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Sample records for apulia southern italy

  1. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    . More details on previous results of this research activity were recently published (Polemio, 2010; Basso et al., 2012; Lonigro et al., 2013) References Basso A., Lonigro T. and Polemio M. (2012) "The improvement of historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in the case of Apulia (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 21: 379-380; Lonigro T., Basso A. and Polemio M. (2013) "Historical database on damaging hydrogeological events in Apulia region (Southern Italy)". Rendiconti online della Società Geologica Italiana, 24: 196-198; Polemio M. (2010) "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  2. Population data for 17 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-01-01

    The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. PMID:22960096

  3. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Stefania M.; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-01-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  4. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-04-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  5. Underground waters quality in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Maci, Antonella

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows the results of underground waters last monitoring in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy). We carried out the physical-chemical characterization of the aquifers and their classification in accordance to limit values sanctioned by Italian legislation in force, by European directives and by FAO, in order to define their quality and to establish their possible use for drinkable and irrigation purposes. The attention has been focused on salinity evaluation and underground waters contamination phenomena, due to sea-water intrusion and to the use of fertilizers. Salinity and nitrates concentrations are high in a few wells. Iron and manganese concentrations are very high for almost every sample and this is due to corrosion phenomena of artesian wells metallic structure. For a better interpretation of data, multivariate statistical analysis has been used, in order to obtain the correlation among analytical results, soils hydro-geological properties and anthropic conditions.

  6. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).

    PubMed

    Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

    2013-03-01

    The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone.

  7. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).

    PubMed

    Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

    2013-03-01

    The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

  8. Changing pattern of natural hazards due to extreme hydro-meteorological conditions (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Lonigro, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    series approach is completed by tools to analyse simultaneously all data types. The methodology was tested considering a selected Italian region (Apulia, southern Italy). The data were collected in two databases: a damaging hydrogeological event database (1186 landslides and floods since 1918) and a climate database (from 1877; short-duration rainfall from 1921). A statistically significant decreasing trend of rainfall intensity and an increasing trend of temperature, landslides, and DHEs were observed. A generalised decreasing trend of short-duration rainfall was observed. If there is not an evident relationship between climate variability and the variability of DHE occurrences, the role of anthropogenic modifications (increasing use or misuse of flood- and landslide-prone areas) could be hypothesized to justify the increasing occurrences of floods and landslides.. This study identifies the advantages of a simplifying approach to reduce the intrinsic complexities of the spatial-temporal analysis of climate variability, permitting the simultaneous analysis of the modification of flood and landslide occurrences.

  9. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  10. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  11. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  12. Risananeiza crassaparies n. sp. from the upper Chattian of Porto Badisco (southern Apulia, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Andrea; Briguglio, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Rotaliidae, Risananeiza crassaparies n. sp., is described from the upper Chattian of the Porto Badisco Calcarenites (Salento Peninsula, Southern Italy). The studied specimens are assigned to the foraminiferal genus Risananeiza based on the presence of vertical canals in both the ventral and dorsal side of the test, and an intraseptal canal system that evolves into marginal sutural canals. The new species differs from the type species of the genus, R. pustulosa, in having a lower chamber lumen, and smaller dimension. PMID:26869744

  13. Influence of climate variability and urban areas on the flood events in Bari (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHEs) can be defined as the occurrence of one or more simultaneous phenomena, such as droughts, windstorms, heat waves, landslides, floods and secondary floods (i.e. rapid accumulation or pounding of surface water with very low flow velocity), causing damages. They represent a serious problem, especially in DHE-prone areas with growing urbanization, where the infiltration capability is limited by buildings and where the vulnerability is higher than other areas. The paper proposes a methodology, based on both historical and time series approaches, used for describing the influence of climatic variability and urban development on the number of phenomena observed. The historical approach is finalised to collect phenomenon historical data, very important for the comprehension of the evolution of a study area. Phenomenon historical data is useful for expanding the historical period of investigation in order to assess the occurrence trend of DHEs. The historical analysis of DHEs can support decision making and land-use planning, ultimately reducing natural risks. The time series approach includes the collection and the statistical analysis of climatic data (monthly rainfall, wet days, rainfall intensity, and temperature), useful to characterise the climate variations and trends and to roughly assess the effects of these trends on river discharge and on the triggering of landslides. The time series approach is completed by tools to analyse simultaneously all data types. The study of land use variations, with a special emphasis on the urban areas, is important to understand how the modifications occurred in the territory, especially in terms of vulnerability, could influence the occurrence of DHEs. The methodology can be applied simultaneously to floods and landslides and was tested considering the municipality of Bari (southern Italy), particularly affected by flood events. Since the climate trend (decreasing trend of rainfall and

  14. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Calvario, Agata; Bozzi, Anna; Labianca, Michele; Patti, Annamaria; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy), which may be considered a border region due to its position. Methods 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0–15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Results Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre ≥ 8) for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. Conclusion These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out. PMID:18973678

  15. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  16. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  17. Brucella ceti from two striped dolphins stranded on the Apulia coastline, Italy.

    PubMed

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Zilli, Katiuscia; Troiano, Pasquale; Petrella, Antonio; Marotta, Francesca; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Ancora, Massimo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2014-02-01

    Since 1994, when Brucella ceti was first isolated from an aborted dolphin fetus, several cases have been reported worldwide. The first case of B. ceti in the Mediterranean (and in Italy), however, was recorded only in 2012, off the coast of Tuscany. Extensive studies, using serological and microbiological methods, have documented this bacterium in dolphins and demonstrated its zoonotic potential. We describe the typing of two B. ceti strains isolated from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the southern Apulia coastline. B. ceti isolates were conventionally typed, and then genotyped by both the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the multilocus variable number of tandem repeats typing (MLVA) methodologies to infer phylogeny and potential epidemiological links between the two cases. The two isolates were identified through MLST analysis as belonging to the common sequence type 26 (ST26), while MLVA analysis, having established that the two isolates have identical profiles, assigned them to a novel genotype within cluster A - a unique representative of a new Mediterranean subcluster. The results thus revealed a link between the two cases studied, demonstrating the usefulness of MLST and MLVA for the epidemiological investigation of brucellae among marine mammals.

  18. Late industrial development and occupational health in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Assennato, Giorgio; Bisceglia, Lucia; De Nichilo, Gigliola; Grassi, Maria Emanuela; Lo Izzo, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The authors report the occupational medicine problems in the Apulia region, which are representative of those in Southern Italy. Late industrialization was associated with an early peak in injuries that was not associated with an increased workforce. Examples of operations adversely affecting worker and population health are presented.

  19. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in animals of Apulia and Basilicata, Italy.

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Marilena; Armentano, Antonio; Iammarino, Marco; Palermo, Carmen; Amorena, Michele

    2016-06-30

    This study evaluates the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides in animals with a diagnosis of suspected poisoning and in bait samples. The survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012, in 2 regions of South Italy (Puglia and Basilicata) on 300 organs of animals and 90 suspected bait samples. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted using an analytical method based on high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection (FLD) for the simultaneous determination of 8 anticoagulant rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, flocoumafen, and warfarin). The presence of anticoagulant rodenticides was detected in 33 organs of animals (11% of the total) and 6 bait samples (7% of the total). The most commonly detected compound was coumachlor (47% of 39 positive samples) followed by bromadiolone (24%), and brodifacoum (11%). The species mostly involved in anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning were dogs and cats. This study emphasizes the relevance of the determinations of anticoagulant rodenticides in cases of suspected poisoning in veterinary practice. PMID:27393877

  20. Biodiversity and safety aspects of yeast strains characterized from vineyards and spontaneous fermentations in the Apulia Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tristezza, Mariana; Vetrano, Cosimo; Bleve, Gianluca; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Logrieco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    This work is the first large-scale study on vineyard-associated yeast strains from Apulia (Southern Italy). Yeasts were identified by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) ribotyping and bioinformatic analysis. The polymorphism of interdelta elements was used to differentiate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Twenty different species belonging to 9 genera were identified. Predominant on the grape surface were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Aureobasidium pullulans, whereas M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum were dominant in the early fermentation stage. A total of 692 S. cerevisiae isolates were identified and a number of S. cerevisiae strains, ranging from 26 to 55, was detected in each of the eight fermentations. The strains were tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, either in synthetic media or grape must. Two Pichia manshurica, an Issatchenkia terricola and a M. pulcherrima strains were able to produce histamine and cadaverine, during must fermentation. The production of BAs in wine must was different than that observed in the synthetic medium. This feature indicate the importance of an "in grape must" assessment of BAs producing yeast. Overall, our results suggest the importance of microbiological control during wine-making to reduce the potential health risk for consumer represented by these spoilage yeasts.

  1. Structural control in sinkhole development and speleogenesis: a case study from the High Murge karst landscape (Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, M.; Parise, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Murge plateau is the main karst sector of Apulia, an almost entirely carbonate region of SE Italy. It can be, in turn, subdivided into two sectors: High Murge, the inland plateau, where remnants of an ancient tropical karst are still recognizable; and Low Murge, closer to the Adriatic Sea, with smoother karst morphologies and landforms, but, at the same time, hosting some of the longest underground karst system in the region (Parise, 1998, 2006). Even though showing low energy relief, the landscape of High Murge is very articulated when examined at greater detail, with several interesting karst features. Among these, sinkholes are definitely the most significant, showing a variety of typologies and, at the same time, a high frequency, both as individual features and as coalescent landforms, giving origin to more complex depressions (Parise, 2011). Previous studies carried out in the High Murge through morphometric analysis of the main sinkholes identified on the 1:25,000 scale topographic maps from the Italian Army Geographical Institute indicated their likely genesis in a low relief cockpit karst (Sauro, 1991). Over such landscape, developed in Upper Tertiary, a hydrographic pattern was superimposed, that partly opened some of the depressions, also dismantling sectors of the karst relief and producing talus deposits (Caldara & Ciaranfi, 1988). In the present work we take into consideration the southern countryside of Ruvo di Puglia. Choice of the area, which extends over 15 km2, was dictated by presence of a high number of sinkholes, and of several important caves with prevailing vertical development, including the deepest pit ever explored in Apulia (Grave della Ferratella, depth - 320 m). The cave is nowadays not accessible, due to clogging caused by land use changes during the 80's. Based upon extensive field surveys and interpretation of multi-year aerial photographs (time range 1955-2003), integrated by surveying in selected caves, the main hydro

  2. Assessing hydrological drought risk for the irrigation sector in future climate scenarios: lessons learned from the Apulia case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Ronco, Paolo; Zennaro, Federica; Santini, Monia; Trabucco, Antonio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is already affecting the frequency of drought events which may threaten the current stocks of water resources and thus the availability of freshwater for the irrigation. The achievement of a sustainable equilibrium between the availability of water resources and the irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. In this sense, the improvement (of existing) and the development of (new) appropriate risk assessment methods and tools to evaluate the impact of drought events on irrigated crops is fundamental in order to assure that the agricultural yields are appropriate to meet the current and future food and market demand. This study evaluates the risk of hydrological drought on the irrigated agronomic compartment of Apulia, a semi-arid region in Southern Italy. We applied a stepwise Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) procedure, based on the consecutive analysis of hazards, exposure, vulnerability and risks, integrating the qualitative and quantitative available information. Future climate projections for the timeframes 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 were provided by COSMO-CLM under the radiative forcing RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The run-off feeding the water stocks of the most important irrigation reservoirs in Apulia was then modeled with Arc-SWAT. Hence, the hazard analysis was carried out in order to estimate the degree of fulfillment of actual irrigation demand satisfied by water supply of different reservoirs in future scenarios. Vulnerability of exposed irrigated crops was evaluated depending on three factors accounting for crop yield variation vs water stress, water losses along the irrigation network, diversification of water supply. Resulting risk and vulnerability maps allowed: the identification of Reclamation Consortia at higher risk of not fulfilling their future irrigation demand (e.g. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia in RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario); the ranking of most

  3. Deterioration of the ornamental stones from Apulia (SE Italy) caused by thermal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, G. F.; Germinario, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mesozoic carbonate rocks cropping out in Apulia, SE Italy, represent today, as in the past, a fundamental artistic and communicative mean for the local culture. For their physico-mechanical and aesthetic properties, these sedimentary rocks have always found a large application both as ornamental stones and as simple construction materials, particurarly in military architecture and worship buildings during the Middle Ages. The Apulian "marbles" are characterised by high strength and durability, nevertheless outdoors exposure often involves significant changes in their technical properties and state of conservation caused by weathering. The effects of thermal stresses on the material performances, due to diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations, constitute a topic of particular interest in the assessment of durability problems associated to long-term exposure. In this work, a study about changes in technical properties of the Apulian ornamental limestones and dolostones induced by thermal stresses is presented. Direct and indirect evaluations concerning index properties, mechanical strength, deformability, textural characteristics and chromatic features, on samples subjected to thermal cycles, were used for providing a comprehensive perspective about deterioration, from the mesoscopic scale to the microscopic one. In a muffle fornace, the samples were subjected to thermal cycles ranging from 100 to 700°C. At the end of each cycle, mass and volume determinations, mercury porosimetry measurements, sclerometric tests, ultrasonic tests, thin section observations and chromatic evaluations through image analysis and Munsell charts were performed. The proposed methodology took into account only non-destructive or semi-destructive tests, in order to highlight the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of decay related to thermal stresses exclusively. In this way a constant comparison among the results of different experimental tests was carried out.

  4. A seroprevalence survey on varicella among adults in the vaccination era in Apulia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Tafuri, S; Gallone, M S; Cappelli, M G; Gallone, M F; Larocca, A M V; Germinario, C

    2014-11-12

    In 2006, the Apulia Region (Italy) introduced universal routine vaccination (URV) against varicella disease. The coverage for one dose of varicella vaccine at 24 month of age reached 91.1% in 2010 birth-cohort. Vaccination coverage for the second dose at 5-6 years was 64.8% for the cohort 2005, and 28.8% for adolescents born in 1997. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pattern of immunity/susceptibility to varicella in Apulian adults by a seroprevalence survey carried out 6 years after the introduction of URV. The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 among blood donors of the Department of Transfusion Medicine of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sample. For each enrolled patient we collected a sample of serum of 5 ml. Anti-VZV IgG in collected sera were analyzed by chemiluminescence (CLIA). We enrolled 1769 subject; 1365 (77.2%) were male with a mean age of 38.4 ± 11.7 years. 93% (95% CI=91.7-94.1) of enrolled subject presented a titre of anti-VZV IgG >164 mIU/mL. GMT of anti-VZV IgG titre was 1063.4 mIU/ml and no difference was observed between different age group. According to our data, URV did not seem to have any impact on susceptibility among adults and in particular we did not note any cluster of susceptible subjects among young adults. Also in the vaccination era, we did not note that the average age of infection shifts among adults and then we could exclude an increase of case of complicated varicella related to the URV.

  5. Intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected patients in Apulia, South Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Brandonisio, O.; Maggi, P.; Panaro, M. A.; Lisi, S.; Andriola, A.; Acquafredda, A.; Angarano, G.

