the WKB solution. We further review how to analyze the phenomena of mode conversion from the phase space perspective. By making an expansion of the dispersion matrix about the mode conversion point in phase space, a local coupled wave equation is obtained. The solution of this local problem then provides a way to asymptotically match the WKB solutions on either side of the mode conversion region. We describe this theory in the context of a pedagogical example; that of a pair of coupled harmonic oscillators undergoing resonant conversion. Lastly, we present new higher order corrections to the local solution for the mode conversion problem which allow better asymptotic matching to the WKB solutions. The phase space tools used in Part I rely on the Weyl symbol calculus, which gives a way to relate operators to functions on phase space. In Part II of this dissertation, we explore the mathematical foundations of the theory of symbols. We first review the theory of representations of groups, and the concept of a group Fourier transform. The Fourier transform for commutative groups gives the ordinary transform, while the Fourier transform for non-commutative groups relates operators to functions on the group. We go on to present the group theoretical formulation of symbols, as developed recently by Zobin. This defines the symbol of an operator in terms of a double Fourier transform on a non-commutative group. We give examples of this new type of symbol, using the

  9. Complement-mediated Opsonization of Invasive Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Strain AP53 Is Regulated by the Bacterial Two-component Cluster of Virulence Responder/Sensor (CovRS) System*

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Balsara, Rashna D.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR+S−. However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR+S− cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS− to wild-type covS (covS+), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR+S+ cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR+S+ cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR+S+. We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively. PMID:23928307

  10. Chemical synthesis of 5'-pyrophosphate and triphosphate derivatives of 3'-5' ApA, ApG, GpA and GpG. CD study of the effect of 5'-phosphate groups on the conformation of 3'-5' GpG.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasz, J; Simoncsits, A; Kajtár, M; Krug, R M; Shatkin, A J

    1978-01-01

    A simple, two-step method is described for the synthesis of the 5'-pyro- and triphosphate derivatives of 3'-5' ApA, ApG, GpA and GpG. The readily accessible 2'(3')-5' ApA, ApG, GpA and GpG were converted in one step to the corresponding 5'-phosphoramidate derivatives which were then transformed to the 5'-pyro- and triphosphates. CD spectra of 3'-5' pn GpG (n = 0,1,2 or 3) derivatives, measured at pH 1, indicated stabilization of the (syn) G+p (anti)G conformation by the 5'-phosphate groups. PMID:211490

  11. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776

  12. The impact of facilitation of small-group discussions of psychosocial topics in medicine on faculty growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Arno K; White, Casey B; Ross, Paula T; Perlman, Rachel L; Fantone, Joseph C

    2008-10-01

    To use qualitative analysis of interview transcripts with clinician-educators who facilitate small-group discussions on psychosocial themes--including doctoring--to answer the question, "What impact does facilitating small-group discussions of the patient's experience with chronic illness, the doctor-patient relationship, and doctoring have on faculty instructors' attitudes regarding their roles as clinicians and teachers?" In 2006, in-depth, face-to-face interviews using an open-ended question format were conducted with individual faculty small-group instructors teaching in the Family Centered Experience and Longitudinal Case Studies courses at the University of Michigan Medical School. Interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology to identify emerging themes. Accuracy of interpretations and saturation of themes was confirmed by repeated contextual reading of the transcripts. Several major thematic codes emerged from the data. Facilitation of small-group discussions of psychosocial topics and doctoring fostered reflective approaches to patient care and teaching; enhanced interpersonal relationships between facilitators and their students, colleagues, and patients; and acted as a source of fulfillment and renewal among faculty facilitators. Small-group teaching of the art of doctoring may stimulate personal and professional growth among faculty facilitators and renewed interest in teaching and patient care.

  13. APS-Workshop on Characterization of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) Devices for Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, Jerry (Editor); Mittra, Raj (Editor); Laprade, Nick; Edward, Bryan; Zaghloul, Amir

    1987-01-01

    The IEEE AP-S ADCOM is attempting to expand its educational, tutorial and information exchange activities as a further benefit to all members. To this end, ADCOM will be forming specialized workshops on topics of interest to its members. The first such workshop on Characterization and Packaging of MMIC Devices for Array Antennas was conceived. The workshop took place on June 13, 1986 as part of the 1986 International Symposium sponsored by IEEE AP-S and URSI in Philadelphia, PA, June 9-13, 1986. The workshop was formed to foster the interchange of ideas among MMIC device users and to provide a forum to collect and focus information among engineers experienced and interested in the topic. After brief presentations by the panelists and comments from attendees on several subtopics, the group was divided into working committees. Each committee evaluated and made recommendations on one of the subtopics.

  14. APS-Workshop on Characterization of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) Devices for Array Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Jerry; Mittra, Raj; Laprade, Nick; Edward, Bryan; Zaghloul, Amir

    1987-02-01

    The IEEE AP-S ADCOM is attempting to expand its educational, tutorial and information exchange activities as a further benefit to all members. To this end, ADCOM will be forming specialized workshops on topics of interest to its members. The first such workshop on Characterization and Packaging of MMIC Devices for Array Antennas was conceived. The workshop took place on June 13, 1986 as part of the 1986 International Symposium sponsored by IEEE AP-S and URSI in Philadelphia, PA, June 9-13, 1986. The workshop was formed to foster the interchange of ideas among MMIC device users and to provide a forum to collect and focus information among engineers experienced and interested in the topic. After brief presentations by the panelists and comments from attendees on several subtopics, the group was divided into working committees. Each committee evaluated and made recommendations on one of the subtopics.

  15. APS-Workshop on Characterization of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) Devices for Array Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, Jerry (Editor); Mittra, Raj (Editor); Laprade, Nick; Edward, Bryan; Zaghloul, Amir

    1987-01-01

    The IEEE AP-S ADCOM is attempting to expand its educational, tutorial and information exchange activities as a further benefit to all members. To this end, ADCOM will be forming specialized workshops on topics of interest to its members. The first such workshop on Characterization and Packaging of MMIC Devices for Array Antennas was conceived. The workshop took place on June 13, 1986 as part of the 1986 International Symposium sponsored by IEEE AP-S and URSI in Philadelphia, PA, June 9-13, 1986. The workshop was formed to foster the interchange of ideas among MMIC device users and to provide a forum to collect and focus information among engineers experienced and interested in the topic. After brief presentations by the panelists and comments from attendees on several subtopics, the group was divided into working committees. Each committee evaluated and made recommendations on one of the subtopics.

  16. Is combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid superior than topical, intravenous tranexamic acid alone and control groups for blood loss controlling after total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunmei; Qi, Yingmei; Jie, Li; Li, Hong-Biao; Zhao, Xi-Cheng; Qin, Lei; Jiang, Xin-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Ma, Liping

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) versus topical, intravenous TXA alone or control for reducing blood loss after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In May 2016, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Wanfang database. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria. Only patients prepared for primary TKA that administration combined topical with intravenous TXA with topical TXA, intravenous (IV) TXA, or control group for reducing blood loss were included. Eligible criteria were published RCTs about combined topical with intravenous TXA with topical alone or intravenous alone. The primary endpoint was the total blood loss and need for transfusion. The complications of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were also compiled to assess the safety of combined topical TXA with intravenous TXA. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated for dichotomous outcomes, and mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs for continuous outcomes. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to appraise a risk of bias. Stata 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. Fifteen studies involving 1495 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled meta-analysis indicated that combined topical TXA with intravenous TXA can reduce the total blood loss compared with placebo with a mean of 458.66 mL and the difference is statistically significant (MD = -458.66, 95% CI: -655.40 to 261.91, P < 0.001). Compared with intravenous TXA, combined administrated TXA can decrease the total blood loss, and the difference is statistically significant (MD = -554.03, 95% CI: -1066.21 to -41.85, P = 0.034). Compared with the topical administration TXA, the

  17. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  18. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  19. Social Work and Evaluation: Why You Might Be Interested in the American Evaluation Association Social Work Topical Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy C.; Kazi, Mansoor A.

    2012-01-01

    With increased pressure on programs to evaluate outcomes, the issue of evaluation in social work has never been so topical. In response to these pressures, there has been a growing interest in evidence-based practice and strategies for the evaluation of social work programs. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is an international…

  20. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies. A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    The publication contains thirteen reports from the Twentieth National Agricultural Policy Conference held September 22-25, 1970, at Pokagon State Park, Angola, Indiana. The conference was designed to assist extension workers by broadening their perspective, understanding, and handling of the methodology of public affairs education. Four topics in…

  1. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies; A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Sixteen essays pertaining to agricultural extension education were the basis of the 18th National Agricultural Policy Conference, held September 10-18, 1968, at Sequoyah State Park, Wagoner, Oklahoma. Individual topics of papers include leadership training, Iowa State welfare, low income area community development, an urban extension pilot…

  2. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P < .001). This preliminary evidence suggests that saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

  3. AP Music Theory Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  4. AP Music Theory Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  5. A topical microemulsion for the prevention of allergic rhinitis symptoms: results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre, multinational clinical trial (Nares study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since barrier protection measures to avoid contact with allergens are being increasingly developed, we assessed the clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical nasal microemulsion made of glycerol esters in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods Randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre, multinational clinical trial in which adult patients with allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis due to sensitization to birch, grass or olive tree pollens received treatment with topical microemulsion or placebo during the pollen seasons. Efficacy variables included scores in the mini-RQLQ questionnaire, number and severity of nasal, ocular and lung signs and symptoms, need for symptomatic medications and patients’ satisfaction with treatment. Adverse events were also recorded. Results Demographic characteristics were homogeneous between groups and mini-RQLQ scores did not differ significantly at baseline (visit 1). From symptoms recorded in the diary cards, the ME group showed statistically significant better scores for nasal congestion (0.72 vs. 1.01; p = 0.017) and mean total nasal symptoms (0.7 vs. 0.9; p = 0.045). At visit 2 (pollen season), lower values were observed in the mini-RQLQ in the ME group, although there were no statistically significant differences between groups in both full analysis set (FAS) and patients completing treatment (PPS) populations. The results obtained in the nasal symptoms domain of the mini-RQLQ at visit 2 showed the highest difference (−0.43; 95% CI: -0.88 to 0.02) for the ME group in the FAS population. The topical microemulsion was safe and well tolerated and no major discomforts were observed. Satisfaction rating with the treatment was similar between the groups. Conclusions The topical application of the microemulsion is a feasible and safe therapy in the prevention of allergic symptoms, particularly nasal congestion. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01478425 PMID

  6. Component Database for the APS Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, S.; Arnold, N. D.; Jarosz, D. P.; Carwardine, J.; Decker, G.; Schwarz, N.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) project will replace the existing APS storage ring with a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice to provide extreme transverse coherence and extreme brightness x-rays to its users. As the time to replace the existing storage ring accelerator is of critical concern, an aggressive one-year removal/installation/testing period is being planned. To aid in the management of the thousands of components to be installed in such a short time, the Component Database (CDB) application is being developed with the purpose to identify, document, track, locate, and organize components in a central database. Three major domains are being addressed: Component definitions (which together make up an exhaustive "Component Catalog"), Designs (groupings of components to create subsystems), and Component Instances (“Inventory”). Relationships between the major domains offer additional "system knowledge" to be captured that will be leveraged with future tools and applications. It is imperative to provide sub-system engineers with a functional application early in the machine design cycle. Topics discussed in this paper include the initial design and deployment of CDB, as well as future development plans.

  7. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) nephropathy in catastrophic, primary, and systemic lupus erythematosus-related APS.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, Maria G; Sotsiou, Flora; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2008-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been poorly recognized. A renal small-vessel vasculopathy, defined as APS nephropathy, has recently been observed in small series of patients with primary APS (PAPS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-APS. We examined the renal histologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of different groups of patients with APS including catastrophic APS (CAPS). Our study included all CAPS (n=6), PAPS (n=8), and SLE-APS (n=23) patients with biopsy-proven renal involvement who were referred to our departments. The kidney biopsy specimens were retrospectively examined by the same renal pathologist. APS nephropathy was diagnosed as previously described. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. All patients with CAPS had acute and chronic renal vascular lesions compatible with diagnosis of APS nephropathy. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), the acute lesion, was observed in all CAPS patients. Fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries (FIH) and focal cortical atrophy (FCA) were the most common chronic vascular lesions, occurring in 4 of 6 (66.7%) and 3 of 6 (50%) patients with CAPS, respectively. TMA was detected in 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with PAPS and in 8 of 23 (35%) patients with SLE-APS, while FIH and FCA were found with similar frequencies in all 3 groups. Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency were the most common renal manifestations of all APS groups. Acute and chronic APS nephropathy lesions were detected in all 3 APS groups. Acute lesions were more prominent in CAPS, while chronic lesions were found with similar frequencies in all groups. Hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and renal insufficiency were the most common renal manifestations of all APS groups.

  8. Diadenosine polyphosphates Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Peter; Schlüter, Hartmut; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Reusch, Hans Peter

    2008-05-15

    Depending on the number of phosphate groups, diadenosine polyphosphates (ApnA, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A) differ in properties such as proliferation, apoptosis, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Possible signaling pathways leading to effects such as proliferation are still unknown. This study examined the proliferative effects of diadenosine polyphosphates on VSMCs and their intracellular pathways. Proliferation of VSMCs was measured by the cell count and [(3)H] thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Single-cell [Ca(2+)](i) measurements were done to determine the influence of [Ca(2+)](i) on intracellular signaling. Stress fiber formation was assessed by fluorescence microscopy to detect an influence of G alpha(12). Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, were shown to increase proliferation of VSMCs by activating P2Y receptors, which leads to stimulation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 cascade. Ap3A- and Ap4A-induced activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 was dependent on a signaling pathway that included the EGF receptor, PKC, PLCbeta and the increase of [Ca(2+)](i). In conclusion, Ap3A and Ap4A, but not Ap5A or Ap6A, induce proliferation of VSMCs by a signaling pathway that begins with activation of P2Y receptors and leads to stimulation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2.

  9. Ruggedized minicomputer hardware and software topics, 1981: Proceedings of the 4th ROLM MIL-SPEC Computer User's Group Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Presentations of a conference on the use of ruggedized minicomputers are summarized. The following topics are discussed: (1) the role of minicomputers in the development and/or certification of commercial or military airplanes in both the United States and Europe; (2) generalized software error detection techniques; (3) real time software development tools; (4) a redundancy management research tool for aircraft navigation/flight control sensors; (5) extended memory management techniques using a high order language; and (6) some comments on establishing a system maintenance scheme. Copies of presentation slides are also included.

  10. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  11. Effect of topical anti-inflammatory treatment on the outcome of laser trabeculoplasty. The Fluorometholone-Laser Trabeculoplasty Study Group.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Frenkel, R E; David, R; Cheetham, J K

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on the outcome of argon laser trabeculoplasty. In this multicenter, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study, 140 chronic open-angle glaucoma patients received either 0.25% fluorometholone or vehicle four times a day unilaterally, beginning 24 hours before and continuing one week after argon laser trabeculoplasty. The laser surgeon placed 50 to 60 burns over the inferior 180 degrees of the trabecular meshwork. The patients were followed up frequently for five weeks after the procedure. Following argon laser trabeculoplasty, signs of anterior chamber inflammation were significantly lower in the fluorometholone group. However, there was no significant difference between the fluorometholone and the vehicle groups in the incidence of increased intraocular pressure in the immediate post-argon laser trabeculoplasty period. Intraocular pressure decreased significantly in both groups from day 1 throughout the follow-up period. A significant between-group difference in intraocular pressure decrease was found only at week 5 (7.83 +/- 6.27 [S.D.] mm Hg for the fluorometholone group vs 6.63 +/- 5.79 mm Hg for the vehicle group, P = .046). No drug-related clinically significant adverse events were observed. Use of fluorometholone is effective in attenuating inflammation and has no clinically significant impact on the outcome of argon laser trabeculoplasty or on the incidence of intraocular pressure spikes during the immediate post-argon laser trabeculoplasty period.

  12. PSAT and AP Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palin, Raymond J.

    2001-01-01

    Through evaluation of 73 eleventh-grade students over three years, explores the extent to which standardized test scores and other academic factors predict success on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in U.S. history. Finds that standardized scores, grade point average, and anticipated college majors are closely related to AP success. (CMK)

  13. APS and Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    The movement toward Open Access continues to gain momentum. A brief review of APS efforts in this area will be presented by APS Editor in Chief, Gene Sprouse. Editors from Physical Review A, B, E, Focus, Letters, and X, Reviews of Modern Physics, and Physics will address your questions about publishing in this evolving environment.

  14. Classroom Discourse during Social Studies: Students' Purposes and Topics of Interest in Peer-led Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan I.

    This study was designed as an effort to understand how student-directed small-group discussions can further student thinking about issues related to social studies. The study utilized participant observation to collect data two to three times weekly as students engaged in a literature-based reading program called Book Club. The specific questions…

  15. A Strategy to Survey Taxonomic Groups: Integrating the study of Biology Topics with Inquiries into Higher Taxa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fina, Anthony V.

    2003-01-01

    Biology teachers in introductory and upper level high school courses generally present principles of taxonomy as part of the curriculum. Students learn about classification systems that categorizes species into recognized taxonomic groups based on their degrees of structural divergence or derived ancestral traits. References made, hereafter, to…

  16. Selective traditions in group discussions: teachers' views about good science and the possible obstacles when encountering a new topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Sund, Per

    2016-11-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about what content that should be taught in science education and there are different views among teachers about what represent good science content. However, teachers are not isolated individuals making their own interpretations, but are part of institutionalised systems building on patterns in the selection of teaching goals and content. Earlier research shows that teachers teach in alignment with different selective traditions, which can be understood as well-developed teaching habits. Individual teachers seem to develop their personal habits on the basis of the contextual situations created by earlier generations of teachers. In order to find out which content teachers find representative for science education, we asked nine teachers to take part in group interviews to talk about what they value as "good" science content. The participants were grouped according to their selective traditions expressed in earlier studies. The method was used to dynamically explore, challenge and highlight teachers' views. The starting point for the group discussions is national tests in science. In Sweden, national tests in biology, physics and chemistry were introduced in secondary school science (year 9) in 2009. One overarching aim of these tests is to support the implementation of the science curricula and to include for example knowledge about socio-scientific issues (SSI). The content of the tests can consequently be seen as important for teachers to consider. The findings show that `resistance' to including SSI is not just an issue for individual teachers. As individuals teachers can create many kinds of obstacles, but still be interested in integrating SSI in their science teaching. However, in group discussions the teachers tend to collectively adopt the scientific rational discourse. This discourse is what joins them and creates their common identity as science teachers. In turn, they seek to free scientific knowledge from social knowledge

  17. Monitoring physiology trainee needs to focus professional society responses: the APS Trainee Needs Surveys.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Marsha L; Lowy, Melinda E; Sweazea, Karen L; Alvarez, Diego F

    2011-06-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage. Survey findings guided the TAC and other APS committees and groups to focus their efforts toward the issues that were of the greatest interest to trainees. It also led to improved communication with trainees and increased involvement of trainees in APS governance.

  18. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from

  19. Performance and emissions of coal-fueled engines using group combustion theory: Interim topical report, 1986-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Caton, J.A.; Roth, J.; Ryan, W.; Schmidt, J.

    1987-11-01

    A literature review describes the development of interactive and group combustion (GC) studies, the bubble combustion (BC) model, the pulverized coal gasification and combustion (PCGC) model for burners, the packet combustion (PACC) model for engines, and various NO/sub x/ models. The group combustion (GC) model for a cloud of coal-water slurry drops in a confined volume is described with correction factors. The heat transfer model is given with results for nodal temperatures of cylinder head utilizing iron componet through an engine cycle. The NO/sub x/ model is also given with incorporation into the PACC model;results are given for NO/sub x/ emissions as a function of crank angle, injection timing, inlet manifold temperature etc. Results from the GC model are currently being incorporated in the PACC model. The correction factor from the nonsteady GC model varies from 0.2 to 0.1. Pressure vs time plot confirms GE bomb reactor data. Ignition starts as a heterogeneous process, leading to pyrolysis and the heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion of volatiles. In the preliminary results of the heat transfer model, the temperature swing of interior node of cylinder head is 20)degree)K for insulated case and 35)degree)K for the iron case. The engine cycle simulation for coal-fueled, reciprocating, internal combustion engines is expanded to include calculations of NO exhaust emissions. Calculations have been completed for a coal-wate slurry fuel. Engine performance parameters are in good agreement with published values. Computed exhaust NO concentrations for both diesel and coal-water slurry fuels are in fair agreement with preliminary experiment. In general, the exhaust NO concentrations are lower for the coal-water slurry fuel relative to the diesel fuel. The thermal NO production for the coal-water slurry fuel is a strong function of the coalwater mass ratio. The NO from fuel-bound nitrogen could be significant for coal-water slurry fuels. 52 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Autoantibody profiling in APS.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge

  2. Capturing Public Opinion on Public Health Topics: A Comparison of Experiences from a Systematic Review, Focus Group Study, and Analysis of Online, User-Generated Content.

    PubMed

    Giles, Emma Louise; Adams, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing public opinion toward public health topics is important to ensure that services, policy, and research are aligned with the beliefs and priorities of the general public. A number of approaches can be used to capture public opinion. We are conducting a program of work on the effectiveness and acceptability of health promoting financial incentive interventions. We have captured public opinion on financial incentive interventions using three methods: a systematic review, focus group study, and analysis of online user-generated comments to news media reports. In this short editorial-style piece, we compare and contrast our experiences with these three methods. Each of these methods had their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include tailoring of the research question for systematic reviews, probing of answers during focus groups, and the ability to aggregate a large data set using online user-generated content. However, disadvantages include needing to update systematic reviews, participants conforming to a dominant perspective in focus groups, and being unable to collect respondent characteristics during analysis of user-generated online content. That said, analysis of user-generated online content offers additional time and resource advantages, and we found it elicited similar findings to those obtained via more traditional methods, such as systematic reviews and focus groups. A number of methods for capturing public opinions on public health topics are available. Public health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should choose methods appropriate to their aims. Analysis of user-generated online content, especially in the context of news media reports, may be a quicker and cheaper alternative to more traditional methods, without compromising on the breadth of opinions captured.

  3. Effects of systemic beta-blocker therapy on the efficacy and safety of topical brimonidine and timolol. Brimonidine Study Groups 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Schuman, J S

    2000-06-01

    To determine the impact of coadminstration of systemic beta-blockers on the ocular hypotensive efficacy and safety of topical timolol, a nonselective, beta-blocker, and that of brimonidine, an alpha2-selective adrenergic agonist, in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Post hoc evaluation of data collected from two prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, actively-controlled, 12-month clinical trials. Of the 926 subjects with ocular hypertension or glaucoma that were enrolled in the two prospective trials, 66 (7.1%) were concurrently maintained on systemic beta-blocker therapy. Of these patients, 34 had been assigned to the brimonidine group and 32 to the timolol group. Subjects instilled into each eye either 1 drop of brimonidine 0.2% or timolol 0.5% twice daily for 1 year. Study subjects within medication treatment groups were classified as to their use or nonuse of concurrent systemic beta-blockers, and mean intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, adverse events, heart rate, and blood pressure were compared. Mean IOP reduction from baseline was the primary efficacy variable. Adverse events and mean changes in heart rate and blood pressure from baseline were the primary safety variables. Timolol-treated subjects concurrently taking systemic beta-blockers had smaller decreases in IOP, a greater mean change in systolic (at week 2, months 1, 2, 6, and 9; P < or = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (months 2 and 6; P < or = 0.02), and a significantly greater mean decrease in heart rate (month 6; P = 0.004) compared with timolol subjects not taking systemic beta-blockers. By contrast, there was a modest enhancement of IOP-lowering efficacy at trough and no effect on blood pressure or heart rate in brimonidine-treated subjects who were concurrently receiving systemic beta-blocker therapy compared with brimonidine subjects not receiving systemic beta-blockers. Concurrent systemic beta-blocker therapy had no deleterious effect on

  4. AP@home

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Benesch, Carsten; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past years the development of an artificial pancreas (AP) has made great progress and many activities are ongoing in this area of research. The major step forward made in the last years was moving the evaluation of AP systems from highly controlled experimental conditions to daily life conditions at the home of patients with diabetes; this was also the aim of the European Union–funded AP@home project. Over a time period of 5 years a series of clinical studies were performed that culminated in 2 “final studies” during which an AP system was used by patients in their home environment for 2 or 3 months without supervision by a physician, living their normal lives. Two different versions of the AP system developed within this project were evaluated. A significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin was observed during closed-loop conditions despite the fact that during the control period the patients used the best currently available therapeutic option. In addition, a “single-port AP system” was developed within the project that combines continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion at a single tissue site. By using such a combined device the patients not only have to carry one less device around, the number of access points through the skin is also reduced from 2 to 1. In summary, close cooperation of 12 European partners, both academic centers and industry, enabled the development and evaluation of AP systems under daily life conditions. The next step is to develop these into products in cooperation with commercial partners. PMID:26888971

  5. Efinaconazole Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... may catch fire. Stay away from heat and flames while you are applying this medication.Do not get a pedicure or apply nail polish or other cosmetic nail products to your toenails during your treatment with efinaconazole topical solution.To apply the topical ...

  6. Analysis of the cell death-inducing ability of the ethylene response factors in group VIII of the AP2/ERF family.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Takuya; Kida, Yuma; Tochigi, Mayuko; Matsushita, Yasuhiko

    2013-08-01

    The ethylene response factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors. We have shown previously that the overexpression of the gene for NtERF3, a tobacco transcriptional repressor containing the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the C-terminal region, induces hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like cell death. Many EAR motif-containing ERFs, including NtERF3, are clustered in group VIII of the ERF family. In this study, we aimed at revealing the cell death-inducing ability of group VIII ERFs and the correlation between ERFs and HR. The results showed that many of the EAR motif-containing ERFs classified into subgroup VIII-a of Arabidopsis, rice, and tobacco had cell death-inducing ability in tobacco leaves. Seven AtERFs in subgroup VIII-b did not induce cell death; however, some ERFs in subgroup VIII-b of rice and tobacco showed cell death-inducing ability. An expression analysis of group VIII ERFs in HR-inducing tobacco suggested that the cell death-inducing ability of NtERFs was not necessarily associated with induction of HR. In addition, it was revealed that the EAR motif-containing AtERFs in subgroup II-a also showed cell death-inducing ability. The influence of sequence variation in the EAR motif on the ability to induce cell death is also discussed.

  7. Effect of topical anti-inflammatory treatment on the long-term outcome of laser trabeculoplasty. Fluorometholone-Laser Trabeculoplasty Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y Y; Glover, B K; Shin, D H; Lee, D; Frenkel, R E; Abreu, M M

    1998-11-01

    To investigate the effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on the long-term outcome of argon laser trabeculoplasty, we extended the short-term study of the Fluorometholone-Laser Trabeculoplasty Study Group. Among the chronic open-angle glaucoma patients randomly assigned to the 0.25% fluorometholone or placebo eyedrops four times daily before and after argon laser trabeculoplasty in the Fluorometholone-Laser Trabeculoplasty Study, the long-term records of 27 patients (13 eyes in the fluorometholone group and 14 eyes in the placebo group) were available for our review and analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in the success rate of argon laser trabeculoplasty between the fluorometholone and control groups over the follow-up period of 4.6 +/- 3.4 years. While it decreased ocular inflammation and discomfort during the early postoperative period, peri-argon laser trabeculoplasty use of a topical corticosteroid did not influence the long-term intraocular pressure outcome of argon laser trabeculoplasty.

  8. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. Methods One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members’ evaluations of the discussions. Results Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others’ experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Conclusions Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a

  9. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    PubMed

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  10. Liaison to DASN AP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Liaison  to  DASN   AP   Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...control number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liaison to DASN AP 5a...on  was  created:   § To  serve  as  a  liaison  between  the  DON   OSBP  and  DASN   AP   § Co-­‐located  to

  11. The APS in Public Affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2000-04-01

    Although the American Physical Society was created for the interchange of scientific ideas, the call to the founding meeting included the observation that the organization "could not fail to have an important influence in all matters affecting the interest of physicists". However for most of its history APS did not behave like "just another interest group in American society". Instead, at the beginning, it limited itself to such successful initiatives as the creation of the Bureau of Standards and such unsuccessful ones as adoption of the metric system. After World War II, speaking out on behalf of the freedom of science and scientists, such as Astin, Condon, and Oppenheimer, became important. In the 1970's, pushed by members, the Society became more "political", sponsoring sessions and studies on defense issues, taking a stand for the Equal Rights Amendment and creating the Panel on Public Affairs and the Forum on Physics and Society. Only in the last fifteen years has the APS unabashedly lobbied for the economic interests of physics and physicists. Adopting this new, if unavoidable role may have unintended consequences for the willingness and effectiveness of APS in speaking out on other public issues.

  12. Erratum: ``New Members of the TW Hydrae Association, β Pictoris Moving Group, and Tucana/Horologium Association'' (ApJ, 599, 342 [2003])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, B.; Bessell, M. S.

    2004-03-01

    In the printed paper, the fifth sentence in the abstract is missing a word. The correct sentence should read: ``A couple of mid-M spectral type β Pic members show emission features (He I λ5876+λ6678 and Na D λ5890+λ5896) that are not seen among earlier spectral type stars in the TWA and β Pic groups.'' In Table 1 certain errors were introduced when proof corrections were not carried correctly to the final printed version. Specifically, (1) only TWA members should have TWA designations (TWA 21-25), and (2) error bars for HIP 11437B were misprinted. A correct version of Table 1 is given here. Finally, because of the small size of Figure 9 in the printed version of the paper, the symbols used for Pleiades and Hyades stars are very hard to distinguish. These are now easily discernible in the larger version given below. The press sincerely regrets these errors.

  13. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  14. Oxybutynin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract uncontrollably and cause frequent ... bladder even when it is not full). Oxybutynin gel is in a class of medications called antimuscarinics. ...