    1999-01-01

    Protozoa are important enteric pathogens in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in 154 HIV-infected patients, with or without diarrhoea, in our region (Apulia, South Italy) was evaluated between December 1993 and February 1998. In the majority of patients CD4+ T cell count was below 200/microl. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoa was 43/154 (27.92%). Twenty-eight (43.08%) out of 65 patients with diarrhoea and 15 (16-85%) out of 89 non-diarrhoeic patients were parasitized. In particular, in the group of 65 patients with diarrhoea the following protozoa were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum in 14 (21.54%), Blastocystis hominis in 7 (10.77%), microsporidia in 6 (9.23%), Giardia lamblia in 4 (6.15%) and Isospora belli in 1 (1.54%). Three patients were Cryptosporidium parvum-microsporidia co-infected. In patients without intestinal symptoms, prevalence was 3/89 (3.37%) for Cryptosporidium parvum, 9/89 (10.11%) for Blastocystis hominis, 1/89 (1.12%) for microsporidia and 2/89 (2.25%) for Giardia lamblia. A significant (P<0.001) correlation was observed between protozoan infection and the presence of diarrhoea. In particular, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia infections were significantly (P<0.001) and P = 0.046, respectively) associated with diarrhoeal illness. Moreover, the majority of cases of cryptosporidiosis were first diagnosed in the periods of heaviest rainfall. Therefore, drinking water contamination may be a possible source of human infection in our area. PMID:10694157

  6. [Spa facilities and legionellosis: legislative structure and state of the art in Apulia (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Cuna, Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Bollino, Annapaola; Iatta, Roberta; Napoli, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A number of factors, for example water temperature, can encourage the growth of microorganisms such as Legionella spp in spa facilities. Individuals who attend this type of facility are often subjects at risk for infection who are undergoing inhalation therapy and hot tub treatments. A very accurate management of these facilities is therefore required to avoid infection by Legionella spp. The purpose of this study was to verify the current Italian national and Apulia regional legislation regarding the control of contamination by Legionella spp. in spa facilities.

  7. Relation between "terra rossa" from the Apulia aquifer of Italy and the radon content of groundwater: Experimental results and their applicability to radon occurrence in the aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadolini, T.; Spizzico, M.

    The radon-222 (222Rn) activity in groundwater of the Apulian karstic aquifer in southern Italy is as great as 500 Becquerel per liter (Bq/L) locally. Normal radium-226 (226Ra) activity in the limestone and calcareous dolomites of the aquifer is not enough to explain such a high level. Laboratory investigations identified high 226Ra activity in the "terra rossa," the residuum occupying fissures and cavities in the bedrock, and also the relation between (1) 226Ra-bearing bedrock and "terra rossa" and (2) 222Rn in water. The "terra rossa" is the primary source of the radon in the groundwater. The experimental results show the need to characterize the "terra rossa" of Apulia on the basis of 226Ra activity and also to study the distribution and variations in 222Rn activity over time in the aquifer. Résumé L'activité du radon-222 (222Rn) dans les eaux souterraines de l'aquifère karstique des Pouilles, dans le sud de l'Italie, atteint localement 500 Becquerel par litre (Bq/L). L'activité normale du radium-226 (226Ra) dans les calcaires et dans les calcaires dolomitiques de l'aquifère n'est pas assez élevée pour expliquer des valeurs aussi élevées. Des analyses de laboratoire ont mis en évidence une forte activité en 226Ra dans la terra rossa, remplissage de fissures et de cavités de la roche, ainsi qu'une relation entre (1) la roche et la terra rossa contenant du 226Ra et (2) le 222Rn dans l'eau. La terra rossa est la source primaire de radon dans l'eau souterraine. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent qu'il est nécessaire de caractériser la terra rossa des Pouilles par son activité en 226Ra et d'étudier la distribution et les variations de l'activité en 222Rn au cours du temps dans l'aquifère. Resumen La actividad del radon-222 (222Rn) en el agua subterránea del acuífero cárstico de Apulia, al sur de Italia, alcanza localmente los 500Bq/L. La actividad normal del radio-226 (226Ra) en las calcitas y dolomitas del acuífero no es suficiente para

  8. Climate change impacts on agriculture in Apulia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Congedi, Letizia; Reale, Marco; Scarascia, Luca; Tanzarella, Annalisa

    2013-04-01

    This study describes the evolution of climate from recent past to the next decades in Apulia, a region in Southern Italy, and estimates its future impacts on its main agricultural products. The analysis is based on instrumental data, on an ensemble of climate projections and on a linear regression model linking typical Mediterranean products (wheat, olive oil and wine) to seasonal values of temperature and precipitation. In the past decades, wheat, olive oil and wine production records (the three main agricultural products in Apulia) show large inter-annual variabilityand an important fraction of it is explained by past climate variability. Regional Climate Model simulations show a large acceleration of the warming rate and a decrease of precipitation in the period 2001-2050. Results (considering no adaptation of crops) suggest that climate evolution in the first half of the 21st century would decrease wine production, have a small effect on wheat and increase olive oil production.

  9. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  10. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  11. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  12. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  13. Spaceborne InSAR monitoring of terrain instabilities in Apulia, Italy: outcomes of a National project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refice, Alberto; Bovenga, Fabio; Pasquariello, Guido; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We report on the InSAR-related results of the National Research Project (PRIN) entitled "Advanced technologies in the assessment and mitigation of the landslide risk: precursors detection, previsional models and thematic mapping", funded by the Italian Ministry for Scientific Research. In the framework of the project, multi-temporal interferometric techniques were applied to time series of SAR data, from legacy ERS and ENVISAT, as well as high-resolution TerraSAR-X sensors. We report on the final outcomes of the project, which concentrate on two sites of the Apulia Region, representative of terrain instability problems widespread in the area. The fist one is the coastal area near the Lesina Marina tourist village, at the north of the Region, close to the Gargano promontory, where the excavation of a canal exposed grey micro- and meso-crystalline gypsum which is now showing a high density of cavities and sinkholes due to gravitational collapse processes. A slow but steady uplift phenomenon has been detected by processing through persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI) methodologies ERS and ENVISAT data, acquired in both ascending and descending geometries, and spanning a total time interval from 1995 to 2010. The displacement data were validated by comparison with leveling measurements performed in 2000 and 2010. Derived vertical displacement rates exceed 3-4 mm/y on locations adjacent to the canal, gently decreasing towards the western end of the built up area. These observations, supported by ancillary data and in situ investigations performed in the past, seem compatible with processes such as diapirism or the hydration of the residual anhydrite in the core of the gypsum mass. The second site is an inland landslide area close to the municipality of Carlantino, in the Daunia mountains. Here, a relatively large landslide affects the slopes spreading from the town outskirts to the banks of the Occhito lake, an artificial basin formed by a dam on the Fortore river

  14. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; De Giglio, Osvalda; Iatta, Roberta; Barbuti, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking. PMID:19330096

  15. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  16. Typology and distribution of sinkholes in the plain areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, S.; Iovine, G.; Parise, M.; Santo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes represent a very subtle hazard in karst areas, and often pose serious threat to population and anthropogenic environment. Cases which open, even without any premonitory sign, as rapid, catastrophic failures (collapse and/or cover collapse sinkholes) may result in severe economic losses and, most important, in casualties. In the last years, researches on sinkhole phenomena and related effects have significantly increased in Italy, in the aftermath of some remarkable events occurred in different regions, from Tuscany (Camaiore in October 1995) to Apulia (Gallipoli in March 2007). Aimed at recognizing and analysing the peculiar stratigraphical and morphological conditions which lead to sinkhole occurrence in Southern Italy, a review of events occurred in the plain areas of Campania, Apulia and Calabria is discussed in this study. The three considered regions are, in fact, suitable for a comparative analysis, due to presence of a good variety of environmental conditions. In Campania, the filling deposits of the plains are represented by alluvial deposits, intercalated with volcaniclastic materials. Sinkholes are generally located along of the Tyrrhenian margin of the carbonate massifs or within intramontane basins, and are 25-30 m deep. Some of them occurred in the vicinity of urban centres causing serious hazard conditions (such as in the case of Telese village) are described in detail. In Apulia, a flat region almost entirely interested by outcropping of soluble rocks, some cases affecting the calcarenite rocks overlying the limestone bedrock are examined, together with other cases involving Triassic evaporite rocks. In Calabria, one of the most seismogenic Italian regions, the relationships between strong historical earthquakes and occurrence of sinkholes are analyzed; nevertheless, other events of sinkholes related to meteoric events, rather than seismic shocks, are also considered. The article intends to provide a first glance on the variety of sinkhole

  17. Evidences of increasing risk of dirofilarioses in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Latrofa, M S; Martinelli, D; Traversa, D; Otranto, D; Genchi, C

    2013-03-01

    Given the spread of Aedes albopictus from northern to southern Italy, and the lack of updated data on Dirofilaria infections, this study was carried out to assess the infection risk for dogs and cats in Apulia region. During a 2-year study, 175 A. albopictus female specimens and samples of blood from 427 dogs (309 privately owned dogs and 118 shelter dogs) and 12 cats were collected. All blood samples were subjected to a modified Knott method, to a test for the detection of circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and to a Dirofilaria species-specific real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens, targeting on partial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and internal transcribed spacer-2, respectively. Two abdomen and one thorax pools from A. albopictus were positive for D. immitis, with minimum infection rates of 1.14 and 0.51, respectively, and a probability of a single positive specimen to be infected of P = 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-1.73). Out of 439 examined subjects, 22 (5.0 %) tested positive for Dirofilaria spp. in at least one diagnostic test. A specific D. immitis infestation rate of 3.5 % was found among the privately owned dogs, while shelter dogs tested positive only for D. repens with a prevalence of 3.4 %; one cat tested molecularly positive for D. immitis. There was a significantly higher rate of positivity among guard dogs for D. immitis (odds ratio, 6.24, 95 % CI, 1.26-25.28; P < 0.05). The increasing risk of D. immitis infection in southern Italy is supported by the noteworthy positivity of A. albopictus populations and the cat. Our data highlight the usefulness to include filarioid infestation in routine diagnosis. PMID:23224639

  18. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  19. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  20. Integrating geophysical and archaeological data for knowledge and management of the Historical Heritage. The case of the medieval church at Vereto (Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, F.; Pepe, P.; Sammarco, M.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The native settlement of Vereto lies at the top of a small calcareous hill near the Adriatic coast, in the southernmost part of the Salento Peninsula of Apulia region (southern Italy). Recent topographical and aero-topographical surveys carried out in the ‘urban' area and in a wide sector of the surrounding territory, integrated by a thorough research of the literary and archival sources, allowed to define the long human occupation of the site between Bronze Age and the late Middle Age, and to focus the important role it played for many centuries, due to both vicinity to a commercial port and a coastal sanctuary, and its connection with the ancient road network. Within the framework of a research project by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the Salento University, the regional Archaeological Superintendence and the local Administration, detailed analyses of the ancient settlement and of its most significant structures (city-walls, cisterns, private buildings) have been started. The attention was focused particularly on the 500th century religious building located at the hilltop and dedicated to the eponymous Holy Virgin. Here two different methods of investigation have been used. The first level of knowledge consists in geophysical surveys, that included georadar (GPR) and geoelectrical prospections. Georadar data were acquired using GSSI SIR 20 with 2 antenna simultaneously mounted on the same cart. The choice of array was determined to get a very good resolution (up to 1 meter) using an high frequency antenna (900Mhz) and to increase the investigation depth (up to 3 meters) with the medium frequency antenna (400Mhz). Data were acquired both inside and outside the religious building along two orthogonal direction (lines spaced 0.5 m), processed using Radan 6.5 software, and eventually were represented as georadar profiles and 3D time-slices and 3D volumes in order to show the distribution of anomalies with depth. To get information at higher depth, to

  1. An evaluation of Landsat 3 RBV imagery for an area of complex terrain in Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Williams, D. F.; Justice, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Return Beam Videcon imagery from Landsat 3 was obtained in August, 1978 for part of Southern Italy in the regions of Basilicata and Apulia. The resolution of this imagery for medium contrast objects is approximately 40 meters and is shown to provide significant information concerning land cover and fluvial morphometry. Because of the wide spectral band width which is sensed (0.505-0.750 microns) by the RBV cameras, discrimination is only possible for spectrally distinct cover types, especially oak woodland. Fluvial morphometry can be readily described using the imagery. Because of the intense dissection of the area, the lowest order streams cannot be consistently mapped, but the rank order of the measured values of properties such as drainage density and link frequency for different lithologies corresponds closely to the actual ranking.

  2. Occurrence of Mislabelling in Prepared Fishery Products in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Patrizia; Mottola, Anna; Terio, Valentina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Di Pinto, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and hake (Merluccius merluccius) fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy) using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8%) fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4%) fillets of sole (Solea solea) were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4%) plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6%) hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius) were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products. PMID:27800410

  3. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  4. The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, G. F.; Walsh, N.; Pagliarulo, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

  5. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  6. I-AMICA: infrastructure of high technology for environmental and climate monitoring in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    I-AMICA (Infrastruttura di Alta tecnologia per il Monitoraggio Climatico Ambientale - Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring -) is a three years Italian National Operative Program (PON) project co-founded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is devoted to strengthen the environmental monitoring in Southern Italy with the aim to support the integration among research, high training, and innovation also providing synergies among public and private research organizations. The activities are focused on actions addressed to strengthen the observational infrastructures for atmosphere, forest and coastal areas in the regions of Southern Italy, whose economic growth and social well-being are strongly related to the environment quality. In such Convergence Regions (Campania, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), instrumental networks (e.g. advanced sensors, software tools, integrated platforms and mobile laboratory and stations) dedicated to the environmental and climatic monitoring in the Mediterranean area, in terms of air quality, forest and agriculture, coastal marine ecosystems are promoted and developed. In order to increase the competitive capacity at national and international level, four "pillar" activities are aimed to (1) strengthen observing infrastructures for climate and environment and data processing systems, (2) promote innovation, technological development and industrial transfer, (3) integrate these observational activities into international programs (i.e. GAW-WMO, ACTRIS, EARLINET, GMOS, ICOS, FLUXNET, SHARE, NEXT DATA) that will allow I-AMICA to effectively be integrated with important networks. Finally, (4) through the implementation of observations, networking, technological applications and territorial services in the Convergence Regions, I-AMICA provides an important support to the local and regional communities.

  7. Evidence of earliest human occurrence in Europe: the site of Pirro Nord (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzarello, Marta; Marcolini, Federica; Pavia, Giulio; Pavia, Marco; Petronio, Carmelo; Petrucci, Mauro; Rook, Lorenzo; Sardella, Raffaele

    2007-02-01

    Some flint lithic artifacts were discovered in the fissure fillings of the well-known Pirro Nord site (Apulia, Southern Italy). The lithic industry, composed by three cores and some flakes, has been found to be associated to an Early Pleistocene vertebrate fossil assemblage. The fossil association contains a wide range of micromammals, including Allophaiomys ruffoi and Episoriculus gibberodon and large mammals including Bison degiulii and Equus altidens together with African elements as the gelada baboon Theropithecus and the saber-toothed cat Megantereon whitei. It defines the latest Villafranchian chronological unit (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit) in the Western European mammal biochronology. The lithic industry of Pirro Nord represents the oldest occurrence of the genus Homo in Europe as it is attributable to a chronological interval between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma. This supports the hypothesis that the genus Homo, with Oldowaian technology, extended its range in Europe, probably from western Asia, during the first half of the Early Pleistocene. The new discovery from Pirro Nord changes the chronology of the first arrival of hominids in Europe and offers new perspectives in the debate about the human dispersal in the Early Pleistocene.