  15. Occupational malaria and health risk among select occupational health care employee groups in an urban hospital at Tirupati, A.P.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, M; Nandakumar, N V

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on occupational environments are very meagre in the developing countries like India. For this reason an attempt was made in the present investigation to see the occupational risk of malaria among health care workers of Sri Venkateswara Ramnarayan Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. The cohort studies revealed association between exposure to occupational (hospital) environment and malaria among hospital staff. Retrospective cohort studies were made. 1,454 subjects namely hospital staff exposed to occupational environment included civil assistant surgeons and physicians, the students of medicine, the students of nursing, permanent nursing staff and the class IV employees (class IV included janitorial, male nursing orderlies, female nursing orderlies, attenders, laundry workers and the rest). Retrospective epidemiological studies were carried out for four years on the cohorts and the hospital staff. The data showed statistically significant relative risk and attributable risk for malaria. Physicians and civil assistant surgeons showed no incidence of malaria. The relative risk for malaria in the class IV employees was 1.27, 0, 5.8 and 2.9 for the years 1995-98. The students of nursing showed 4.2, 2.42, 3.3 and 0 relative risk for malaria, whereas the students of medicine showed 2, 2, 2 and 1.6 for the years 1995 to 1998. The attributable risk was ranged from 21.76-82.70, 58.75-76.17, 50-80 for the class IV employees, the students of nursing and the students of medicine retrospectively. These results provide an evidence for an association between occupational environment and malaria for the hospital staff and is more prevalent among certain groups of the hospital staff.

  16. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  17. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  18. Naturally occurring phenolic acids modulate TPA-induced activation of EGFR, AP-1, and STATs in mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Michał; Dałek, Miłosz; Szamałek, Mateusz; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in epithelial carcinogenesis and appears to be involved in STATs activation. In this study we investigated the possible interference of naturally occurring phenolic acids with EGFR, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways activated by topical application of tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Balb/c mice epidermis. Pretreatment with tannic or chlorogenic acid resulted in a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of EGFR Y-1068 and Y-1173 tyrosine residues, which was accompanied by reduced activation of AP-1. Tannic acid decreased also the c-Jun AP-1 subunit level and binding to TPA response element (TRE) (3- and 2-fold in comparison with TPA-treated group respectively). Simultaneous reduction of JNK activity might be responsible for reduced activation of AP-1. In contrast to these more complex phenolics, protocatechuic acid increased the activity of JNK and was also the most efficient inhibitor of STATs activation. These results indicate that naturally occurring phenolic acids, by decreasing EGFR, AP-1, and STATs activation, may modulate other elements both upstream and downstream in these pathways and thus inhibit the tumor development. Although more complex phenolics affect mainly the EGFR/AP-1 pathway, STATs seem to be the most important targets for simple compounds, such as protocatechuic acid.

  19. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  20. Capturing diagnosis-timing in ICD-coded hospital data: recommendations from the WHO ICD-11 topic advisory group on quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, V; Romano, P S; Quan, H; Burnand, B; Drösler, S E; Brien, S; Pincus, H A; Ghali, W A

    2015-08-01

    To develop a consensus opinion regarding capturing diagnosis-timing in coded hospital data. As part of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases-11th Revision initiative, the Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group is charged with enhancing the capture of quality and patient safety information in morbidity data sets. One such feature is a diagnosis-timing flag. The Group has undertaken a narrative literature review, scanned national experiences focusing on countries currently using timing flags, and held a series of meetings to derive formal recommendations regarding diagnosis-timing reporting. The completeness of diagnosis-timing reporting continues to improve with experience and use; studies indicate that it enhances risk-adjustment and may have a substantial impact on hospital performance estimates, especially for conditions/procedures that involve acutely ill patients. However, studies suggest that its reliability varies, is better for surgical than medical patients (kappa in hip fracture patients of 0.7-1.0 versus kappa in pneumonia of 0.2-0.6) and is dependent on coder training and setting. It may allow simpler and more precise specification of quality indicators. As the evidence indicates that a diagnosis-timing flag improves the ability of routinely collected, coded hospital data to support outcomes research and the development of quality and safety indicators, the Group recommends that a classification of 'arising after admission' (yes/no), with permitted designations of 'unknown or clinically undetermined', will facilitate coding while providing flexibility when there is uncertainty. Clear coding standards and guidelines with ongoing coder education will be necessary to ensure reliability of the diagnosis-timing flag. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  1. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  2. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had asthma, eczema (sensitive skin that often becomes itchy or irritated) or allergies.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using topical clindamycin, ...

  3. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... use this medication near heat or an open flame, such as a cigarette.To use ciclopirox topical solution, follow these steps: Be sure that you have trimmed your nails properly before your first treatment. Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle ...

  4. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Spinosad suspension is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and ... Topical spinosad comes as a suspension (liquid) to apply to the scalp and hair. It is usually applied to the scalp and hair in one or sometimes ...

  5. Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, M G

    2014-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

  7. The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

  8. Examining the construct and known-group validity of a composite endpoint for The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum Data Set (TOPICS-MDS); A large-scale data sharing initiative.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Cynthia S; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Boter, Han; Buurman, Bianca M; de Craen, Anton J M; Donders, Rogier; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Makai, Peter; Melis, René J F

    2017-01-01

    Preference-weighted multi-faceted endpoints have the potential to facilitate comparative effectiveness research that incorporates patient preferences. The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey-Composite endpoint (TOPICS-CEP) is potentially a valuable outcome measure for evaluating interventions in geriatric care as it combines multiple outcomes relevant to older persons in a single metric. The objective of this study was to validate TOPICS-CEP across different study settings (general population, primary care and hospital). Data were extracted from TOPICS Minimum Dataset (MDS), a pooled public-access national database with information on older persons throughout the Netherlands. Data of 17,603 older persons were used. Meta-correlations were performed between TOPICS-CEP indexed scores, EuroQol5-D utility scores and Cantril's ladder life satisfaction scores. Mixed linear regression analyses were performed to compare TOPICS-CEP indexed scores between known groups, e.g. persons with versus without depression. In the complete sample and when stratified by study setting TOPICS-CEP and Cantril's ladder were moderately correlated, whereas TOPICS-CEP and EQ-5D were highly correlated. Higher mean TOPICS-CEP scores were found in persons who were: married, lived independently and had an education at university level. Moreover, higher mean TOPICS-CEP scores were found in persons without dementia, depression, and dizziness with falls, respectively. Similar results were found when stratified by subgroup. This study supports that TOPICS-CEP is a robust measure which can potentially be used in broad settings to identify the effect of intervention or of prevention in elderly care.

  9. Examining the construct and known-group validity of a composite endpoint for The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum Data Set (TOPICS-MDS); A large-scale data sharing initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Cynthia S.; Lutomski, Jennifer E.; Boter, Han; Buurman, Bianca M.; Donders, Rogier; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Makai, Peter; Melis, René J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preference-weighted multi-faceted endpoints have the potential to facilitate comparative effectiveness research that incorporates patient preferences. The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey—Composite endpoint (TOPICS-CEP) is potentially a valuable outcome measure for evaluating interventions in geriatric care as it combines multiple outcomes relevant to older persons in a single metric. The objective of this study was to validate TOPICS-CEP across different study settings (general population, primary care and hospital). Methods Data were extracted from TOPICS Minimum Dataset (MDS), a pooled public-access national database with information on older persons throughout the Netherlands. Data of 17,603 older persons were used. Meta-correlations were performed between TOPICS-CEP indexed scores, EuroQol5-D utility scores and Cantril’s ladder life satisfaction scores. Mixed linear regression analyses were performed to compare TOPICS-CEP indexed scores between known groups, e.g. persons with versus without depression. Results In the complete sample and when stratified by study setting TOPICS-CEP and Cantril’s ladder were moderately correlated, whereas TOPICS-CEP and EQ-5D were highly correlated. Higher mean TOPICS-CEP scores were found in persons who were: married, lived independently and had an education at university level. Moreover, higher mean TOPICS-CEP scores were found in persons without dementia, depression, and dizziness with falls, respectively. Similar results were found when stratified by subgroup. Conclusion This study supports that TOPICS-CEP is a robust measure which can potentially be used in broad settings to identify the effect of intervention or of prevention in elderly care. PMID:28296910

  10. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  11. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  12. The APS ceramic chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  13. How many diagnosis fields are needed to capture safety events in administrative data? Findings and recommendations from the WHO ICD-11 Topic Advisory Group on Quality and Safety.

    PubMed

    Drösler, Saskia E; Romano, Patrick S; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Burnand, Bernard; Colin, Cyrille; Pincus, Harold; Ghali, William

    2014-02-01

    As part of the WHO ICD-11 development initiative, the Topic Advisory Group on Quality and Safety explores meta-features of morbidity data sets, such as the optimal number of secondary diagnosis fields. The Health Care Quality Indicators Project of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development collected Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) information from administrative hospital data of 19-20 countries in 2009 and 2011. We investigated whether three countries that expanded their data systems to include more secondary diagnosis fields showed increased PSI rates compared with six countries that did not. Furthermore, administrative hospital data from six of these countries and two American states, California (2011) and Florida (2010), were analysed for distributions of coded patient safety events across diagnosis fields. Among the participating countries, increasing the number of diagnosis fields was not associated with any overall increase in PSI rates. However, high proportions of PSI-related diagnoses appeared beyond the sixth secondary diagnosis field. The distribution of three PSI-related ICD codes was similar in California and Florida: 89-90% of central venous catheter infections and 97-99% of retained foreign bodies and accidental punctures or lacerations were captured within 15 secondary diagnosis fields. Six to nine secondary diagnosis fields are inadequate for comparing complication rates using hospital administrative data; at least 15 (and perhaps more with ICD-11) are recommended to fully characterize clinical outcomes. Increasing the number of fields should improve the international and intra-national comparability of data for epidemiologic and health services research, utilization analyses and quality of care assessment.

  14. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  15. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Miroshnikova, A D; Kuznetsova, A A; Kuznetsov, N A; Fedorova, O S

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5'-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1' hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of "crystalline" water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5'-phosphate-2'-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step.

  16. AP180 and CALM

    PubMed Central

    Puchkov, Dmytro

    2011-01-01

    Communication between neurons largely occurs at chemical synapses by conversion of electric to chemical signals. Chemical neurotransmission involves the action potential-driven release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic nerve terminals. Fusion of SVs is driven by SNARE complex formation comprising synaptobrevin 2 on the SV membrane and syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane. In order to maintain neurotransmission during repetitive stimulation and to prevent expansion of the presynaptic plasma membrane, exocytic SV fusion needs to be balanced by compensatory retrieval of SV components to regenerate functional vesicles. Our recent work has unraveled a mechanism by which the R-SNARE synaptobrevin 2, the most abundant SV protein and an essential player for exocytic fusion, is recycled from the presynaptic membrane. The SNARE motif of synaptobrevin 2 is directly recognized by the ANTH domains of AP180 and CALM, monomeric endocytic adaptors for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Given that key residues involved in synaptobrevin 2-ANTH domain complex formation are also essential for SNARE assembly, we propose that disassembly of SNARE complexes is a prerequisite for synaptobrevin 2 retrieval, thereby preventing endocytic mis-sorting of the plasma membrane Q-SNAREs syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25. It is tempting to speculate that perturbed synaptobrevin 2 recycling caused by reduction of CALM or AP180 levels may lead to disease as suggested by the genetic association of ANTH domain proteins with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22279617

  17. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  18. Thrombotic risk assessment in APS: the Global APS Score (GAPSS).

    PubMed

    Sciascia, S; Bertolaccini, M L

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we developed a risk score for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (Global APS Score or GAPSS). This score derived from the combination of independent risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss, taking into account the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) profile (criteria and non-criteria aPL), the conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and the autoimmune antibodies profile. We demonstrate that risk profile in APS can be successfully assessed, suggesting that GAPSS can be a potential quantitative marker of APS-related clinical manifestations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Gay-Straight Alliances as settings to discuss health topics: individual and group factors associated with substance use, mental health, and sexual health discussions.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V P; Heck, N C; Yoshikawa, H; Calzo, J P

    2017-06-01

    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their experiences. Attention to these topics in GSAs could aid in developing programming for these settings. Among 295 youth from 33 Massachusetts high-school GSAs (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, Mage = 16.06), we examined how often youth discussed these topics within their GSA and identified factors associated with having more of these discussions. Youth and GSAs as a whole varied in their frequency of discussing these topics. Youth who accessed more information/resources in the GSA and did more advocacy more frequently engaged in discussions around substance use, mental health and sexual health. Youth who reported greater victimization more often discussed substance use and mental health, but not sexual health. Finally, GSAs whose members collectively reported greater victimization more frequently discussed these topics. These findings can assist the development of health programming to be delivered within GSAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  1. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  2. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  3. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

  4. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  5. Adherence and patient satisfaction with topical treatment in psoriasis, and the use, and organoleptic properties of such treatments: a Delphi study with an expert panel and members of the Psoriasis Group of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Puig, L; Carrascosa, J M; Belinchón, I; Fernández-Redondo, V; Carretero, G; Ruiz-Carrascosa, J C; Careaga, J M; de la Cueva, P; Gárate, M T; Ribera, M

    2013-01-01

    Topical therapy is key to the successful management of psoriasis, and patient adherence to treatment contributes to its effectiveness in the long-term. To establish consensus on adherence to topical treatment in psoriasis, draw up recommendations on how adherence could be improved, and evaluate the properties of the main vehicles used. We designed a questionnaire on adherence to topical treatments in psoriasis and another on the properties of the main vehicles used; the 2 questionnaires were evaluated using the Delphi method by a panel of experts and members of the Psoriasis Group of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, respectively. Consensus was reached on the following statements: a) treatment adherence increases the effectiveness of topical treatments in psoriasis; b) to improve adherence, it is necessary to improve communication between patients and health care staff, provide written instructions, and simplify treatment with easy-to-use, pleasant products that are preferably applied only once a day; c) treatment satisfaction increases adherence and tends to improve the health-related quality of life of the patient. Ointment was rated the worst vehicle, while foams and solutions were rated the best. Creams and lipophilic gels were considered to be better than ointment in several respects. To improve adherence to topical regimens in psoriasis and the effectiveness of such therapy, we need to give patients more information, simplify treatment regimens, and prescribe easy-to-use products that will ensure satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. The Ped-APS Registry: the antiphospholipid syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Avcin, T; Cimaz, R; Rozman, B

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been increasingly recognised in various paediatric autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, but the relatively low prevalence and heterogeneity of APS in childhood made it very difficult to study in a systematic way. The project of an international registry of paediatric patients with APS (the Ped-APS Registry) was initiated in 2004 to foster and conduct multicentre, controlled studies with large number of paediatric APS patients. The Ped-APS Registry is organised as a collaborative project of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Working Group of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society. Currently, it documents a standardised clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of 133 children with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-related thrombosis from 14 countries. The priority projects for future research of the Ped-APS Registry include prospective enrollment of new patients with aPL-related thrombosis, assessment of differences between the paediatric and adult APS, evaluation of proinflammatory genotype as a risk factor for APS manifestations in childhood and evaluation of patients with isolated nonthrombotic aPL-related manifestations.

  7. Final report for tank 241-AP-101, grab samples 1AP-95-1, 1AP-95-2, 1AP-95-3, 1AP-95-4, 1AP-95-5, and 1AP-95-6

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-03-04

    Six supernate grab samples (1AP-95-1 through 6) and one field blank (1AP-95-7) were taken from tank 241-AP-101, on Nov. 10 and 13, 1995. Analyses were performed in support of the Safety Screening and the Waste Compatibility Safety programs. All analytical results were within the action limits stated in the TSAP.

  8. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  9. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  10. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  11. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  12. Learning about Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, more recently, prothrombin. There are two main classifications of APS. If the individual has no known ... sole cause of this condition. One report in 1999 studied families with more than one affected member, ...

  13. Peculiar Traits of Coarse AP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    disparity based on crystal axis orientation might be called bidirectional burning. SOLID PROPELLENT COMBUSTIONS Most of the propellant examples...combustion tests. His propellants were variations of a reduced smoke, HTPB /AP, propellant . Further description was that the propellant contained 87...environment and then disappear fairly abruptly? A point of contrast is that AP has lower long term thermal stability than for the HTPB propellant binder

  14. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (I): catastrophic APS, APS nephropathy and heart valve lesions.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyse the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analysed on the catastrophic APS, APS nephropathy and heart valve lesions, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  15. Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema

    PubMed Central

    Gandy, Justin J; Snyman, Jacques R; van Rensburg, Constance EJ

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydratederived fulvic acid (CHD-FA) in the treatment of eczema in patients two years and older. Methods In this single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study, 36 volunteers with predetermined eczema were randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or placebo twice daily for four weeks. Results All safety parameters remained within normal limits, with no significant differences in either group. Significant differences were observed for both severity and erythema in the placebo and CHD-FA treated groups, and a significant difference was observed for scaling in the placebo-treated group. With regard to the investigator assessment of global response to treatment, a significant improvement was observed in the CHD-FA group when compared with the placebo group. A statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale score was observed in both groups, when comparing the baseline with the final results. Conclusion CHD-FA was well tolerated, with no difference in reported side effects other than a short-lived burning sensation on application. CHD-FA significantly improved some aspects of eczema. Investigator assessment of global response to treatment with CHD-FA was significantly better than that with emollient therapy alone. The results of this small exploratory study suggest that CHD-FA warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema. PMID:21931500

  16. GRI workshop on LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues: Focus-group recommendations summary. Topical report, April 29 and 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-07

    GRI organized and conducted the Workshop on LNG Vehicle Technology, Economics, and Safety Issues on April 29 and 30, 1992, in Houston, Texas. The workshop included various presentations, a tour of Houston Metro (LNG bus project) facilities, and focus group discussions. The report documents the recommendations generated by the focus group. There were five separate focus groups with an average of ten members each. They met for 2-1/2 hours to discuss LNG vehicle issues and evolve recommendations for GRI R and D. Fifty-three recommendations were generated and prioritized (through voting) by the focus groups. The report consolidates these recommendations. Recommendations relative to the LNG fuel composition issue received the most votes, followed by consolidated recommendations pertaining to gas venting elimination, safety codes, and odorants or leak detectors. Component development recommendations (in order of votes) included the refueling nozzle, fuel level gage, refueling pump and meter, vehicle pump/regulator/vaporizer, and vehicle tank.

  17. [Apheresis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    De Silvestro, Giustina; Tison, Tiziana; Marson, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical disorder characterized by thromboembolic manifestations and/or obstetric complications. Along with the clinical symptoms and signs, serum antiphospholipid antibodies have to be detected. APS can be primary, i.e., without any concomitant disorders, or secondary to other autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Criteria for the diagnosis of APS have been clearly established. Hyperacute APS (or catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome), often with a poor prognosis, must meet four criteria: involvement of three or more organs, rapid evolution of clinical manifestations, microangiopathic occlusion of small blood vessels at biopsy, and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The rationale for apheresis treatment is the removal of pathogenetic antibodies involved in the development of tissue damage. Our experience includes 23 patients, in particular 15 women treated for 19 pregnancies. According to the National Guidelines Program, the effectiveness of apheresis in catastrophic syndrome has a level of evidence of V/VI, with a strength of recommendation A; in highrisk pregnancy it has a level of evidence of V with a strength of recommendation B. It will be necessary to better define the prognosis of various categories of pregnant patients with APS, as well as useful laboratory parameters to monitor its clinical course and anticipate any complications of pregnancy.

  18. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  19. Proactive maintenance therapy with a topical corticosteroid for vulvar lichen sclerosus: preliminary results of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Virgili, A; Minghetti, S; Borghi, A; Corazza, M

    2013-06-01

    The chronic and relapsing nature of vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) represents a challenge for its long-term management after an effective treatment with topical corticosteroids. To assess the effectiveness of proactive, twice-weekly application of mometasone furoate 0·1% ointment, compared with daily topical vitamin E or cold cream, in keeping VLS in remission and reducing the risk of relapse after 3 months of treatment with topical corticosteroid. In total, 27 patients affected with VLS were enrolled into a 12-week active treatment phase (AP) with topical mometasone furoate 0·1% ointment once daily. Those who achieved disease remission entered a 52-week maintenance phase (MP) in which patients were randomized to apply either mometasone furoate 0·1% ointment twice weekly, a cold cream once daily or topical vitamin E once daily. The primary efficacy parameters were the relapse rate and the mean time to relapse. Twenty-five patients considered to have been completely or almost completely healed after the AP entered the MP. By the end of the 52-week MP, 10 patients (40%) experienced a relapse: five in the vitamin E group (56%) and five in the cold cream group (62%), while no patient in the mometasone furoate 0·1% ointment group had a relapse. The occurrence of VLS relapse for patients in therapy with both vitamin E and cold cream was significantly higher than for those in proactive therapy with topical corticosteroid. The median time to relapse was the same (21·6 weeks) for the vitamin E and the emollient groups. Once VLS has been stabilized with topical corticosteroids, twice-weekly proactive application of mometasone furoate 0·1% ointment over 56 weeks was found to be an effective and safe therapy option in maintaining VLS remission and in preventing the occurrence of relapse. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Miroshnikova, A. D.; Kuznetsova, A. A.; Kuznetsov, N. A.; Fedorova, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5’-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1’ hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of “crystalline” water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5’-phosphate-2’-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step. PMID:27099790

  1. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  2. AP Human Geography and Success on the AP Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncone, John; Newhalfen, Nate

    2013-01-01

    Classroom projects that explore culture and globalization enhance the curriculum and help students see how geography directly connects to their lives. These authors contend that a project-based approach can supplement the teaching of an AP Human Geography course, and visualize this course as an essential tool for students to truly understand how…

  3. [Using the method of central relationship conflict topic in a study of the process and outcome of long-term inpatient group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Dauert, E; Gladewitz, J; Kaak, A; Kieselbach, S; Lammert, K; Struck, D

    1995-01-01

    Within a research project dealing with the process and outcome of inpatient group psychotherapy, the core conflictual relationship theme method (CCRT) was used to determine if the central basic interpersonal problems of patients differ in comparison of individual pre- and postreatment sessions, if the CCRT determined at the beginning of treatment is related to outcome, and if there is a similarity between the CCRT from individual and group sessions. Comparisons of the CRRT(-components) from the beginning and the end of treatment (related to 19 patients) indicated marked changes on the levels of wishes and responses from others as well as "formal" changes of the narratives (temporal relations as well as the objects mentioned). The second part of the study (n = 26) revealed differences between subgroups determined on the basis of differential outcome measures with respect to the structure of their conflicts. The similarity of the CCRT from group and individual sessions which was studied for nine patients appeared to be moderate. The study revealed that the CCRT might need some minor revisions but appears to be an important method to thoroughly describe the effects of psychotherapies.

  4. Hierarchical Theme and Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Tzung

    2016-03-01

    Considering the hierarchical data groupings in text corpus, e.g., words, sentences, and documents, we conduct the structural learning and infer the latent themes and topics for sentences and words from a collection of documents, respectively. The relation between themes and topics under different data groupings is explored through an unsupervised procedure without limiting the number of clusters. A tree stick-breaking process is presented to draw theme proportions for different sentences. We build a hierarchical theme and topic model, which flexibly represents the heterogeneous documents using Bayesian nonparametrics. Thematic sentences and topical words are extracted. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated to be effective to build semantic tree structure for sentences and the corresponding words. The superiority of using tree model for selection of expressive sentences for document summarization is illustrated.

  5. Foreword: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2014-05-01

    This second joint conference between the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter and the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT) demonstrates that static and dynamic compression of condensed matter continues to be a vibrant field of science and engineering. It is also by its nature an interdisciplinary field, incorporating chemistry, materials science, solid mechanics, plasma physics, and condensed matter physics, and utilizes theoretical, computational, and experimental tools. Recent years have brought about many advances in loading platforms, diagnostics, and computations that are leading to the emergence of many new avenues of research. These advances are also breathing new life into traditional topics such as equations of state, phase transformations, and chemistry at extreme conditions. The plenary lectures by Gennady Kanel, Karl Syassen, David Ceperley, Jon Eggert, Duck Young Kim, and Richard Kraus spanned the disciplines of static and dynamic high pressure physics and illustrated the breadth of the field. They also showed that interesting and important problems remain for researchers of the future to solve. The main guiding principal in the organization of this conference was to intertwine static and dynamical experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials. To achieve this goal, we arranged the conference to include static, dynamic, and computational components in the same sessions, quite often taking presenters out of their comfort zone. The three special sessions on Deep Carbon Budget (organized by Giulia Galli and Rus Hemley), High Energy Density Materials (organized by Raymond Jeanloz and Jon Eggert), and Dynamic Response of Materials (organized by Yogendra Gupta and John Sarrao) furthered this guiding principal. We also endeavored to represent the breadth of static and dynamic high pressure science and technology, notably beyond that done at

  6. Coaching in the AP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Many parallels exist between quality coaches and quality classroom teachers--especially AP teachers, who often feel the pressure to produce positive test results. Having developed a series of techniques and strategies for building a team-oriented winning culture on the field, Jim Fornaciari writes about how he adapted those methods to work in the…

  7. Overlapping topics in advisory reports issued by five well-established European National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups from 2011 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Nijsten, Daniëlle; Houweling, Hans; Durupt, Antoine; Adjagba, Alex

    2016-12-07

    National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are facing increasingly complex vaccination issues together with a lack of human resources for evidence assessment and data analysis. One way to reduce these burdens could be to share some of the preparatory work across NITAGs. We conducted an inventory of all the advisory reports issued by five well-established European NITAGs from 2011 to 2014 to assess overlaps in issues and activities. A total of 104 advisory reports were retrieved. Advisory reports on the same issues were compared to identify overlapping activities and processes. Advisory reports issued by the five NITAGs showed little overlap in issues and processes. A first step towards efficient collaboration would be to establish an independent platform to provide insight into each NITAG's work and to facilitate the exchange of agendas, assessment frameworks and evidence.

  8. Intestinal involvement secondary to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS): clinical and immunologic characteristics of 97 patients: comparison of classic and catastrophic APS.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Ricard; Espinosa, Gerard; Cordero, Aida; Oltra, M Rosa; Unzurrunzaga, Ainhoa; Rossiñol, Tomeu; Plaza, Joan; Bucciarelli, Silvia; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Ingelmo, Miguel; Asherson, Ronald A; Font, Josep

    2007-04-01

    To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 97 patients with intestinal involvement secondary to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (37 patients with classic APS and 60 with catastrophic APS). A computer-assisted (PubMed) search of the literature was performed to identify all cases of intestinal involvement associated with the APS from 1983 to December 2005. In addition, we analyzed the web-site-based international registry of patients with catastrophic APS ("CAPS Registry"). There were no differences in distribution by gender, mean age, and previous clinical manifestations of APS between the 2 groups. The prevalence of abdominal pain as the presenting manifestation of intestinal ischemia was higher in patients with classic APS (76% versus 37%; P < 0.005). The main difference in histopathologic findings between the 2 groups was the higher rate of microthrombosis in patients with catastrophic APS (75% versus 4%; P < 0.0005). The mortality rate was higher in patients with catastrophic APS (55% versus 17%; P < 0.0005). Follow-up was available in 22 patients with classical APS: 17 of them were discharged on oral anticoagulation and with a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 1 to 48); all were in good health without the development of new thrombotic events. Intestinal involvement, although infrequent, is an important complication in patients with APS, especially in those with catastrophic APS. This would support the need for systematic screening for aPL in all cases of mesenteric thrombosis or ischemic colitis without clear underlying predisposing factors, and for systematic screening procedures in all classic APS patients complaining of abdominal pain.

  9. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  10. The APS control system network

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

  11. Panel Discussion : Report of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Tim; Barthelemy, Ramon; Garmon, Savannah; Reeves, Kyle; APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues Team

    Following the presentation of the findings and recommendations of the APS Ad-Hoc Committee on LGBT Issues (C-LGBT) by Committee Chair Michael Falk, a panel discussion will be held featuring several members of the committee. The discussion will focus on how APS can best ensure the recommendations of the committee are carried out in a timely fashion and other ideas on future APS efforts toward LGBT inclusion in physics. Discussion topics will also include the research and other input that shaped the committee's findings and recommendations.

  12. European Utility Requirements (EUR) Volume 3 Assessment for AP1000

    SciTech Connect

    Demetri, K.J.; Saiu, Gianfranco

    2004-07-01

    The EUR (European Utility Requirements) effort was launched in December 1991 by several European Utilities. The main objective of the EUR organization is to produce a common set of utility requirements, endorsed by major European utilities for the next generation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants. In 1997 an effort was undertaken by the EUR organization to jointly develop a document which would become 'Volume 3' of the EUR. The objectives of Volume 3 are: - develop a description of the standard nuclear island designs; - assessment of design compliance with the EUR Volume 1 and 2 against these designs; - define the requirements for the specific nuclear island designs. Five subsets of EUR Volume 3, based on EUR Revision B, are already published; all of which are next generation plant designs being developed for Europe beyond 2000. They include: - EP1000 - Passive Pressurized Light Water Reactor (3-Loop, 1000 MWe); - EPR - Evolutionary Pressurized Light Water Reactor (1500 MWe); - BWR90/90+ - Evolutionary Boiling Water Reactor (1400 MWe); - ABWR - Evolutionary Boiling Water Reactor (1400 MWe); - SWR 1000 - Boiling Water Reactor With Passive Features (1000 MWe). Other subsets being developed or proposed include: - AP1000 - Passive Pressurized Light Water Reactor (2-Loop, 1117 MWe); - VVER AES 92 - Pressurized Water Reactor With Passive Features (1000 MWe). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program, which will take place in 2004-2005 with the EUR group to prepare an EUR Volume 3 Subset for the AP1000 nuclear plant design. The AP1000 EUR compliance assessment, to be performed against EUR Revision C requirements, is an important step for the evaluation of the AP1000 design for application in Europe. The AP1000 relies heavily on the AP600 and has inherited design features (e.g., low boron core design) from the EP1000, for which compliance with EUR Revision B was a key design criterion. The EP1000, which also heavily relies on the AP

  13. Peculiar Traits of Coarse AP (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    at differing rates due to pressure and temperature influences in both isolated crystals and solid propellant combustions. Consolidated coarse AP...phase AP is a primary actor during combustions. At very high pressures AP self combustion exhibits differential recession rates depending on whether...different reaction rates are also observed between low and high pressure confinements. In solid propellants coarse AP promotes dark zone combustion, low

  14. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  15. Regulatory Information By Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  16. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  17. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  18. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  19. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  20. Topicalization: A Stylistic Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penelope, Julia

    Although the nature of topicalization is complex and cannot be easily separated from considerations of syntactic structure and sentence focus, analysis of language usage has indicated that topicalization is more a stylistic than a syntactic process. Topicalization refers to moving a noun phrase (NP) into the initial position of a sentence.…

  1. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  2. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  3. Studies of microparticles in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    PubMed

    Vikerfors, A; Mobarrez, F; Bremme, K; Holmström, M; Ågren, A; Eelde, A; Bruzelius, M; Antovic, A; Wallén, H; Svenungsson, E

    2012-06-01

    To study circulating platelet, monocyte and endothelial microparticles (PMPs, MMPs and EMPs) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in comparison with healthy controls. Fifty-two patients with APS and 52 healthy controls were investigated. MPs were measured on a flow cytometer (Beckman Gallios) and defined as particles sized < 1.0 µm, negative to phalloidin, positive to lactadherin and positive to either CD42a (PMPs), CD144 (EMPs) or CD14 (MMPs). Exposure of CD142 (TF) was measured on CD144 positive MPs. Total number of MPs (i.e. lactadherin positive particles) was higher in APS patients versus controls (p < 0.001). An increased number of EMPs (p < 0.001), increased TF-positive EMPs (p < 0.001) and increased MMPs (p < 0.001) were also observed. PMP numbers did not differ between the groups. None of the MP types differed in numbers between obstetric and thrombotic APS patients. We observed a high number of EMPs expressing TF in APS patients. The numbers of MMPs and total EMPs were also higher as compared with healthy controls but in contrast to previous reports, the number of PMPs did not differ between groups.

  4. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  5. Resources for Topics in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Dale B.

    This guide is intended to help the user become familiar with a selected group of reference tools and resources which are useful in nursing education and practice. It is important for students to use the correct medical or scientific terminology, understand the scope of a topic, and then utilize the tools necessary to research subjects of interest.…

  6. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  7. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  8. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  9. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  10. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  11. [Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) when compared with secondary APS: a study with 96 patients].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A R; Carvalho, J F

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of traditional risk factors in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in comparison to those with systemic lupus erythematosus-secondary APS. Transversal study of 96 APS patients (Sapporo's criteria). Demographic and clinical data, cardiovascular risk factors and drug use were investigated. Thirty-nine Primary APS and 57 secondary APS were included. The groups did not differ regarding age (38.5 +/- 9.9 vs. 39.4 +/- 10.5 years, p=0.84) and female gender (84.6 vs. 96.5%, p=0.06), respectively. Arterial events were more observed in primary than secondary APS (59 vs. 36.8%, p=0.04) patients. No difference was seen concerning venous and obstetric events. In regard to traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, both groups were comparable related to current or previous smoking, sedentarism, family history for coronary disease, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity. The frequencies of altered lipid profiles were alike in the two groups, except for a higher prevalence of low HDL-c levels in primary APS group (84.6 vs. 45.5%, p=0.0001). Concerning drug use, no significant differences were observed related to chloroquine and statin use, however the secondary APS patients had a higher rate of prednisone use (10.2 vs. 57.9%, p<0.001) as well as mean dose of corticosteroid (1.5 +/- 5.7 vs. 9.2 +/- 12.5mg/ /day, p=0.0001). Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease are present and comparable between patients with primary and secondary APS, except for a high frequency of low HDL-c in primary APS patients.

  12. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  13. Monitoring Physiology Trainee Needs to Focus Professional Society Responses: The APS Trainee Needs Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matyas, Marsha L.; Lowy, Melinda E.; Sweazea, Karen L.; Alvarez, Diego F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest…

  14. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  15. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  16. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    PubMed

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  17. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  18. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Shangguan, L F; Ma, R J; Sun, X; Tao, R; Guo, L; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2012-10-17

    We identified 131 AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) genes in material from peach using the gene sequences of AP2/ERF amino acids of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) as probes. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and individual gene characteristics, the AP2/ERF superfamily gene in peach can be classified broadly into three families, ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and AP2 (APETALA2), containing 104, 5, and 21 members, respectively, along with a solo gene (ppa005376m). The 104 genes in the ERF family were further divided into 11 groups based on the group classification made for Arabidopsis. The scaffold localizations of the AP2/ERF genes indicated that 129 AP2/ERF genes were all located on scaffolds 1 to 8, except for two genes, which were on scaffolds 17 and 10. Although the primary structure varied among AP2/ERF superfamily proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. Most ERF family genes have no introns, while members of the AP2 family have more introns than genes in the ERF and RAV families. All sequences of AP2 family genes were disrupted by introns into several segments of varying sizes. The expression of the AP2/ERF superfamily genes was highest in the mesocarp; it was far higher than in the other seven tissues that we examined, implying that AP2/ERF superfamily genes play an important role in fruit growth and development in the peach. These results will be useful for selecting candidate genes from specific subgroups for functional analysis.

  20. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  1. Long Live Topic Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the value of topic work with regard to the British National Curriculum guidelines on curriculum planning. After years of concentrating on issues of content in planning, consideration of basic aims and values in education is again urged. Topic work allows teachers to teach in depth areas of personal expertise and interest in a local…

  2. AP-2α and AP-2β regulate dorsal interneuron specification in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Zijing; Huang, Hao; Zheng, Kang; Hu, Xuemei; Zhang, Zunyi; Qiu, Mengsheng

    2017-01-06

    To date, five AP-2 genes that encode AP-2α, β, γ, δ and ε have been identified in vertebrates and they have been reported to be key regulators of embryonic development. However, the role of AP-2 family members in the development of central nervous system (CNS) has not been characterized. In the present study, we systematically examined the spatiotemporal expression pattern of AP-2 genes in the developing spinal cord of mouse and chick embryos and found that AP-2α and AP-2β are specifically expressed in post-mitotic dorsal interneurons. Loss-of-function analysis using in ovo electroporation in embryonic chick spinal cord preliminarily demonstrated that cAP-2α and cAP-2β regulates dorsal Class A and Class B interneuron specification, respectively. Gain-of-function experiments further revealed that misexpression of cAP-2α, but not cAP-2β, was able to induce the ectopic generation of Class A interneurons. Together, our studies indicated that AP-2 family members, AP-2α and AP-2β, have distinct functions in the regulation of dorsal interneuron development.

  3. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS-3) among patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    PubMed

    Szlendak-Sauer, Katarzyna; Jakubik, Daniel; Kunicki, Michał; Skórska, Jolanta; Smolarczyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 - (APS-3), is defined as the coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with other non-ovarian autoimmune diseases without primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally the definition of APS-3 also includes primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) coexistence with autoimmune thyroiditis. The main goal of that study is to assess the prevalence of APS-3 defined as coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with POI in population of 46 XX karyotype women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The second goal is to investigate hormonal profile and insulin sensitivity in women with POI and subgroups of women with APS-3 - POI/APS-3(+) and without APS 3 - POI/APS-3(-). Anthropometric measurements, coexistence of autoimmune diseases, androgens, fasting glucose and insulin, glucose and insulin at 60' and 120' of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were determine in 98 patients aged between 18 and 39 with spontaneous 46 XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), in 33 POI/APS-3(+), 65 POI/APS-3(-), and 75 healthy controls. Continuous data were summarized by the mean±standard deviation (SD), and categorical data by number (percentages). Data were checked for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test, the comparison between groups were performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskall-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationships between parameters. Statistical significance was defined as p values <0.05. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) was presented in 33/98 (33.7%) patients with POI. The groups did not differ significantly in respect to age and body mass index (BMI). Women with POI, POI/APS-3(+) and POI/APS-3(-) showed significantly lower serum androgens in comparison to controls. Additionally women with POI/APS-3(+) showed hyperinsulinemia after 1h of OGTT; No significant differences in serum fasting glucose, insulin and during 2h OGTT between groups were

  4. Topical triamcinolone for persistent phimosis.

    PubMed

    Letendre, Julien; Barrieras, Diego; Franc-Guimond, Julie; Abdo, Ala; Houle, Anne-Marie

    2009-10-01

    Between 2% and 5% of uncircumcised boys have persistent or pathological phimosis. Traditional treatment is usually circumcision. Recently medical treatment with topical corticosteroids has become more popular. We evaluated the efficacy of the topical steroid triamcinolone compared to foreskin retraction with an emollient cream and verified the long-term success rate of these treatments. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to compare 2-month twice daily treatment with emollient cream (placebo group 1) vs 0.1% triamcinolone (experimental group 2). Boys between ages 3 and 12 years with persistent or pathological phimosis were included in analysis. Study EXCLUSION criteria were previous treatment with topical corticosteroid, untreated balanitis and any known medical condition with immune system impairment. Patients were seen 2, 4 and 12 months after treatment initiation. Success was defined as complete, easy foreskin retraction at 4 and 12 months. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher's exact test. We enrolled 63 patients, of whom 43 completed the study. Despite multiple attempts 20 patients had incomplete followup and were excluded from study. Placebo group 1 included 25 patients and triamcinolone group 2 included 21. In group 1 the success rate was significantly lower than in group 2 (9 patients or 39% vs 16 or 76%, p = 0.0086). At 2 months 5 and 16 nonresponders in groups 2 and 1, respectively, were treated in nonblinded fashion with topical triamcinolone. In this subgroup 1 of 3 group 2 patients and 6 of 13 in group 1 achieved complete, easy retraction. Two and 1 patients were lost to followup in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Circumcision was required in only 5 patients (11.6%), including 4 (17.4%) initially in group 1. No complications were noted in either group. Triamcinolone is a highly effective and safe short-term treatment for persistent physiological or pathological phimosis. However, at long-term followup recurrence is

  5. Detection and significance of human papillomavirus, CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Chernock, Rebecca D; Wang, Xiaowei; Gao, Ge; Lewis, James S; Zhang, Qin; Thorstad, Wade L; El-Mofty, Samir K

    2013-02-01

    Although a strong etiologic relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and a majority of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas has been established, the role of HPV in non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas is much less clear. Here, we investigated the prevalence and clinicopathologic significance of HPV and its reported biomarkers, CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21), in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in patients treated either with primary surgery and postoperative radiation or with definitive radiation-based therapy. Nearly all of 76 tumors were keratinizing and none displayed the nonkeratinizing morphology that is typically associated with HPV infection in the oropharynx. However, CDKN2A(p16) immunohistochemistry was positive in 21 cases (28%) and CDKN1A(p21) in 34 (45%). CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) status strongly correlated with each other (P=0.0038). Yet, only four cases were HPV positive by DNA in situ hybridization or by reverse transcriptase PCR E6/E7 mRNA (all four were CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) positive). Unexpectedly, 9 additional tumors out of 20 CDKN2A(p16) positive cases harbored high-risk HPV DNA by PCR. For further investigation of this unexpected result, in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA was performed on these nine cases and all were negative, confirming the absence of transcriptionally active virus. Patients with CDKN1A(p21)-positive tumors did have better overall survival (69% at 3 years) than those with CDKN1A(p21)-negative tumors (51% at 3 years) (P=0.045). There was also a strong trend towards better overall survival in the CDKN2A(p16)-positive group (P=0.058). Thus, it appears that the role of HPV is more complex in the larynx than in the oropharynx, and that CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) expression may not reflect HPV-driven tumors in most cases. Because of this, CDKN2A(p16) should not be used as a definitive surrogate marker of HPV-driven tumors in the larynx.

  6. Placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a urea/lactic acid-based topical keratolytic agent for prevention of capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome: North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study N05C5.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sherry L; Qin, Rui; Menon, Smitha P; Rowland, Kendrith M; Thomas, Sachdev; Delaune, Robert; Christian, Diana; Pajon, Eduardo R; Satele, Daniel V; Berenberg, Jeffrey L; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2010-12-10

    Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a dose-limiting toxicity of capecitabine for which no effective preventative treatment has been definitively demonstrated. This trial was conducted on the basis of preliminary data that a urea/lactic acid-based topical keratolytic agent (ULABTKA) may prevent HFS. A randomized, double-blind phase III trial evaluated 137 patients receiving their first ever cycle of capecitabine at a dose of either 2,000 or 2,500 mg/m(2) per day for 14 days. Patients were randomly assigned to a ULABTKA versus a placebo cream, which was applied to the hands and feet twice per day for 21 days after the start of capecitabine. Patients completed an HFS diary (HFSD) daily. HFS toxicity grade (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE] v3.0) was also collected at baseline and at the end of each cycle. The primary end point was the incidence of moderate/severe HFS symptoms in the first treatment cycle, based on the patient-reported HFSD. The percentage of patients with moderate/severe HFS symptoms was not different between groups, being 13.6% in the ULABTKA arm and 10.2% in the placebo arm (P = .768 by Fisher's exact test). The odds ratio was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.37 to 5.76). Cycle 1 CTCAE skin toxicity was higher in the ULABTKA arm but not significantly so (33% v 27%; P = .82). No significant differences were observed in other toxicities between groups. These data do not support the efficacy of a ULABTKA cream for preventing HFS symptoms in patients receiving capecitabine.

  7. Topical minoxidil in early male pattern baldness.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E A; Weiner, M S; Delong, E R; Pinnell, S R

    1985-08-01

    One-hundred twenty-six healthy men with early male pattern baldness completed a 12-month double-blind, controlled trial of 2% and 3% topical minoxidil. Subjects were initially randomly assigned to use placebo or 2% or 3% topical minoxidil. After 4 months of study, the placebo group was crossed over to 3% topical minoxidil. Both objective measurement of hair growth by counting of vellus, terminal, and total hairs in a vertex target balding area and subjective assessment by subject and investigator were done. Treatment of subjects with topical minoxidil for 4 months resulted in a statistically significant increase in terminal hair growth in comparison with placebo therapy. In addition, subjects initially treated with placebo, when crossed over to topical minoxidil, showed a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs. No subject had a net hair loss in the target area during the study. These results indicate that topical minoxidil can increase terminal hair growth in early male pattern baldness.

  8. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  9. APS undulator radiation: First results

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Dejus, R.J.; Hartog, P.D.

    1995-12-31

    The first undulator radiation has been extracted from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The results from the characterization of this radiation are very satisfactory. With the undulator set at a gap of 15.8 mm (K=1.61), harmonics as high as the 17th were observed using a crystal spectrometer. The angular distribution of the third-harmonic radiation was measured, and the source was imaged using a zone plate to determine the particle beam emittance. The horizontal beam emittance was found to be 6.9 {plus_minus} 1.0 nm-rad, and the vertical emittance coupling was found to be less than 3%. The absolute spectral flux was measured over a wide range of photon energies, and it agrees remarkably well with the theoretical calculations based on the measured undulator magnetic field profile and the measured beam emittance. These results indicate that both the emittance of the electron beam and the undulator magnetic field quality exceed the original specifications.

  10. Resources for AP United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Rosemary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses resources that can be used in an Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. history course, including a series of textbooks, supplemental readings, projects, Document-Based Questions and essays from earlier AP examinations, Internet and multimedia resources, and students and their families. (CMK)

  11. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  12. AP Music Theory in Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucia, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that an Advanced Placement (AP) course in music theory offers student musicians opportunities to gain new insight into melody, harmony, and structure. Describes content and teaching methods used in an AP music theory program. Discusses necessary teacher characteristics and maintains that both students and teachers benefit from the course.…

  13. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  14. Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  15. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's Advanced…

  16. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's Advanced…

  17. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  18. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  19. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  20. Topicalization: A Psycholinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ruilin

    2001-01-01

    Explores topicalization in the Chinese-English translation classroom. Examines translation in language teaching, Advocates translation as a useful skill and discusses it as a means of mastering a foreign language--in this case, English. (Author/VWL)

  1. Women's Health Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV Breast Implants Caregiving College Health Diabetes Healthy Aging Heart Health Mammograms Menopause Pregnancy Safe Medication Use Other Topics like cosmetics and nutrition Other Tips Hispanic Women's Health 4 Tips for ...

  2. Topical therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy D; Barthel, H Richard

    2011-07-09

    This review discusses the pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, salicylates and capsaicin for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Topical therapies present a valuable therapeutic option for OA pain management, with substantial evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs, but less robust support for capsaicin and salicylates. We define topical therapies as those intended to act locally, in contrast to transdermal therapies intended to act systemically. Oral therapies for patients with mild to moderate OA pain include paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs. Paracetamol has only weak efficacy at therapeutic doses and is hepatotoxic at doses >3.25 g/day. NSAIDs have demonstrated efficacy in patients with OA, but are associated with dose-, duration- and age-dependent risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, haematological and hepatic adverse events (AEs), as well as clinically meaningful drug interactions. To minimize AE risks, treatment guidelines for OA suggest minimizing NSAID exposure by prescribing the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time. Systemic NSAID exposure may also be limited by prescribing topical NSAIDs, particularly in patients with OA pain limited to a few superficial joints. Topical NSAIDs have been available in Europe for decades and were introduced to provide localized analgesia with minimal systemic NSAID exposure. Guidelines of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), Osteoarthritis Research Society International, and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) state that topical NSAIDs may be considered for patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee or hand, particularly in patients with few affected joints and/or a history of sensitivity to oral NSAIDs. In fact, the EULAR and NICE guidelines state that topical NSAIDs should be considered before oral therapies. Clinical trials of topical

  3. Identification of the Hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree. Results The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts. Conclusions Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation. PMID:23324139

  4. Duplication of AP1 within the Spinacia oleracea L. AP1/FUL clade is followed by rapid amino acid and regulatory evolution.

    PubMed

    Sather, D Noah; Golenberg, Edward M

    2009-02-01

    The AP1/FUL clade of MADS box genes have undergone multiple duplication events among angiosperm species. While initially identified as having floral meristem identity and floral organ identity function in Arabidopsis, the role of AP1 homologs does not appear to be universally conserved even among eudicots. In comparison, the role of FRUITFULL has not been extensively explored in non-model species. We report on the isolation of three AP1/FUL genes from cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L. Two genes, designated SpAPETALA1-1 (SpAP1-1) and SpAPETALA1-2 (SpAP1-2), cluster as paralogous genes within the Caryophyllales AP1 clade. They are highly differentiated in the 3', carboxyl-end encoding region of the gene following the third amphipathic alpha-helix region, while still retaining some elements of a signature AP1 carboxyl motifs. In situ hybridization studies also demonstrate that the two paralogs have evolved different temporal and spatial expression patterns, and that neither gene is expressed in the developing sepal whorl, suggesting that the AP1 floral organ identity function is not conserved in spinach. The spinach FRUITFULL homolog, SpFRUITFULL (SpFUL), has retained the conserved motif and groups with Caryophyllales FRUITFULL homologs. SpFUL is expressed in leaf as well as in floral tissue, and shows strong expression late in flower development, particularly in the tapetal layer in males, and in the endothecium layer and stigma, in the females. The combined evidence of high rates of non-synonymous substitutions and differential expression patterns supports a scenario in which the AP1 homologs in the spinach AP1/FUL gene family have experienced rapid evolution following duplication.

  5. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  6. Topical Therapies in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Torsekar, R.; Gautam, Manjyot M.

    2017-01-01

    Topical therapy as monotherapy is useful in psoriasis patients with mild disease. Topical agents are also used as adjuvant for moderate-to-severe disease who are being concurrently treated with either ultraviolet light or systemic medications. Emollients are useful adjuncts to the treatment of psoriasis. Use of older topical agents such as anthralin and coal tar has declined over the years. However, they are cheaper and can still be used for the treatment of difficult psoriasis refractory to conventional treatment. Salicylic acid can be used in combination with other topical therapies such as topical corticosteroids (TCS) and calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of thick limited plaques to increase the absorption of the latter into the psoriatic plaques. Low- to mid-potent TCS are used in facial/flexural psoriasis and high potent over palmoplantar/thick psoriasis lesions. The addition of noncorticosteroid treatment can also facilitate the avoidance of long-term daily TCS. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus can be used for the treatment of facial and intertriginous psoriasis. Tazarotene is indicated for stable plaque psoriasis usually in combination with other therapies such as TCS. Vitamin D analogs alone in combination with TCS are useful in stable plaques over limbs and palmoplantar psoriasis. Topical therapies for scalp psoriasis include TCS, Vitamin D analogs, salicylic acid, coal tar, and anthralin in various formulations such as solutions, foams, and shampoos. TCS, vitamin D analogs, and tazarotene can be used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:28761838

  7. Non-conventional antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with clinical obstetrical APS: Prevalence and treatment efficacy in pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Mekinian, Arsène; Bourrienne, Marie-Charlotte; Carbillon, Lionel; Benbara, Amélie; Noémie, Abisror; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Tigaizin, Ahmed; Montestruc, Francois; Fain, Olivier; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale

    2016-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of non-conventional APL in patients with obstetrical APS without conventional APL and the impact of treatment on pregnancy outcome. Patients with clinical obstetrical criteria were tested for anti-phosphatidylethanolamine (aPE) IgG/M, anti-prothrombin/phosphatidylserine (anti-PS/PT) IgG/M, and anti-annexin V IgG. Pregnancy losses rates were compared between APS, non-conventional APS, and non-APL and in untreated pregnancies to treated ones for each group. Using the cutoffs (ROC), 65/96 (68%) patients have been considered as non-conventional APS and compared to 83 APS and 31 patients without APL. The obstetrical history in non-conventional APS did not differ in comparison to confirmed APS. The frequencies of anti-annexin V IgG antibodies tended to be more frequent in non-conventional APS (88% versus 73%; p = 0.06), and those of anti-PE IgG and M were similar. The anti-PS/PT IgG and M antibodies were more frequent in confirmed APS than in non-conventional APS (63% and 37% versus 4% and 5%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Overall, 261 pregnancies in patients with non-conventional APS were compared with 81 pregnancies of confirmed APS and 132 pregnancies from non-APL group. Out of 474, 136 (29%) patients have been treated during pregnancies, and treatment significantly increased the rate of live birth (26% in untreated versus 72% in treated pregnancies, p < 0.0001). In univariate analyses, treatment effect on pregnancy losses was similar in patients with APS and non-conventional APS, with odds ratio at 3.3 (95% CI: 1.8-6.1) and 6.9 (95% CI: 3.9-12.3) (p = 0.49) and significantly more important for the 2 APS groups pooled versus non-APL group [OR at 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.5) for non-APL group versus 5.3 (95% CI: 3.5-8.1) for APS groups, p = 0.0025]. In this study, 68% of patients with clinical criteria for obstetrical APS seronegative for conventional APL have non-conventional APL. These patients have a significant decrement of pregnancy losses if they

  8. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  9. An Insider's History of Some of the Significant Changes In the APS from the 1960s to Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2014-03-01

    It has been over 50 years since I first joined the American Physical Society. A lot has changed. The APS in the 60s did not have a single Forum and all divisions were related to sub-field of physics research plus the History of Physics Division. The APS governance and meeting's structure did not provide for issues relate to physics and society, undergraduate and graduate education, minorities, women, industrial physics, international physics, communication of science, and many more subjects quite typical of APS in 2014. From the start, I was a very active member of APS and one of the original petitioners for the Division on Physics and Society. Ultimately this led to the APS Forum structure, the Panel on Public Affairs and many APS formal committees. Two of the major impetuses for change in the late 60s were the need to debate the role of science in the unpopular war in Vietnam and the overproduction and poor employment prospects for new Ph.D.s. I, and colleagues, (with little original encouragement from the APS leadership), arranged for the discussion on many new topics at the meeting and proposed changes within the governance of the Society. In the late 1980s I joined the APS and was involved in many changes over the next 20 years. ultimately as Associate Executive Officer and Director of the APS Centennial in 1999. As indicated earlier, I've been with the APS for over 50 years and will present its history as a participant-insider. Topic covered include my surprise election to the APS governance in 1972, the establishment of the Forum on Physics and Society (and the restrictions imposed on its governance), my role as the father (or mother) of the women's movement at APS, the complexities and politics of the move of APS headquarters from New York to College Park, the establishment of the tabloid APS News and many more subjects. Currently I am producing staged-readings of science-based plays at the March and April 2014 APS meetings for the Forum on History of

  10. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  11. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  12. New subsets of the antiphospholipid syndrome in 2006: "PRE-APS" (probable APS) and microangiopathic antiphospholipid syndromes ("MAPS").

    PubMed

    Asherson, Ronald A

    2006-12-01

    The concept of "probable" antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is almost identical with several conditions which may presage the development of the APS with its major complications of large vessel thromboses resulting in deep vein occlusions in the lower limbs (DVT) particularly and strokes. These conditions comprising livedo reticularis, chorea, thrombocytopenia, fetal loss and valve lesions. These conditions, comprising livedo reticularis, chorea, thrombocytopenia, fetal loss and valve lesions may be followed, often years later by diagnosable APS. The issue whether these patients should be more aggressively treated on presentation in order to prevent the thrombotic complications. A new subset of the APS is proposed viz. microangiopathic antiphospholipid syndrome ("MAPS") comprising those patients presenting with thrombotic microangiopathy and demonstrable antiphospholipid antibodies who may share common although not identical provoking factors (e.g. infections, drugs), clinical manifestations and haematological manifestations (severe thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anaemia) and treatments viz. plasma exchange. Patients without large vessel occlusions may be included in the MAPS subset. These conditions include thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), and the HELLP syndrome. Patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) who do not demonstrate large vessel occlusions also fall into this group. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has also been reported with demonstrable antiphospholipid antibodies and also manifests severe thrombocytopenia and small vessel occlusions. It may cause problems in differential diagnosis.

  13. Evidence that L-AP5 and D,L-AP4 can preferentially block cone signals in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel G; Kapousta-Bruneau, Natalia V

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that, as concentrations of two agonists of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors are increased, cone contributions to the b-wave are blocked before rod contributions. Application of L-AP5 (L-2-amino-5-phosphonobutyric acid) at concentrations of 50 microM and D,L-AP4 (D,L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid) at concentrations 2 microM had a greater effect in reducing the amplitude of the rat ERG b-wave at high light intensities than at low light intensities. The amplitude reduction occurs at flash intensities that saturate rod photoreceptor responses. When steady backgrounds are used to saturate rod photoreceptors, the b-wave responses show increased long-wavelength sensitivity. Responses on a rod saturating background are blocked by adding L-AP5 or AP4 at the above concentrations to the perfusate. Further evidence for metabotrophic receptors being involved comes from the observation that even when ionotropic glutamate receptors are pharmacologically blocked with MK801 and DNQX, AP4 selectively blocks cone contributions to the b-wave. Thus we suggest that the type III metabotrophic receptors on depolarizing cone bipolar cells or cone synaptic terminals are affected by concentrations of L-AP5 and D,L-AP4 that have minimal effects on rod bipolar cells or rod synaptic terminals.