  8. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  9. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  10. Precipitation change in Southern Italy linked to global scale oscillation indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.; Mancini, M.

    2009-09-01

    linked high values of NAO index to low annual and seasonal precipitation (drought) and, on the contrary, low values to intense rainfalls and floods. For this reason, knowing the changes in monthly rainfalls, due to evolution of a planetary-scale oscillation, is useful for farmers and water management in a specific area. This study presents an investigation on the rainfall trends in Southern Italy (Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) using a database of about 70 rain gauges with more than 70 years of observation. Statistical analyses for trend detection were performed on rainfall monthly records through the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and a least-square linear regression. These analyses are made for the entire year and also on seasonal scale. The normalized rainfalls and some global climatic indexes were jointly analysed in order to find their possible correlations. Results obtained for trend analyses of rainfall series show statistically significant negative trends for annual and winter aggregations in the most part of the series. The correlation analyses between the adopted planetary-scale indexes and the precipitation anomalies demonstrate that the indexes influence to some extent precipitation over Southern Italy, though in different way. The correlation coefficients between planetary-scale indexes and rainfalls appear more significant for winter precipitation.

  11. Assessment of Impacts Produced by Anthropogenic Sources in a Little City near an Important Industrial Area (Modugno, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  12. Assessment of impacts produced by anthropogenic sources in a little city near an important industrial area (Modugno, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Amodio, Martino; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2013-01-01

    An annual monitoring campaign of VOCs, consisting of twelve sampling periods, was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 in Modugno, a city located in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), in order to assess the urban air quality, identify the main emission sources, and quantify the cancer and no-cancer risk attributable to inhalation exposures. Monitoring, carried out by using the Radiello diffusive samplers, was conducted in eleven sampling sites throughout the city taking into account the traffic density and the architecture of the city. From the study of the data, it was found that, among all considered VOCs, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are the pollutants at higher concentration. The analysis of VOC concentrations, the study of the topography of the city, and the use of different diagnostic ratios between the BTEX species showed that the vehicular traffic emissions were the predominant source of VOCs in the urban area of Modugno. Despite that the annual concentration of benzene is lower than the regulatory limit, the estimation of cancer risk showed that the global lifetime cancer risk attributed to the investigated VOC exposure was not negligible and therefore should be taken into account in future regulatory approaches. PMID:23476120

  13. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  14. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-09-18

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  15. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654

  16. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena affecting the historical landslide trend in the Subappennino Dauno (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Santaloia, Francesca; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    occurrence in Apulia (southern Italy)&qu

  17. Sea water contamination in underground waters of salento (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, G; Cardellicchio, N; Dell'Atti, A; Genga, A; Strisciullo, G

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, a study of a physico-chemical characterisation of underground waters, utilised for agriculture and human use in the Lecce district (Southern Italy) has been reported. The aim of the work has been to define the quality of underground waters in the different areas and to value salt contamination due to seawater intrusion. Statistical techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), have been utilised to examine the correlations among the different parameters and to define contamination areas. The results have shown a high salt contamination in artesian wells of the Ionian Sea coast.

  18. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  19. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown.

  20. Fire regime characterization in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper addresses the wildfire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. Fire regimes refer to average fire conditions (including fire size, fire density, fire frequency, fire seasonality, fire intensity, fire severity, fire thresholds, etc.) occurring over a long period of time. Information on spatial pattern of forest fire locations is a key point in the study of the dynamics of fire disturbance, and allows us to improve the knowledge of past and current role of fire. Historical evidence clearly shows what did happen and this can fruitfully help to understand what is happening and what could happen in the next future. Mapping fire regimes is very challenging, because fire ocurrence features are the expression of the interactions between climate, fire, vegetation, topography, social factors. The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the fire regime in Italy based on a recently updated national wildfire database. Fire data were obtained from the Italian National Forestry Service. This national database is comprised of information contained in individual fire reports completed for every fire that occurs on public lands in the Italian peninsula. Complete data were only available for 1996-2006 at the time we accessed the database, which determined the years we analysed. The primary fire history variables that we reported were number of fires, area burned, burning time and duration, and fire size (average size of individual fires) The wildfire records (wildfire area, location, time, vegetation) were analysed with other environmental (fuel availability and type), topographic features, and meteorological/climatological data. Results of our analysis could help better understand the different factors on the wildfire regime in Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy.

  1. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2013-09-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The

  2. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-02-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to saving lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For this purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found to be nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides in Calabria into lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions about the role of the environmental factors in the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The thresholds can also be used for landslide hazard

  3. Trace element and isotopic variations from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes: constraints for slab detachment and mantle inflow beneath southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Astis, G.; Kempton, P. D.; Peccerillo, A.; Wu, T. W.

    2006-03-01

    New Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios and trace element data for volcanic mafic rocks outcropping along a E-W transect in southern Italy, from Mt. Vulture to Neapolitan volcanoes, are reported. The variation of LILE/HFSE, HFSE/HFSE and radiogenic isotopes along this transect indicates that all of these volcanoes contain both intra-plate and subduction-related signatures, with the former decreasing from Mt. Vulture to Campanian volcanoes. New data are also reported for the Paleocene alkaline rocks from Pietre Nere (Apulia foreland), which show isotopic ratios mostly overlapping the values for Mediterranean intra-plate volcanoes as well as the Eocene-Oligocene alkaline mafic lavas from the northern Adria plate. Pietre Nere provides evidence for an OIB mantle composition of FOZO-type, free of subduction influences, that is present beneath the Adria plate (Africa) before its collision with Europe. After this collision, and formation of the southern Apennines, westward inflow of mantle from the Adria plate to the Campanian area occurred, as a consequence of slab break off. Interaction of subduction components with inflowing Adria mantle generated hybrid sources beneath the Vulture-Campania area, which can explain the compositional features of both Mt. Vulture and the Campanian mafic rocks. Therefore, mafic magmas from these volcanoes represent variable degrees of mixing between different mantle components.

  4. Neosporosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guarino, A; Fusco, G; Savini, G; Di Francesco, G; Cringoli, G

    2000-07-24

    A study was carried on 1377 water buffalo serum samples from 50 farms in southern Italy to test the presence of Neospora caninum antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Rabbit anti-buffalo immunoglobulins conjugated to fluorescein were used in the test. Fluorescence in sera dilutions above 1:200 was considered as indicative of the presence of N. caninum antibodies. The overall prevalence of infection in the animals was 34.6%. The prevalence increased in relation to the age of subjects and most of the herds examined (82%) were found infected. In two farms abortions and neurological signs were reported. No suppurative inflammatory lesions were seen, but few protozoan-like cysts were observed on foetal tissues by histology.

  5. Visible and infrared spectroscopy to evaluate soil quality in degraded sites: an applicative study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Matarrese, Raffaella; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Salzano, Roberto; Regano, Simona; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Campanale, Claudia; Felice Uricchio, Vito

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation processes like organic matter impoverishment and contamination are growing increasingly all over the world due to a non-rational and often sustainable spread of human activities on the territory. Consequently the need to characterize and monitor degraded sites is becoming very important, with the aim to hinder such main threats, which could compromise drastically, soil quality. Visible and infrared spectroscopy is a well-known technique/tool to study soil properties. Vis-NIR spectral reflectance, in fact, can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variation in soil constituents (Brown et al., 2006; Viscarra Rossel et al., 2006), and potentially its surface structure (Chappell et al., 2006, 2007). It is a rapid, non-destructive, reproducible and cost-effective analytical method to analyse soil properties and therefore, it can be a useful method to study land degradation phenomena. In this work, we present the results of proximal sensing investigations of three degraded sites (one affected by organic and inorganic contamination and two affected by soil organic matter decline) situated southern Italy close to Taranto city (in Apulia Region). A portable spectroradiometer (ASD-FieldSpec) was used to measure the reflectance properties in the spectral range between 350-2500 nm of the soil, in the selected sites, before and after a recovery treatment by using compost (organic fertilizer). For each measurement point the soil was sampled in order to perform chemical analyses to evaluate soil quality status. Three in-situ campaigns have been carried out (September 2012, June 2013, and September 2013), collecting about 20 soil samples for each site and for each campaign. Chemical and spectral analyses have been focused on investigating soil organic carbon, carbonate content, texture and, in the case of polluted site, heavy metals and organic toxic compounds. Statistical analyses have been carried out to test a prediction model of different soil quality

  6. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  7. Three-model ensemble wind prediction in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Federico, Stefano; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Drofa, Oxana; Landi, Tony Christian; Malguzzi, Piero; Buzzi, Andrea; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Quality of wind prediction is of great importance since a good wind forecast allows the prediction of available wind power, improving the penetration of renewable energies into the energy market. Here, a 1-year (1 December 2012 to 30 November 2013) three-model ensemble (TME) experiment for wind prediction is considered. The models employed, run operationally at National Research Council - Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System), BOLAM (BOlogna Limited Area Model), and MOLOCH (MOdello LOCale in H coordinates). The area considered for the study is southern Italy and the measurements used for the forecast verification are those of the GTS (Global Telecommunication System). Comparison with observations is made every 3 h up to 48 h of forecast lead time. Results show that the three-model ensemble outperforms the forecast of each individual model. The RMSE improvement compared to the best model is between 22 and 30 %, depending on the season. It is also shown that the three-model ensemble outperforms the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) for the surface wind forecasts. Notably, the three-model ensemble forecast performs better than each unbiased model, showing the added value of the ensemble technique. Finally, the sensitivity of the three-model ensemble RMSE to the length of the training period is analysed.

  8. Communicating eruption and hazard forecasts on Vesuvius, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Rolandi, G.

    2008-05-01

    Emergency response plans have been formalised for only one third of the 32 volcanoes that have erupted in the past 500 years in Europe and its dependent territories. As local and tourist populations increase around the remaining 67%, so also the need for an appropriate emergency plan becomes more urgent. A cornerstone of such a plan is to ensure that local decision makers are aware of the volcanic hazards that may be faced by their communities. Hence, instead of applying existing plans from another volcano, it is pertinent first to evaluate the impact that these plans have had on local decision makers. This paper reports results from a preliminary evaluation of interviews with decision makers at Vesuvius, in Southern Italy, for which an emergency response plan has been available since 1995. The volcano last erupted in 1944, so that none of the monitoring scientists or civil authorities have direct experience of responding to Vesuvius in eruption. The results of the surveys suggest that, although the civil authorities on the volcano are aware that Vesuvius poses a hazard, their understanding of how to respond during an emergency is incomplete. They also indicate opportunities for increasing such understanding during future revisions of the emergency plan, provided they are done before a crisis arises.

  9. Worst-case scenario approach to the tsunami hazard assessment for the Apulian coasts (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the Mediterranean basin, Apulia cannot be counted among the most active areas in terms of earthquake and tsunami activity. Nonetheless, in its northern part, which includes the Gargano peninsula, several earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred historically, some of which were also tsunamigenic. The most famous one is the 30 July 1627 event, which produced extensive inundation in the northern part of Gargano and relevant effects also in some portions of its southern side. Its parent fault is still a matter of debate, since both the inland epicentral location determined by macroseismic studies and the strike-slip dominant focal mechanism inferred from local geology are incompatible with a tsunami excitation capable of producing the effects reported by the coeval sources. Moreover, Apulia is bounded by much more tectonically active and tsunamigenic regions, such as the Dalmatia-Montenegro-Albania coastal belt to the East, the western Hellenic Arc to the South-East and the Calabrian arc to the South-West. Finally, Apulia is located in a strategic position in between eastern and western Europe, involving the installation of crucial international infrastructures, such as the Trans-Adriatic gas pipeline. For all the reasons mentioned above, performing an accurate assessment of the hazard related (at least) to earthquakes and tsunami impact in Apulia represents a need. The OTRIONS project developed a multi-parametric network for this purpose, and in its framework we studied the tsunami hazard along the Apulian coasts by means of a worst-case credible scenario approach. This involved the selection and characterisation of all possible tsunamigenic sources both at local and remote distances: this task was carried out as a shared effort with the Italian national RITMARE project. The recognised sources, mainly retrieved from the published literature and from databases available online, include tectonic faults as well as submarine landslides. The

  10. Miocene phosphate-rich sediments in Salento (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Hofmann, Hélène; Chiaradia, Massimo; de Kaenel, Eric; Frijia, Gianluca; Parente, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    The upper Middle to lower Upper Miocene (Serravallian to Tortonian) sedimentary succession in Salento (southern Italy) includes glauconite- and phosphate-rich deposits, which are associated with pelagic micrite. In Baia del Ciolo and Marittima (southern Salento), the succession is composed of shallow-water platform carbonates of Late Oligocene age (Chattian; Porto Badisco Formation), which are overlain by a 20- to 30-cm-thick level of glauconite-rich micrite with abundant reworked particles and fossils of the underlying Porto Badisco Formation. This interval is in turn covered by an up to 15 cm thick phosphatic crust ("Livello ad Aturia"), which itself is overlain either by a hemipelagic chalk-like carbonate of Middle to Late Miocene age ("Pietra Leccese"; Marittima) or directly by a micrite of Late Miocene age (Messinian; Novaglie Formation; Baia del Ciolo), which shallows upwards into a shallow-water platform carbonate. A large hiatus is present in this succession, which likely includes the Lower and lower Middle Miocene. In the region of Lecce, two discrete levels enriched in glauconite and phosphate-each associated with a major discontinuity-occur within the Pietra Leccese. The strontium-isotope ages derived on phosphate nodules and phosphatized and non-phosphatized fossils and calcareous nannofossil ages indicate a time interval of phosphogenesis between 13.5 and 7.5 Ma, with two clusters at 12 and 10.5 Ma. The glauconite and phosphate-rich sediments resulted from a current-dominated regime, which was characterized by low overall sedimentation rates, erosion and sediment reworking, and authigenesis. This regime was likely related to a generally westward-directed bottom current, which was forced to upwell once it arrived at the western border of the eastern Mediterranean basin. The timing of the principal phosphogenic phases can only partly be correlated to those of other occurrences in this part of the Mediterranean (Malta, Gozo, southern Sicily, Matese

  11. Sedimentology of the Paestum travertines, Salerno, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzalone, E.; Ferreri, V.; D'Argenio, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Paestum travertines, outcrop in the southern part of the Sele plain (Campania, southern Italy)and span in age from the late Pleistocene to the Recent. We have considered both the travertines resting under the ancient town of Paestum (founded by Sybaris Greeks in the VII century b.C.) and in its vicinities, as well as the travertine incrustations that post-date the VII century a.C. and partly cover the archaeological area. The textures and sedimentary features of the above rocks allow the environmental dynamics of the ancient as well as of the recent travertine deposits to be interpreted. The age of the ancient travertines ranges from 30-40 ka to 70-75 ka, even though more recent times of deposition cannot be excluded. They are genetically related to the waters springing from the south- western margin of the Mesozoic-Tertiary carbonates of Monte Soprano and Monte Sottano. These waters flow also through the travertines and their neighbouring deposits, feeding other springs along the coast. The travertines, both in situ and forming the building blocks of the town walls, have been classified using the textural nomenclature of the primary incrustations. On this basis, different lithofacies have been recognized and grouped into 3 main lithofacies associations: 1) Microhermal and Stromatolitic Travertines associated with Grain Supported Phytoclastic Travertines (gentle to steep slope environments); this lithofacies association is largely represented in the foundation travertines as well as in the blocks used to build the walls and the monuments of the ancient town; 2) Phytohermal and Microhermal Travertines (rapid and waterfall environments); this lithofacies association is well exposed in the foundation travertines of Porta Marina (western side of the town) and in some wall blocks (e.g. nearby Porta Sirena, eastern side of the town); 3) Phytoclastic and Phytohermal Travertines (swamp and marsh environments); this lithofacies association is common in the blocks

  12. Active transpression in the northern Calabria Apennines, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, L.; Santoro, E.; Mazzella, M. E.; Monaco, C.; Morelli, D.