  14. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  15. APS Activities with Other Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    2006-03-01

    In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

  16. Novel Topic Authorship Attribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    include area code ) NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8–98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 25-03-2011 Master’s Thesis 2010-01-01—2011-03-25...your writer’s voice. St. Martin’s Press, 1994. 43 [35] S. Roman, Introduction to Coding and Information Theory. Springer-Verlag New York, New York...0 0 0 0 T50077 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOTALS 1582 3293 1493 1858 1182 1129 1160 1107 Table B.2: Topic/Author Data Tabulation 48 AUTHORS TOPICS A100512

  17. Topical Therapies for Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management of acute or localized itch or in patients with contraindications to systemic therapies. This review will summarize current topical therapies to treat pruritus and discuss potential future therapies. PMID:21767774

  18. Riparian Land Use/Land Cover Data for Three Study Units in Group II of the Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical Study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Dickinson, Ross G.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Tranmer, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This data set was developed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical (NEET) study. This report is concerned with three of the eight NEET study units distributed across the United States: Ozark Plateaus, Upper Mississippi River Basin, and Upper Snake River Basin, collectively known as Group II of the NEET study. Ninety stream reaches were investigated during 2006-08 in these three study units. Stream segments, with lengths equal to the base-10 logarithm of the basin area, were delineated upstream from the stream reaches through the use of digital orthophoto quarter-quadrangle (DOQQ) imagery. The analysis area for each stream segment was defined by a streamside buffer extending laterally to 250 meters from the stream segment. Delineation of landuse and land-cover (LULC) map units within stream-segment buffers was completed using on-screen digitizing of riparian LULC classes interpreted from the DOQQ. LULC units were classified using a strategy consisting of nine classes. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data were used to aid in wetland classification. Longitudinal riparian transects (lines offset from the stream segments) were generated digitally, used to sample the LULC maps, and partitioned in accord with the intersected LULC map-unit types. These longitudinal samples yielded the relative linear extent and sequence of each LULC type within the riparian zone at the segment scale. The resulting areal and linear estimates of LULC extent filled in the spatial-scale gap between the 30-meter resolution of the 1990s National Land Cover Dataset and the reach-level habitat assessment data collected onsite routinely for NAWQA ecological sampling. The resulting data consisted of 12 geospatial data sets: LULC within 25 meters of the stream reach (polygon); LULC within 50 meters of the stream reach (polygon); LULC within 50 meters of the stream segment (polygon); LULC within 100 meters of the stream segment (polygon

  19. A multicentre, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study comparing the efficacy and tolerability of benzoyl peroxide 3%/clindamycin 1% with azelaic acid 20% in the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Schaller, M; Sebastian, M; Ress, C; Seidel, D; Hennig, M

    2016-06-01

    Mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris is treated with a range of mono- and combination therapies; however, clinical evidence is still required to optimize treatment recommendations. To compare the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a combination of benzoyl peroxide 3% and clindamycin 1% (BPO + CLN) with azelaic acid 20% (AzA) for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. This was a randomized, assessor-blinded, parallel-group, multicentre study conducted in Germany. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acne vulgaris, aged 12-45 years, were randomized 1 : 1 to once-daily BPO + CLN gel or twice-daily AzA cream for up to 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in inflammatory lesions from baseline at Week 4. Secondary endpoints included total and inflammatory lesion counts and tolerability assessments. For selected secondary endpoints, inductive statistical analysis was performed post hoc. Patient safety was assessed by adverse event (AE) monitoring. Efficacy was assessed in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population [patients using ≥1 dose of study medication (ITT), plus baseline and ≥1 post-baseline lesion count (n = 215)]. There was a statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint, with a median decrease of -52.6% for BPO + CLN (n = 107) vs.-38.8% for AzA (n = 108; P = 0.0004). There was also a greater difference in secondary lesion endpoints at Week 12, with a median decrease in inflammatory lesions of -78.8% and -65.3% and total lesions of -69.0% and -53.9% with BPO + CLN and AzA, respectively (both P < 0.0001). Tolerability was acceptable for both treatments. Overall, 55.6% (BPO + CLN) and 69.7% (AzA) of patients reported treatment-emergent AEs, and 15.7% and 35.8% of patients experienced application site reactions with BPO + CLN (24 events; 17 patients) and AzA (60 events; 39 patients) treatment, respectively (ITT population). BPO + CLN demonstrated greater efficacy than AzA in the treatment of mild

  20. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  1. In vitro evaluation of topical fluoride pH and their effect on surface hardness of composite resin-based restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Mujeeb, Abdul; Mansuri, Samir; Hussain, Seema Abid; Ramaswamy, Kausar

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate the pH and fluoride ion uptake with surface hardness of composite resin based restorative materials after topical fluoride application. Forty disks of each of test materials Composite (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Resin modified glass ionomer (Vitremer) and Compomer (Dyract AP) were made and ten disks of each material were placed in different test solutions - 1.23% APF gel, Sodium fluoride mouth rinse, 0.9% neutral fluoride and distilled water (Control group). After 36 hours of immersion, specimens were subjected to microhardness testing machine for evaluation of surface hardness. The greater hardness deterioration for all materials resulted with 1.23% APF gel when compared to the control group. Composite (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) showed 17.13 VHN (control group 59.11 VHN). Vitremer showed 9.71 VHN (control group 37.71 VHN). Compomer showed 19.22 VHN (control group 36.78 VHN). 1.23% ApF gel significantly decreased hardness of composite, Vitremer and Compomer. Hardness deterioration associated with sodium fluoride mouth rinse and 0.9% neutral fluoride was less compared to 1.23% ApF gel.

  2. Elucidation of the active conformation of the APS-kinase domain of human PAPS synthetase 1.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Nikolina; Dietrich, Kristen; Paarmann, Ingo; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2007-03-23

    Bifunctional human PAPS synthetase (PAPSS) catalyzes, in a two-step process, the formation of the activated sulfate carrier 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The first reaction involves the formation of the 5'-adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) intermediate from ATP and inorganic sulfate. APS is then further phosphorylated on its 3'-hydroxyl group by an additional ATP molecule to generate PAPS. The former reaction is catalyzed by the ATP-sulfurylase domain and the latter by the APS-kinase domain. Here, we report the structure of the APS-kinase domain of PAPSS isoform 1 (PAPSS1) representing the Michaelis complex with the products ADP-Mg and PAPS. This structure provides a rare glimpse of the active conformation of an enzyme catalyzing phosphoryl transfer without resorting to substrate analogs, inactivating mutations, or catalytically non-competent conditions. Our structure shows the interactions involved in the binding of the magnesium ion and PAPS, thereby revealing residues critical for catalysis. The essential magnesium ion is observed bridging the phosphate groups of the products. This function of the metal ion is made possible by the DGDN-loop changing its conformation from that previously reported, and identifies these loop residues unambiguously as a Walker B motif. Furthermore, the second aspartate residue of this motif is the likely candidate for initiating nucleophilic attack on the ATP gamma-phosphate group by abstracting the proton from the 3'-hydroxyl group of the substrate APS. We report the structure of the APS-kinase domain of human PAPSS1 in complex with two APS molecules, demonstrating the ability of the ATP/ADP-binding site to bind APS. Both structures reveal extended N termini that approach the active site of the neighboring monomer. Together, these results significantly increase our understandings of how catalysis is achieved by APS-kinase.

  3. Topical application of nucleotides increase lysozyme levels in tears

    PubMed Central

    Peral, Assumpta; Loma, Patricia; Yerxa, Benjamin; Pintor, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of topical application of nucleotides on rabbit tear lysozyme levels. Lysozyme values were determined by the diffusion in Agar method described by van Bijsterveld in 1974, and the protein amount was obtained by measuring the inhibitory halos around a Whatman n°1 paper disc of 5 mm in diameter. The tested nucleotides were UTP, Ap4A and Up4U. These compounds were topically instilled in a single-dose in one eye (with the contralateral eye as a control) and the lysozyme halos were measured along 5 hours. The obtained results showed an increase in the lysozyme concentrations of 67%, 93%, and 119% for UTP, Ap4A, and Up4U, respectively, over the basal levels of lysozyme. For this reason, we suggest these molecules as a potential treatment for the reinforcement of the tear film barrier against ocular infection. PMID:19668714

  4. Topical application of nucleotides increase lysozyme levels in tears.

    PubMed

    Peral, Assumpta; Loma, Patricia; Yerxa, Benjamin; Pintor, Jesús

    2008-06-01

    The present work studies the effects of topical application of nucleotides on rabbit tear lysozyme levels. Lysozyme values were determined by the diffusion in Agar method described by van Bijsterveld in 1974, and the protein amount was obtained by measuring the inhibitory halos around a Whatman n degrees 1 paper disc of 5 mm in diameter. The tested nucleotides were UTP, Ap(4)A and Up(4)U. These compounds were topically instilled in a single-dose in one eye (with the contralateral eye as a control) and the lysozyme halos were measured along 5 hours. The obtained results showed an increase in the lysozyme concentrations of 67%, 93%, and 119% for UTP, Ap(4)A, and Up(4)U, respectively, over the basal levels of lysozyme. For this reason, we suggest these molecules as a potential treatment for the reinforcement of the tear film barrier against ocular infection.

  5. Vascular Manifestations in Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS): Is APS a Thrombophilia or a Vasculopathy?

    PubMed

    Siddique, Salma; Risse, Jessie; Canaud, Guillaume; Zuily, Stéphane

    2017-09-04

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized primarily by thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. Chronic vascular lesions can also occur. While the underlying mechanisms of these vascular lesions are not entirely known, there have been multiple theories describing the potential process of vasculopathy in APS and the various clinical manifestations associated with it. Recently, it has been demonstrated that endothelial proliferation in kidneys can be explained by the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) pathway by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). These data support the existence of an APS-related vasculopathy in different locations which can explain-in part-the different manifestations of APS. This review focuses on the various manifestations of APS as a result of APS-related vasculopathy, as well as pathophysiology, current screening, and treatment options for clinicians to be aware of.

  6. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  7. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  8. Integrating Local Governmental Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centner, Terence J.

    1994-01-01

    Students who pursue business and professional careers in natural resources and life science (NRLS) will have a decided need for a basic understanding of local government topics that shape public policy. Suggests that a responsible curriculum in NRLS should provide students with opportunities to explore these issues, and discusses methods for…

  9. Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)

    MedlinePlus

    Solaraze® Gel ... Diclofenac topical gel (Solaraze) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by too much sun ... nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The way diclofenac gel works to treat actinic keratosis is not known. ...

  10. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  11. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  12. Topical Conference on Oportunities in Biology for Physicists II

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Judy R.

    2004-02-01

    In 2002, the American Physical Society (APS) organized and held the first topical conference in Boston, MA, as a way of informing physicists, particularly those just entering the field, of opportunities emerging at the interface of physics and biology. Because of the tremendous success of the first conference, it was decided to organize a second conference, similar in nature and focus, but with different presentation topic areas. Again the intended audience would be graduate students and postdocs considering applying methods of physics to biological research, and those who advise others on such opportunities.

  13. Topical delivery of hexamidine.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Nicola; Paz-Alvarez, Miguel; Matts, Paul J; Lever, Rebecca; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2016-06-15

    Hexamidine diisethionate (HEX D) has been used for its biocidal actions in topical preparations since the 1950s. Recent data also suggest that it plays a beneficial role in skin homeostasis. To date, the extent to which this compound penetrates the epidermis has not been reported nor how its topical delivery may be modulated. In the present work we set out to characterise the interaction of HEX D with the skin and to develop a range of simple formulations for topical targeting of the active. A further objective was to compare the skin penetration of HEX D with its corresponding dihydrochloride salt (HEX H) as the latter has more favourable physicochemical properties for skin uptake. Candidate vehicles were evaluated by in vitro Franz cell permeation studies using porcine skin. Initially, neat solvents were investigated and subsequently binary systems were examined. The solvents and chemical penetration enhancers investigated included glycerol, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 1,2-pentanol (1,2-PENT), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) and Transcutol(®)P (TC). Of a total of 30 binary solvent systems evaluated only 10 delivered higher amounts of active into the skin compared with the neat solvents. In terms of topical efficacy, formulations containing PGML far surpassed all other solvents or binary combinations. More than 70% of HEX H was extracted from the skin following application in PG:PGML (50:50). Interestingly, the same vehicle effectively promoted skin penetration of HEX D but demonstrated significantly lower uptake into and through the skin (30%). The findings confirm the unpredictable nature of excipients on delivery of actives with reference to skin even where there are minor differences in molecular structures. We also believe that they underline the ongoing necessity for fundamental studies on the interaction of topical excipients with the skin.

  14. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  15. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S; Bennett, Dorothy C; Cutler, Daniel F; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2005-11-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies.

  16. A glossary of terms for understanding political aspects in the implementation of Health in All Policies (HiAP).

    PubMed

    Oneka, Goldameir; Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Muntaner, Carles; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Mahabir, Deb Finn; Freiler, Alix; O'Campo, Patricia; Shankardass, Ketan

    2017-08-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a strategy that seeks to integrate health considerations into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies across various non-health sectors of the government. Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the uptake of HiAP by local, regional and national governments. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, most existing literature on HiAP implementation remains descriptive rather than explanatory in its orientation. Moreover, prior research has focused on the more technical aspects of the implementation process. Thus, studies that aim to 'build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP' abound. Conversely, there is little emphasis on the political aspects of HiAP implementation. Neglecting the role of politics in shaping the use of HiAP is problematic, since health and the strategies by which it is promoted are partially political.This glossary addresses the politics gap in the existing literature by drawing on theoretical concepts from political, policy, and public health sciences to articulate a framework for studying how political mechanisms influence HiAP implementation. To this end, the glossary forms part of an on-going multiple explanatory case study of HiAP implementation, HARMONICS (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods on International Case Studies, harmonics-hiap.ca), and is meant to expand on a previously published glossary addressing the topic of HiAP implementation more broadly. Collectively, these glossaries offer a conceptual toolkit for understanding how politics explains implementation outcomes of HiAP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Insect Cell Glycosylation and Its Impact on the Functionality of a Recombinant Intracrystalline Nacre Protein, AP24.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Perovic, Iva; Rao, Ashit; Cölfen, Helmut; Evans, John Spencer

    2016-02-23

    The impacts of glycosylation on biomineralization protein function are largely unknown. This is certainly true for the mollusk shell, where glycosylated intracrystalline proteins such as AP24 (Haliotis rufescens) exist but their functions and the role of glycosylation remain elusive. To assess the effect of glycosylation on protein function, we expressed two recombinant variants of AP24: an unglycosylated bacteria-expressed version (rAP24N) and a glycosylated insect cell-expressed version (rAP24G). Our findings indicate that rAP24G is expressed as a single polypeptide containing variations in glycosylation that create microheterogeneity in rAP24G molecular masses. These post-translational modifications incorporate O- and N-glycans and anionic monosialylated and bisialylated, and monosulfated and bisulfated monosaccharides on the protein molecules. AFM and DLS experiments confirm that both rAP24N and rAP24G aggregate to form protein phases, with rAP24N exhibiting a higher degree of aggregation, compared to rAP24G. With regard to functionality, we observe that both recombinant proteins exhibit similar behavior within in vitro calcium carbonate mineralization assays and potentiometric titrations. However, rAP24G modifies crystal growth directions and is a stronger nucleation inhibitor, whereas rAP24N exhibits higher mineral phase stabilization and nanoparticle containment. We believe that the post-translational addition of anionic groups (via sialylation and sulfation), along with modifications to the protein surface topology, may explain the changes in glycosylated rAP24G aggregation and mineralization behavior, relative to rAP24N.

  18. In situ gel-forming AP-57 peptide delivery system for cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Fan, Rangrang; Tong, Aiping; Yang, Meijia; Deng, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Liangxue; Zhang, Xiaoning; Guo, Gang

    2015-11-10

    In situ gel-forming system as local drug delivery system in dermal traumas has generated a great interest. Accumulating evidence shows that antimicrobial peptides play pivotal roles in the process of wound healing. Here in this study, to explore the potential application of antimicrobial peptide in wound healing, biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid)-Pluronic L35-poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA-L35-PLLA) was developed at first. Then based on this polymer, an injectable in situ gel-forming system composed of human antimicrobial peptides 57 (AP-57) loaded nanoparticles and thermosensitive hydrogel was prepared and applied for cutaneous wound healing. AP-57 peptides were enclosed with biocompatible nanoparticles (AP-57-NPs) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency. AP-57-NPs were further encapsulated in a thermosensitive hydrogel (AP-57-NPs-H) to facilitate its application in cutaneous wound repair. As a result, AP-57-NPs-H released AP-57 in an extended period and exhibited quite low cytotoxicity and high anti-oxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, AP-57-NPs-H was free-flowing liquid at room temperature, and can form non-flowing gel without any crosslink agent upon applied on the wounds. In vivo wound healing assay using full-thickness dermal defect model of SD rats indicated that AP-57-NPs-H could significantly promote wound healing. At day 14 after operation, AP-57-NPs-H treated group showed nearly complete wound closure of 96.78 ± 3.12%, whereas NS, NPs-H and AP-57-NPs group recovered by about 68.78 ± 4.93%, 81.96 ± 3.26% and 87.80 ± 4.62%, respectively. Histopathological examination suggested that AP-57-NPs-H could promote cutaneous wound healing through enhancing granulation tissue formation, increasing collagen deposition and promoting angiogenesis in the wound tissue. Therefore, AP-57-NPs-H might have potential application in wound healing.

  19. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  20. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-12-22

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

  1. Concluding remarks: Emerging topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Gallix, D.

    2006-04-01

    In summing up this workshop, we would like to open a broad discussion on additional emerging topics that may contribute to shape the future of physics research computing activities. To initiate this global discussion let me address in this short contribution some of these issues: distributed public computing, social or collaborative software, web computing, high precision numerical computation, common development platforms and languages issues. We welcome contributions to this discussion on the ACAT Twiki web site.

  2. Stratification in Ap star atmospheres: Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Castelli, Fiorella

    2017-01-01

    It is now well established that the atmospheres of Ap stars can be chemically stratified (cf. Babel, A\\&A 258, 645, 1992; Ryabchikova et al. A\\&A 384, 545, 2002). The most convincing cases have been made with the profiles of very strong lines, such as Ca II K. Weaker line profiles are less obvious indicators. The collective behavior of sets or groups of lines have also been used. For example, if higher abundances are derived for strong lines in an atmosphere with zero microturbulence, one may assume that the absorbing species has been pushed into the higher photospheres. An example are the medium-strong Mn II lines in HgMn stars. In this paper, we probe this assumption by calculating line strengths with various assumed stratification models, and then determining abundances from those lines using an {\\bf unstratified} model with the same Teff and log(g). We use the model from Castelli, Kurucz \\& and Hubrig (A\\&A, 508, 401, 2009) for HR 6000, whose spectrum shows numerous indications of stratification. A variety of stratification models are considered, for example, ones where the majority of an absorbing species is concentrated above (or below) $log(\\tau_{5000}$ = -2.0. Cloud models are also investigated, where a species is concentrated within a range of photospheric depths. Curves of growth are generated in unstratified atmospheres for lines by holding the abundance fixed, and increasing log(gf). Similar curves are made in stratified models, and the ratios of strong to weak linesare compared with and without stratification. The effects of stratification on ionization are also investigated, as well as on the profiles of strong lines. We find, in agreement with previous work, that severe abundance jumps are sometimes required to account for some of the observed peculiarities.

  3. Building an AP Social Studies Program with Non-Traditional AP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmead, Amanda; Blanchette, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Equal access to education, that is to a high quality education, has increasingly come to mean access to an Advanced Placement program. In recent years, there has been steady attention paid to opening access to AP programs. The 9th annual College Board report (2013) stated "students who succeed on an AP Exam during high school typically…

  4. Building an AP Social Studies Program with Non-Traditional AP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmead, Amanda; Blanchette, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Equal access to education, that is to a high quality education, has increasingly come to mean access to an Advanced Placement program. In recent years, there has been steady attention paid to opening access to AP programs. The 9th annual College Board report (2013) stated "students who succeed on an AP Exam during high school typically…

  5. The AP spectroscopic binary HD 59435 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Mathys, G.; North, P.

    1999-07-01

    HD 59435 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, one component of which is a magnetic Ap star and the other a G8 or K0 giant (Wade et al. 1996). Both components are very slowly rotating, and the Ap star exhibits spectral lines resolved into their magneti cally-split components. Herein we report additional measurements of the mean magnetic field modulus of the Ap star, measurements of the radial velocities of both components, and Geneva photometry of the system, and discuss their impact upon conclusions drawn previously. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; ESO Programme Nos. 56.E-0688, 58.E-0159, 60.E-0565). Table 3 is available only in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5

  6. Topical treatment for facial burns.

    PubMed

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis J; Van Baar, Margriet E; Hop, M Jenda; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Oen, Irma M M H; Middelkoop, Esther

    2013-01-31

    Burn injuries are an important health problem. They occur frequently in the head and neck region - the area central to a person's identity, that provides our most expressive means of communication. Topical interventions are currently the cornerstone of treatment of partial-thickness burns to the face. To assess the effects of topical interventions on wound healing in people with facial burns of any depth. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 12 November 2012); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 1 2012); Ovid MEDLINE - In-process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (searched November 12, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 45); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 9 November 2012) for relevant trials. We did not apply date or language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of topical treatment for facial burns were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently assessed and included the references identified by the search strategy. Included trials were assessed using a risk of bias form, and data were extracted using a standardised data extraction sheet. For dichotomous and continuous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios and mean differences, respectively, both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included five RCTs, comprising a total of 119 participants. Two studies compared two different antimicrobial agents and three compared a biological or bioengineered skin substitute with an antimicrobial agent. All studies had small sample sizes and were at high risk of bias. Heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes prevented pooling of data. In three studies time to complete wound healing was significantly shorter for those using a skin substitute than for those using an antibacterial agent, but the quality of the evidence was low. Pain was significantly reduced with the use of skin

  7. Phimosis and topical steroids: new clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Nicola; Corroppolo, Michele; Zuin, Veronica; Bianchi, Sanzio; Camoglio, Francesco Saverio

    2007-04-01

    Phimosis has been defined as unretractable foreskin without adherences and/or a circular band of tight prepuce preventing full retraction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy (response rate) of topical steroids for the treatment of tight phimosis at different age stages. After using the same medication with different dosage schemes, a retrospective analysis was carried out to assess the efficacy of topical steroids in the treatment of tight phimosis. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (betamethasone scheme A), group B (betamethasone scheme B) and group C (control group). Remission of phimosis, with a complete exposure and without a narrowing behind the glans, was considered a complete response to treatment. The outcomes were then related to dosage scheme and patient's age. The dosage for group A was more effective than the dosage for groups B and C (control group). Phimosis resolved in 90% (group A), 72% (group B) and 56% (group C) of cases. A successful treatment was closely related to the age of patients at the beginning of steroid application. The results showed that treatment with topical steroids, which in general gives good results, proved to be much more successful in patients aged between 4 and 8 years, suggesting the efficacy of an early beginning of the treatment.

  8. AP U.S. History: Beneficial or Problematic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Maxine N.

    2000-01-01

    Warns against the declining standards of the Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. history examination and the AP program. Focuses on the problems that occur in maintaining high standards and the practive of teaching to the test in AP courses. Discusses who does grade and who should grade the AP examinations. (CMK)

  9. Commissioning Simulations for the APS Upgrade Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid seven-bend-achromat lattice that features very strong focusing elements and a relatively small vacuum chamber has been proposed for the APS upgrade. Achieving design lattice parameters during commissioning will need to be accomplished quickly in order to minimize dark time for APS users. The paper will describe start-to-end simulation of the machine commissioning beginning from first-turn trajectory correction, progressing to orbit and lattice correction, and culminating in evaluation of the nonlinear performance of the corrected lattice

  10. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  11. An investigator-blind, randomized, 4-week, parallel-group, multicenter pilot study to compare the safety and efficacy of a nonsteroidal cream (Promiseb Topical Cream) and desonide cream 0.05% in the twice-daily treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of seborrheic dermatitis includes topical antifungal agents to eradicate Malassezia spp, corticosteroids, which treat the inflammatory component of the disease and keratolytics which remove scale and crust. This study compared the efficacy of a nonsteroidal topical cream and a low-potency topical corticosteroid for the treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face in 77 volunteers randomized to twice-daily treatment with nonsteroidal cream or corticosteroid cream for up to 28 days. If the individual was rated clear by day 14, the study drug was collected and the participant was told not to use any topical products on the previously treated areas until after the 28-day follow-up visit. Both treatments were similarly effective in reducing disease severity, with approximately 90% of participants clearing or almost clear during the study. Both treatments demonstrated significant reductions in erythema, scaling, and pruritus (P < .0001). Safety in both groups was rated as excellent in more than 90%. Those using the nonsteroidal cream who cleared after 14 days of treatment were more likely to remain clear than were participants using the corticosteroid cream (P = .0173). Investigator global assessments of improvement found both study agents were essentially the same, and participants in both groups achieved clinically important improvement.

  12. Physicians’ Religious Topic Avoidance during Clinical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Villagran, Melinda M.; MacArthur, Brenda L.; Lee, Lauren E.; Ledford, Christy J. W.; Canzona, Mollie R.

    2017-01-01

    Religious and spiritual (R/S) conversations at the end-of-life function to help patients and their families find comfort in difficult circumstances. Physicians who feel uncertain about how to discuss topics related to religious beliefs may seek to avoid R/S conversations with their patients. This study utilized a two-group objective structured clinical examination with a standardized patient to explore differences in physicians’ use of R/S topic avoidance tactics during a clinical interaction. Results indicated that physicians used more topic avoidance tactics in response to patients’ R/S inquiries than patients’ R/S disclosures; however, the use of topic avoidance tactics did not eliminate the need to engage in patient-initiated R/S interactions. PMID:28481290

  13. Pulsation of Ap-Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    It has been known for many centuries that one can determine by simple means if a barrel of wine is full, half empty, or- horribile dictu - empty. One knocks against the wall and listens to the echo. Another example of the same technique, but less interesting for the connaisseur en vin is given by seismology. Seismographs distributed all over the globe register earthquakes and since they are differently located with respect to an earthquake centre the registrations look different. From a comparison of such registrations geologists have extracted most of our knowledge about the structure and composition of the terrestrial interior. Corresponding experiments were also planned and successfully executed on the Moon and on Mars. Stellar astronomers, however, are not in the lucky position of their colleagues who work in our solar system with the help of satellites. They are limited to stars which pulsate voluntarily. We will not discuss here the question why some groups of stars pulsate and others do not. We shall only mention that pulsating stars have at least one layer in their interior which does not absorb pulsational energy, as is the case for the rest of the star, but produces energy of variable amount and in phase with PUlsation. This mechanism keeps the star pulsating as long as this (these) layer(s) exists. Oue to stellar evolution, diffusion, magnetic fields, to name only some possible mechanisms, these layers can disappear or undergo substantial changes so that the energy losses due to pulsation cannot be compensated anymore. Oamping will result and finally the star will become stable against pulsation.

  14. Topically induced diphenhydramine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J F; Weisse, M E

    1990-01-01

    We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old child who manifested acute anticholinergic toxicity after the applications of a topical calamine-antihistamine lotion. This mechanism of diphenhydramine toxicity is uncommon, with only a few other case reports noted in the literature. This case is also intriguing in that this child had an underlying varicella illness with fever that tended to obscure the picture. This report describes the characteristic history and physical examination pertinent to anticholinergic toxicity, varicella complication considerations, and case management.

  15. Topics in CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  16. A-101, a Proprietary Topical Formulation of High-Concentration Hydrogen Peroxide Solution: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled, Parallel Group Study of the Dose-Response Profile in Subjects With Seborrheic Keratosis of the Face.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Janet C; Jarratt, Michael; Beger, Brian B; Bradshaw, Mark; Powala, Christopher V; Shanler, Stuart D

    2017-09-04

    Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a common benign skin tumor, yet no topical treatments are approved in the United States. To evaluate the proprietary, stabilized, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide-based topical solution A-101 (32.5% and 40% concentrations) for treatment of facial SK lesions. In this multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive up to 2 treatments of A-101 40%, A-101 32.5%, or vehicle solution applied to a single facial SK lesion. The primary efficacy assessment was the Physician's Lesion Assessment (PLA), a validated 4-ordinal scale. The primary end point, the mean reduction in PLA grade from baseline to Day 106 was 1.7 for A-101 40%, 1.4 for A-101 32.5%, and 0.1 for vehicle (p < .001, both concentrations vs vehicle). Lesions for 68%, 62%, and 5% of subjects, respectively, were judged to be clear or near clear (p < .001, both concentrations vs vehicle). Local skin reactions were predominantly mild and transient. No subjects discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events. A-101 solution demonstrated efficacy in treating SKs on the face. Greater magnitude of effect was seen with the 40% concentration than the 32.5% concentration. A-101 solution had a favorable safety and tolerability profile at both concentrations.

  17. Topical immunomodulators are effective for treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chong Won; Chang, Sung Eun; Bak, Hana; Choi, Jee Ho; Park, Hyun Sun; Huh, Chang Hun; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2008-08-01

    Vitiligo is a common, acquired, depigmenting disease of the skin. Although the pathogenesis of vitiligo is still unclear, it is postulated that topical immunomodulators exert therapeutic effects on treatment of vitiligo. We reviewed the treatment of vitiligo with topical immunomodulators and topical steroids to evaluate the efficacy of immunomodulators in treatment of vitiligo. We reviewed 52 patients treated with topical immunomodulators and 27 patients with topical steroids. To evaluate the efficacy, repigmentation of vitiligo was reviewed. Between the two treatments, the duration from the start of treatment to onset of repigmentation was significantly shorter in the topical immunomodulator group (P = 0.002). However, no statistically significant differences were found in sex, age, mean disease duration, sites of vitiligo lesion and ratio of patients who showed response. We may suggest topical immunomodulator as an alternative to topical steroids for treatment of vitiligo.

  18. Topical Knowledge and Topical Interest Predictors of Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Victoria Chou; Devine, Denise A.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated whether preassessments of general and specific knowledge can predict children's listening comprehension. Topical knowledge, assessed by multiple-choice questions, did predict story comprehension; topical interest, however, did not correlate either with topical knowledge or comprehension. (Authors/PP)

  19. Binaries among AP and AM stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, P.; Ginestet, N.; Carquillat, J.-M.; Carrier, F.; Udry, S.

    1998-04-01

    The results of long-term surveys of radial velocities of cool Ap and Am stars are presented. There are two samples, one of about 100 Ap stars and the other of 86 Am stars. Both have been observed with the CORAVEL scanner from Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France. The conspicuous lack of short-period binaries among cool Ap stars seems confirmed, although this may be the result of an observational bias; one system has a period as short as 1.6 days. A dozen new orbits could be determined, including that of one SB2 system. Considering the mass functions of 68 binaries from the literature and from our work, we conclude that the distribution of the mass ratios is the same for the Bp-Ap stars than for normal G dwarfs. Among the Am stars, we found 52 binaries, i.e. 60%; an orbit could be computed for 29 of them. Among these 29, there are 7 SB2 systems, one triple and one quadruple system. The 21 stars with an apparently constant radial velocity may show up later as long-period binaries with a high eccentricity. The mass functions of the SB1 systems are compatible with cool main-sequence companions, also suggested by ongoing spectral observations.

  20. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  1. Boosting Black Academic Achievement and AP Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Minority students were about 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. But the composition of its honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity: Few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses as seniors. This paper…

  2. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  3. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  4. Boosting Black Academic Achievement and AP Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Terrie; Maloney, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Minority students were about 25% of the student population at Central High School in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1995. But the composition of its honors and challenge classes did not reflect this diversity: Few minority students were taking challenge classes as underclassmen and even fewer were taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses as seniors. This paper…

  5. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  6. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  7. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  8. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  9. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  10. APS deposition facility upgrades and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Ray; Shi, Bing; Erdmann, Mark; Izzo, Scott; Assoufid, Lahsen; Goetze, Kurt; Mooney, Tim; Lauer, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has recently invested resources to upgrade or replace aging deposition systems with modern equipment. Of the three existing deposition systems, one will receive an upgrade, while two are being replaced. A design which adds a three-substrate planetary for the APS rotary deposition system is almost complete. The replacement for the APS large deposition system, dubbed the "Modular Deposition System", has been conceptually designed and is in the procurement process. Eight cathodes will sputter horizontally on mirrors up to 1.5 meters in length. This new instrument is designed to interface with ion-milling instruments and various metrology equipment for ion-beam figuring. A third linear machine, called the APS Profile Coating System, has two cathodes and is designed to accept substrates up to 200mm in length. While this machine is primarily intended for fabrication of figured KB mirrors using the profile-coating technique, it has also been used to produce multilayer monochromators for beamline use.

  11. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  12. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  13. Development of the Assistance to Participate Scale (APS) for children's play and leisure activities.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, H; Law, M; Howie, L; Pallant, J F

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Assistance to Participate Scale (APS). The APS measures the assistance that a school-aged child with a disability requires to participate in play and leisure activities from the primary carer's perspective. Mixed methodology using an instrument design model was used to complete two studies. First, a qualitative research design was used to generate items and scoring criteria for the APS. Second, a quantitative study evaluated the instrument using data collected from 152 mothers with children aged 5-18 years. Statistical analysis assessed the underlying structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the APS. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two correlated components, reflecting home-based and community-based play activities. Both subscales and the total APS scale showed good internal consistency. The APS correlated as predicted with individual domains and overall scores for other validated measures (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory caregiver scales and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) with correlations ranging from rho = 0.42 to rho = 0.77. The APS was able to discriminate between groups of children based on type of schooling (regular or segregated), need for equipment/assistive devices, frequency of lifting and disability. The APS provides professionals with a brief psychometrically sound tool that measures the amount of caregiver assistance provided to a child with a disability to participate in play and recreation. The APS may be used as an outcome measure and to evaluate and predict the amount and type of additional assistance families need to facilitate their child's participation in an important aspect of the child's daily life and development: play and recreation.

  14. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  15. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  16. Hot topics for leadership development.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management.

  17. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  18. Novel players in the AP2-miR172 regulatory network for common bean nodulation.

    PubMed

    Íñiguez, Luis P; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Hernández, Georgina

    2015-01-01

    The intricate regulatory network for floral organogenesis in plants that includes AP2/ERF, SPL and AGL transcription factors, miR172 and miR156 along with other components is well documented, though its complexity and size keep increasing. The miR172/AP2 node was recently proposed as essential regulator in the legume-rhizobia nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Research from our group contributed to demonstrate the control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodulation by miR172c/AP2-1, however no other components of such regulatory network have been reported. Here we propose AGLs as new protagonists in the regulation of common bean nodulation and discuss the relevance of future deeper analysis of the complex AP2 regulatory network for nodule organogenesis in legumes.

  19. Ethernet ring protection with managed FDB using APS payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jinsung; Ryoo, Jeong-dong; Joo, Bheom Soon; Rhee, J.-K. Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Ethernet ring protection (ERP) is a new technology based on OAM (operations, administration, and maintenance) being standardized by the ITU-T G.8032 working group. In this paper, we present the recent development of Ethernet ring protection which is called FDB (filtering database) flush scheme and propose a new Ethernet ring protection technique introducing a managed FDB using APS to deliver information how to fix FDB selectively. We discuss the current development of the ERP technology at ITU-T and performance comparisons between different proposals.

  20. [Chitosan in topical preparations].

    PubMed

    Matusová, D; Truplová, E

    2007-06-01

    Chitosan in topical preparations Within the framework of experimental work at the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology of Slovak Medical University, "insect" chitin obtained from the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) was processed to produce dosage forms and compared with commercially available chitin, or chitosan, obtained from shrimps (Pandalus borealus). The paper aimed to find whether insect chitin, or chitosan, possessed similar technological properties as commercially available and for topical preparations used products. Samples were prepared containing chitin, or chitosan, of different origin, 0.25 and 0.5% in a gel base. In some gels the gel base was acidified with citric acid (in an amount of 0.75%) or lactic acid (1%) to improve the mechanical properties of foils. All samples were well applicable and after drying a relatively resistant transparent layer was formed on the skin. All samples could be made to produce elastic foils, which after moistening clung well to the skin. Both chitin and chitosan obtained from the bodies of buff-tailed bumblebees differed from reference materials obtained from shrimps by the degree of deacetylation, possessed different technological properties, e.g., finer fibres, were more fragile, and when wet, they could be disintegrated better, which is obvious also from the results of microscopic evaluation. Chitosan prepared from chitin SAV (insect) possessed substantially finer particles in the dosage form. The evaluation of the flow properties of the prepared samples revealed that except Sample I (gel base alone) they are time-dependent tixotropic systems. Whereas chitin gels did not show any antimicrobial effect (which is apparently connected with bad solubility of chitin), gels with chitosan showed this activity. A more marked effect was observed in the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and in Escherichia coli it was weaker. The paper reports the first tentative results of comparisons of

  1. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  2. Microcirculatory effect of topical vapocoolants

    PubMed Central

    Galdyn, Izabela; Swanson, Edward; Gordon, Chad; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Bena, James; Siemionow, Maria; Zins, James

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vapocoolant sprays are commonly used to minimize pain following minor interventions such as venipuncture, shave biopsy or needle insertion. Although these sprays have been widely used in clinical practice, little is known about their effect on microcirculation or cutaneous blood flow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real-time effect of a topical vapocoolant using a well-established, rat cremaster muscle microcirculatory model, allowing direct measurement of changes in vessel diameter, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour. METHODS: Fifty rats were divided into a control and four experimental groups: group 1: 4 s spray with vapocoolant at 18 cm distance; group 2: 10 s spray at 18 cm distance; group 3: 4 s spray at 8 cm distance; and group 4: 10 s spray at 8 cm distance. Vessel diameters, capillary density and leukocyte behaviour were monitored for 1 h thereafter. Muscle was harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of proangiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor), leukocyte behaviour markers (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule, intercellular adhesion molecule), pimonidazole-hypoxia staining and ApopTag (Millipore, USA) staining for apoptosis. Gene expression for inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and myeloperoxidase assay for inflammation was performed. RESULTS: The use of refrigerant spray decreased vessel diameter and capillary density initially, although none of these decreases were statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction showed no significant changes. The myeloperoxidase assay showed statistically significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity in groups 2, 3 and 4. Immunohistochemistry was negative for angiogenic and proinflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of statistically significant changes in vessel diameter and inflammatory markers corroborated the

  3. Power Saving Control for Battery-Powered Portable WLAN APs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi

    This paper proposes a power saving control function for battery-powered portable wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) to extend the battery life. The IEEE802.11 standard does not support power saving control for APs. To enable a sleep state for an AP, the AP forces the stations (STAs) to refrain from transmitting frames using the network allocation vector (NAV) while the AP is sleeping. Thus the sleep state for the AP can be employed without causing frame loss at the STAs. Numerical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the newly proposed control technique conserves power compared to the conventional control.

  4. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-01-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar™) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan™) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219

  5. E6-AP/UBE3A protein acts as a ubiquitin ligase toward SOX9 protein.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Takako; Kishino, Tetsuya; Stephen, Shelley; Eberspaecher, Heidi; Maki, Sayumi; Takigawa, Masaharu; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2013-12-06

    SOX9 is a transcription factor that acts as a key regulator at various stages of cartilage differentiation. There is ample evidence that intracellular SOX9 protein levels are tightly regulated both by sumoylation and by degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Using a proteomics approach, here we report the identification of a SOX9-binding protein, E6-AP/UBE3A, that may act as a ubiquitin ligase toward Sox9. E6-AP bound SOX9 through the region consisting mostly of its high mobility group domain in vitro. In nuclear lysates, FLAG-tagged E6-AP coprecipitated with Sox9 and its high mobility group domain. This finding was estimated using nuclear lysates from a chondrocytic cell line that endogenously expresses E6-AP and SOX9. Accordingly, ectopically expressed E6-AP and SOX9 colocalized in the nucleus. We show that E6-AP ubiquitinates SOX9 in vitro and in vivo and that SOX9 levels are enhanced after addition of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Similar, siRNA knockdown of E6-AP and the E2 ligase Ubc9 increased cellular SOX9 amounts, supporting the notion that SOX9 may be ubiquitinated in hypertrophic chondrocytes by E6-AP and degraded by proteasomes. This is in accordance with the distribution of SOX9 levels, which are high in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes but low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas E6-AP levels are high in hypertrophic chondrocytes and low in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase.

  6. APS control system operating system choice

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.; Kraimer, M.; Lenkszus, F.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to set down the reasons and decisions regarding what is an important choice for the APS Control System design staff, namely the choice of an operating system for its principle computer resources. Since the choice also may affect cost estimates and the design handbook, there is a further need to document the process. The descriptions and explanations which follow are intended for reading by other APS technical area managers and will contain a minimum of buzz-words, and where buzz-words are used, they will be explained. The author hopes that it will help in understanding the current trends and developments in the volatile and fast-developing computer field.

  7. Children born to SLE and APS mothers.

    PubMed

    Nalli, C; Iodice, A; Andreoli, L; Lojacono, A; Motta, M; Fazzi, E; Tincani, A

    2014-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancies in these patients carry several complications such as prematurity. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta but they don't generally cause any neonatal thrombotic event. Because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier, aPL could theoretically reach the fetal brain. Whether this can have an effect on brain development is still under investigation. Some studies performed in children of patients with SLE and/or APS showed an increased number of learning disabilities without impairment in intelligence level. The objectives of this article are to evaluate the neurodevelopment outcome in 30 children (median age 9 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS with IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I during the third trimester of pregnancy and found positive for the same antibodies at birth. A neurological physical exam was performed in all children. We submitted some questionnaires to the mothers: the Child Behavior CheckList (CBCL) and a homemade set of questions obtained by a team composed of rheumatologists and pediatric neurologists. Intellectual functioning was determined by the Wechsler scale for corrected age. In all children neurological physical exam and intelligence levels were found to be normal but mild behavior disorders and history of neurological manifestations were shown in three children. Offspring of patients with SLE and/or APS are generally healthy. We and others observed the occurrence of minor neurological disorders that might be related to maternal disease or to prematurity. The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  9. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  10. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  11. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, M.; O'Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  12. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

  13. Beam splitting mirrors for an APS beamline.

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.; McNulty, I.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-01-01

    We describe a set of two cooled mirrors used in tandem on a high-heat-load undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to spatially split an incoming X-ray beam into two parts, allowing simultaneous operation on two beamlines. Such arrangements have the potential to increase beamline throughput by as much as a factor of two at a modest cost. Conceptual design, engineering analyses, and fabrication steps are outlined.

  14. APS - Diagnostics and challenges for the future.

    PubMed

    Pengo, V; Bison, E; Zoppellaro, G; Padayattil Jose, S; Denas, G; Hoxha, A; Ruffatti, A; Banzato, A

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is essentially based on the detection of circulating antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. Progress have been made on the standardization of tests exploring the presence of aPL as guidelines on coagulation and immunological tests were recently published in the literature. Clinical relevance of aPL profile has come from prospective cohort studies in populations with a homogeneous antibody profile supporting the view that triple positivity is a high risk pattern in patients and carriers. In addition to the classic ones, several other tests have been proposed for the diagnosis of APS. The detection of antibodies directed to domain 1 and 4/5 of β2-Glycoprotein I (β2GP1) were found to be particularly sound. Several issues remain to be addressed. We do not yet know what is the physiological function of β2GP1 and the pathophysiology of thrombosis and pregnancy loss in these patients. Moreover, treatment is poorly defined especially in the case of feared catastrophic APS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A WWW Database of APS POSS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornuelle, C. S.; Aldering, G.; Sourov, A.; Humphreys, R. M.; Larsen, J.; Cabanela, J.

    1996-05-01

    We are making our digitized images from the APS scans of the red and blue first-epoch Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS I) available as a WWW-accessible image database. Image requests are through the APS homepage at http://isis.spa.umn.edu, and are initially limited in field width and sky region. To create this database, images from each scanned POSS I plate are processed into a set of coordinate-referenced index and pixel files. Database management software then refers to each object's pixels within a requested sky region by plate, by sub-plate, and finally by each scanned image. These images are then assembled into a mosaic FITS format file, whose header contains astrometric and photometric information. While the current APS Catalog of the POSS I contains only matched images, the image database will include all images above the plate grain noise limit of 25 mu m in diameter. Thus for a given sky region, users will have access to both the object (star and galaxy) catalog data and to the actual pixel data. This project is sponsored by NASA ADP contract NAS5-32670.

  16. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (II): thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyze the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations, and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analyzed on thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  17. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  18. Topics in statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  19. Prognostic value of Angiographic Perfusion Score (APS) following percutaneous interventions in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Narain, V S; Fischer, L; Puri, A; Sethi, R; Dwivedi, S K

    2013-01-01

    Identifying reperfusion and predicting post procedure risk is important following Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCI). An Angiographic Perfusion Score (APS) combining TIMI flow (TFG) and myocardial perfusion (TMPG) grades before and after PCI can accurately measure both epicardial and myocardial perfusion and predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE). APS was calculated in 226 (88 ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and 138 Non STEMI) patients. Maximum score being 12, reperfusion was defined as failed: 0-3, partial: 4-9, and full APS: 10-12. Thirty day MACE were observed. APS identified reperfusion significantly more than TMPG alone (STEMI: 50.6% vs 11.8% (p < 0.001); Non STEMI, early reperfusion: 69.4% vs 52.8% (p < 0.01) and Non STEMI late reperfusion: 38.2% vs 7.8%; (p ≤ 0.001) respectively. A significantly lower incidence of MACE was observed in the full as compared to the failed APS group (1.8% vs 22.5%) (p < 0.001). No differences were noted between TMPG 0-2 (9.8%, 9.4%, 7.3%, respectively) (p = NS). Compared to MPG alone APS detects more low risk reperfused patients, post PCI. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nitric oxide inhibits apoptosis via AP-1-dependent CD95L transactivation.

    PubMed

    Melino, G; Bernassola, F; Catani, M V; Rossi, A; Corazzari, M; Sabatini, S; Vilbois, F; Green, D R

    2000-05-01

    Several inducers of cytotoxic stress promote apoptotic cell death, which, at least in some cases, involves the CD95/CD95 ligand (CD95L) pathway. The induction of the CD95/CD95L pathway can be activated by the activator protein-1 (AP-1)-mediated up-regulation of the CD95L promoter, which is responsible for the induction of apoptosis elicited by stimuli such as etoposide. We show that nitric oxide (NO) represents a regulatory element able to block apoptosis by interfering with this loop. Etoposide- and C6-ceramide-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells with different kinetics. Cell death was accompanied by an increase in DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor AP-1, transactivation of the AP-1 site-containing CD95L promoter, and caspase 3-like protease activation. Using different NO-releasing compounds, we found that apoptosis was prevented in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in both models of apoptosis, NO-releasing compounds dose-dependently reduced: (a) the number of the titratable thiol groups (cysteine residues) of c-Jun; (b) induction of AP-1 DNA-binding activity; (c) AP-1-driven transactivation of the CD95L promoter; and (d) caspase activation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that NO can modulate cell death at an upstream level, by interfering with the ability of AP-1 to induce CD95L expression.

  1. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  2. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  3. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  4. Small molecule inhibitors targeting activator protein 1 (AP-1).

    PubMed

    Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-08-28

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases.

  5. Is benzoyl peroxide 3% topical gel effective and safe in the treatment of acne vulgaris in Japanese patients? A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Alio Sáenz, Alessandra B; Ono, Makoto; Yamada, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an anti-acne medication is not yet approved in Japan. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a once-daily topical application of BPO 3% gel versus an inert vehicle gel in Japanese acne patients. Three hundred and sixty patients were randomized to receive BPO 3% or vehicle for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end-point was absolute change in number of total lesions (TL) from baseline to week 12 to demonstrate the superiority of BPO 3% versus vehicle. Secondary efficacy end-points were absolute and percent change in TL, inflammatory lesions (IL), non-inflammatory lesions (non-IL) and Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA). Change in TL counts from baseline to week 12 for BPO 3% was superior to vehicle (difference, -21.0; P < 0.001). Absolute and percent reductions in TL, IL and non-IL counts were greater for BPO 3% at all study visits. The proportion of patients with improvement in ISGA scores was significantly higher with BPO 3% than with vehicle from week 2. All adverse events were mild or moderate. Adverse drug-related reactions were higher for BPO 3% (30%) than with vehicle (5%). Local tolerability scores of grade 1 or more (slight to moderate) were more frequent with BPO 3% than vehicle with the most significant differences observed in dryness (56% vs 27% at week 1-4), peeling (19% vs 9% at week 1-2) and burning/stinging (58% vs 15% at week 1-12). These results indicate that BPO 3% is effective while maintaining a favorable safety and tolerability profile in Japanese acne patients.

  6. Topical minoxidil: cardiac effects in bald man.

    PubMed Central

    Leenen, F H; Smith, D L; Unger, W P

    1988-01-01

    Systemic cardiovascular effects during chronic treatment with topical minoxidil vs placebo were evaluated using a double-blind, randomized design for two parallel groups (n = 20 for minoxidil, n = 15 for placebo). During 6 months of follow-up, blood pressure did not change, whereas minoxidil increased heart rate by 3-5 beats min-1. Compared with placebo, topical minoxidil caused significant increases in LV end-diastolic volume, in cardiac output (by 0.751 min-1) and in LV mass (by 5 g m-2). We conclude that in healthy subjects short-term use of topical minoxidil is likely not to be detrimental. However, safety needs to be established regarding ischaemic symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease as well as for the possible development of LV hypertrophy in healthy subjects during years of therapy. PMID:3191000

  7. [Epidemiological characteristics of road traffic injuries in AP Vojvodina].

    PubMed

    Durić, Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica

    2009-01-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the leading epidemiological problems in developed countries as well as in developing ones. It is estimated that every day in the world 1308 person die in car accidents. Causes of traffic accidents are factors of road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one being the cause of more than 90% car accidents, isolated or linked with other factors. Data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Department in Novi Sad were collected for the period 1992-2001 and analyzed. All road traffic accidents were divided into those with and without injured persons. All injured were divided in three categories: slightly injured, severely injured and killed. Categorization was done by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (police). Average number of road traffic accidents in AP Vojvodina is 13,191, and 3502 with injured persons per year. Avarage incidence is 174 accidents per 100,000 population, and 301 injured per 100,000 population. Mortality rate is 30.6 per 100,000 population. Number of killed in road traffic accidents per 10,000 vehicles is 6.91. During the 1992-2001 period, morbidity and mortality rates of traffic accidents in AP Vojvodina were high. Participating of bicycle drivers, car passengers and pedestrians is higher than in developed countries. Injured persons are mostly 20-29 y.o., but rates of killed persons are the same in all age groups older than 19. Men are more in danger than women. Majority of accidents happen during the early autumn months, on Fridays and Saturdays, in early evening hours. Most persons have been injured or killed in city accidents, along Subotica-Belgrade highway. AP Vojvodina had the highest mortality rate of road traffic injuries per ten thousand vehicles in Europe -- 6.91. Effective preventive measures are needed to decrease rates of road traffic accidents.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Return To Flight Task Group (RTFTG) holds its first public meeting at the Debus Center, KSC Visitor Complex. The group is co-chaired by former Shuttle commander Richard O. Covey and retired Air Force Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, who was an Apollo commander. The RTFTG was at KSC to conduct organizational activities, tour Space Shuttle facilities and receive briefings on Shuttle-related topics. The task group was chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe to perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Return To Flight Task Group (RTFTG) holds its first public meeting at the Debus Center, KSC Visitor Complex. The group is co-chaired by former Shuttle commander Richard O. Covey and retired Air Force Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, who was an Apollo commander. The RTFTG was at KSC to conduct organizational activities, tour Space Shuttle facilities and receive briefings on Shuttle-related topics. The task group was chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe to perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The news media capture the words and images of the Return To Flight Task Group (RTFTG) which held its first public meeting at the Debus Center, KSC Visitor Complex. The group is co-chaired by former Shuttle commander Richard O. Covey and retired Air Force Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, who was an Apollo commander. The RTFTG was at KSC to conduct organizational activities, tour Space Shuttle facilities and receive briefings on Shuttle-related topics. The task group was chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe to perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The news media capture the words and images of the Return To Flight Task Group (RTFTG) which held its first public meeting at the Debus Center, KSC Visitor Complex. The group is co-chaired by former Shuttle commander Richard O. Covey and retired Air Force Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, who was an Apollo commander. The RTFTG was at KSC to conduct organizational activities, tour Space Shuttle facilities and receive briefings on Shuttle-related topics. The task group was chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe to perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  10. Topics in Particle Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Toby David

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation consists of a study of two topics in particle astrophysics. In Part I, we examine the generation of microwave background radiation fluctuations due to an inflationary epoch in the early universe. In Chapter 1, we study the angular dependence of the three-point correlation function of microwave background fluctuations. We use the standard techniques of field theory in curved spacetime to compute, up to an overall constant, the three-point function of the inflaton field varphi and relate this to the three-point function of microwave background temperature fluctuations. In Chapter 2, we study the dependence of the size of the fluctuations on the coupling constant lambda in the inflaton potential, and in particular we show that some claims in the literature that upper bounds on the size of the fluctuations do not put an upper bound on lambda are false. In Part II, we calculate the relic density of two supersymmetric particles with an eye to studying their viability as dark matter candidates. In Chapters 3 and 4, we compute corrections to the annihilation rate for binos (B) due to sfermion mixing (Chapter 3) and some loop effects (Chapter 4). We find that the effect of sfermion mixing may be large, both on the relic density of binos and their present annihilation cross-section, which affects their prospects for detection. The effect of the loop graphs we calculate is generically small, but can be large for bino masses near half the Z mass. In Chapter 5, we do a thorough calculation of the relic density of massive (_sp{~}>500 GeV) sneutrinos (~nu). We find that the relic density may lie in the cosmologically interesting region 0.1 _sp{~ }< Omega h^2 _sp{~}< 1.0 for sneutrino masses between 1 TeV and 4 TeV. Direct detection experiments require m _{~nu} _sp{~}< 2200 GeV and Omega_{~nu }h^2 _sp{~ }< 0.4.

  11. Chronic postsurgical pain: still a neglected topic?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698

  12. Teaching Materials and Strategies for the AP Music Theory Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, many students take the Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory Exam, and the majority of these students enroll in specialized AP music theory classes as part of the preparation process. For the teachers of these AP music theory classes, a number of challenges are presented by the difficulty and complexity of the exam subject material as…

  13. 76 FR 10269 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 52 RIN 3150-AI81 AP1000 Design Certification Amendment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...) proposes to amend its regulations to certify an amendment to the AP1000 standard plant design. The purpose... approval of its amendment to the AP1000 design, an ] applicant seeking an NRC license to construct...

  14. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE), Department of Education. ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2011 competition. SUMMARY... applications for the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition. That notice established a November 17, 2010 deadline date...

  15. The AP Exam and the Introductory College Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Explores reasons why students take introductory physics courses at the university regardless of their Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance. Briefly describes the nature of AP physics, the examination format and reporting of scores, and the results of a survey of physics departments regarding their policies towards AP exam scores and placement…

  16. The AP Exam and the Introductory College Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Explores reasons why students take introductory physics courses at the university regardless of their Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance. Briefly describes the nature of AP physics, the examination format and reporting of scores, and the results of a survey of physics departments regarding their policies towards AP exam scores and placement…

  17. Book Eyes Impact of AP Classes and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    At a time of mushrooming interest in Advanced Placement (AP) tests, a new book, "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," assembles studies on how capable the program is of meeting the increasingly diverse expectations held up for it. Growing out of a symposium held at Harvard in 2007, the book focuses on AP science…

  18. [Non adherence and topical steroids].

    PubMed

    Aubert, H; Barbarot, S

    2012-01-01

    Compliance raises very specific questions in dermatology related to the frequent use of local treatments: creams or ointments, including topical corticosteroids. The adherence in dermatology is a complex issue. It is difficult to quantify objectively because of the patient subjectivity, the constant adaptation to changes in the course of the disease, and due to the lack of adapted device. Moreover poor compliance may be related to topical corticosteroid phobia, defined as a fear vis-à-vis the topical corticosteroids, rational or not. The topical corticosteroid phobia is very common in the management of chronic inflammatory skin diseases especially in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the multifunctional proteins RPA, YB-1, and XPC repair factor on AP site cleavage by DNA glycosylase NEIL1.

    PubMed

    Pestryakov, Pavel; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Grin, Inga; Fomina, Elizaveta E; Kim, Ekaterina R; Hamon, Loïc; Eliseeva, Irina A; Petruseva, Irina O; Curmi, Patrick A; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Lavrik, Olga I

    2012-04-01

    DNA glycosylases are key enzymes in the first step of base excision DNA repair, recognizing DNA damage and catalyzing the release of damaged nucleobases. Bifunctional DNA glycosylases also possess associated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity that nick the damaged DNA strand at an abasic (or AP) site, formed either spontaneously or at the first step of repair. NEIL1 is a bifunctional DNA glycosylase capable of processing lesions, including AP sites, not only in double-stranded but also in single-stranded DNA. Here, we show that proteins participating in DNA damage response, YB-1 and RPA, affect AP site cleavage by NEIL1. Stimulation of the AP lyase activity of NEIL1 was observed when an AP site was located in a 60 nt-long double-stranded DNA. Both RPA and YB-1 inhibited AP site cleavage by NEIL1 when the AP site was located in single-stranded DNA. Taking into account a direct interaction of YB-1 with the AP site, located in single-stranded DNA, and the high affinity of both YB-1 and RPA for single-stranded DNA, this behavior is presumably a consequence of a competition with NEIL1 for the DNA substrate. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC), a key protein of another DNA repair pathway, was shown to interact directly with AP sites but had no effect on AP site cleavage by NEIL1.

  20. Topicality 1 and Topicality 2: A Quest for True Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Clark D.; Vasilius, Janet M.

    The actual nature of topicality as it is presented in intercollegiate debate rounds has become so split that there are two different types of topicality. The first type (T1) is a "real" argument that is subjective, intentional, absolute, jurisdictional, pragmatic, and focuses on content and product. The second type (T2) is strategic,…

  1. Topical nadifloxacin 1% cream vs. topical erythromycin 4% gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Mustafa; Akar, Ahmet; Ozmen, Ibrahim; Erbil, Hakan

    2010-12-01

    Topical antibiotics are the mainstay of therapy in mild to moderate inflammatory acne. Topical erythromycin is one of the most common prescribed topical antibiotics. Nadifloxacin, another topical antibiotic for acne, was recently introduced into the market in our country. In this study, we compared the efficacies and safety of topical nadifloxacin 1% cream and erythromycin 4% gel in acne. A total of 86 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into two treatment groups. The efficacies of the drugs were assessed by lesion counts. An acne severity index (ASI) was also calculated. In both groups, there was a significant reduction in lesion counts and ASI scores beginning from the first visit at week 4. This reduction continued throughout the 12-week study period. Both treatments were well tolerated. We conclude that when topically applied, both nadifloxacin 1% cream and erythromycin 4% gel are equally effective and safe treatments for mild to moderate facial acne. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Arsenic may be involved in fluoride-induced bone toxicity through PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi-bing; Xu, Yu-yan; Yu, Xian; Yang, Jun; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Ai-hua

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to combined fluoride and arsenic continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting thousands of people. In recent years, more and more researchers began to focus on the interaction between the fluorine and the arsenic. In this study, the selected investigation site was located in China. The study group was selected from people living in fluoride-arsenic polluted areas due to burning coal. The total number of participants was 196; including the fluoride-arsenic anomaly group (130) and the fluoride-arsenic normal group (63). By observing the changes in gene and protein expression of PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway, the results show that fluoride can increase the expression levels of PTH, PKA, and AP1, but arsenic can only affect the expression of AP1; fluoride and arsenic have an interaction on the expression of AP1. Further study found that fluoride and arsenic can affect the mRNA expression level of c-fos gene (AP1 family members), and have an interaction on the expression of c-fos, but not c-jun. The results indicate that PTH/PKA/AP1 signaling pathway may play an important role in bone toxicity of fluoride. Arsenic can affect the expression of c-fos, thereby affecting the expression of transcription factor AP1, indirectly involved in fluoride-induced bone toxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Patients treated by Model-C gamma knife with APS are less exposed to non-therapeutic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chiou, T S M

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the defocused (non-therapeutic) irradiation between the Model-C gamma knife with the automatic positioning system (APS) and with the non-APS mode. 41 males and 59 females (mean age: 54 years) had the following pathologies: 38 benign tumors, 43 malignant tumors, 16 vascular lesions, and 3 trigeminal neuralgias. These included 192 lesions (mean volume: 4.8 mL), 61 (32%) of them were located deeply. The radiation treatment time needed and the choice of helmets and shots for each lesion were analyzed. The inter-group difference is analyzed using the one-way ANOVA method. The APS mode could be applied alone in 79 patients or was always possible in nearly 95% of patients with benign lesions. APS-treatment failed in three patients due to unexpected collisions, and the other 18 harbored some advanced peripheral metastatic lesions. The non-APS mode required 47% more defocused time than the pure APS mode (1.1 vs. 0.75 minutes, p<0.01) before starting the next shot. Patients treated by the APS mode are exposed to a 70% less (p<0.05) unplanned, defocused irradiation dose than those by the non-APS mode. Although there is a tendency in the APS group to use fewer helmets but more shots per lesion for achieving an optimal dosimetry, there was no difference in the averaged defocused time per patient. The APS system makes GK radiosurgery run more smoothly, rapidly, comfortable and safer than ever. It improves the design of more conformal dose plans, especially for benign lesions, and the patients will also be exposed to less unnecessary radiation doses.