    2009-10-01

    the Amendolara ridge and northern Sila, where partitioning between thrust and left strike-slip motion occurs in response to ˜ E to ˜ NE directed shortening. A local ˜ NW-SE extension is recorded by fault-kinematic analysis on NE-SW striking fault segments parallel to the coast on the eastern flank of Pollino. These small-length normal faults do not form a through-going lineament, rather they accommodate the seaward collapse of the uppermost crust above the deeper shortening compartment. Conversely, the active transpression testified by geomorphic, structural and seismicity data is accommodated along deep-seated oblique back-thrusts that involve the Apulian foreland plate underlying the now inactive thin-skinned accretionary wedge down to near-Moho depths. In light of the tight interlacing between regional and local components of deformation affecting the marine terraces, we suggest that the large-scale uplift in this sector of Calabria may reflect whole crustal-scale folding. The novel seismotectonic frame reconstructed for this region is consistent with GPS velocities suggesting that large part of geodetic shortening detected between the Apennines and the Apulian block on the eastern side of southern Italy might be accommodated in northern Calabria.

  13. The 2010 flood in the Sele river basin (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.; Cristiano, L.; Gentile, S.; Gentilella, M.; Giannattasio, M.; Napoli, F.

    2012-04-01

    On the 7th of November 2010, a deep Atlantic trough across the North-African Coast triggered an intense flux of hot-humid and unstable currents toward Italy. On the 8th of November, this trough extended over the Italian Peninsula, enhancing wind currents from south-west in the lower atmospheric layers in the west-facing regions. This structure has been almost stable within the following three days, from the 8th to the 10th of November. The southern currents, filled of humidity gained during their passage over the Tyrrhenian Sea, have generated diffuse rainstorms. Raingauges located along the Apennine range of the Campania Region have measured rainfall depths with estimated return period up to 90 years within time intervals of 48 hours, particularly across the Sele River basin (5.000 km2). At catchment scale, the overall rainfall event appeared as an unusual succession of three important sub-events, with a temporal scale of ten hours each. These sub-events generated three successive floods, with increasing peak values, within Sele sub-catchments (spatial extents of 1000-2000 km2) characterised by response times of the order of 10 hours. The overall event generated a major flood within the Sele River basin, with relevant damages to urban infrastructures, network utilities, agricultural and industrial settlements. The measured water level within Sele cross-section at Albanella (10 km uplsope the sea outlet) was the highest level ever measured since the gauge station has been established in 1933. A time series of spatial average rainfall depth from 1933 to 2010 have been reconstructed from historical daily raingauge data, in order to assess the return period of the spatial average rainfall depth across the entire Sele River basin. The probabilistic distribution of the catchment average annual maximum rain depth in two days is efficiently modelled by Gumbel law and the estimated return period of the two-days rain depth in 8-9 November 2010 is 130 years. Campania Region

  14. Impact of climate change estimated through statistical downscaling on crop productivity and soil water balance in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrella, D.; Giglio, L.; Charfeddine, M.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Vitale, D.; Paradisi, P.; Miglietta, M. M.; Rana, G.

    2010-09-01

    The climatic change induced by the global warming is expected to modify the agricultural activity and consequently the other social and economical sectors. In this context, an efficient management of the water resources is considered very important for Italy and in particular for Southern areas characterized by a typical Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. Climate warming could have a substantial impact on some agronomical practices as the choice of the crops to be included in the rotations, the sowing time and the irrigation scheduling. For a particular zone, the impact of climatic change on agricultural activity will depend also on the continuum "soil-plant-climate" and this continuum has to be included in the analysis for forecasting purposes. The Project CLIMESCO is structured in four workpackages (WP): (1) Identification of homogeneous areas, (2) Climatic change, (3) Optimization of water resources and (4) Scenarios analysis. In this study we applied a statistical downscaling method, Canonical Correlation Analysis after Principal Component Analysis filtering, to two sub-regions of agricultural interest in Sicily and Apulia (respectively, Delia basin and Capitanata). We adopt, as large scale predictors, the sea level pressure from the the EMULATE project dataset and the 1000 hPa temperature obtained from the NCEP reanalyses, while the predictands are monthly time series of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. As the crop growth models need daily datasets, a stochastic weather generator (the LARS-WG model) has been applied for this purpose. LARS-WG needs a preliminary calibration with daily time series of meteorological fields, that are available in the framework of CLIMESCO project. Then, the statistical relationships have been applied to two climate change scenarios (SRES A2 and B2), provided by three different GCM's: the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (Had

  15. Interactions between soil consumption and archaeological heritage: spatial analysis for hydrogeological risk evaluation and urban sprawl in the Tavoliere di Puglia (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The soil consumption is a complex phenomenon because it is due to different causes and it also produces many consequences on landscape and related human activities. In low-relief areas of the Mediterranean regions such as the foredeep of the southern Italian chain, alluvional processes and flooding can play an important role on the amount of available soil, especially if one consider the recent climate changes and the recurrence of extreme events. Moreover the uncontrolled growth of the cities is a cause of soil consumption too. Consequently occurrence of flood events in low-relief areas, erosion processes and urban sprawl have a strong impact on agricultural activities and real estate market, but also in research activities about archaeological heritage, with the risk to loose signs of the past. To consider this phenomenon from a spatial point of view is essential to determine protection policies, but it is nowadays still a problem. In this contribution, we performed a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological features of the drainage network of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain in order to investigate erosional and depositional processes. GIS-supported statistical analysis of the drainage network features allow us to compile a map of the hydrogeological hazard [1]. The map has been used as a basic tool useful to consider areal distribution in soil consumption coming from alluvional processes, erosional phenomena and the urban sprawl of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain (Southern Italy). Moreover, we investigated the relationships between sectors of the Tavoliere di Puglia plain featured by higher hydrogeological risk and archaeological sensibility areas, such as places with existing or with not yet discovered archaeological sites or areas characterized by crop marks [2]. [1] Danese M., Gioia D., Biscione M., Masini N. 2014. Spatial Methods for Archaeological Flood Risk: The Case Study of the Neolithic Sites in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Computational

  16. Fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa; Vita Petrullo, Angela; Agosta, Fabrizio; Paternoster, Michele; Belviso, Claudia; Grassa, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We report the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study directed toward a better understanding of the fault and fluid interaction in the Bradano Trough, the foredeep basin of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, Italy. The work focuses on fresh tuff deposits located along high-angle faults, which crosscut the foredeep basin infill and the Middle Pleistocene Vulture pyroclastic rocks. Two sites have been studied in detail by mean of integrated field and laboratory analyses. The field survey aimed at deciphering both fault architecture (nature, distribution, and relative timing of formation of the various structural elements) and stratigraphy of the fresh tuff deposits. Laboratory investigation of representative samples of both fresh tuff deposits and mineralized fault-related structural elements (e.g, veins and fluid pipe conduits) targeted their textural, mineralogical and stable isotope compositions. The fresh tuff deposits consist of a few m-thick, either well-layered or massive, carbonates that include fossils and syn-depositional calcite veins. These deposits grew primarily by lateral progradation. Optical microscopy analysis is consistent with seven main fresh tuff lithofacies, which all show the following similarities: (i) cement-supported textures; (ii) presence of peloids, phyto- and bio-clasts, imprints of gastropods, bivalves, and plants; (iii) occurrence of shrinkage pores, micropores, and fenestrae that are either partially or totally filled by secondary calcite. XRPD analysis of representative powders showed that calcite is the sole mineral phase except for quartz and feldspar, which are detected in trace in a few samples. Similarly, the mineralogical composition of the fault-related structural elements also shows minor amounts of quartz. Both nature and origin of the quartz mineral will be investigated in a future work. 13C and 18O signatures of representative fresh tuff powders are consistent with a pronounced different isotope

  17. The evolution of the Monte Vulture volcano (Southern Italy): Inferences from volcanological, geological and deep dipole electrical soundings data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Volpe, L.; Patella, D.; Rapisardi, L.; Tramacere, A.

    1984-10-01

    The activity of Monte Vulture started in the Middle Pleistocene; stratigraphic evidence suggests that the volcanic events may have occurred in the following succession: (1) formation of widespread pyroclastic pumice deposits; (2) sporadic and localized explosive and minor extrusive eruptions; (3) highly explosive eruptions with the formation of some tuff cones and of the oldest part of the Monte Vulture central volcano; and (4) activity at the central volcano, initially mainly explosive and successively increasingly effusive. The western part of the composite volcano, and probably also its summit part were affected by caldera collapses. The volcanic activity ended with hydromagmatic explosion, which formed two explosion craters. Monte Vulture was built up on the external units of the Southern Apennines at the western border of the foretrough. The upper part of the sedimentary substratum consists mainly of clayey formations of the Lagonegro and Sannitic units. Beneath these terrains radiolarites and cherty-limestones of the Lagonegro units outcrop west of Monte Vulture. Rocks of the Apulia carbonate platform were drilled east of the volcano. Deep dipole electrical soundings showed a resistant basement at a depth ranging from 0.2 km down to 4.3 km beneath Monte Vulture. Volcanological, geological and geoelectrical data allow us to hypothesize that: (a) the magma chamber could be located at the boundary between the rigid resistant basement and the overlying conductive plastic terrains; (b) the Apulia carbonate platform forms a structural high beneath the Monte Vulture; and (c) the overthrusting of the Lagonegro units on the Apulia platform may be located beneath the floors of the calderas of Monte Vulture.

  18. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  19. Students' Perception of School Violence and Math Achievement in Middle Schools of Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy.…

  20. Molecular detection of Cyclospora in water, soil, vegetables and humans in southern Italy signals a need for improved monitoring by health authorities.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Koehler, Anson V; Papini, R; Normanno, G; Lacasella, V; Lonigro, A; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-10-15

    To date, in Europe, there is scant information on the occurrence of Cyclospora in water from treatment plants and in humans, and no data are available on soil or fresh plant products. Here, we undertook the first molecular survey of Cyclospora in multiple biological matrices collected from the Apulia region of southern Italy. Samples of irrigation water from four municipal treatment plants, eight different types of vegetables or fruit (cucumber, lettuce, fennel, celery, tomato, melon, endive and chicory) and soil from the same farms on which these plants were grown, as well as faecal samples from humans living in the same region were tested by qPCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Cyclospora was detected in 15.5% of all 213 samples tested. Specifically, this protist was detected in (i) treated water (21.3% of 94 samples), well water (6.2% of 16), but not drinking water (0% of 3); (ii) soil (11.8% of 51 samples) and vegetables (12.2% of 49), with the highest prevalence (18.7%) on fennel; and (iii) human stools (27.5% of 40 samples). In environmental and food samples, Cyclospora was detected mainly in autumn and was significantly more prevalent in the faeces from humans of 40-50 years of age. This is the first comprehensive molecular survey of Cyclospora in environmental, food and human faecal samples in Europe. These data suggest that irrigation water, soil and vegetables might be contaminated by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which might represent a source of infection to humans in the study area and calls for monitoring by health authorities.

  1. Application of a toxicity test battery integrated index for a first screening of the ecotoxicological threat posed by ports and harbors in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Schiavo, Simona; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-11-01

    Ports and harbors may represent a threat for coastal ecosystems due to pollutant inputs, especially those derived from maritime activities. In this study, we report a first assessment of the ecotoxicological threat posed by six ports and harbors of opposite coastal regions, Apulia and Albania, in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy). A bioassay battery consisting of four different species representing different trophic levels, algae Dunaliella tertiolecta, bacteria Vibrio fischeri, crustacean Artemia salina, and echinoids Paracentrotus lividus, has been used to assess sediment elutriates, pore waters, and sediment suspensions. Two different approaches of toxicity data integration, worst case and integrated index, have been used to determine the most appropriate procedure for the investigated sites. All sites with the worst case approach showed high toxicity levels. The chronic test with algae was the most sensitive identifying the highest effects in the battery. This effect can be attributable to contaminants derived from antifouling paints. The sediments, evaluated with V. fischeri test, often showed toxicity not found in the aqueous matrices of the same sites and that can be mainly linked to organic compounds. The test battery used in this study allowed us to perform a preliminary screening of the ecotoxicological risk of the studied area. In fact, the species utilized for toxicity tests responded differently to the investigated samples, showing different sensitivity. The test battery integrated index did not allow highlighting the differences among the sites and showed a general high ecotoxicological risk. A larger number of tests with higher sensitivity together with a tailored attribution of weights to endpoints and matrices will improve the final site evaluation.

  2. Molecular detection of Cyclospora in water, soil, vegetables and humans in southern Italy signals a need for improved monitoring by health authorities.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Koehler, Anson V; Papini, R; Normanno, G; Lacasella, V; Lonigro, A; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-10-15

    To date, in Europe, there is scant information on the occurrence of Cyclospora in water from treatment plants and in humans, and no data are available on soil or fresh plant products. Here, we undertook the first molecular survey of Cyclospora in multiple biological matrices collected from the Apulia region of southern Italy. Samples of irrigation water from four municipal treatment plants, eight different types of vegetables or fruit (cucumber, lettuce, fennel, celery, tomato, melon, endive and chicory) and soil from the same farms on which these plants were grown, as well as faecal samples from humans living in the same region were tested by qPCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Cyclospora was detected in 15.5% of all 213 samples tested. Specifically, this protist was detected in (i) treated water (21.3% of 94 samples), well water (6.2% of 16), but not drinking water (0% of 3); (ii) soil (11.8% of 51 samples) and vegetables (12.2% of 49), with the highest prevalence (18.7%) on fennel; and (iii) human stools (27.5% of 40 samples). In environmental and food samples, Cyclospora was detected mainly in autumn and was significantly more prevalent in the faeces from humans of 40-50 years of age. This is the first comprehensive molecular survey of Cyclospora in environmental, food and human faecal samples in Europe. These data suggest that irrigation water, soil and vegetables might be contaminated by Cyclospora cayetanensis, which might represent a source of infection to humans in the study area and calls for monitoring by health authorities. PMID:26188495

  3. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     View Larger Image The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. ...

  4. Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in an incident ALS cohort: results from the Apulia registry (SLAP).

    PubMed

    Tortelli, Rosanna; Copetti, Massimiliano; Arcuti, Simona; Tursi, Marianna; Iurillo, Annalisa; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Cortese, Rosa; Capozzo, Rosa; D'Errico, Eustachio; Marin, Benoit; Simone, Isabella Laura; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and the clinical correlations of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in a population-based incident cohort of ALS patients. Incident ALS cases, diagnosed in 2011 and 2012, according to El Escorial criteria were enrolled from a prospective population-based registry in Apulia, Southern Italy. Neurological status was assessed using a standard neurological examination and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRSr). The Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS), a self-administered questionnaire, was used to evaluate the presence and severity of PBA. Total scores range from 7 to 35. A score ≥13 was used to identify the presence of PBA. One-hundred thirty-two sporadic incident ALS cases were enrolled. Median disease duration was 20 months (range 2-143), median onset-diagnosis interval (ODI) 12 months (range 2-131), median ALSFRSr at baseline 36/48 (range 2-47) and median ALSFRSr bulbar sub-score 10/12 (range 0-12). Neurological examination revealed presence of PBA in 34/132 patients (26%). Pathological CNS-LS score was found in 45/132 patients (34%). Median total CNS-LS score was 9/35 (range 7-29). The subgroup with pathological CNS-LS was characterized by a short disease duration from symptom onset, ODI, time to diffusion to a second region, time to generalization and ALSFRSr bulbar sub-score, bulbar onset, "definite" diagnostic category, bulbar upper motor-neuron involvement and presence of PBA at neurological examination. In population-based setting, one-third of ALS patients present PBA at diagnosis. The presence of PBA is associated with bulbar UMN involvement and markers of a more severe phenotype.

  5. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  6. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming. PMID:22701377

  7. The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope

  8. Diffusion and persistence of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strains phage type DT120 in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Danila; Monno, Rosa; Nuccio, Federica; Legretto, Marilisa; Oliva, Marta; Coscia, Maria Franca; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Calia, Carla; Capolongo, Carmen; Pazzani, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-two multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains isolated from 255 clinical strains collected in Southern Italy in 2006-2008 were characterised for antimicrobial resistance genes, pulsotype, and phage type. Most strains (83.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT) encoded in 88.5% by the Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) and in 11.5% by the InH-like integron (bla OXA-30-aadA1) and catA1, sul1, and tet(B) genes. STYMXB.0061 (75%) and DT120 (84.6%) were the prevalent pulsotype and phage type identified in these strains, respectively. Five other resistance patterns were found either in single or in a low number of isolates. The pandemic clone DT104 (ACSSuT encoded by SGI1) has been identified in Italy since 1992, while strains DT120 (ACSSuT encoded by SGI1) have never been previously reported in Italy. In Europe, clinical strains DT120 have been reported from sporadic outbreaks linked to the consumption of pork products. However, none of these strains were STYMXB.0061 and SGI1 positive. The prevalent identification and persistence of DT120 isolates would suggest, in Southern Italy, a phage type shifting of the pandemic DT104 clone pulsotype STYMXB.0061. Additionally, these findings raise epidemiological concern about the potential diffusion of these emerging multidrug resistant (SGI linked) DT120 strains.

  9. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy. PMID:24813871

  10. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy.

  11. Seismic Imaging for Geothermal Exploration in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Riedel, M.; Dutsch, C.; Dini, I.; Ciuffi, S.; Buske, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Mt. Amiata area in southern Tuscany is well known for its geothermal power generation which at present provides about 26% of the region's total energy needs. The exploration of new potential reservoirs is a challenging process that requires integrated geological and geophysical investigations for finding the best location of a future production well.In this study, we perform seismic depth imaging on reflection seismic profiles, which provides the starting point for geological interpretation and three-dimensional model building. For this purpose, we start with first-arrival traveltime tomography for resolving the near-surface velocity model, and then proceed with analyzing the migration velocities for deeper layers using Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration. Finally, we apply Fresnel volume migration which increases the resolution of the reflectivity images and enables a better characterization of the predominant geological structures in this area. At that point, we are particularly interested in a strong reflective marker, the so-called "K-horizon", which is associated with the regional heat sources. We image this important reflector and quantify its depth uncertainty in relation to the velocity model.The seismic imaging results provide the base for geologic modeling and a hydrothermal assessment of the potential reservoir area which contribute to optimizing the geothermal exploration in that region.

  12. Human responses to the 1906 eruption of Vesuvius, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Kilburn, Christopher; Sangster, Heather; Solana, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    , for instance, insisted in taking refuge in a church and this led to over 100 fatalities when the roof collapsed. Intervention by the State included: the effective deployment of troops to handle evacuation, to re-open lines of communication and to distribute food and other relief. Management of the disaster was enhanced when prefectural commissioners were given executive powers. We argue that increased State intervention appears to have reduced self-reliance. In the short-term recovery was supported by regional/state aid and by charitable donations particularly from other governments and members of Neapolitan diaspora in other parts of Italy and abroad. This enabled land clearance, agriculture was re-established and roads/rail links were restored. Long-term recovery was slow with affected local-authorities (i.e., comuni) showing low rates of population growth for more than 15 years.

  13. Stable isotope ratios in meteoric recharge and groundwater at Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.

  14. Day care cataract surgery in Central and Southern Italy: a multicentric survey

    PubMed Central

    Cillino, Salvatore; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Pace, Francesco; Pillitteri, Francesco; Cillino, Giovanni; Lodato, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    Background Cataract day surgery has rapidly gained worldwide acceptance, because the new surgical techniques and costs are generally lower than those involved in ordinary hospitalization. Cataract surgery serves as a proxy indicator of the trend towards day surgery hospitalization in Italy and, therefore, of regional variability in health-care delivery and cost. The aim of this study was to update the diffusion of cataract day surgery through various surgical ophthalmological centers in central and southern Italy during 2005. Methods A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to draw a sample of Cataract Surgery Unit from Ophthalmic Units of central and southern Italy. A questionnaire was sent to 25 cataract surgery centers in nine health districts that represented the range of establishments (public, private, accredited or otherwise) in which cataract surgery is performed. Data were collected on numbers of procedures performed in 2005, hospital admission type, time from the onset of cataract day surgery, surgical procedure, and presence of other surgical centers. Results The response rate was 42% (10 surveys), resulting in at least one completed questionnaire for each of these 9 districts. There is a positive trend towards day surgery hospitalization in all surgical centers. The percentage of patients treated as outpatients during 2005 varied from 50–60% (Avellino, Naples, Campobasso), to 80–90% (Rome, Bari), up to 90–100% (Catania, Palermo, Siracusa and Trapani), with an increasing trend in all the centers studied. Few differences were found in surgical procedures, and these were statistically insignificant. Conclusion Our results confirm a positive trend towards day surgery in place of hospital inpatient admission for cataract surgery. This trend is expected to close the existing regional gap in Italy. Increased efficiency is an overriding need for the National Health Service in order to improve the rationalization of resources. PMID:17270040

  15. High prevalence of non-HFE gene-associated haemochromatosis in patients from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Francesco; Liguori, Rosario; Giardina, Maria Grazia; D'Armiento, Maria; Angelucci, Emanuele; Lucariello, Antonio; Morante, Roberto; Cimino, Lucia; Galeota-Lanza, Alfonso; Tarantino, Giovanni; Ascione, Antonio; Budillon, Gabriele; Vecchione, Raffaela; Martinelli, Rosanna; Matarazzo, Margherita; De Simone, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary haemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron regulation that results in abnormal intestinal iron absorption with progressive iron overloading of parenchymal cells. Two specific, single point mutations of the HFE gene (C282Y and H63D) have been described in haemochromatosis patients. Epidemiological studies have revealed a strict association between hereditary haemochromatosis and C282Y homozygosis or C282Y/H63D compound heterozygosis, suggesting that these mutations may provide a useful tool for diagnosis. However, recent investigations from southern Europe have reported lower allelic frequencies of the C282Y mutation among haemochromatosis patients, apparently depending on the geographical area of the population analysed. To assess the predictive value of the detection of the C282Y and H63D HFE mutations in our geographical area, we have evaluated their occurrence in 46 haemochromatosis patients from southern Italy. We found that only 19.6% of our patients were homozygous for the C282Y mutation and 21.7% were compound C282Y/H63D heterozygotes. Among the remaining 59%, approximately 40% did not display any of the known HFE mutations. We conclude that, in southern Italy, another genetic determinant/s must be responsible for many haemochromatosis cases and that a genetic screening for the C282Y and H63D HFE mutations is not sufficient for hereditary haemochromatosis diagnosis.

  16. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID

  17. Secular trend on congenital infections: insights from Campania region register for perinatal infection, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Buffolano, Wilma; Agnese, Maura; Pizzuti, Renato

    2011-10-01

    There is increasing pressure for prevention of vertically transmitted congenital infection and prenatal screening is recommended for main locally prevalent infections. Furthermore, systematic monitoring of their impact and effectiveness of practices is quite rare at National level. As a consequence of favorable conditions on Campania region of Southern Italy a monitoring system based on post- delivery surveillance on congenital infection has been longtime piloted and seems ready to be exported at national level. Temporal trend analysis is showing change on focus and impact of prevalent congenital infection such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, syphilis and HIV. Moreover, the effect of recent massive immigration from Eastern EU and Africa requires further focus. PMID:21942602

  18. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Neola, Benedetto; Restucci, Brunella; Pagano, Teresa B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) infection was detected at post-mortem examination in the pulmonary arteries and hearts of 34/102 (33,3%) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Campania Region in southern Italy. Pathological changes consisted of granulomatous interstitial pneumonia caused by larvae and intravascular pulmonary adult nematodes. These changes confirm that angiostrongylosis infection in red foxes has a mainly chronic course, in which the infected host may disperse parasite larvae in the environment over its lifetime. Results suggest that the life cycle of A. vasorum is well established in the red fox in the Campania Region representing a potential infection risk for dogs.

  19. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks in rivers: a case study from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Zinnà, Loredana; Giampaoli, Saverio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Vitali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We monitored heavy metal (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) concentrations in surface water, sediments, and oligochaetes in four major rivers in Calabria (southern Italy) over the course of 1 year. As, Cd, and Pb showed accumulation factors of 10(3)-10(5) for water to sediment and 1-10 for sediment to oligochaetes. Hg showed a water to sediment accumulation factor of 10-100. Finally, Hg concentrations exceeded the Italian quality standard for freshwater in all of the rivers, and As concentrations in sediments exceeded the respective Canadian standard. However, the application of an ecological risk assessment method indicated low risks for all monitored rivers.

  20. An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  1. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  2. Aggregates for road building from Apulia region quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region is characterized by several quarries producing aggregates for road construction. A good knowledge of the technical behavior of aggregates is really important for the use. A laboratrory investigation has been developed in cooperation with Tecnoprove laboratory on 50 quarries from all over the Apulia region. Have been studied aggregates for road construction, avoiding weak rock quarry. The study has concerned unit weigth, compressive strength, wear and tear strength (Los Angeles test) and crushing strength. Tests have been made according to Italian rules for aggregates.Quarries from Foggia district were mainly located along the southern-western boundary of Gargano calcareous horst where back-reef limestone outcrop. Only two of the studied quarries were of alluvial deposits from the Appenine. The values of technical properties were quite interesting and also the variation coefficients have been really low witnessing that the material is quite homogeneous. Only a quarry, located really close to an important fault gave poor values. Quarries from Bari district dug limestone of the Mesozoic calcareous platform. The values of the compressive strength has been between 100 and 200 MPa, while the unit weight has beetween 26,5 and 25 kN/m3. Crushing coefficient values have been quite high. It due probably either to the corned shape of limestone aggregates or the fact that aggregates quarries are located where limestone are strongly tectonized. Quarries from Brindisi and Taranto districts even are oper in Mesozoic calcareous platform unit gave the worst values of compressive strength and other technical properties. The compressive strength was normally lower than 100 MPa. The Also crushing test and the Los Angeles test has given values quite poor. Compressive strength values of limestone are strongly variable, with an high coefficient of variation (more than 30%).Probably it is due to the fact that all the studied quarries are located along the boundary of the

  3. Use of compost to restore a contaminated site in Southern Italy: preliminary study to assess compost efficiency in remediating a heavily polluted soil in Taranto city.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Valeria; Campanale, Claudia; Calabrese, Angelantonio; Vito Felice, Uricchio; Simona, Regano

    2014-05-01

    Soil pollution is one of the most soil relevant threats recognized in the world. Contamination affects soil quality and soil capacity to react against several land degradation processes (erosion, organic depletion, desertification, etc.). The identification of opportune strategies to hinder pollution is a fundamental requirement to restore soil quality. In particular, large attentions have got the techniques, which promote the decontamination, and at the same time, improve fertility allowing a new use of a soil restored. In this work we present a preliminary study to assess the use of compost (an organic fertilizer produced through a process of transformation and controlled stabilization of selected organic waste at the source) in remediating a heavily polluted soil in southern Italy. The study site is located in Taranto city (Apulia Region) and is contaminated predominantly by heavy metals and lightly by organic toxic compounds such us polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An exhaustive chemical characterization has been carried out on soil samples and then, a treatment with compost was applied on the study site. Successively, two data acquisition campaigns have been realized (after 4 and 7 months by compost treatment, respectively). Soil chemical analyses of texture, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, carbonate and water content have been carried out to investigate soil properties. In the polluted site chemical analyses of characterization showed low content of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and high level of carbonate. Heavy metals screenings, carried out through ICP-MS equipment, evidenced a massive contamination by Be, Se, Sn, Pb, Cr, Zn, while GC-MS investigations revealed a lower pollution by PCBs. The results of the monitoring campaigns showed a consistent reduction of the heavy metals concentrations: a higher decrease is observed after 7 months by compost treatment. At the same time, a considerable

  4. Seasonal Fluctuations of Sap-Feeding Insect Species Infected by Xylella fastidiosa in Apulian Olive Groves of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ben Moussa, Issam Eddine; Mazzoni, Valerio; Valentini, Franco; Yaseen, Thaer; Lorusso, Donato; Speranza, Stefano; Digiaro, Michele; Varvaro, Leonardo; Krugner, Rodrigo; D'Onghia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    A study on seasonal abundance of Auchenorrhyncha species and their infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were monitored monthly over a 2-yr period from five olive groves. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For three species, Philaenus spumarius L., Neophilaenus campestris (Fallèn), and Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, positive reactions to X. fastidiosa were obtained, on average, in 16.3, 15.9 and 18.4% of adult insects, respectively. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species (39.8% of total Auchenorrhyncha captured) with the highest adult abundance in summer months. Adult P. spumarius and N. campestris were first detected between March and May in both years, and all insects tested during these periods (year 1: n = 42, year 2: n = 132) gave negative reactions to X. fastidiosa by PCR. Similarly, first adults of E. lineolatus that appeared from October to November (year 1: n = 20, year 2: n = 15) tested negative for presence of X. fastidiosa Given the lack of transstadial and transovarial transmission of X. fastidiosa and considering that P. spumarius is univoltine, control measures against nymphal stages of P. spumarius should be investigated as means of population suppression to reduce spread of X. fastidiosa in olive groves. PMID:27401111

  5. The late Quaternary tephrostratigraphical record of the San Gregorio Magno basin (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.