  4. Topical ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pravin; Katara, Rajesh; Mishra, Sushil; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2013-05-01

    Topical fluoroquinolones are used in ophthalmology to treat ocular infections. They are bactericidal and inhibit bacterial DNA replication by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase. Fluoroquinolones possess two ionizable groups: a carboxylic group (pKa1 = 5.5 - 6.34) and a heterocyclic group (pKa2 = 7.6 - 9.3), in the nucleus, which acquire charge at pH above and below the isoelectric point (pI = 6.75 - 7.78). At isoelectric point, fluoroquinolones remain unionized and show enhanced corneal penetration but exhibit reduced aqueous solubility and the drug may precipitate from aqueous solution. Aqueous ophthalmic solutions of fluoroquinolones are obtained by using hydrochloride or mesylate salt which is acidic and irritating to the eyes. Hence, pH of the solution is kept between 5 and 7 to ensure aqueous solubility and minimum ocular irritation. This review gives an overview of various physicochemical and formulation factors affecting the ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones and strategies for getting higher ocular bioavailability for ocular delivery of fluoroquinolones. These strategies could be employed to improve efficacy of fluoroquinolones in eye preparation. Broad-spectrum antibacterials, such as the ophthalmic fluoroquinolones, are powerful weapons for treating and preventing potentially sight-threatening infections. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones have quickly assumed an outstanding place in the ophthalmic applications. Especially valuable for their broad-spectrum coverage against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, these agents have become the anti-infective of preference for many ophthalmologists. Moxifloxacin seems to be a promising powerful molecule among all fluoroquinolones for treatment of bacterial infections.

  5. Working with Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine Canadian programs for counseling groups of students. Topics include introducing computer-assisted guidance, future challenges for counselors, sociometry, sexuality, parent counseling, reluctant students, shyness, peer groups, education for living, and guidance advisory committees. (JAC)

  6. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C.

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  7. Cold-fusion television show angers APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Cold fusion has been controversial since its inception on 23 March 1989, when chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah in the US announced that they had achieved a sustained nuclear-fusion reaction at room temperature. Two decades on, a US television documentary about the field has stirred up fresh debate after it linked the American Physical Society (APS) to an evaluation of some cold-fusion results by Robert Duncan, a physicist and vice chancellor of the University of Missouri.

  8. Path Deviation Equations in AP-Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kahil, M. E.

    2006-02-01

    Recently, it has been shown that Absolute Parallelism (AP) geometry admits paths that are naturally quantized. These paths have been used to describe the motion of spinning particles in a background gravitational field. In case of a weak static gravitational field limits, the paths are applied successfully to interpret the discrepancy in the motion of thermal neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field (COW-experiment). The aim of the present work is to explore the properties of the deviation equations corresponding to these paths. In the present work the deviation equations are derived and compared to the geodesic deviation equation of the Riemannian geometry.

  9. The APS machine protection system (MPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, R.; Berg, B.; Arnold, N.

    1996-08-01

    The machine protection system (MPS) that protects the APS storage ring vacuum chamber from x-ray beams, is active. There are over 650 sensors monitored and networked through the MPS system. About the same number of other process variables are monitored by the much slower EPICS control system, which also has an input to the rf abort chain. The MPS network is still growing with the beam position limits detection system coming on-line. The network configuration, along with a limited description of individual subsystems, is presented.

  10. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

  11. Paleopalynology, 2nd edition; Topics in Geobiology Series, Volume 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Konrad

    2008-03-01

    Palynology, the study of pollen and spores, is a field of study pursued by at least three groups of people, who, as the author of this book notes, tend to have little contact among them. The first group consists of botanists interested in topics such as plant biology, evolution, or allergens (palynology in the strict sense). The other two groups include Quaternary paleoecologists interested in paleoecology and climate change, among other topics, and geologists interested in subjects such as stratigraphic correlation and evolution.

  12. Antioxidants and AP-1 activation: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Gomez del Arco, P; Martínez-Martínez, S; Calvo, V; Armesilla, A L; Redondo, J M

    1997-12-01

    Activity of the transcription factor AP-1 is controlled by different MAPK cascades that regulate the different AP-1 components at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Recently, AP-1 has been shown to behave as a redox-sensitive transcription factor that can be induced under both pro-oxidative and antioxidative conditions. In this overview we summarize the signaling pathways that converge on the activation of AP-1 and the components of these pathways that have been shown to be targets of antioxidants. The activation of AP-1 by antioxidants may account for the expression of a number of genes that mediate important functions under physiological conditions.

  13. Eyelash enhancement properties of topical dechloro ethylcloprostenolamide.

    PubMed

    Choy, Isaac; Lin, Susan

    2008-06-01

    To assess subjective reports by users of MD Lash Factor(TM) that it improved the appearance of their eyelashes, especially in length. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was performed on 34 healthy volunteers who were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment groups of varying concentrations of the key ingredient (dechloro ethylcloprostenolamide, a novel synthetic topical prostaglandin analogue) and a placebo group. All treatment groups demonstrated a statistically significant increase in eyelash length after 4 weeks of daily use. Group A: 1.69 mm, Group B: 1.94 mm, Group D: 1.44 mm, and Group C (placebo): 0.63 mm. There were no complications. Fifteen patients reported minimal initial transient irritation. Subjective reports by users of improved appearance in their eyelashes were confirmed. Use of dechloro ethylcloprostenolamide had minimal side effects.

  14. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  15. Resources for Topics in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  16. [Violence Prevention: A Topical Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses the issue of violence prevention in American schools and is based on presentations and discussions at the Workgroup To Improve the Quality of Technical Assistance around the Topic of Violence Prevention held in Washington, D.C. on June 12-14, 1995. The newsletter reports on the following presentation topics:…

  17. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  18. Working Topics for Students' Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Janet

    Students enrolled in composition classes may provide the answer to the dilemma of coming up with a writing topic: work--the "four letter word." Most, if not all, students have already become part of the labor force. The theme of "work" is naturally successful because it centers around a topic students know well, something that…

  19. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  20. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  1. Hot Topics on the Web: Strategies for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Karen R.; O'Hanlon, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Presents strategies for researching topics on the Web that are controversial or current in nature. Discusses topic selection and overviews, including the use of online encyclopedias; search engines; finding laws and pending legislation; advocacy groups; proprietary databases; Web site evaluation; and the continuing usefulness of print materials.…

  2. Investigating AP-2 and YY1 protein expression as a cause of high HER2 gene transcription in breast cancers with discordant HER2 gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Powe, Desmond G; Akhtar, Gulfareen; Habashy, Hany Onsy; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek; Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O

    2009-01-01

    Candidacy for anti-HER2 adjuvant therapy in breast cancer is assessed using tumour HER2 status but recently it has been proposed that the transcription factors AP-2alpha and YY1 may cause Her2 protein overexpression independently of gene amplification. We characterised AP-2alpha/beta, AP-2alpha and YY1 with HER2 gene and protein expression, other relevant biomarkers, and clinical outcome using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry in a large (n = 1,176) clinically annotated series of early stage operable breast cancer. The associations and prognostic independence of AP-2 and YY1 was assessed in all patients and an oestrogen receptor negative subgroup. Nuclear expression of AP-2alpha/beta, AP-2alpha and YY1 was detected in 23%, 44% and 33% of cases respectively. AP-2alpha/beta significantly correlated with YY1 and both markers were increased in luminal oestrogen receptor (ER) positive tumours of small size and low grade but only AP-2alpha/beta correlated with good prognosis breast cancer specific survival and disease free interval (BCSS and DFI). These characteristics were lost in oestrogen receptor negative patients. AP-2alpha also correlated with luminal-type tumours but not with YY1 expression or good prognosis. AP-2alpha and YY1 showed a significant correlation with Her2 protein expression and in addition, YY1 correlated with HER2 gene expression. Discordant HER2 gene and protein expression was identified in six cases (0.71% of the study group) with four of these showing AP-2alpha but absence of AP-2alpha/beta and YY1 expression. AP-2alpha/beta and YY1 are markers of good prognosis principally due to their association with oestrogen receptor but are not independent predictors. Discordant HER2 protein/gene expression is a rare event that is not always explained by the actions of AP-2 and YY1.

  3. The Electronic ApJ in Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, C. D.

    1995-12-01

    The on-line edition of the Astrophysical Journal provides the first opportunity for astronomical researchers to interact with the literature in a network context. Other electronic journals will follow. Astronomers will continue to develop ways to take advantage of information on the network, and these will be most effective when ApJ articles, observations from data centers, proposals for telescope time, communications with collaborators, and so on, are meshed. Astronomical literature, as a resource on the Internet, is not unique from the viewpoint of function or management, and astronomers are not unique as scholars in their desire to use the Internet as a tool to advance their work. We need to ensure as a community that all our resources for research --- journals and data --- fit in a global context on an Internet being used by everyone. In other words, we have to be sure that the ApJ fits into all the digital libraries of the future, including the ones we don't build. This paper will present a scenario in which many varied forms of information, astronomical and otherwise, can be catalogued and distributed so that they can be discovered and used by the research community.

  4. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.G.

    1991-04-01

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 {mu}m amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc.

  5. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  6. RELAP5/MOD3 AP600 problems

    SciTech Connect

    Riemke, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    RELAP5/MOD3 is a reactor systems analysis code that has been developed jointly by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and a consortium consisting of several of the countries and domestic organizations that were members of the International Code Assessment and Applications Program (ICAP). The code is currently being used to simulate transients for the next generation of advanced light water reactors (ALWR`s). One particular reactor design is the Westinghouse AP600 pressurized water reactor (PWR), which consists of two hot legs and four cold legs as well as passive emergency core cooling (ECC) systems. Initial calculations with RELAP5/MOD3 indicated that the code was not as robust as RELAP5/MOD2.5 with regard to AP600 calculations. Recent modifications in the areas of condensation wall heat transfer, interfacial heat transfer in the presence of noncondensibles, bubbly flow interfacial heat transfer, and time smoothing of both interfacial drag and interfacial heat transfer have improved the robustness, although more reliability is needed.

  7. Comparative efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, topical ivermectin, and oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies.

    PubMed

    Chhaiya, Sunita B; Patel, Varsha J; Dave, Jayendra N; Mehta, Dimple S; Shah, Hiral A

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin has opened a new era in the management of scabies as orally effective drug. However, topical route has been little explored for ivermectin. To compare the efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, oral ivermectin, and topical ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. This was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 315 patients, randomly allocated to 3 groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200 mcg/kg as single dose, and third group received ivermectin 1% lotion as single application. All the patients received anti-histaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. Primary efficacy variable was clinical cure of lesions. Statistical analysis was done by chi square test and one way ANOVA test using SPSS version 12. At the end of first week, cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group, and 69.3% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05). At the end of second week, cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 63% in oral ivermectin group, and 100% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05). At the end of third week, 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin and topical ivermectin group while 99% in oral ivermectin group (P = 0.367). No serious adverse events were observed. Permethrin and topical ivermectin were equally effective against scabies while oral ivermectin was significantly less effective up to 2 weeks. Topical ivermectin can be used as an alternative to permethrin.

  8. Topical NSAIDs effect on corneal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Singer, Daniel D; Kennedy, John; Wittpenn, John R

    2015-05-01

    Topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered topically for a variety of ophthalmologic conditions. Brand diclofenac and brand ketorolac were previously shown to have topical anesthetic effects in addition to analgesic effects. Using the same method, we measured similar anesthetic effects of the 4 currently available topical NSAIDs--generic diclofenac, generic ketorolac, brand bromfenac, and brand nepafenac. Baseline corneal sensitivity was measured on 10 healthy adult volunteers with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. One drop of the agent being studied was applied to the right eye every 5 minutes for a total of 4 drops. Corneal sensitivity was measured immediately after the last topical application and every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. After a 1-week washout period, a different agent was studied until all 4 NSAIDs were evaluated. Corneal sensitivity profiles over time were similar for all NSAIDs. Corneal sensitivity decreased significantly from baseline immediately after topical application remaining flat from 0 to 30 minutes and then rising from 45 to 60 minutes back toward baseline in all treatment groups (P < 0.001). The maximal absolute drop in corneal sensitivity as measured by pressure thresholds was greatest for diclofenac [28.6 mm (95% confidence intervals {CI}, 19.8-37.4)], followed by ketorolac [21.1 mm (95% CI, 15.1-27.1)], bromfenac [16.9 mm (10.7-23.1)], and nepafenac [16.4 mm (95% CI, 12.7-20.1)]. Only diclofenac and nepafenac were statistically different in maximal decrease in sensitivity. All 4 currently available NSAIDs demonstrated anesthetic effects similar to brand diclofenac and brand ketorolac.

  9. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  10. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine. Results An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages. One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons. Conclusions The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process. PMID:21171999

  11. EPA’s AP-42 development methodology: Converting or rerating current AP-42 datasets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis: the adhesins AP51 and AP65 bind heme and hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Shahed; Lee, B Craig; Garber, Gary E

    2009-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Although acquisition of iron by binding to host hemoglobin through distinct receptor(s) has been described, no specific heme- or hemoglobin-binding site has been reported in this parasite. To determine the presence of hemoglobin-binding protein(s), membrane proteins were subjected to hemoglobin-affinity chromatography. Eluted proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 48 and 63 kDa were detected. Competition assay with an excess amount of hemoglobin or hemin in hemoglobin-affinity chromatography could block the 63- and 48-kDa bands, respectively. Further analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that the 48- and 63-kDa proteins had identity with two T. vaginalis adhesins: AP51 and AP65, respectively. This study confirms the existence of multifunctional proteins in T. vaginalis, and suggested that AP51 and AP65, besides serving as adhesion molecules, could also act as heme- and hemoglobin-binding proteins.

  13. A Novel GLP1 Receptor Interacting Protein ATP6ap2 Regulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Feihan F; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Liu, Ying; Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinye Serena; Huang, Xinyi; Luu, Lemieux; Zhu, Dan; Gaisano, Herbert; Wheeler, Michael B

    2015-10-09

    GLP1 activates its receptor, GLP1R, to enhance insulin secretion. The activation and transduction of GLP1R requires complex interactions with a host of accessory proteins, most of which remain largely unknown. In this study, we used membrane-based split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid assays to identify novel GLP1R interactors in both mouse and human islets. Among these, ATP6ap2 (ATPase H(+)-transporting lysosomal accessory protein 2) was identified in both mouse and human islet screens. ATP6ap2 was shown to be abundant in islets including both alpha and beta cells. When GLP1R and ATP6ap2 were co-expressed in beta cells, GLP1R was shown to directly interact with ATP6ap2, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. In INS-1 cells, overexpression of ATP6ap2 did not affect insulin secretion; however, siRNA knockdown decreased both glucose-stimulated and GLP1-induced insulin secretion. Decreases in GLP1-induced insulin secretion were accompanied by attenuated GLP1 stimulated cAMP accumulation. Because ATP6ap2 is a subunit required for V-ATPase assembly of insulin granules, it has been reported to be involved in granule acidification. In accordance with this, we observed impaired insulin granule acidification upon ATP6ap2 knockdown but paradoxically increased proinsulin secretion. Importantly, as a GLP1R interactor, ATP6ap2 was required for GLP1-induced Ca(2+) influx, in part explaining decreased insulin secretion in ATP6ap2 knockdown cells. Taken together, our findings identify a group of proteins that interact with the GLP1R. We further show that one interactor, ATP6ap2, plays a novel dual role in beta cells, modulating both GLP1R signaling and insulin processing to affect insulin secretion.

  14. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-103. Examination Completed April 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2003-06-30

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-103. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s)that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations.

  15. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107 Examination Completed February 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2008-04-28

    AREVA NC Inc. (AREVA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations.

  16. Liposomes in topical photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Fahr, Alfred

    2012-08-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) refers to topical application of a photosensitizer onto the site of skin disease which is followed by illumination and results in death of selected cells. The main problem in topical PDT is insufficient penetration of the photosensitizer into the skin, which limits its use to superficial skin lesions. In order to overcome this problem, recent studies tested liposomes as delivery systems for photosensitizers. This paper reviews the use of different types of liposomes for encapsulating photosensitizers for topical PDT. Liposomes should enhance the photosensitizers' penetration into the skin, while decreasing its absorption into systemic circulation. Only few photosensitizers have currently been encapsulated in liposomes for topical PDT: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), temoporfin (mTHPC) and methylene blue. Investigated liposomes enhanced the skin penetration of 5-ALA and mTHPC, reduced their systemic absorption and reduced their cytotoxicity compared with free drugs. Their high tissue penetration should enable the treatment of deep and hyperkeratotic skin lesions, which is the main goal of using liposomes. However, liposomes still do not attract enough attention as drug carriers in topical PDT. In vivo studies of their therapeutic effectiveness are needed in order to obtain enough evidence for their potential clinical use as carriers for photosensitizers in topical PDT.

  17. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  18. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  19. Mental mechanisms for topics identification.

    PubMed

    Massey, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  20. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  1. The effects of oral and topical corticosteroid in rabbit corneas.

    PubMed

    Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Katsuta, Osamu; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Takashi; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2016-09-05

    To determine the most effective route of administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of ocular surface disease, by characterizing the difference between oral prednisolone and topical dexamethasone administration using an animal model. Pharmacokinetic analyses determined the corticosteroid concentrations in the normal ocular tissues of rabbits after oral or topical administration of corticosteroids using LC-MS/MS. In wound healing analyses, the area of the epithelial defect created by keratectomy using a 6-mm trephine was calculated with an image analyzer using an orally or topically steroid-administrated animal model. The average size of basal epithelial cells, the frequency of mitotic basal epithelial cells, the number of squamous cells, and the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts were determined in the enucleated corneal tissues after wound closure. By slit lamp examination, no remarkable differences were observed between orally and topically administered groups. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the distribution of dexamethasone after topical administration was superior to that after oral administration in the cornea. In contrast, both concentrations of corticosteroid applied topically and orally were similar with regards to AUCs (area under the concentration-time curve) in the conjunctiva. Although the healing rate was slower in the topical group, all corneas were almost healed within 96 h in the wound healing analysis. According to the histological analyses of epithelial cells, the average basal cell size was larger, the frequency of mitotic basal cells was greater, and the number of squamous epithelial cell layers was lower in the topically administered group although all of these differences were with no statistical significance. However, the number of hypertrophic stromal fibroblasts in the topically administered group was significantly lower than that in the orally administered group. There are different distributions and effects between

  2. The future of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain.

  3. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Gibbs, Sam; Bennett, Cathy; Holland, Richard; Abbott, Rachel

    2012-09-12

    Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available. To evaluate the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts in healthy, immunocompetent adults and children. We updated our searches of the following databases to May 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2010), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), and CINAHL (from 1981). We searched reference lists of articles and online trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data; a third author resolved any disagreements. We included 85 trials involving a total of 8815 randomised participants (26 new studies were included in this update). There was a wide range of different treatments and a variety of trial designs. Many of the studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in one or more areas of trial design.Trials of salicylic acid (SA) versus placebo showed that the former significantly increased the chance of clearance of warts at all sites (RR (risk ratio) 1.56, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.20 to 2.03). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43 to 5.01) and feet (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.55), suggested it might be more effective for hands than feet.A meta-analysis of cryotherapy versus placebo for warts at all sites favoured neither intervention nor control (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.23). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 15.94) and feet (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.07), again suggested better outcomes for hands than feet. One trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both placebo and SA, but only for hand warts.There was no significant difference in cure rates between

  4. Nomenclature and name assignment rules for the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.

    1992-03-16

    Because the APS accelerators are moving into the fabrication/assembly/installation stage, it is important for consistent naming conventions to be used throughout the project. The intent of this note is to dictate the rules to be adhered to when naming devices in the storage ring. These rules are generic in nature, and shall be applied in principle to the other machines as well. It is essential that every component have a unique and, hopefully, easily recognizable name. Every ASD and XFD group, except for magnets, must interface with the control system. For this reason all device names were developed keeping in mind their actual function, such as controlling or monitoring some device in the ring. Even though magnets are not directly interfaced to the control system, their power supplies are; therefore, a magnet will have the same name as its associated power supply.

  5. SEVEN TOPICS IN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    BANDETTINI, PETER A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging methodology that started in 1991 and allows human brain activation to be imaged at high resolution within only a few minutes. Because it has extremely high sensitivity, is relatively easy to implement, and can be performed on most standard clinical MRI scanners. It continues to grow at an explosive rate throughout the world. Over the years, at any given time, fMRI has been defined by only a handful of major topics that have been the focus of researchers using and developing the methodology. In this review, I attempt to take a snapshot of the field of fMRI as it is in mid-2009 by discussing the seven topics that I feel are most on the minds of fMRI researchers. The topics are, in no particular order or grouping: (1) Clinical impact, (2) Utilization of individual functional maps, (3) fMRI signal interpretation, (4) Pattern effect mapping and decoding, (5) Endogenous oscillations, (6) MRI technology, and (7) Alternative functional contrast mechanisms. Most of these topics are highly interdependent, each advancing as the others advance. While most fMRI involves applications towards clinical or neuroscience questions, all applications are fundamentally dependent on advances in basic methodology as well as advances in our understanding of the relationship between neuronal activity and fMRI signal changes. This review neglects almost completely an in-depth discussion of applications. Rather the discussions are on the methods and interpretation. PMID:19938211

  6. Cloning and expression of a transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) member identified from manila clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Luning; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin; Ning, Xuanxuan; Mu, Changkao; Wang, Chunlin

    2015-02-15

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins are implicated to play a major role in the regulation of numerous genes involved in the function and development of the immune system, cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, etc. It can bind to promoter of its target genes in a sequence-specific manner to transactivate or repress them. In this study, the full-length cDNA of an AP-1 was identified from Venerupis philippinarum (denoted as VpAP-1) by EST analysis and RACE approaches. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VpAP-1 had higher evolutional conservation to invertebrate than vertebrate counterparts and should be a new member of the AP-1 protein family. Spatial expression analysis found that VpAP-1 transcript was most abundantly expressed in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas, weakly expressed in the tissues of the gills, mantle and muscle. After Vibrio anguillarum challenge, the expression of VpAP-1 transcript in overall hemocyte population was up-regulated in the first 6h, and then decreased to 1.5-fold of the control group at 12h. As time progressed, a second peak of VpAP-1 expression was detected at 24h post-infection, which was 5-fold compared with that of the control group (P<0.01). After that, the expression level was sharply decreased and dropped to 0.5-fold of the control at 96h. The above results indicated that VpAP-1 was perhaps involved in the immune responses against microbe infection and might be contributed to the clearance of bacterial pathogens.

  7. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... different ingredients, but common active ingredients are benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, glycolic acid, and salicylic acid. Can ... to a developing baby. Can using topical benzoyl peroxide during pregnancy cause birth defects? There are no ...

  8. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin ...

  9. Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin ...

  10. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  11. New approaches to topical therapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, C H

    2000-10-01

    Despite the rapid and proven efficacy of topical corticosteroids, side-effects can limit their clinical usefulness. Topically active macrolide immunosuppressants such as ascomycin and tacrolimus appear to provide comparable therapeutic potency without significant local or adverse effects. Data from ongoing studies will be crucial in determining the safety of these agents in the long term, and also their place within the current therapeutic armamentarium available for patients with atopic dermatitis. Enzyme inhibitors of PLA(2) and PDE 4 currently in the very early stages of clinical development also show potential promise as additional alternative strategies to topical treatment and may perhaps act as steroid sparing agents. Having been in the therapeutic doldrums for years, topical management of atopic dermatitis is likely to show great changes in the very near future.

  12. Topics in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jejjala, Vishnumohan

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis explores aspects of superstring theory on orbifold spaces and applies some of the intuition gleaned from the study of the non-commutative geometry of space-time to understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect. The moduli space of vacua of marginal and relevant deformations of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills gauge theory in four dimensions is interpreted in terms of non-commutative geometry. A formalism for thinking about the algebraic geometry of the moduli space is developed. Within this framework, the representation theory of the algebras studied provides a natural exposition of D-brane fractionation. The non-commutative moduli space of deformations preserving N = 1 supersymmetry is examined in detail through various examples. In string theory, by the AdS/CFT correspondence, deformations of the N = 4 field theory are dual to the near-horizon geometries of D-branes on orbifolds of AdS5 x S 5. The physics of D-branes on the dual AdS backgrounds is explored. Quivers encapsulate the matter content of supersymmetric field theories on the worldvolumes of D-branes at orbifold singularities. New techniques for constructing quivers are presented here. When N is a normal subgroup of a finite group G, the quiver corresponding to fixed points of the orbifold M/G is computed from a G/N action on the quiver corresponding to M/G . These techniques prove useful for constructing non-Abelian quivers and for examining discrete torsion orbifolds. Quivers obtained through our constructions contain interesting low-energy phenomenology. The matter content on a brane at an isolated singularity of the Delta27 orbifold embeds the Standard Model. The symmetries of the quiver require exactly three generations of fields in the particle spectrum. Lepton masses are suppressed relative to quark masses because lepton Yukawa couplings do not appear in the superpotential. Lepton masses are generated through the Kahler potential and are related to the supersymmetry breaking scale. The model

  13. On mining latent topics from healthcare chat logs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Huang, Zhengxing; Gan, Chenxi

    2016-06-01

    Public and internet-based social media such as online healthcare-oriented chat groups provide a convenient channel for patients and people concerned about health to communicate and share information with each other. The chat logs of an online healthcare-oriented chat group can potentially be used to extract latent topics, to encourage participation, and to recommend relevant healthcare information to users. This paper addresses the use of online healthcare chat logs to automatically discover both underlying topics and user interests. We present a new probabilistic model that exploits healthcare chat logs to find hidden topics and changes in these topics over time. The proposed model uses separate but associated hidden variables to explore both topics and individual interests such that it can provide useful insights to the participants of online healthcare chat groups about their interests in terms of weighted topics or vice versa. We evaluate the proposed model on a real-world chat log by comparing its performance to benchmark topic models, i.e., latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and Author Topic Model (ATM), on the topic extraction task. The chat log is obtained from an online chat group of pregnant women, which consists of 233,452 chat word tokens contributed by 118 users. Both detected individual interests and underlying topics with their progressive information over time are demonstrated. The results show that the performance of the proposed model exceeds that of the benchmark models. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed model is a promising method for extracting healthcare knowledge from social media data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous Time Dynamic Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-20

    called topics, can be used to explain the observed collection. LDA is a probabilistic extension of latent semantic indexing (LSI) [5] and probabilistic... latent semantic indexing (pLSI) [11]. Owing to its formal generative semantics, LDA has been extended and applied to authorship [19], email [15...Steyvers. Probabilistic topic models. In Latent Semantic Analysis: A Road to Meaning. 2006. [9] T. L. Griffiths and M. Steyvers. Finding scientific

  15. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Vissers, W H P M

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazarotene. To what extent, however, have we achieved developments which are in line with the needs as expressed by the patients? Improved efficacy has been realized by successful combinations of topical treatments. In particular, the combinations of dithranol, vitamin D(3) and tazarotene with a topical corticosteroid proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side-effects. The efficacy of vitamin D(3) analogues and tazarotene is such that the efficacy of a potent corticosteroid (betamethasone-17-valerate) is approached; calcipotriol even showed an efficacy which is at least as good as this corticosteroid. The long-term safety of new compounds has been evaluated for at least 12 months in large studies. Remarkably for corticosteroids such information is available for only 12 weeks. However, intermittent applications of a topical corticosteroid in combination with another topical treatment provide an effective and safe long-term control of psoriasis. Compliance is a conditio sine qua non for an effective topical treatment. Important progress has been made to increase compliance. Short-contact dithranol has been popularized as an ambulatory treatment which is a highly effective approach as a care instruction programme. Formulations which are better from a cosmetical point of view have been developed for various topical treatments. Reduction of the frequency of applications proved to be possible for most treatments. Once daily applications for corticosteroids, vitamin D(3) analogues and retinoids have been developed, and intermittent applications, a few times per week, are possible for corticosteroids, which proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side

  16. Clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with and without antiphospholipid antibodies (the so-called 'seronegative APS').

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Jose Luis; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Cuadrado, Maria Jose; Sanna, Giovanni; Ateka-Barrutia, Oier; Khamashta, Munther A

    2012-02-01

    Although the medical literature currently provides a growing number of isolated case reports of patients with clinically well-defined antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and persistently negative antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), there are no studies including a series of patients addressing the clinical features of this condition. The authors assessed clinical manifestations of APS in 154 patients: 87 patients with seropositive APS and 67 patients with thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity persistently negative for aPL and presenting with at least two additional non-criteria manifestations of APS (the so-called 'seronegative APS', SN-APS). Patients were interviewed at the time of recruitment, and a retrospective file review was carried out. There were no significant differences in the frequency of thrombotic events or obstetric morbidity in patients with SN-APS versus patients with seropositive APS: deep vein thrombosis (31.4% vs 31.0%), pulmonary embolism (23.8% vs 28.7%), stroke (14.9% vs 17.2%), transient ischaemic attack (11.9% vs 10.3%), early spontaneous abortions (67.1% vs 52.1%), stillbirths (62.5% vs 59.4%), prematurity (28.1% vs 21.7%) or pre-eclampsia (28.1% vs 23.1%). Classic and SN-APS patients show similar clinical profiles. The results suggest that clinical management in patients with APS should not be based only on the presence of conventional aPL.

  17. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow

  18. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow

  19. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinás, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2014-07-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5'-TGCAT-3', 5'-CACACA-3' and G-box motifs (5'-G[T/C]GGGG-3'). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems

    PubMed Central

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinás, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5′-TGCAT-3′, 5′-CACACA-3′ and G-box motifs (5′-G[T/C]GGGG-3′). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. PMID:24957599

  1. ATP6AP1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ATP6AP1 is an integral membrane protein composed of at least 10 subunits. It is responsible for acidifying various eukaryotic intracellular organelles. ATP6AP1, also known as vacuolar ATPase or V-ATPase, has a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The acidification performed by ATP6AP1 is necessary for intracellular processes such as protein sorting, zymogen activation, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  2. TopicPanorama: A Full Picture of Relevant Topics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiting; Liu, Shixia; Liu, Junlin; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Baining

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a visual analytics approach to analyzing a full picture of relevant topics discussed in multiple sources, such as news, blogs, or micro-blogs. The full picture consists of a number of common topics covered by multiple sources, as well as distinctive topics from each source. Our approach models each textual corpus as a topic graph. These graphs are then matched using a consistent graph matching method. Next, we develop a level-of-detail (LOD) visualization that balances both readability and stability. Accordingly, the resulting visualization enhances the ability of users to understand and analyze the matched graph from multiple perspectives. By incorporating metric learning and feature selection into the graph matching algorithm, we allow users to interactively modify the graph matching result based on their information needs. We have applied our approach to various types of data, including news articles, tweets, and blog data. Quantitative evaluation and real-world case studies demonstrate the promise of our approach, especially in support of examining a topic-graph-based full picture at different levels of detail.