    2007-03-01

    Twenty-one primary pyroclastic layers were found embedded in the lacustrine sediments of the San Gregorio Magno basin (Southern Apennines). These sand-sized layers were characterised by a noticeable juvenile fragments content and by a sharp basal contact with the underlying clay and silt sediments. The tephra layers have been correlated with terrestrial counterparts from well-known eruptive events of the Campanian volcanic area, or with reference layers from deep sea sediment cores and from the Monticchio maar sequence. The investigation of the San Gregorio Magno tephra layers made it possible to deduce that lacustrine sedimentation at San Gregorio Magno basin began before 170k yr BP and lasted at least until the emplacement of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, which occurred about 15k yr BP. The tephrochronology allowed determination of the varying sedimentation rate that occurred in the basin. Correlation of the lacustrine record with marine sequences has allowed development of a late Quaternary tephrostratotype for southern Italy. Copyright

  6. Helminth community structure in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-02-01

    We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.

  7. Ancient pottery from archaeological sites in Southern Italy: first evidence of red grape products markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Granafei, Sara; Colivicchi, Fabio; Catald, Tommaso; Buchicchio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The chemical analysis of tartaric acid (TA) and syringic acid (SA), as grape product markers in ancient ceramic vessels from the sites of Manduria and Torre di Satriano (southern Italy), was successfully performed. Firstly, the fragmentation behaviour of TA and SA as deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-), obtained by collision-induced dissociation, was investigated. Then, reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode, using a quadrupole linear ion trap in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was employed. A binary mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid enabled the optimum ESI efficiency of SA, greatly improving its identification when it occurs in trace amounts. Chemical analysis of ancient pottery fragments is a valid method for establishing the existence of preserved organic residues, which is valuable new evidence for the culture and customs of ancient populations, in this case those of southern Italy. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MRM method allowed a systematic investigation of ceramic fragments of both archaeological sites, thus providing positive evidence for the presence of TA and SA as grape product markers in storage vessels dating back to the ninth to third centuries BC. PMID:26353991

  8. Retrospective Study of Hemoparasites in Cattle in Southern Italy by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    CECI, Luigi; IARUSSI, Fabrizio; GRECO, Beatrice; LACINIO, Rosanna; FORNELLI, Stefania; CARELLI, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied. PMID:24614604

  9. Ancient pottery from archaeological sites in Southern Italy: first evidence of red grape products markers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Giuliana; Granafei, Sara; Colivicchi, Fabio; Catald, Tommaso; Buchicchio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The chemical analysis of tartaric acid (TA) and syringic acid (SA), as grape product markers in ancient ceramic vessels from the sites of Manduria and Torre di Satriano (southern Italy), was successfully performed. Firstly, the fragmentation behaviour of TA and SA as deprotonated molecules, [M-H](-), obtained by collision-induced dissociation, was investigated. Then, reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative ion mode, using a quadrupole linear ion trap in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), was employed. A binary mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid enabled the optimum ESI efficiency of SA, greatly improving its identification when it occurs in trace amounts. Chemical analysis of ancient pottery fragments is a valid method for establishing the existence of preserved organic residues, which is valuable new evidence for the culture and customs of ancient populations, in this case those of southern Italy. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MRM method allowed a systematic investigation of ceramic fragments of both archaeological sites, thus providing positive evidence for the presence of TA and SA as grape product markers in storage vessels dating back to the ninth to third centuries BC.

  10. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs <6 months and 99 pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 16 fattening pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  11. Molecular update on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and water buffaloes of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Cringoli, S

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)--caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus--is one of the most widespread zoonoses of veterinary and medical importance. Molecular techniques have allowed the identification of 10 different genotypes (G1-G10) of the parasite. The present paper is an update regarding the E. granulosus genotypes infecting water buffaloes and cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. The molecular study was performed on 30 hydatid cysts (11 from water buffaloes and 19 from cattle). Two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely the cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and the 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. Three different genotypes of E. granulosus were unequivocally identified, i.e. the G1 (common sheep), G2 (Tasmanian sheep) and G3 (buffalo) genotypes, as well as some G1 and G2 variants. It should be noted that the present study demonstrated for the first time: (i) the presence of the G2 genotype in water buffaloes from a Mediterranean area; and (ii) the fact that the analysed portion of the 12S rDNA gene can not discriminate between the G2 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus. The finding of the G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in large ruminants from southern Italy is of epidemiological relevance and immediate public health importance because of their recognized infectivity in humans. PMID:18234031

  12. Parasite assemblages in the Western whip snake Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius (Colubridae) from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; Aznar, F J; Mattiucci, S; Kinsella, J M; Pellegrino, F; Cipriani, P; Nascetti, G

    2013-09-01

    Parasite assemblages of the Western whip snake Hierophis viridiflavus carbonarius were investigated from the Calabria region in southern Italy. A total of 14 parasite taxa including 6 nematodes, 3 acanthocephalans, 2 cestodes, 2 digeneans and a single pentastomid was identified. Within the study area, H. v. carbonarius serves as the final host for seven species of helminths, of which only four (Hexametra quadricornis, Kalicephalus viperae, Paracapillaria sonsinoi and Renifer aniarum) can be considered as snake specialists, while one (Oswaldocruzia filiformis) is shared with other reptiles and amphibians, and two (Paradistomum mutabile and Rhabdias fuscovenosa) with lizards. A large proportion of larval forms of six helminth taxa (about 95% of all helminths collected) was found, for which H. v. carbonarius serves as an intermediate and/or paratenic host; however, adult stages of helminths were prevalent in snakes with snout-to-vent length greater than 70 cm. Our results suggest that ontogenetic and ecological factors should exert a strong influence upon the helminth assemblage of Western whip snakes. We concluded that H. v. carbonarius plays an important role in southern Italy as an intermediate/paratenic host for species of helminths infecting vertebrate groups which may include this snake species within their feeding chain. Eleven taxa, including three potential agents of zoonosis, were added to the poorly known parasite fauna of this host. PMID:22691545

  13. Molecular update on cystic echinococcosis in cattle and water buffaloes of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Maurelli, M P; Capuano, F; Perugini, A G; Veneziano, V; Cringoli, S

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)--caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus--is one of the most widespread zoonoses of veterinary and medical importance. Molecular techniques have allowed the identification of 10 different genotypes (G1-G10) of the parasite. The present paper is an update regarding the E. granulosus genotypes infecting water buffaloes and cattle bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. The molecular study was performed on 30 hydatid cysts (11 from water buffaloes and 19 from cattle). Two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely the cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and the 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. Three different genotypes of E. granulosus were unequivocally identified, i.e. the G1 (common sheep), G2 (Tasmanian sheep) and G3 (buffalo) genotypes, as well as some G1 and G2 variants. It should be noted that the present study demonstrated for the first time: (i) the presence of the G2 genotype in water buffaloes from a Mediterranean area; and (ii) the fact that the analysed portion of the 12S rDNA gene can not discriminate between the G2 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus. The finding of the G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in large ruminants from southern Italy is of epidemiological relevance and immediate public health importance because of their recognized infectivity in humans.

  14. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  15. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  16. Expectations and reality: a case study of return migration from the United States to Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cerase, F P

    1974-01-01

    A summary of Italy's emigration flows shows that Southern Italy sent her people abroad in great number, and, at the same time, return migration to Italy has been characteristic of a minority, e.g., an estimated 3000 from the US alone, 1964-68. Italy's modernization proceeded unevenly, the South remaining agricultural and for the most part, economically backward. Any form of identification with Italy as a country did not affect the Southern peasant thus preparing his/her way to emigrate as soon as any opportunity presented itself. Due to all the conditions which facilitated emigration from Italy on an individualistic and nonideological basis and without an understanding of the economic forces pushing the emigrant out, and in view of the lack of understanding of how the New World economy of the US was constituted, it is no surprise that the return migration of some remained as much ad hoc and based solely on individual motivations as was the emigration. The 2 fundamental approaches to the concept of immigrant both start by considering the immigrant in his/her new situation. 1 approach views the immigrant's success in the new situation as dependent upon acquiring values and patterns of behavior which would resolve his/her problems in the new society. According to the other approach, in order to resolve the problems of his/her new situation the immigrant must become critically aware of the consequences of his/her actions. The 1st view of conceiving integration has been prevalent, particularly in the study of international migration. And, mass migration from Italy, from the emigrant's perspective, is connected to a repeatedly unsuccessful search for economic success and failure to reach prevailing cultural objectives. The act of emigration, of abandonment, may thus be seen as the resolution of the disparity between the means at the emigrant's disposal and the objectives he/she seeks. The great majority succeed but some fail, and if they have a home and family to return

  17. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  18. Erosional flux from tectonically active landscapes: Case studies from Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; Allen, Philip; Gheorghiu, Delia; Rodes, Angel

    2016-04-01

    Erosion and sediment supply are fundamentally important controls on landscape evolution, governing the denudation of relief, the stratigraphy deposited in basins, and the ultimate destruction of orogens. However, quantifying the rates, timescales, and predominant processes of erosion remains a major challenge in many tectonically active areas. Here, we use Southern Italy as a case study to demonstrate how these challenges can be overcome. We present 15 new 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates, for systems distributed along 5 active normal faults for which we have excellent constraints on throw rates along strike and uplift history. These footwall catchments have a total relief of up to 1800 m and throw rates up to 1.4 mm/yr. We show that sediment supply estimates based on the 10Be erosion rates agree well with sediment supply predictions based on the fault throw profiles. Our results suggest that about 80% of the material uplifted by the faults is being eroded at a similar magnitude to the fault throw rates, offering new insights into the topographic balance of uplift and erosion in this area. These findings imply that active normal faulting is the primary control on sediment supply in Southern Italy. Our field observations suggest that landslides are an important source of sediment in our study area, and are largely driven by incision in response to fault activity. Using a field-calibrated landslide inventory, we estimate landslide-derived sediment flux for our sampled catchments. These estimates correlate well with total sediment flux estimates, demonstrating quantitatively that landslides must be a major source of sediment. Their erosional signal is adequately captured by the 10Be analyses most likely because of the high frequency of small landslides and their high spatial density in these catchments (typically >10% of the total area), which ensures sufficient sediment mixing. Finally, we use our results to calibrate the BQART model of sediment supply, enabling

  19. Helminth infestation in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Tripepi, Mauro; Kinsella, John M; Panebianco, Antonio; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2010-10-01

    Helminth infestation was identified at post mortem examination in 110/116 (95%) raptors belonging to six species in Southern Italy. Pathological changes associated with helminths were observed in 81/110 (74%) of birds. Lesions in the respiratory system were associated with the nematode Serratospiculum tendo only in Falco peregrinus. Lesions in the digestive tract in a range of species of raptors were associated with nematodes (Cheilospirura falconis, Dispharynx falconis, Dispharynx mathewossianae, Physaloptera spp., Procyrnea spp., Procyrnea leptoptera, Synhimantus spp., Synhimantus laticeps, Eucoleus dispar, Porrocaecum spp. and Porrocaecum angusticolle), acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus buteonis and Centrorhynchus globocaudatus), digeneans (Neodiplostomum spp., Neodiplostomum perlatum, Parastrigea intermedia and Strigea falconis) and a single cestode (Cladotaenia spp.). PMID:19713134

  20. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains from food of animal origin in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Proroga, Yolande T R; Capuano, Federico; Carullo, Maria Rosaria; La Tela, Immacolata; Capparelli, Rosanna; Barco, Lisa; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Six hundred fourteen strains of Salmonella enterica were isolated from 16,926 samples of food of animal origin collected in southern Italy from 2003 to 2012. The isolates were identified, serotyped, and challenged against 15 antibiotics according to the protocol defined at national level for veterinary isolates of Salmonella (EnterVet surveillance network). Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium, Hadar, Enteritidis, Derby, and 4,[5],12:i:- were those most frequently isolated. The widest resistances were recorded towards sulfonamides (69 % of the isolates), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (52 % of the isolates), and tetracycline (51 % of the isolates). The rate of multidrug resistance of the isolates decreased significantly from the first 5 years of the study period (82.6 %) to the last 5 years (54.3 %).

  1. Tephrochronology of a late quatternary lacustrine record from the monticchio maar (vulture volcano, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria

    With the aim of defining the chronological framework of the 51 m deep sedimentary sequence (core D) from Lago Grande di Monticchio (Mt Vulture volcano), macroscopic, microscopic and geochemical investigations have been carried out on the 14 thickest (at least 3 cm) tephra layers recorded in the core. The results indicate that the tephras are related to the main late Quaternary explosive events from Ischia, Vesuvius and the Phlegrean Fields districts of the Campanian area. Following these results, a usable time scale has been obtained, according to which the sequence spans the last 70 ka. Beyond the chronological information, this investigation has made it possible: (a) to identify widespread time-parallel markers for reliable correlations in the Central Mediterranean; (b) to collect useful data about past powerful eruptions, particularly from Vesuvius, for a better assessment of volcanic hazards in Central and Southern Italy.

  2. Multi-temporal maps of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy from 1954 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, Luigi; Revellino, Paola; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Focareta, Mariano; Grelle, Gerardo; Albanese, Vincenzo; Corazza, Angelo; Guadagno, Francesco M.

    2013-01-01

    Historical movement of the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy has periodically destroyed residences and farmland, and damaged the Italian National Road SS90 and the Benevento-Foggia National Railway. This paper provides maps from an investigation into the evolution of the Montaguto earth flow from 1954 to 2010. We used aerial photos, topographic maps, LiDAR data, satellite images, and field observations to produce multi-temporal maps. The maps show the spatial and temporal distribution of back-tilted surfaces, flank ridges, and normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. Springs, creeks, and ponds are also shown on the maps. The maps provide a basis for interpreting how basal and lateral boundary geometries influence earth-flow behavior and surface-water hydrology.