  3. Genome-Wide Investigation and Expression Profiling of AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Superfamily in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Charu; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Results In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoming; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2013-08-23

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the

  6. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  7. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  8. Topics in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiang

    The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate

  9. Efficacy of adding topical simvastatin to topical calcipotriol on improvement of cutaneous plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Momeni, Iman; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common dermatologic disorder, with fluctuating response to treatment. Considering the proven immunomodulatory effects of oral simvastatin in psoriasis, this trial study was enrolled to determine whether the topical form has also antipsoriatic effects. Vitamin D analogs known to be effective and are considered the first line of therapy in mild to moderate cases. In this study, the efficacy of topical calcipotriol 0.005% ointment (as a standard method of treatment for psoriasis) versus combination of calcipotriol plus topical simvastatin is compared in the treatment of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects with symmetric psoriasis who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and Group B with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and simvastatin 3% ointment twice daily for 12 weeks. The results were evaluated by a Blind Dermatologist using psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score at baseline, 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. In a similar way, a subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo-evaluation at the end of the study. Results: Despite a continuous reduction in PASI score in both groups, according to both physician (P = 0.603) and patient (P = 0.243) assessment topical simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of psoriasis at the end of the study. Conclusion: This study indicates that topical simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of psoriasis as compared to oral form. This study indicates that psoriasis is a systemic disorder with variable skin manifestations. PMID:24592364

  10. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version

  11. Neuropsychological correlates of transcription factor AP-2Beta, and its interaction with COMT and MAOA in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Schabram, Ina; Eggermann, Thomas; Siegel, Steven J; Gründer, Gerhard; Zerres, Klaus; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor AP-2β has been shown to impact clinical and neuropsychological properties. Apparently, it regulates the transcription of genes that code for molecules which are part of the catecholaminergic transmission system. This investigation focuses on possible effects of the transcription factor AP-2β intron 2 polymorphism on cognitive performance parameters. This hypothesis-driven investigation examined the effects and interactions of the transcription factor AP-2β intron 2 polymorphism, the Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism, and the variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) on cognitive performance parameters within a group of 200 healthy women (age: mean ± SD, 23.93 ± 3.33 years). The AP-2β polymorphism significantly influenced cognitive performance (in particular, the Trail Making Test part B), whereas the MAOA and COMT polymorphisms did not. However, there was an interaction effect of the AP-2β × MAOA × COMT genotypes on the decision bias β of the degraded-stimulus version of the continuous performance task. Only the Val158Met COMT polymorphism showed an influence on personality questionnaires (openness and self-transcendence; NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory). The transcription factor AP-2β intron 2 polymorphism had more influence on cognition than the MAOA and COMT polymorphisms. Possibly, the AP-2β genotype might influence cognition through pathways other than those that regulate MAOA and COMT transcription. Interactions of transcription factor AP-2β, COMT, and MAOA polymorphisms suggest higher leverage effects of transcription factor AP-2β in subjects with high dopamine availability. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Use of Topical Lidocaine Gel During Intermaxillary Fixation Procedure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Ho; Shim, Hyung-Sup; Seo, Bommie Florence; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to validate the usefulness of lidocaine gel during intermaxillary fixation using arch bars in patients with mandible fracture by comparing 2 patient groups: one group using lidocaine gel in intermaxillary fixation and the other group undergoing traditional local infiltration.Subjects were patients with mandible fracture undergoing intermaxillary fixation using arch bars from March 2003 to February 2007. Twenty-three patients were anesthetized in the upper and lower gingiva by 2% local lidocaine solution injection; another 23 underwent topical anesthesia with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride gel applied to the upper and lower gingiva. The convenience of fixation was measured in terms of operation time and degree of pain according to the visual analog scale; arch bar loosening rate was assessed postoperatively.The mean operation times were 63 and 47 minutes in the groups undergoing local infiltration and using topical lidocaine gel, respectively. For pain degree according to the visual analog scale, the mean scores were 6.4 and 3.2 in the groups using local infiltration and topical lidocaine gel, respectively. When the arch bar loosening rate was measured postoperatively, the 2 groups differed significantly, with a rate of 26% in the group using local infiltration and 13% in the group using topical lidocaine gel.Application of topical lidocaine gel during intermaxillary fixation using arch bars in patients with mandible fracture relieves pain and offers convenience in performing the procedure. It can be a useful alternative method for patients who are sensitive to pain or have needle phobia.

  13. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS): partial gene deletions contribute to APS I.

    PubMed

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S; Bruland, O; Løvås, K; Meager, A; Pedersen, C; Husebye, E S; Knappskog, P M

    2008-03-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms or copy number variations in the AIRE gene were associated with AAD and APS II. First, nine SNPs in the AIRE gene were analyzed in 311 patients with AAD and APS II and 521 healthy controls, identifying no associated risk. Second, in a subgroup of 25 of these patients, AIRE sequencing revealed three novel polymorphisms. Finally, the AIRE copy number was determined by duplex quantitative PCR in 14 patients with APS I, 161 patients with AAD and APS II and in 39 healthy subjects. In two Scandinavian APS I patients previously reported to be homozygous for common AIRE mutations, we identified large deletions of the AIRE gene covering at least exon 2 to exon 8. We conclude that polymorphisms in the AIRE gene are not associated with AAD and APS II. We further suggest that DNA analysis of the parents of patients found to be homozygous for mutations in AIRE, always should be performed.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  15. Functions of Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in Tyrosinase Sorting from Endosomes to MelanosomesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Theos, Alexander C.; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A.; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2005-01-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies. PMID:16162817

  16. A single Beta adaptin contributes to AP1 and AP2 complexes and clathrin function in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, R. Thomas; Weber, Michelle M.; Wen, Yujia; O’Halloran, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles is important for numerous cellular processes, including nutrient uptake and membrane organization. Important contributors to clathrin assembly are four tetrameric Assembly Proteins, also called Adaptor Proteins (AP’s), each of which contains a beta subunit. We identified a single beta subunit, named β1/2, that contributes to both the AP1 and AP2 complexes of Dictyostelium. Disruption of the gene encoding β1/2 resulted in severe defects in growth, cytokinesis, and development. Additionally, cells lacking β1/2 displayed profound osmoregulatory defects including the absence of contractile vacuoles and mislocalization of contractile vacuole markers. The phenotypes of β1/2 were most similar to previously described phenotypes of clathrin and AP1 mutants, supporting a particularly important contribution of AP1 to clathrin pathways in Dictyostelium cells. The absence of β1/2 in cells led to significant reductions in the protein amounts of the medium-sized subunits of the AP1 and AP2 complexes, establishing a role for the beta subunit in the stability of the medium subunits. Dictyostelium β1/2 could resemble a common ancestor of the more specialized β1 and β2 subunits of the vertebrate AP complexes. Our results support the essential contribution a single beta subunit to the stability and function AP1 and AP2 in a simple eukaryote. PMID:22050483

  17. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement.

  18. Aps and Tep Chemical Characterization: Link Between The Dom and Pom Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogou, A.; Repeta, D. J.

    The ocean inventory of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is approximately 750 GT, comprising one of the Earth's largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. Despite its potential significance, the mechanisms that lead to DOM production and to spatial and temporal variations of DOM concentration in the world ocean are poorly understood. Chemical characterization studies show that up to 50% of HMW DOM is a structurally well-defined class of acylated polysaccharides (APS), which exhibits novel molecular-level characteris tics. Although APS synthesis occurs in the euphotic zone, a large fraction of the marine inventory of APS (appr. 10-30 GT C), resides in the deep ocean, and is approximately equal in mass to the total marine inventory of particulate organic carbon. While radiocarbon dating of deep sea DOC yields very old apparent ages (4000-6000 ybp), radiocarbon measurements made by our group on individual APS sugars shows that APS in the deep ocean has a radiocarbon value of +56 per mil, equivalent to surface water POC and DIC. This is the first clear evidence for the presence of "young" DOC in the deep ocean. One mechanism that could be important for the rapid removal of APS from surface seawater is physical removal by macroaggregates. To investigate the significance of this mechanism, we studied the chemical composition of surface-active POM (TEP) produced naturally on surface waters and in laboratory experiments, after bubbling of HMW DOM isolated from algal cultures. 1H-NMR spectral properties and molecular-level distribution of neutral sugars in natural and artificially produced TEP closely resembled those observed for cultured and oceanic HMW DOM, while they are significantly different from those of suspended particulate matter in the ocean (Gogou and Repeta, 2000). The results of these experiments provide evidence that POM with similar chemical characteristics to HMW DOM can be produced from algal-derived DOM in the surface ocean.

  19. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

  20. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Includes short discussion of perimeters of regular polygons having fixed areas, Fibonacci numbers, triangle transformations, transformational matrices, round-off errors, and a mathematical model for musical keys. (RS)

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of AP2/ERF Transcription Factors in Cauliflower and Expression Profiling of the ERF Family under Salt and Drought Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Li, Cong; Han, Zhanpin; Yuan, Jiye; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factors (TFs) comprise one of the largest gene superfamilies in plants. These TFs perform vital roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, 171 AP2/ERF TFs were identified in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), one of the most important horticultural crops in Brassica. Among these TFs, 15, 9, and 1 TFs were classified into the AP2, RAV, and Soloist family, respectively. The other 146 TFs belong to ERF family, which were further divided into the ERF and DREB subfamilies. The ERF subfamily contained 91 TFs, while the DREB subfamily contained 55 TFs. Phylogenetic analysis results indicated that the AP2/ERF TFs can be classified into 13 groups, in which 25 conserved motifs were confirmed. Some motifs were group- or subgroup- specific, implying that they are significant to the functions of the AP2/ERF TFs of these clades. In addition, 35 AP2/ERF TFs from the 13 groups were selected randomly and then used for expression pattern analysis under salt and drought stresses. The majority of these AP2/ERF TFs exhibited positive responses to these stress conditions. In specific, Bra-botrytis-ERF054a, Bra-botrytis-ERF056, and Bra-botrytis-CRF2a demonstrated rapid responses. By contrast, six AP2/ERF TFs were showed to delay responses to both stresses. The AP2/ERF TFs exhibiting specific expression patterns under salt or drought stresses were also confirmed. Further functional analysis indicated that ectopic overexpression of Bra-botrytis-ERF056 could increase tolerance to both salt and drought treatments. These findings provide new insights into the AP2/ERF TFs present in cauliflower, and offer candidate AP2/ERF TFs for further studies on their roles in salt and drought stress tolerance. PMID:28642765

  2. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  3. Eastman, AP start on coal unit

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-25

    Eastman Chemical and Air Products and Chemicals (AP) have started construction of a $214-million, coal-to-methanol demonstration unit at Eastmans site in Kingsport, TN. The project is part of the Department of Energy`s clean coal technology program and is receiving $93 million in federal support. The demonstration unit-which will have a methanol capacity of 260 tons/day-will use novel catalyst technology for converting coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) to methanol. Unlike conventional technology that processes syngas through a fixed bed of dry catalyst particles, the liquid-phase methanol process converts the syngas in a single vessel containing catalysts suspended in mineral oil. The companies say the innovation allows the process to better able handle the gases from coal gasifiers and is more stable and reliable than existing processes. Eastman says it will use the methanol produced by the plant as a chemical feedstock. It currently uses methanol as an intermediate in making acetic anhydride and dimethyl terephthalate. In addition, the companies say the methanol will be evaluated as a feedstock in making methyl tert-butyl ether for reformulated fuels. Eastman also says it will evaluate coproducing dimethyl ether (DME) with the methanol. DME can be used as a fuel additive or blended with methanol for a chemical feedstock, according to Eastman.

  4. KCAT, Xradia, ALS and APS Performance Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W

    2004-09-30

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs. Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), both synchrotron based systems. The ALS Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the ALS system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.

  5. BioCAT undulator beamline at APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, G. B.; Irving, T.; Black, E.; Zhang, K.; Fischetti, R.; Wang, S.; Stepanov, S.

    1997-07-01

    The Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) project will be an outstanding research facility for biological small angle scattering, non-crystalline diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Labs. BioCAT operates as an NIH Research Resource under a cooperative agreement with NIH. BioCat has an aggressive program of core and collaborative research, service, and training. Central to the facility is the undulator beam line (designed by G. Rosenbaum, Argonne National Labs) capable of delivering ca. 1013-1014 ph/s to the sample. Focusing optics will allow focal spot ranges from 1.5×3.5 mm to 30×80 micron, independently adjustable in the vertical and horizontal direction. Up to 8 m camera lengths can be accommodated in the 12m experimental enclosure. The accessible beam energy range will be from 3.5-13 keV using the undulator fundamental and 10-40 keV using the third harmonic. Energy resolution will exceed 2×10-4 ΔE/E. Detectors will include image plates, CCD detectors and some novel detectors designed to accommodate the high count rates expected at the APS. The multi-element detector will be a very high count-rate (up to 109 ph/s global), one dimensional detector optimized for scattering applications. We are also developing a multilayer analyzer detector which maximizes solid angle of collection with high background rejection for biological spectroscopy applications.

  6. Pulmonary effects of topical timolol.

    PubMed

    Charan, N B; Lakshminarayan, S

    1980-06-01

    Timolol, a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, recently became available for the treatment of glaucoma. We report the occurrence of acute bronchospasm in a previously asymptomatic asthmatic patient following topical use of timolol. Therapy with the drug was discontinued, and four weeks later the patient was challenged with two drops of 0.5% timolol. A 25% decrease in forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) was demonstrated at one hour. The fall in FEV1 was even greater (47%) when the patient was rechallenged with four drops. We emphasize the need to avoid topical beta-adrenergic blocking agents in asthmatic patients.

  7. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  8. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis.

  9. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  10. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  11. AP233: An Information Model for Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In today's world, information is abundant. We have no problems generating it. But we are challenged to find, organize, and exchange information. center dot A standardized model of information can help. Such a model nearly completed its development for Systems Engineering. It is referred to as AP233 (AP = Application Protocol).

  12. AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-05-18

    This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents.

  13. [Diverse histological lesions in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Ermanno; Luciani, Remo; Di Palma, Annamaria; Aversano, Arturo; Stellato, Davide; Liuzzi, Marco; Iele, Emilio; Martignetti, Vinicio; Spagnuolo, Enrico; Morrone, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It can be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or occur in the absence of autoimmune disease. The hallmark of this so-called primary APS is the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Renal involvement in primary APS is caused by thrombosis within the renal vasculature. Recently, nonthrombotic glomerulonephritic renal lesions have been described in primary APS as a new histological entity. We here report a patient with primary APS in whom both lesion types were present. A 58-year-old Caucasian man with no significant past medical history presented to our nephrology unit with diffuse edema. Urinalysis showed proteinuria exceeding 400 mg/dL. The autoantibody panel (p-ANCA, c- ANCA, anti-nucleus, anti-DS-DNA) was negative except for anticardiolipin antibodies, which tested positive in two different samples. The diagnostic workup included a kidney biopsy that revealed thrombotic lesions compatible with primary APS and a typical pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The kidney is a major target in APS but the exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of APS nephropathy has been poorly recognized. The use of kidney biopsy is a fundamental diagnostic tool in this setting, with possible implications also from a prognostic and therapeutic viewpoint.

  14. A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

  15. Raising Rigor, Getting Results: Lessons Learned from AP Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakelyn, David

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), which enables high school students to take introductory college-level courses, is the nation's oldest example of a rigorous, common curriculum. Students who score well on AP exams are more likely to persist in college and earn a degree. The Advanced Placement Expansion project of the National Governors Association Center…

  16. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  17. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  18. Data-Based Decision Making: The Road to AP Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Duggan, Odette

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Lake Buena Vista, FL in July 2012. This presentation reviews concepts central to achieving equitable AP access and success for all willing and academically prepared students. We analyze trends in participation and performance by race/ethnicity from the AP Report to the Nation and…

  19. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  20. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  1. A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

  2. Content Validation Studies of the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Hessy L.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a curriculum survey of general chemistry courses at the college level and an evaluation survey of the advanced placement chemistry examination. Results indicated that the AP chemistry course should remain broad in coverage and should expand its laboratory component. Analyses also indicated that the AP exam was appropriate and valid.…

  3. Insight into the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in sesame and expression profiling of DREB subfamily under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Li, Donghua; Fonceka, Daniel; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Boshou, Liao; Diouf, Diaga; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-07-30

    Sesame is an important oilseed crop mainly grown in inclement areas with high temperatures and frequent drought. Thus, drought constitutes one of the major constraints of its production. The AP2/ERF is a large family of transcription factors known to play significant roles in various plant processes including biotic and abiotic stress responses. Despite their importance, little is known about sesame AP2/ERF genes. This constitutes a limitation for drought-tolerance candidate genes discovery and breeding for tolerance to water deficit. One hundred thirty-two AP2/ERF genes were identified in the sesame genome. Based on the number of domains, conserved motifs, genes structure and phylogenetic analysis including 5 relatives species, they were classified into 24 AP2, 41 DREB, 61 ERF, 4 RAV and 2 Soloist. The number of sesame AP2/ERF genes was relatively few compared to that of other relatives, probably due to gene loss in ERF and DREB subfamilies during evolutionary process. In general, the AP2/ERF genes were expressed differently in different tissues but exhibited the highest expression levels in the root. Mostly all DREB genes were responsive to drought stress. Regulation by drought is not specific to one DREB group but depends on the genes and the group A6 and A1 appeared to be more actively expressed to cope with drought. This study provides insights into the classification, evolution and basic functional analysis of AP2/ERF genes in sesame which revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages. Out of 20 genes which were significantly up- /down-regulated under drought stress, the gene AP2si16 may be considered as potential candidate gene for further functional validation as well for utilization in sesame improvement programs for drought stress tolerance.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveals evolution and expression profiles under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Tian, Chang; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    AP2/ERF is a large transcription factor family that regulates plant physiological processes, such as plant development and stress response. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an important economical crop with a genome size of 480 Mb; the draft genome sequencing of this crop has been completed by our group. However, little is known about the AP2/ERF factors in carrot. In this study, a total of 267 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the whole-genome sequence of carrot. These AP2/ERF proteins were phylogenetically clustered into five subfamilies based on their similarity to the amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis. The distribution and comparative genome analysis of the AP2/ERF factors among plants showed the AP2/ERF factors had expansion during the evolutionary process, and the AP2 domain was highly conserved during evolution. The number of AP2/ERF factors in land plants expanded during their evolution. A total of 60 orthologous and 145 coorthologous AP2/ERF gene pairs between carrot and Arabidopsis were identified, and the interaction network of orthologous genes was constructed. The expression patterns of eight AP2/ERF family genes from each subfamily (DREB, ERF, AP2, and RAV) were related to abiotic stresses. Yeast one-hybrid and β-galactosidase activity assays confirmed the DRE and GCC box-binding activities of DREB subfamily genes. This study is the first to identify and characterize the AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot using whole-genome analysis, and the findings may serve as references for future functional research on the transcription factors in carrot.

  5. GPI-AP release in cellular, developmental, and reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Ikawa, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) contain a covalently linked GPI anchor located on outer cell membranes. GPI-APs are ubiquitously conserved from protozoa to vertebrates and are critical for physiological events such as development, immunity, and neurogenesis in vertebrates. Both membrane-anchored and soluble GPI-APs play a role in regulating their protein conformation and functional properties. Several pathways mediate the release of GPI-APs from the plasma membrane by vesiculation or cleavage. Phospholipases and putative substrate-specific GPI-AP-releasing enzymes, such as NOTUM, glycerophosphodiesterase 2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, have been characterized in mammals. Here, the protein modifications resulting from the cleavage of the GPI anchor are discussed in the context of its physiological functions.

  6. AP-2α inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhuan; Chen, Cheng; Liang, Zhongheng; Qiu, Junlu; Li, Xinxin; Hu, Xiang; Xiang, Shuanglin; Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Transcription factor AP-2α is involved in many types of human cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that expression of AP-2α was low in 40% of human hepatocellular cancers compared with adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, AP-2α expression was low or absent in hepatocellular cancer cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, SMMC-7721 and MHHC 97-H). Human liver cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 and Hep3B stably overexpressing AP-2α were established by lentiviral infection and puromycin screening, and the ectopic expression of AP-2α was able to inhibit hepatocellular cancer cell growth and proliferation by cell viability, MTT assay and liquid colony formation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, AP-2α overexpression decreased liver cancer cell migration and invasion as assessed by wound healing and Transwell assays, increasing the sensitivity of liver cancer cells to cisplatin analyzed by MTT assays. Also AP-2α overexpression suppressed the sphere formation and renewed the ability of cancer stem cells. Finally, we found that AP-2α is epigenetically modified and modulates the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), β-catenin, p53, EMT, and CD133 expression in liver cancer cell lines. These results suggested that AP-2α expression is low in human hepatocellular cancers by regulating multiple signaling to affect hepatocellular cancer cell growth and migration. Therefore, AP-2α might represent a novel potential target in human hepatocellular cancer therapy.

  7. Topics in optics and music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  8. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  9. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  10. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  11. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  12. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  13. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET…

  14. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of herbal formula of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in mice with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Liu, Zijing; Long, Tingting; Zhou, Lijng; Bao, Yixi

    2017-08-14

    This study is to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of the herbal formula of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in mouse models of immunosuppression and lung cancer. Immune parameters were recorded for these model mice. Peripheral white blood cells (WBC) were detected with the automatic blood cell analyzer. Spleen and thymus indices, and tumor inhibition ratio were obtained. Percentage of peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Serum levels of Th1 (IL-2, TNF, and IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17A) were detected with the BD cytometric bead array (CBA) mouseTh1/Th2/Th17 cytokine kit. Compared with the NS group, the PSP and APS herbal formula significantly improved the WBC, thymus index, spleen index, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-2, andIL-17Ainimmunosuppressivemice and lung cancer mice (P<0. 05). On the contrary, IL-10 was relatively low in the PSP+APS herbal formula group (P<0. 05). Besides, the PSP+APS herbal formula group induced comparable tumor inhibiting effect with the AMD group (23.3% and 24.1%, respectively). The PSP+APS herbal formula have immunomodulatory effects and anti-tumor activity in mice with of lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  17. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  18. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHRENS JR.,RICHARD; MINIER,LEANNA M.G.

    1999-10-25

    A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that

  19. Role of topical peptides in preventing or treating aged skin.

    PubMed

    Gorouhi, F; Maibach, H I

    2009-10-01

    Ageing, a basic biological process seen in all living creatures, is not preventable. Surgical and topical modalities have been invented and substances were applied topically to alter the ageing process. Peptides and proteins, frequently used for this purpose, were categorized into four groups: signal peptides, enzyme-inhibitor peptides, neurotransmitter-inhibitor peptides and carrier peptides. We comprehensively review eligible studies -including controlled ex vivo or in vivo efficacy studies on any topical peptide or protein that has been administered to treat signs and symptoms of ageing.

  20. AP2S1 and GNA11 mutations - not a common cause of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Silje; Rejnmark, Lars; Ladefoged, Søren A; Nissen, Peter H

    2017-02-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) type 1 is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Recently, mutations affecting codon 15 in the gene AP2S1 have been shown to cause FHH type 3 in up to 26% of CASR-negative FHH patients. Similarly, mutations in the gene GNA11 have been shown to cause FHH type 2. We hypothesized that mutations in AP2S1 and GNA11 are causative in Danish patients with suspected FHH and that these mutations are not found in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), which is the main differential diagnostic disorder. Cross-sectional study. We identified patients with unexplained hyperparathyroid hypercalcemia and a control group of verified PHPT patients through review of 421 patients tested for CASR mutations in the period 2006-2014. DNA sequencing of all amino acid coding exons including intron-exon boundaries in AP2S1 and GNA11 was performed. In 33 CASR-negative patients with suspected FHH, we found two (~6%) with a mutation in AP2S1 (p.Arg15Leu and p.Arg15His). Family screening confirmed the genotype-phenotype correlations. We did not identify any pathogenic mutations in GNA11. No pathogenic mutations were found in the PHPT control group. We suggest that the best diagnostic approach to hyperparathyroid hypercalcemic patients suspected to have FHH is to screen the CASR and AP2S1 codon 15 for mutations. If the results are negative and there is still suspicion of an inherited condition (i.e. family history), then GNA11 should be examined. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Topical interventions for genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ching-Chi; Kirtschig, Gudula; Baldo, Maha; Brackenbury, Fabia; Lewis, Fiona; Wojnarowska, Fenella

    2011-12-07

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that most commonly occurs in adult women, although it may also be seen in men and children. It primarily affects the genital area and around the anus, where it causes persistent itching and soreness. Scarring after inflammation may lead to severe damage by fusion of the vulval lips (labia); narrowing of the vaginal opening; and burying of the clitoris in women and girls, as well as tightening of the foreskin in men and boys, if treatments are not started early. Affected people have an increased risk of genital cancers. To assess the effects of topical interventions for genital lichen sclerosus and adverse effects reported in included trials. We searched the following databases up to 16 September 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2007), LILACS (from 1982), CINAHL (from 1981), British Nursing Index and Archive (from 1985), Science Citation Index Expanded (from 1945), BIOSIS Previews (from 1926), Conference Papers Index (from 1982), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (from 1990). We also searched ongoing trial registries and scanned the bibliographies of included studies, published reviews, and papers that had cited the included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical interventions in genital lichen sclerosus. Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. A third author was available for resolving differences of opinion. We included 7 RCTs, with a total of 249 participants, covering 6 treatments. Six of these RCTs tested the efficacy of one active intervention against placebo or another active intervention, while the other trial tested three active interventions against placebo.When compared to placebo in one trial, clobetasol propionate 0.05% was effective in treating genital lichen sclerosus in

  2. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value < 0.05). The group receiving the glycolic acid peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  3. GeneTopics - interpretation of gene sets via literature-driven topic models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Annotation of a set of genes is often accomplished through comparison to a library of labelled gene sets such as biological processes or canonical pathways. However, this approach might fail if the employed libraries are not up to date with the latest research, don't capture relevant biological themes or are curated at a different level of granularity than is required to appropriately analyze the input gene set. At the same time, the vast biomedical literature offers an unstructured repository of the latest research findings that can be tapped to provide thematic sub-groupings for any input gene set. Methods Our proposed method relies on a gene-specific text corpus and extracts commonalities between documents in an unsupervised manner using a topic model approach. We automatically determine the number of topics summarizing the corpus and calculate a gene relevancy score for each topic allowing us to eliminate non-specific topics. As a result we obtain a set of literature topics in which each topic is associated with a subset of the input genes providing directly interpretable keywords and corresponding documents for literature research. Results We validate our method based on labelled gene sets from the KEGG metabolic pathway collection and the genetic association database (GAD) and show that the approach is able to detect topics consistent with the labelled annotation. Furthermore, we discuss the results on three different types of experimentally derived gene sets, (1) differentially expressed genes from a cardiac hypertrophy experiment in mice, (2) altered transcript abundance in human pancreatic beta cells, and (3) genes implicated by GWA studies to be associated with metabolite levels in a healthy population. In all three cases, we are able to replicate findings from the original papers in a quick and semi-automated manner. Conclusions Our approach provides a novel way of automatically generating meaningful annotations for gene sets that are directly

  4. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  5. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-06

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  8. Teachers' Views of Moral Education Topics - Taiwan and the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huey-Ya; Davidman, Patricia; Petersen, George; Thomas, R. Murray

    1998-01-01

    In a questionnaire survey, 94 teachers in Taiwan and 140 in the United States judged which topics among 20 moral issues would be appropriate subjects of study in grade six of the primary school and in the first year of the university. The issues related to religion, ethnicity, gender, health care, crime, alcohol, tobacco, gambling, guns, government corruption, birth control, caring for the elderly, and television programming. The results revealed great diversity of opinion within each group of respondents. No single topic was approved by all teachers in either group, nor was any topic rejected by all. Among the 234 teachers, no two offered precisely the same configuration of answers over the 20 topics. Nevertheless, some group trends could be identified for individual topics. For example, in both countries the great majority of respondents would teach about industrial pollution, whereas very few would approve of trying to identify the best religion. In the rationales teachers offered in support of their choices, the four reasons that figured most prominently in both countries were that a topic would contribute to the nation's welfare, would help students to make wise decisions, would be interesting for students, and would represent a peaceful way to face social problems.

  9. Pharmacokinetics for topically applied caffeine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kronschläger, Martin; Forsman, Erik; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Löfgren, Stefan; Meyer, Linda M; Bergquist, Jonas; Söderberg, Per

    2014-05-01

    Topically applied caffeine was recently identified as a promising candidate molecule for cataract prevention. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics for topically applied caffeine. Potential toxicity of 72 mM caffeine on the ocular surface and the lens was qualitatively monitored and no toxic effects were observed. The concentration of caffeine was measured in the lens and the blood after topical application of 72 mM caffeine to groups of 10 animals sacrificed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after topical application. The lens concentration decreased throughout the observation period while the blood concentration increased up to 120 min. Further, the concentration of caffeine in the lens and blood was measured 30 min after topical application of caffeine, the concentration of caffeine being 0.72, 3.34, 15.51 and 72 mM depending on group belonging, in groups of 10 animals. The caffeine concentration in lens and blood, respectively, increased proportionally to the caffeine concentration topically applied. The rat blood concentrations achieved were far below the equivalent threshold dose of FDA recommended daily dose for humans. This information is important for further development of caffeine eye drops for cataract prevention.