  3. The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

    2012-01-01

    The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

  4. Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331

  5. Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ∼300 bp) and 12S rDNA (∼330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode. PMID:24533349

  6. SKS splitting in Southern Italy: Anisotropy variations in a fragmented subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccheschi, P.; Margheriti, L.; Steckler, M. S.; CAT/SCAN Seismology Team

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present a collection of good quality shear wave splitting measurements in Southern Italy. In addition to a large amount of previous splitting measurements, we present new data from 15 teleseisms recorded from 2003 to 2006 at the 40 stations of the CAT/SCAN temporary network. These new measurements provide additional constraints on the anisotropic behaviour of the study region and better define the fast directions in the southern part of the Apulian Platform. For our analysis we have selected well-recorded SKS phases and we have used the method of Silver and Chan to obtain the splitting parameters: the azimuth of the fast polarized shear wave ( φ) and delay time ( δt). Shear wave splitting results reveal the presence of a strong seismic anisotropy in the subduction system below the region. Three different geological and geodynamic regions are characterized by different anisotropic parameters. The Calabrian Arc domain has fast directions oriented NNE-SSW and the Southern Apennines domain has fast directions oriented NNW-SSE. This rotation of fast axes, following the arcuate shape of the slab, is marked by a lack of resolved measurements which occurs at the transition zone between those two domains. The third domain is identified in the Apulian Platform: here fast directions are oriented almost N-S in the northern part and NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW in the southern one. The large number of splitting parameters evaluated for events coming from different back-azimuth allows us to hypothesize the presence of a depth-dependent anisotropic structure which should be more complicated than a simple 2 layer model below the Southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc domains and to constrain at 50 km depth the upper limit of the anisotropic layer, at least at the edge of Southern Apennines and Apulian Platform. We interpret the variability in fast directions as related to the fragmented subduction system in the mantle of this region. The trench-parallel φ observed in

  7. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  8. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  9. An application of a multi model approach for solar energy prediction in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, Elenio; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Contini, Daniele; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Tiriolo, Luca; Montesanti, Stefania; Transerici, Claudio; Federico, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of the short and medium range forecast of solar irradiance is very important for solar energy integration into the grid. This issue is particularly important for Southern Italy where a significant availability of solar energy is associated with a poor development of the grid. In this work we analyse the performance of two deterministic models for the prediction of surface temperature and short-wavelength radiance for two sites in southern Italy. Both parameters are needed to forecast the power production from solar power plants, so the performance of the forecast for these meteorological parameters is of paramount importance. The models considered in this work are the RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) and they were run for the summer 2013 at 4 km horizontal resolution over Italy. The forecast lasts three days. Initial and dynamic boundary conditions are given by the 12 UTC deterministic forecast of the ECMWF-IFS (European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecast - Integrated Forecasting System) model, and were available every 6 hours. Verification is given against two surface stations located in Southern Italy, Lamezia Terme and Lecce, and are based on hourly output of models forecast. Results for the whole period for temperature show a positive bias for the RAMS model and a negative bias for the WRF model. RMSE is between 1 and 2 °C for both models. Results for the whole period for the short-wavelength radiance show a positive bias for both models (about 30 W/m2 for both models) and a RMSE of 100 W/m2. To reduce the model errors, a statistical post-processing technique, i.e the multi-model, is adopted. In this approach the two model's outputs are weighted with an adequate set of weights computed for a training period. In general, the performance is improved by the application of the technique, and the RMSE is reduced by a sizeable fraction (i.e. larger than 10% of the initial RMSE

  10. Coexisting shortening and extension along the "Africa-Eurasia" plate boundary in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Riguzzi, F.; Scrocca, D.; Doglioni, C.

    2009-04-01

    We performed geodetic strain rate field analyses along the "Africa (Sicily microplate)"-"Eurasia (Tyrrhenian microplate)" plate boundary in Sicily (southern Italy), using new GPS velocities from a data set spanning maximum ten years (1998-2007). Data from GPS permanent stations maintained from different institutions and the recent RING network, settled in Italy in the last five years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, were included into the analysis. Two dimensional strain and rotation rate fields were estimated by the distance weighted approach on a regularly spaced grid (30*30km), estimating the strain using all stations, but data from each station are weighted by their distance from the grid node by a constant a=70km that specifies how the effect of a station decays with distance from the node grid interpolation. Results show that most of the shortening of the Africa-Eurasia relative motion is distributed in the northwestern side offshore Sicily, whereas the extension becomes comparable with shortening on the western border of the Capo d'Orlando basin, and grater in the northeastern side, offshore Sicily, as directly provided by GPS velocities which show a larger E-ward component of sites located in Calabria with respect to those located either in northern Sicily or in the Ustica-Aeolian islands. Moreover, where shortening and extension have mostly a similar order of magnitude, two rotation rate fields can be detected, CCW in the northwestern side of Sicily, and CW in the northeastern one respectively. Also, 2-D dilatation field records a similar pattern, with negative values (shortening) in the northwestern area of Sicily close to the Ustica island, and positive values (extension) in the northeastern and southeastern ones, respectively. Principal shortening and extension rate axes are consistent with long-term geological features: seismic reflection profiles acquired in the southern Tyrrhenian seismogenic belt show active extensional faults

  11. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in Mytilus galloprovincialis Samples Collected from Apulia Region

    PubMed Central

    Bonerba, Elisabetta; Parisi, Antonio; Di Pinto, Angela; Serraino, Andrea; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Giacometti, Federica; Ceci, Edmondo; Tantillo, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in 20 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis purchased at fish markets in Apulia region. The detection of Arcobacter spp. was performed, after selective enrichment, on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD) agar supplemented with Cefoperazone, Amphotericin B and Teicoplanin (CAT). In 6 out of the 20 tested samples the presence of Arcobacter spp. was found and confirmed by genus-based polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were identified as belonging to the species Arcobacter butzleri using 16S rDNA sequencing and BLAST online. The results represent the first report in Italy of A. butzleri detection in marketed Mytilus galloprovincialis. The survey underlines the epidemiological importance of A. butzleri as an emerging pathogen, and highlights that mussels should be considered as a potential cause of foodborne disease outbreak. PMID:27800382

  12. An operational real-time flood forecasting system in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Enrique; Coccia, Gabriele; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    A real-time flood forecasting system has been operating since year 2012 as a non-structural measure for mitigating the flood risk in Campania Region (Southern Italy), within the Sele river basin (3.240 km2). The Sele Flood Forecasting System (SFFS) has been built within the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by Deltares and it assimilates the numerical weather predictions of the COSMO LAM family: the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I2, the deterministic COSMO-LAMI I7 and the ensemble numerical weather predictions COSMO-LEPS (16 members). Sele FFS is composed by a cascade of three main models. The first model is a fully continuous physically based distributed hydrological model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended (Idrologia&Ambiente s.r.l., Naples, Italy), simulating the dominant processes controlling the soil water dynamics, runoff generation and discharge with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The second module is a set of Neural-Networks (ANN) built for forecasting the river stages at a set of monitored cross-sections. The third component is a Model Conditional Processor (MCP), which provides the predictive uncertainty (i.e., the probability of occurrence of a future flood event) within the framework of a multi-temporal forecast, according to the most recent advancements on this topic (Coccia and Todini, HESS, 2011). The MCP provides information about the probability of exceedance of a maximum river stage within the forecast lead time, by means of a discrete time function representing the variation of cumulative probability of exceeding a river stage during the forecast lead time and the distribution of the time occurrence of the flood peak, starting from one or more model forecasts. This work shows the Sele FFS performance after two years of operation, evidencing the added-values that can provide to a flood early warning and emergency management system.

  13. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    PubMed

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  14. Fluxes of deep CO 2 in the volcanic areas of central-southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambardella, Barbara; Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frondini, Francesco; Marini, Luigi; Ottonello, Giulio; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino

    2004-08-01

    Both the shallow (organic-derived) and deep (mantellic-magmatic-metamorphic) fluxes of CO 2 [ ΦCO 2, mass time -1] and specific fluxes of CO 2 [ ϕCO 2 mass time -1 surface -1] dissolving in the shallow groundwaters of the volcanic areas of Amiata, Vulsini-Vico-Sabatini, Albani, Roccamonfina, Vesuvio, Vulture, and Etna were evaluated by partitioning the composed population of total dissolved inorganic carbon in two individual populations and subsequent subtraction of local background population. The flux of deep CO 2 released from the geothermal fields of Piancastagnaio (Amiata), Torre Alfina, Latera, Marta, Bracciano south, Cesano, and Mofete and from the Overall Northern Latium Hydrothermal Reservoir were also evaluated by means of the total surface heat flux and the enthalpy and CO 2 molality of the single liquid phase circulating in each geothermal reservoir. These data suggest that the ϕCO 2 released to the atmosphere varies from 9.5×10 6 to 3.0×10 6 mol year -1 km -2, over the geothermal fields of Bracciano south and Cesano, respectively, and that a total ΦCO 2 of 3.8×10 8 mol year -1 is cumulatively released from the geothermal fields of Torre Alfina, Latera and Cesano extending over an area of only 66 km 2. In addition, a flux of ˜2.2×10 11 to 3.8×10 11 mol year -1 of gaseous CO 2 entering the atmosphere is obtained for the entire anomalous area of central Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian coastline to the Apennine chain (45,000 km 2). Thus terrestrial CO 2 emission in central-southern Italy appears to be a significant carbon source.

  15. Survey of zoonotic dermatoses in client-owned exotic pet mammals in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Santoro, D

    2015-03-01

    Several 'exotic' mammalian species (e.g. rabbits, rodents, ferrets and hedgehogs) live in close proximity to humans as companion pets. Skin diseases (SD) are frequent causes of morbidity in exotic pet mammals, and most of those SDs have a zoonotic potential. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of zoonotic dermatosis (ZD) in client-owned, exotic pet mammals in Southern Italy. Six-hundred and fifty-five medical records of exotic pet mammals examined between 2011 and 2012, across twenty private practice veterinary clinics around the Naples area (Italy), were retrospectively evaluated and screened for animals diagnosed with SDs (rabbits n = 455, guinea pigs n = 93, ferrets n = 64, hedgehogs n = 19, chinchillas n = 13 and rats n = 11). The records of animals diagnosed with SD, whose causative agents had a zoonotic potential, were selected for analysis. The Mann-Whitney independent test was used for statistical analysis. A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eighty-two records (12.5%) of animals with ZD were identified. Of those, 56.1% (46/82) were affected by fungal infections and 42.7% (35/82) by parasitic infections. No zoonotic bacterial or viral infections were diagnosed. Dermatophytosis was significantly diagnosed more frequently in younger animals. The results of this survey indicate that exotic pet mammals may serve as active carriers for many highly contagious pathogens with zoonotic potential. Awareness and vigilance by the veterinary practitioner is crucial in the prevention of occurrences of ZDs. Children frequently come in close contact with exotic pets. To prevent the unplanned transmission of pathogen from pet to human, an active routine screening examination and preventative treatments are strongly recommended for every newly purchased pet mammal.

  16. Spatial and temporal features of heavy rainstorm events in Calabria, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Oreste Giuseppe; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Greco, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash floods, shallow landslides and debris flows, which cause several damage to manmade infrastructures and loss of lives. The analysis of spatial distribution and temporal features of intense rainfall events is a fundamental step for a better understanding of the phenomena and for its possible prediction. The present study is an attempt to improve, from a statistical point of view, the understanding at sub-hourly scale of the temporal and spatial structure of intense rainfall events, by examining those that have hit Calabria (Southern Italy) in the years 1998-2008. More in detail, a considerable amount of series with high temporal detail (5 min) related to 155 sites (one rain gauge per less than 100 sq km), were analysed. First, more than 152 thousands rainfall events, separated by at least 6 hours of dry weather, were recognized. Then, less than a third (45,533) were selected, since denoted as erosive. Finally, several heavy rainstorm events (HREs) were chosen by considering the rainfall events recorded simultaneously at different rain gauges, even non-contiguous, within the region. In particular, this further selection was conducted, based on heuristic threshold values of cumulated rainfall (≥ 100 mm), maximum intensity (≥ 50 mm/h), and kinetic energy (≥ 29 MJ/ha). Therefore, 25 distinct HREs, including all the well-known catastrophic geo-hydrological events, were subjected to thorough investigation. The obtained HREs, automatically classified according to their structure in time, were analysed as regards both spatial and temporal evolution. At this end, the 25 HREs were distinguished as widespread (17) or localized (8), if the affected area is ≥ 500 sq km or < 500 sq km, respectively. In particular, the temporal storm structure was described by means of the standardized rainfall profile (rainfall amount vs. duration, in terms on cumulative percentages). Then, a 4-digit binary shape code was adopted to automatically

  17. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  18. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  19. Estimating annual groundwater recharge coefficient for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; De Vita, P.

    2014-02-01

    To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in the southern Apennines (Italy), the estimation of the mean annual groundwater recharge coefficient (AGRC) was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. Starting from the hydrological budget equation, the coefficient was conceived as the ratio between the net groundwater outflow and the precipitation minus actual evapotranspiration (P - ETR) for a karst aquifer. A large part of the southern Apennines, which is covered by a meteorological network containing 40 principal karst aquifers, was studied. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926-2012, the mean annual P - ETR was estimated, and its distribution was modelled at a regional scale by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennine chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AGRC. The resulting values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst rocks, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A multiple linear regression between the AGRC, lithology and the summit plateau and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model was used to assess the AGRC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The coefficient was calculated as ranging between 50 and 79%, thus being comparable with other similar estimations carried out for karst aquifers of European and Mediterranean countries. The mean annual groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines was assessed by these characterizations and validated by a comparison with available groundwater outflow measurements. These results represent a deeper understanding of an

  20. Multilocus molecular and phylogenetic analysis of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Parisi, Antonio; Traversa, Donato; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-08-01

    This study reports a combined analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA target regions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Mediterranean region. A ∼900 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial DNA encompassing regions within cytb and nd1 gene and the complete ITS2 ribosomal region (∼500 bp) were sequenced and characterized for Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Sergentomyia minuta, captured in two sites of southern Italy. From one to eight mitochondrial haplotypes and from one to three ITS2 sequence types were found for the examined specimens according to the different sand fly species. The mean interspecific difference in the mitochondrial sequences was of 16.1%, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation from 0.1 to 2.8%. A higher interspecific difference (mean 25.1%) was recorded for the ITS2 sequence, with an overall intraspecific nucleotide variation up to 4.9%. The sequence types alignment of ITS2 region showed that all phlebotomine specimens possessed a split 5.8S rRNA, consisting of a mature 5.8S rRNA and a 2S rRNA separated by a short transcribed spacer. Phylogenetic analysis of the Phlebotomus spp. sequences, herein determined and of those available in GenBank™ were concordant in clustering P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. papatasi with the same species collected from different geographic areas of the Mediterranean basin in four main clades for mtDNA and ITS2, respectively. This study demonstrates the utility of multilocus sequencing, provides a dataset for the molecular identification of the most prevalent phlebotomine sand flies in southern Europe and defines the phylogenetic relationships among species examined.