  10. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the AP2/ERF gene superfamily in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Ito, T M; Polido, P B; Rampim, M C; Kaschuk, G; Souza, S G H

    2014-09-26

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plays an important role in the economy of more than 140 countries, but it is grown in areas with intermittent stressful soil and climatic conditions. The stress tolerance could be addressed by manipulating the ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors because they orchestrate plant responses to environmental stress. We performed an in silico study on the ERFs in the expressed sequence tag database of C. sinensis to identify potential genes that regulate plant responses to stress. We identified 108 putative genes encoding protein sequences of the AP2/ERF superfamily distributed within 10 groups of amino acid sequences. Ninety-one genes were assembled from the ERF family containing only one AP2/ERF domain, 13 genes were assembled from the AP2 family containing two AP2/ERF domains, and four other genes were assembled from the RAV family containing one AP2/ERF domain and a B3 domain. Some conserved domains of the ERF family genes were disrupted into a few segments by introns. This irregular distribution of genes in the AP2/ERF superfamily in different plant species could be a result of genomic losses or duplication events in a common ancestor. The in silico gene expression revealed that 67% of AP2/ERF genes are expressed in tissues with usual plant development, and 14% were expressed in stressed tissues. Because the AP2/ERF superfamily is expressed in an orchestrated way, it is possible that the manipulation of only one gene may result in changes in the whole plant function, which could result in more tolerant crops.

  11. Topical medication instillation techniques for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Meijing

    2017-02-20

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. The primary treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with the use of topical medicines. Topical medication instillation techniques, such as eyelid closure and nasolacrimal occlusion when instilling drops, have been proposed as potential methods to increase ocular absorption and decrease systemic absorption of the drops. To investigate the effectiveness of topical medication instillation techniques compared with usual care or another method of instillation of topical medication in the management of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase Ovid (1947 to 8 December 2016), PubMed (1948 to 8 December 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 8 December 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Database (1970 to 8 December 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 13 May 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) (searched 8 December 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) (searched 8 December 2016). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included randomized controlled trials which had compared any topical medication instillation technique with usual care or a different method of instillation of topical medication. Two review authors independently screened records from the searches for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. We followed methods recommended by Cochrane. We identified two trials (122 eyes of 61 participants) that had evaluated a topical medication instillation technique. We

  12. Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Presents a single framework for conducting topic analysis that performs both topic identification and text segmentation. Key characteristics of the framework are: representing a topic by means of a cluster of words closely related to the topic; and employing a stochastic model, called a finite mixture model, to represent a word distribution within…

  13. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiang Yong; Li, Hong Ling; Su, He; Cai, Hui; Guo, Tian Kang; Liu, Ruifeng; Jiang, Lei; Shen, Yan Fei

    2017-02-22

    reduced healing. We therefore considered it to be insufficient to determine the effect of topical phenytoin on ulcer healing. One study compared topical phenytoin with triple antibiotic ointment, however, none of the outcomes of interest to this review were reported. No adverse drug reactions or interactions were detected in any of the three RCTs. Minimal pain was reported in all groups in one trial that compared topical phenytoin with hydrocolloid dressings and triple antibiotic ointment. This review has considered the available evidence and the result shows that it is uncertain whether topical phenytoin improves ulcer healing for patients with grade I and II pressure ulcers. No adverse events were reported from three small trials and minimal pain was reported in one trial. Therefore, further rigorous, adequately powered RCTs examining the effects of topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers, and to report on adverse events, quality of life and costs are necessary.

  14. apGA: An adaptive parallel genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E. ); Baluja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    We develop apGA, a parallel variant of the standard generational GA, that combines aggressive search with perpetual novelty, yet is able to preserve enough genetic structure to optimally solve variably scaled, non-uniform block deceptive and hierarchical deceptive problems. apGA combines elitism, adaptive mutation, adaptive exponential scaling, and temporal memory. We present empirical results for six classes of problems, including the DeJong test suite. Although we have not investigated hybrids, we note that apGA could be incorporated into other recent GA variants such as GENITOR, CHC, and the recombination stage of mGA. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  16. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  17. Scheduling Topics for Improved Student Comprehension of Recursion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Michael; Hatch, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment conducted to assess the affects of teaching recursion in two disjoint, non-consecutive units of instruction. One group of students was taught basic and advanced recursion topics in four consecutive class periods, while a second group was taught recursion in two two-period blocks that were separated…

  18. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustion relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.

  19. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models Jordan Boyd-Graber A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Princeton University in Candidacy for the Degree...Princeton University ,Department of Computer Science,Princeton,NJ,08540 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...tree. We derive an approximate posterior inference method based on variational methods for hierarchical Dirichlet processes, and we report qualitative

  20. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  1. Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    give informed consent g. Allergy to opioids, or to components of the proprietary antibiotic vehicle utilized, which will be Vigamox topical antibiotic ...14. 36. Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ. Naltrexone modulates growth in infant rats. Life Sciences 1983;33:2449-54. 37. Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ. Naltrexone...containing peptides in pancreas and pituitary of genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice during development of diabetic syndrome. Diabetes 1986;35:1143-51. 48

  2. Ocular safety of Topical Naltrexone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    administered f. Individuals who cannot give informed consent g. Allergy to opioids, or to components of the proprietary antibiotic vehicle utilized...which will be Vigamox topical antibiotic solution 3. Study design All test medications will be prepared by the Skip’s Pharmacy using sterile...Research Molecular Brain Research 2000;84:106-14. 36. Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ. Naltrexone modulates growth in infant rats. Life Sciences 1983;33:2449-54. 37

  3. [Topical anesthesia in flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Ossa Echeverri, Carla Cristina; Araujo da Costa, Ana Sofía; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Castro Ruiz, Pilar; Santidrián Hidalgo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy in recent decades has facilitated the development of Otolaryngology and the nasofibrolaryngoscope has become an essential diagnostic tool for the otolaryngologist. However, its use is not without discomfort for the patient, which is why various options for topical anaesthesia have been proposed during the development of the technique. This was a prospective, double blind, crossover study in patients with no history of nasal disease, through which we compared the use of topical anaesthetic (Lidocaine) + epinephrine, oxymetazoline and placebo. Using a visual analogue scale, the degree of discomfort was assessed during each scan. We evaluated 18 patients, 10 women (55.6%) and 8 men (44.4%), with a mean age of 28±4 years. The degree of disturbance generated by the scan with the application of lidocaine-epinephrine was 1.94; with oxymetazoline it was 3.78, and with placebo, 4.61. When the lidocaine-epinephrine solution was compared with oxymetazoline, there was a statistical significance in favour of lidocaine-epinephrine (P<0.05). When we compared the use of lidocaine-epinephrine with the placebo, the result was also statistically significant in favour of lidocaine-epinephrine (P<0.05). In this study we demonstrated that using lidocaine associated with epinephrine as a topical anaesthetic prior to flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy decreases pain and feeling of discomfort for the patient. Consequently, we can recommend the use of topical nasal anaesthesia when performing this exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  4. Special topics in infrared interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Topics in IR interferometry related to the development of a Michelson interferometer are treated. The selection and reading of the signal from the detector to the analog to digital converter is explained. The requirements for the Michelson interferometer advance speed are deduced. The effects of intensity modulation on the interferogram are discussed. Wavelength and intensity calibration of the interferometer are explained. Noise sources (Nyquist or Johnson noise, phonon noise), definitions of measuring methods of noise, and noise measurements are presented.

  5. Some Topics in Linear Estimation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    outstanding symposium. Iz SOME TOPICS IN LINEAR ESTIMATION 309 TABILE OF CONTENTS 1. The Integral Equations of Smoothing and Filtering la. The Smoothing ... Smoothing and Filtering 2. Some Examples - Stationary Processes 2a. Scalar Stationary Processes over Infinite Intervals 2b. Finite Intervals - The...Stationary 4. A Concluding Remark 310 T. KAILATH 1. The Integral Equations of Smoothing and Filtering Our estimation problems will be discussed in the context

  6. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  7. Topic Detection in Online Chat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    CMC Computer Mediated Communication SMS Short Message Service SNS Social Networking Service ASR Automatic Speech Recognition ASU Automatic...Mediated Communication (CMC). Forms of CMC such as chat, blogs, email, and Short Message Service (SMS) all permeate the daily lives of people nearly...Processing (NPL) techniques. Then, we explore how to leverage another mode of human communication to determine the topic in chat. We use a

  8. Aqueous penetration of orally and topically administered moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Trisha; Kamath, M Manjunath; Kamath, M Gurudutt; Nayak, Rajesh R; Bairy, K L; Musmade, Prashant B

    2015-09-01

    To assess the intraocular penetration of 0.5% moxifloxacin hydrochloride into aqueous humour after oral and topical administration. A prospective, interventional study of 42 patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery was carried out. Out of the 42 subjects, 21 were randomly categorised into Group I and received one drop of 0.5% topical moxifloxacin four times, at 15 min intervals starting 75 min before the surgery. Another 21 subjects were categorised into Group II and all subjects in this group were administered a single tablet of 400 mg of moxifloxacin, 12 h before the surgery. Estimation of moxifloxacin in aqueous samples was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results were analysed using Student unpaired 't' test and analysis of variance. The value of p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Mean aqueous concentration of moxifloxacin attained in the oral group (n=21) was 0.504±0.30 μg/mL while that in the topical group (n=21) was 2.04±0.72 μg/mL, and this difference in levels was statistically significant (p<0.005). The levels attained by both the groups well exceeded the MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotic required to inhibit growth of 90% of bacteria strains) levels for most of the organisms causing endophthalmitis. Penetration of moxifloxacin in aqueous in both the groups was not affected by gender, intraocular pressure or comorbidities significantly. However, aqueous levels were found to be higher among the younger subjects within the topical group. Moxifloxacin has an impressive spectrum of coverage and this pharmacokinetic study reinforces its potential as a prophylactic drug against intraocular infections, given the high aqueous levels post topical administration. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Topical management of facial burns.

    PubMed

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  10. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Justine E.; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L.

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release. PMID:27392064

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Alford, Justine E; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L; Anderson, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release.

  13. Modulation of AP-1 activity by nitric oxide (NO) in vitro: NO-mediated modulation of AP-1.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, A; Sano, K; Oh, E; Tsuchiya, T; Tsuda, M

    1994-08-29

    To understand the role of nitric oxide (NO) in controlling the specific DNA-binding activities of transcriptional factors, we investigated the in vitro effect of the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the AP-1 activity of cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells. A gel-mobility assay showed that SNP inhibited AP-1 activity in the presence, but not the absence of dithiothreitol (DTT). This DTT-dependent inhibition of AP-1 activity by SNP corresponded with the activation of the chemical reactivity of SNP with DTT, which can be monitored by the production of nitrite (NO2-). In contrast, diamide, a typical sulfhydryl oxidizing agent, inhibited AP-1 activity in the absence of DTT and its inhibitory effect was reversed competitively by DTT. Studies using structurally or functionally related analogues of SNP demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of the AP-1 moiety mediated by some NO-carriers but not by free NO, which can be produced by the chemical reaction of SNP with DTT, was responsible for the inhibition of AP-1 activity, suggesting NO-mediated regulation of the AP-1 transcriptional factor.

  14. Vacuum chamber thermal protection for the APS (Advanced Photon Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Crosbie, E.A.; Kim, S.; Wehrle, R.; Yoon, M.

    1989-01-01

    The addition of undulators and wigglers into synchrotron storage rings created new problems in terms of protecting the integrity of the ring vacuum chamber. If the photon beam from these devices were missteered into striking an inadequately cooled section of the storage ring vacuum chamber, the structural strength might be reduced sufficiently that the vacuum envelope could be penetrated, resulting in long downtime of the storage ring. The new generation of high-energy synchrotron light sources will produce photon beams of such high power density that cooling of the vacuum chamber will not prevent a potential penetration of the vacuum envelope, and other methods of preventing this occurrence will be required. Since active methods will be used to ensure that the beams are delivered to beam lines for users during normal operation, there is a need for passive protection methods during non-routine operation, such as turning on new beam lines, injection, etc., when the active systems may be disabled. In addition, the passive methods could prevent the problem from arising and provide the rapid time response necessary for the highest power beams, a property that might not be easily and reliably provided by active methods during the early operation of these machines. This paper summarizes the results of a task group that studied the problem and outlines passive methods of protection for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. NOS1AP is associated with increased severity of PTSD and depression in untreated combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Bruce R; Morris, Charles P; Swagell, Christopher D; Hughes, Ian P; Young, Ross McD; Voisey, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorder are over represented in combat veterans. Veterans with both disorders have an increased risk of suicide. The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) gene, which modulates stress-evoked N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) activity, was investigated in combat veterans. A comprehensive genetic analysis of NOS1AP and its association with PTSD was investigated in Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (n=121) and a group of healthy control individuals (n=237). PTSD patients were assessed for symptom severity and level of depression using the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). The G allele of NOS1AP SNP rs386231 was significantly associated with PTSD (p=0.002). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in BDI-II and Mississippi scores between genotypes for rs386231 with the GG genotype associated with increased severity of depression (p=0.002 F=6.839) and higher Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD scores (p=0.033). Haplotype analysis revealed that the C/G haplotype (rs451275/rs386231) was significantly associated with PTSD (p=0.001). The sample sizes in our study were not sufficient to detect SNP associations with very small effects. In addition the study was limited by its cross sectional design. This is the first study reporting that a variant of the NOS1AP gene is associated with PTSD. Our data also suggest that a genetic variant in NOS1AP may increase the susceptibility to severe depression in patients with PTSD and increased risk for suicide. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DatAlign - implementation of the new APS survey and alignment database.

    SciTech Connect

    Penicka, J. M.; Friedsam, H. W.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a national 3rd-generation synchrotron-radiation light source research facility located about twenty-five miles southwest of Chicago. The APS accelerator systems and X-ray beamlines are approximately six kilometers in length with more than four thousand precisely aligned components. The APS Survey and Alignment Group (SAG) is responsible for the correct positioning of beamline components for the APS accelerator systems. SAG fiducializes beamline components, aligns components in the accelerator tunnel and in the experiment hall, and maintains all necessary geodetic control networks to achieve required placement tolerances. All these tasks generate large amounts of data that have to be stored and readily accessible to the SAG members. As a result, the utilization of a database system is inevitable. During the 1990s, the SAG depended on Geonet software [1] for its data storage and management needs. Geonet was originally developed under the DOS environment at SLAC in the 1980s as an all-inclusive software package for the accelerator alignment community. After a decade of a reliable service, Geonet unavoidably became obsolete. First, some Geonet utilities, like data collection and data reduction programs, were phased out or replaced by new tools to keep up with advancements in survey and alignment technology. By the year 2002, a decision was made to also replace the database portion of Geonet with a new relational database. The conceptual design of the new APS Survey and Alignment Database [2] was completed in 2002. After a review of commercially available database management systems (DBMSs), Microsoft{reg_sign} Access 2000 was chosen for the implementation of our database design. The implementation of the new database (DB), under the name 'DatAlign,' commenced the following year.

  17. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor in Rice: Genome-Wide Canvas and Syntenic Relationships between Monocots and Eudicots.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad; Guangyuan, He; Guangxiao, Yang; Hussain, Javeed; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor family intimately regulates gene expression in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic factors, symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation, and stress signalling pathways in plants. In this study, 170 AP2/ERF family genes are identified by phylogenetic analysis of the rice genome (Oryza sativa l. japonica) and they are divided into a total of 11 groups, including four major groups (AP2, ERF, DREB, and RAV), 10 subgroups, and two soloists. Gene structure analysis revealed that, at position-6, the amino acid threonine (Thr-6) is conserved in the double domain AP2 proteins compared to the amino acid arginine (Arg-6), which is preserved in the single domain of ERF proteins. In addition, the histidine (His) amino acid is found in both domains of the double domain AP2 protein, which is missing in single domain ERF proteins. Motif analysis indicates that most of the conserved motifs, apart from the AP2/ERF domain, are exclusively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree and regulate plausible functions. Expression analysis reveals a widespread distribution of the rice AP2/ERF family genes within plant tissues. In the vegetative organs, the transcripts of these genes are found most abundant in the roots followed by the leaf and stem; whereas, in reproductive tissues, the gene expression of this family is observed high in the embryo and lemma. From chromosomal localization, it appears that repetition and tandem-duplication may contribute to the evolution of new genes in the rice genome. In this study, interspecies comparisons between rice and wheat reveal 34 rice loci and unveil the extent of collinearity between the two genomes. It was subsequently ascertained that chromosome-9 has more orthologous loci for CRT/DRE genes whereas chromosome-2 exhibits orthologs for ERF subfamily members. Maximum conserved synteny is found in chromosome-3 for AP2 double domain subfamily genes. Macrosynteny between rice and Arabidopsis, a

  18. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor in Rice: Genome-Wide Canvas and Syntenic Relationships between Monocots and Eudicots

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Muhammad; Guangyuan, He; Guangxiao, Yang; Hussain, Javeed; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor family intimately regulates gene expression in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic factors, symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation, and stress signalling pathways in plants. In this study, 170 AP2/ERF family genes are identified by phylogenetic analysis of the rice genome (Oryza sativa l. japonica) and they are divided into a total of 11 groups, including four major groups (AP2, ERF, DREB, and RAV), 10 subgroups, and two soloists. Gene structure analysis revealed that, at position-6, the amino acid threonine (Thr-6) is conserved in the double domain AP2 proteins compared to the amino acid arginine (Arg-6), which is preserved in the single domain of ERF proteins. In addition, the histidine (His) amino acid is found in both domains of the double domain AP2 protein, which is missing in single domain ERF proteins. Motif analysis indicates that most of the conserved motifs, apart from the AP2/ERF domain, are exclusively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree and regulate plausible functions. Expression analysis reveals a widespread distribution of the rice AP2/ERF family genes within plant tissues. In the vegetative organs, the transcripts of these genes are found most abundant in the roots followed by the leaf and stem; whereas, in reproductive tissues, the gene expression of this family is observed high in the embryo and lemma. From chromosomal localization, it appears that repetition and tandem-duplication may contribute to the evolution of new genes in the rice genome. In this study, interspecies comparisons between rice and wheat reveal 34 rice loci and unveil the extent of collinearity between the two genomes. It was subsequently ascertained that chromosome-9 has more orthologous loci for CRT/DRE genes whereas chromosome-2 exhibits orthologs for ERF subfamily members. Maximum conserved synteny is found in chromosome-3 for AP2 double domain subfamily genes. Macrosynteny between rice and Arabidopsis, a

  19. Study on JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway of airway mucus hypersecretion of severe pneumonia under RSV infection.

    PubMed

    Li, X-M; Sun, S-Z; Wu, F-L; Shi, T; Fan, H-J; Li, D-Z

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway of airway mucus hypersecretion of severe pneumonia under respiratory virus (RSV) infection. Total of 56 severe pneumonia children under RSV infection were selected. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to measure the expression quantity of MUC5B mRNA and MUC5AC mRNA, and ELISA was used to measure the expression quantity of MUC5AC and MUC5B proteins. Following that, the children were divided into airway mucus hypersecretion group (n = 37) and non-hypersecretion group (n = 19). Western blotting was performed to detect the expression levels of JNK1/2, p-JNK1/2 and AP-1 proteins. Expression of MUC5AC and MUC5B proteins, and MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5B mRNA in the airway mucus hypersecretion group were significantly higher than those in the non-hypersecretion group (p < 0.05). The expression levels of JNK1/2, p-JNK1/2 and AP-1 proteins in airway mucus hypersecretion group were higher than those in the non-hypersecretion group (p < 0.05). MUC5AC and MUC5B can be used as marker molecules of airway mucus hypersecretion. Airway mucus hypersecretion of severe pneumonia induced by RSV might be related to the activation of JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway.

  20. The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    AP2 (APETALA2) and EREBPs (ethylene-responsive element binding proteins) are the prototypic members of a family of transcription factors unique to plants, whose distinguishing characteristic is that they contain the so-called AP2 DNA-binding domain. AP2/ REBP genes form a large multigene family, and they play a variety of roles throughout the plant life cycle: from being key regulators of several developmental processes, like floral organ identity determination or control of leaf epidermal cell identity, to forming part of the mechanisms used by plants to respond to various types of biotic and environmental stress. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the AP2/EREBP transcription factors and their diverse functions are reviewed here, and this multigene family is analyzed within the context of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence project.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF AP 50, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM BSOUTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AP 50, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM B-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF AP 65, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM DSOUTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AP 65, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM D-SOUTH, HB-3, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF AP 66, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM BNORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AP 66, MAIN FLOOR LEVEL, PLATFORM B-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  5. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  6. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  7. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  8. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

  9. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S

    2012-08-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine-based sorting signal in the pigment cell-specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1- and AP-3-favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs.

  10. Army and Marine Corps Active Protection System (APS) Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-30

    with hard or soft kill capabilities to a variety of threats, including rocket- propelled grenades (RPGs) and anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs). APS...of threats, including rocket- propelled grenades (RPGs) and anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs). APS technologies are not new, and a number of nations...training. 1 RPGs are basically single man-portable, shoulder-fired, unguided rockets. RPGs have been widely proliferated but can be mitigated to a

  11. Notch1/3 and p53/p21 are a potential therapeutic target for APS-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Xi; Han, Yi-Ping; Bai, Chong; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) can be applied to anti-cancer. However, the mechanism by which APS mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, APS-mediated NSCLC cell apoptosis was investigated through the regulation of the notch signaling pathway. The cell viability was detected by the CCK8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of notch1/3 and tumor suppressors were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The mRNA and protein of notch1 and notch3 were significantly up-regulated in tumor tissues as compared to non-tumor adjacent tissues. Treatment of human NSCLC cells with APS induced cell death in a dose-and time-dependent manner by using CCK8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of notch1 and notch3 were significantly lower in NSCLC cells with APS treatment than that in control group. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that treatment of H460 cells with APS significantly increased the pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase 8 levels, decreased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Furthermore, p53, p21 and p16 were obviously up-regulated by APS treatment in H460 cell. This study demonstrated that APS-treated could inhibit proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, at least partially, through suppressing the expression of notch1 and notch3 and up-regulating the expression of tumor suppressors in H460 NSCLC cell lines.

  12. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP)

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

    1999-03-01

    Preliminary STMBMS and SEM results of the thermal decomposition of AP in the orthorhombic phase are presented. The overall decomposition is shown to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The data show that the physical and chemical processes can be probed and characterized utilizing SEM and STMBMS. The overall decomposition is characterized by three distinguishing features: an induction period, and accelerator period and a deceleratory period. The major decomposition event occurs in the subsurface of the AP particles and propagates towards the center of the particle with time. The amount of total decomposition is dependent upon particle size and increases from 23% for {approximately}50{micro}m-diameter AP to 33% for {approximately}200{micro}m-diameter AP. A conceptual model of the physical processes is presented. Insight into the chemical processes is provided by the gas formation rates that are measured for the gaseous products. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of data showing that the chemical and physical decomposition processes can be identified from one another, probed and characterized at the level that is required to better understand the thermal decomposition behavior of AP. Future work is planned with the goal of obtaining data that can be used to develop a mathematical description for the thermal decomposition of o-AP.

  13. Ontogenesis of Ap-2γ expression in rat testes.

    PubMed

    Hou, M; Stukenborg, J-B; Nurmio, M; Andersson, M; Toppari, J; Söder, O; Jahnukainen, K

    2011-01-01

    Searching for useful markers of spermatogonial stem cells and their differentiation, we used rat testes from ages representing different stages of testicular maturation to investigate the expression profile of transcription factor activation protein-2γ (Ap-2γ). The immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical evaluation using Ap-2γ and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger in combination with sorting of CD9 and CD90 positive cells (undifferentiated spermatogonia) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed. Our experiments revealed that Ap-2γ is detectable in testes of late fetal age and up to 60 days postnatally and is expressed in gonocytes and spermatogonia from late fetal age throughout all maturational stages. Restricted nuclear expression of Ap-2γ to undifferentiated male germ cells was verified by coexpression of Ap-2γ with promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger in sections of paraffin-embedded testes as well as in cells sorted positive for CD9 and CD90 expression. Our study demonstrated clearly that nuclear expression of Ap-2γ is a useful marker for identifying undifferentiated male germ cells, although its functional role is yet to be fully explored.

  14. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  15. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Renal effects of atriopeptin (AP) II in conscious SHR

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, J.F.; Debets, J.M.; Struyker-Boudier, H.A.; Daemen, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    Diuresis and natriuresis following APs has been suggested to depend upon increased renal blood flow (RBF). In a previous study, they found that APII infusions in conscious SHR decrease RBF. In this study, they report effects of APII on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal excretory function in conscious SHR. Male SHR were equipped with arterial and venous catheters. Furthermore, a special catheter was implanted into the bladder to allow continuous urine sampling from conscious, freely moving rats. Animals were allowed at least 4 days to recover. In one group of SHR, APII (N=7) or saline (N=7) was infused to quantitate excretion of water, Na/sup +/, and K/sup +/. Two other groups of SHR (N=8 each) were infused with /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and /sup 125/I-PAH. GFR and renal plasma flow (ERPF) were calculated from urine and a mid-time plasma sample during APII or saline infusion. Following changes in infusion rates, urine from the first 5 min was discarded, after which a 10-min collection was made. APII (0.5-4 ..mu..g/kg/min) increased water, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ output maximally during 2 ..mu..g/kg/min. ERPF decreased from 10.7 +/- 1.1 ml/min to 7.9 +/- 0.5 ml/min. GFR did not change significantly. Filtration fraction increased from 24 +/- 1% to 33 +/- 2%. Fractional water excretion increased from 0.8 +/- 0.2% to 2.5 +/- 0.7%. Saline infusions did not affect renal function. The results indicate that in conscious SHR, APII causes diuresis and natriuresis which does not depend upon increased GFR, but, rather, upon a primary tubular effect.

  17. Efficacy of topical cysteamine in nephropathic cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hemidan, Amal; Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops in the treatment of corneal cystine crystal deposits in patients with nephropathic cystinosis. Thirty-two patients with nephropathic cystinosis were prospectively included in the study. Patients with corneal cystinosis were treated with topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops. They were examined before treatment, on each monthly visit and after treatment at the last follow-up. Photophobia was classified as grade 0 (none) for no photophobia, grade 1 (mild) for photophobia in bright light, grade 2 (moderate) for photophobia in room light and grade 3 (severe) for photophobia in dim light. Corneal cystine crystals were graded as grade 0=none, grade 1=1-10 crystals/mm(2), grade 2=11-50 crystals/mm(2), grade 3=more than 50 crystals/mm(2). The main outcome measure was evaluation of photophobia and resolution of corneal cystine crystals. There were 13 male and 19 female patients. The mean age was 8 years with an age range of 8 months to 19 years. The mean follow-up period was 4.1 years with a range of 2-8 years. Improvement of photophobia was not clinically significant in symptomatic patients. Patients displayed statistically significant worsening of corneal cystine deposits during the follow-up period. This study has shown that topical 0.55% cysteamine eye drops may have limited effects in decreasing the corneal cystine deposits in patients with severe forms of nephropathic cystinosis. NCT02766855, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Practical Topical Therapy in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Enta, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Topical therapy in dermatology is often perplexing to nondermatologists. They have been taught by several clinicians how to treat a dermatologic case and in addition have been besieged by drug company personnel and by colorful journal advertisements on the virtues of preparations which should readily clear any rash. All these approaches usually lead to a hit or miss result. This presentation discusses a simple approach to skin eruptions, basing the treatment on the stage of the disorder rather than on the cause. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21286146

  19. Effects of Copaiba Oil Topical Administration on Oral Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Ortiz, Lisley; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Meurer, Luise; Lameira, Osmar Alves; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2017-08-01

    The effects of topical copaiba oil extract and topical corticosteroid were assessed on oral wound healing in an in vivo model using 96 male Wistar rats. Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The animals were divided into: Control; Corticosteroid; Placebo and Copaiba oil Group. The animals received two daily applications of the products. The control group received only daily handling. Six rats in each group were euthanized at days 3, 5, 10 and 14. The animals were monitored daily to determine wound status. The weigh was assessed at day 0 and euthanasia day. The percentage of repair was calculated, and histopathological aspects were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the results between groups and times of evaluation. Closing time was assessed through the log-rank test. The corticosteroid group lost more weight at days 10 and 14 than the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the healing time of corticosteroid group was longer than the control group (p = 0.007). No differences were observed between the copaiba oil group and the control group. We concluded that topical copaiba oil, in spite of being safe, did not accelerate the process of oral wound healing. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Herpes genitalis - Topical zinc sulfate: An alternative therapeutic and modality.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, B B; Dhawan, Mohit; Singh, Rajwinder

    2013-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections in the world caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. All herpes viruses show latency. Herpes genitalis caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2 is recurrent in 55 and 90% of case respectively. To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of topical zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) in varying concentrations in herpes genitalis. Ninety patients clinically diagnosed as herpes genitalis and confirmed by Tzanck test were taken up for study and divided into 3 groups of 30 patients each which were applied topical ZnSO4 in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% respectively for 3 months. Ten patients of herpes genitalis were kept as control in whom only distilled water was applied. Patients were followed up for a total period of 6 months for any recurrences. Ten patients of group 1 (1% ZnSO4) showed recurrence, 6 patients in group 2 (2% ZnSO4) and only one patient in group 3 (4% ZnSO4) showed recurrence. In the control group, 8 out of 10 patients showed recurrence. No serious side effects were seen in all 3 groups. Topical ZnSO4 has been found to be an effective therapeutic modality not only for treatment but also for prolonging remissions in herpes genitalis. Topical 4% ZnSO4 has been found to be most efficacious out of the three concentrations, without any side effects.