  1. Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Tonarini, Sonia; Doglioni, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    We report here, for the first time, on the new finding of extrusive calciocarbonatite (alvikite) rocks from the Pleistocene Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). These volcanic rocks, which represent an outstanding occurrence in the wider scenario of the Italian potassic magmatism, form lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and feeder dikes exposed on the northern slope of the volcano. The petrography, mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry attest the genuine carbonatitic nature of these rocks, that are characterized by high to very high contents of Sr, Ba, U, LREE, Nb, P, F, Th, high Nb/Ta and LREE/HREE ratios, and low contents of Ti, Zr, K, Rb, Na and Cs. The O-C isotope compositions are close to the "primary igneous carbonatite" field and, thus, are compatible with an ultimate mantle origin for these rocks. The Sr-Nd-Pb-B isotope compositions, measured both in the alvikites and in the silicate volcanic rocks, indicate a close genetic relationship between the alvikites and the associated melilitite/nephelinite rocks. Furthermore, these latter products are geochemically distinct from the main foiditic-phonolitic association of Mt. Vulture. We propose a petrogenetic/geodynamic interpretation which has important implications for understanding the relationships between carbonatites and orogenic activity. In particular, we propose that the studied alvikites are generated through liquid unmixing at crustal levels, starting from nephelinitic or melilititic parent liquids. These latter were produced in a hybrid mantle resulting from the interaction through a vertical slab window, between a metasomatized mantle wedge, moving eastward from the Tyrrhenian/Campanian region, and the local Adriatic mantle. The occurrence of carbonatite rocks at Mt. Vulture, that lies on the leading edge of the Southern Apennines accretionary prism, is taken as an evidence for the carbonatation of the mantle sources of this volcano. We speculate that mantle carbonatation is related to the introduction of

  2. Microbiological quality of Burrata cheese produced in Puglia region: southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Saracino, Mara; Malcangi, Maria; Montagna, Cosimo; Quinto, Marcello; Lorusso, Vanessa; Normanno, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Burrata cheese is a popular typical Italian food product, produced in Puglia (an administrative region of southern Italy), and this study investigated the microbiological quality of 404 samples of this cheese. The samples were analyzed in order to quantify Escherichia coli and to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. No sample exceeded the values of E. coli set by EC Regulation 1441/07 for some dairy products, while 15 (3.7%) samples tested coagulase-positive staphylococci positive, with values greater than 10(3) CFU/g. One strain of S. aureus was identified and characterized from each of these positive samples, and of these strains, 7 (46.6%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin A, 5 (33.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin C, 2 (13.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin D, and 1 (6.6%) produced both staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. All strains were mecA negative. The 15 S. aureus isolates were tested for their antimicrobial resistance patterns, and all analyzed strains showed antimicrobial resistance properties for at least one of the tested antibiotics. Testing for the other pathogens mentioned above gave negative results. The results of our study mean that the microbiological quality of Burrata cheese can be assumed to be good, although care must be taken with raw materials and good hygiene during processing in order to guarantee greater food safety. PMID:24215706

  3. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  4. Geographical Information Systems and canine faecal contamination: the experience in the city of Naples (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, V; Rinaldi, L; Carbone, S; Biggeri, A; Cringoli, G

    2006-06-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to make transect sampling when non-moving objects are to be counted, involving choosing a line or series of lines along which the counts are to take place. This approach has been used by us in order to study canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and to evaluate the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements. A GIS was constructed utilizing the geo-referenced digital photographs and the cadastral maps of Naples. In order to uniformly evaluate the canine faecal contamination throughout the city, a grid representing sub-areas of 1 km x 700 m was overlaid on the city map within the GIS. The territory of Naples was divided in 218 equal, rectangular sub-areas. In each sub-area a 1 km transect was drawn, and digitalized on-screen in the GIS. Canine faeces (copros in Greek) were counted along the transects in 143 sub-areas. In these sub-areas, 415 copros were collected and examined. Out of the 143 sub-areas, 141 contained canine copros. The results of the negative binomial regression model showed a positive association between the number of copros and the human population density. Out of the total of 415 copros, 70 (16.9%) were positive for parasitic elements; eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis. PMID:16881413

  5. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet among adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents' adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03-2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). The adolescents' KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents' intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas.

  6. Isolation and technological properties of coagulase negative staphylococci from fermented sausages of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, G; Casaburi, A; Blaiotta, G; Villani, F

    2004-05-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the population of Micrococcaceae in different types of fermented sausages of Southern Italy and to determine the technological properties of Staphylococcus strains in order to evaluate the suitability of selected strains as starter cultures in the processing of dry fermented pork sausages. Ninety-six strains were studied to evaluate nitrate reductase, proteolytic, lipolytic and antioxidant activities as well as growth ability at different temperatures, pH's and NaCl concentrations. All the strains were classified as Staphylococcus except for one isolate assigned to Kocuria spp. The species most often isolated were S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus and S. equorum, although they were not equally distributed within the different sausages. Other species isolated were, in descending order of abundance, S. succinus, S. warneri, S. lentus, S. vitulus, S. pasteuri, S. epidermidis, and S. haemolyticus. In general, the S. xylosus strains exhibited the best technological properties that would make them eligible as good starter cultures for fermented meat products. However, strains belonging to other species also showed good technological properties. Finally, all strains grew at 10, 15 and 20 °C, in the presence of 10% and 15% of NaCl and at pH 5.0 and 5.5. The results showed that it is possible to formulate a broad variety of staphylococcal starter cultures, adaptable to different technological conditions and sausage manufacture practices.

  7. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants.

  8. Familial temporal lobe epilepsy autosomal dominant inheritance in a large pedigree from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, A; Messina, D; Le Piane, E; Oliveri, R L; Annesi, G; Zappia, M; Andermann, E; Quattrone, A; Aguglia, U

    2000-02-01

    To further elucidate the inheritance pattern and range of phenotypic manifestations of benign familial temporal lobe epilepsy (FTLE), we report a large family recently identified in southern Italy. There were 8 patients (4 men), ranging in age from 31 to 68 years in three generations. One affected patient was deceased at the time of the study. Genealogical study strongly supported autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance, as three unaffected individuals transmitted the disease. Clinical anticipation could not be assessed because of the ascertainment method. Male to male transmission occurred. Identifiable antecedents for seizures were present in only two patients, who had a simple febrile convulsion and a closed head trauma, respectively. Migraine was overrepresented in this family. Onset of seizures ranged from 17 to 52 years (mean: 27 years). All patients had weekly simple partial seizures suggestive of temporal origin with vegetative or experiential phenomena. Very rare partial complex seizures occurred in 6/7 patients. One had two generalized nocturnal seizures as well. Two had previously been misdiagnosed as having gastritis or panic attacks, and one had not been diagnosed. Interictal anteromesiotemporal spiking was seen in 5/7 patients, and occurred mostly during NREM sleep. Neurological examination, brain CT or MR scans were normal. Antiepileptic medication always controlled the seizures.

  9. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-11-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructure in an urbanized area; as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide phenomenon started in the last century and has been studied since the 1990s using classical geotechnical methods; however the sliding body continues to move. This paper presents the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (time domain reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project, the results of which will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  10. The Verdesca landslide in the Agri Valley (Basilicata, southern Italy): a new geological and geomorphological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, E.; Bentivenga, M.; Colaiacovo, R.; Margiotta, S.; Summa, V.; Adurno, I.

    2015-03-01

    A landslide, to the west of Montemurro (a small village in Southern Italy), has recently caused damage to buildings and other infrastructures in an urbanized area, as a result the development of new economic activities has been prohibited. The landslide was discovered in the last century and has been studied since the 1990's using classical geotechnical methods, but the sliding body continues to move. In this paper, we will present the results of a study carried out using field surveys, geognostic investigations and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) measurements in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy of the sediments involved and to further understand the geological and geomorphological context of the slope. This study is part of a larger multidisciplinary project of which the results will also be presented in this paper. The landslide (rotational slide in the upper sector, developing into a translational slide in the lower part) affects Quaternary continental clastic deposits resting on a bedrock formed by Tertiary siliciclastic sediments of the Gorgoglione Flysch. TDR measurements did not show any significant movement during the period monitored (January 2013-January 2014). Slip zone geometries were hypothesized using inclinometric measurements taken from previous studies, stratigraphic data and geomorphological interpretations of topographic scarps. Feedback from monitoring will confirm this hypothesis.

  11. Fluxes and the mass balance of mercury in Augusta Bay (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Bonsignore, Maria; Oliveri, Elvira; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    The flux (Φ) of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-seawater interface was investigated in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) where uncontrolled industrial discharge from one of the most important chlor-alkali plant in Europe has caused significant negative effects on the environment. Hg fluxes were measured by the deployment of in-situ benthic chamber. The obtained value of 1.3 kmol y-1 clearly emphasizes the role of the sediments as source of Hg for the overlying water column. Moreover, Hg concentrations in the outflowing bottom waters were measured to estimate the export of this pollutant from Augusta Bay to the open sea. The calculated value of 0.54 kmol y-1, corresponding to ∼4% of the anthropogenic input of Hg from coastal point/diffuse sources to the Mediterranean Sea (12.5 kmol y-1; Rajar et al., 2007; UNEP-MAP, 2001), assigns this area a crucial role in the Hg inventory of the entire Mediterranean basin. Finally, a consistent and robust mass balance for Hg in Augusta Bay was provided by combining the obtained data with Hg fluxes at seawater-atmosphere interface.

  12. In vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, A; Janiak, V; Dürr, C M; Lüdeke, S; Trachsel, E; Heinrich, M

    2002-08-01

    A total of 27 extracts from non-cultivated and weedy vegetables traditionally consumed by ethnic Albanians (Arbëreshë) in the Vulture area (southern Italy) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay, for their in vitro non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation and for their inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). In both antioxidant assays strong activity was shown for Leopoldia comosa (bulbs, syn.: Muscari comosum) and Centaurea calcitrapa (young whorls). In the lipid peroxidation assay, extracts from leaves of Origanum heracleoticum, Urtica dioica and Tordylium apulum showed a remarkable inhibitory activity (> 50%), too. In the case of Leopoldia comosa and Origanum heracleoticum this activity was comparable to quercetin (at a concentration of 50 microM) and Rhodiola rosea extract. Extracts from non-cultivated Cichorium intybus, Chondrilla juncea and Stellaria media showed strong in vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase, with an activity higher than that of a reference extract from Ledum groenlandicum. These findings suggest that weedy vegetables may be useful antioxidants of interest in the prevention of ageing related diseases, CNS disorders and as potential sources of phytomedicines against hyperuricaemia and gout.

  13. Flash flood occurrences since the 17th century in steep drainage basins in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  14. Reactive-transport modelling of gypsum dissolution in a coastal karst aquifer in Puglia, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Claudia; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2015-11-01

    The gypsum coastal aquifer of Lesina Marina (Puglia, southern Italy) has been affected by sinkhole formation in recent decades. Previous studies based on geomorphologic and hydrogeological data ascribed the onset of collapse phenomena to the erosion of material that fills palaeo-cavities (suffosion sinkholes). The change in the hydrodynamic conditions of groundwater induced by the excavation of a canal within the evaporite formation nearly 100 years ago was identified as the major factor in triggering the erosion, while the contribution of gypsum dissolution was considered negligible. A combined reactive-transport/density-dependent flow model was applied to the gypsum aquifer to evaluate whether gypsum dissolution rate is a dominant or insignificant factor in recent sinkhole formation under current hydrodynamic conditions. The conceptual model was first defined with a set of assumptions based on field and laboratory data along a two-dimensional transect of the aquifer, and then a density-dependent, tide-influenced flow model was set up and solved using the numerical code SEAWAT. Finally, the resulting transient flow field was used by the reactive multicomponent transport model PHT3D to estimate the gypsum dissolution rate. The validation tests show that the model accurately represents the real system, and the multi-disciplinary approach provides consistent information about the causes and evolution time of dissolution processes. The modelled porosity development rate is too low to represent a significant contribution to the recent sinkhole formation in the Lesina Marina area, although it justifies cavity formation and cavity position over geological time.

  15. Coxiella-like endosymbiont associated to the "Anatolian brown tick" Rhipicephalus bursa in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Raele, Donato Antonio; Galante, Domenico; Pugliese, Nicola; De Simone, Esther; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    Several different ticks have been reported to harbor microbes related to Coxiella burnetii, the agent of the Q fever. Rhipicephalus bursa is an important vector of tick-borne diseases in livestock in Mediterranean area; it is also abundant in ovi-caprine farms with C. burnetii infection, in Southern Italy. 60 females of Rh. bursa (15 pools) and 40 their eggs (2 pools) were screened for C. burnetii by a conventional PCR targeting the insertion sequence IS1111 and by Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) targeting com1 gene. One of 15 tick pools (1/15) and both egg pools (2/2) were found positive by LAMP assay and negative by PCR targeting IS1111 gene. 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR from the LAMP-positive pools, amplicons were sequenced and found 95% similar to the corresponding sequences from C. burnetii. This let us to hypothesize the presence of a new Coxiella-like endosymbiont associated with Rh. bursa which could be vertically transmitted, described here for the first time. The lack of detection of IS1111 in Coxiella endosymbiont of Rh. bursa could be related to the possible absence of the Pathogenicity island of C. burnetii, to which IS1111s are associated.

  16. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease. PMID:25772632

  17. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures. PMID:25962800

  18. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease.

  19. Distribution and speciation of metals in surface sediments of Taranto [corrected] gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Dell'Atti, Angelo; Di Leo, Antonella; Maci, Antonella; Petronio, Bianca Maria

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of metals (Al, Fe, Ti, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb) were determined in surface sediments from Taranto gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy) in order to assess the distribution and the bioavailability of metals. Total metal content and speciation of Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were determined. Sediment cores were also sampled in some stations of particular interest. The analytical results show that metals distribution does not show significant variations in relation to depth. Metal distribution in the Taranto gulf is mainly influenced by industrial wastes from Taranto town, by rivers of the Basilicata region and by prevailing anticlockwise marine currents. These factors cause an accumulation of metals in the sediments near to the coasts of Calabria. The statistical analysis, effected by HCA and PCA methods, can be considered a good starting point in order to classify sediment samples and to locate accumulation areas. Metal speciation shows that Fe, Ni and Zn are present in sediments mainly as sulphides, Mn is present principally in an ion-exchange form or bound to carbonate, while Cu and Pb are mainly present in the fraction bounds to humic acids.

  20. Research progress in volcanology in the Neapolitan area, southern Italy: a review and some alternative views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, Benedetto; Petrosino, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2010-05-01

    Comprehensive reviews are given for the major volcanic systems that occur in the greater metropolitan area of Naples, southern Italy; Mt. Somma-Vesuvius to the east and the Campi Flegrei volcanic system to the west. Also included in the review is a detailed discussion of the large, highly explosive Campania Volcanic Zone (CVZ) ignimbrite events. These volcanic areas have been studied for more than 100 years, yet significant differences of opinion exist related to fundamental issues of origin and distribution. We present some alternative views related to petrogenesis on some issues based on more than 25 years of research. The relationship between risk assessment and management that impacts the threatened society or culture and the past and ongoing fundamental volcanological research is an essential part of the science. Countries with limited resources may be forced to accept an increased risk but even highly industrialized societies may not be able to completely eliminate deaths from volcanic eruptions. Scientific studies of the hazardous regions should be comprehensive and include reasonable alternative interpretations as this information reveals the level of confidence that must be conveyed to the public officials. The authors review the state of the art of risk assessment and management of the volcanic hazards in the Neapolitan region in light of the review of research.

  1. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  2. Isolation and technological properties of coagulase negative staphylococci from fermented sausages of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, G; Casaburi, A; Blaiotta, G; Villani, F

    2004-05-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the population of Micrococcaceae in different types of fermented sausages of Southern Italy and to determine the technological properties of Staphylococcus strains in order to evaluate the suitability of selected strains as starter cultures in the processing of dry fermented pork sausages. Ninety-six strains were studied to evaluate nitrate reductase, proteolytic, lipolytic and antioxidant activities as well as growth ability at different temperatures, pH's and NaCl concentrations. All the strains were classified as Staphylococcus except for one isolate assigned to Kocuria spp. The species most often isolated were S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus and S. equorum, although they were not equally distributed within the different sausages. Other species isolated were, in descending order of abundance, S. succinus, S. warneri, S. lentus, S. vitulus, S. pasteuri, S. epidermidis, and S. haemolyticus. In general, the S. xylosus strains exhibited the best technological properties that would make them eligible as good starter cultures for fermented meat products. However, strains belonging to other species also showed good technological properties. Finally, all strains grew at 10, 15 and 20 °C, in the presence of 10% and 15% of NaCl and at pH 5.0 and 5.5. The results showed that it is possible to formulate a broad variety of staphylococcal starter cultures, adaptable to different technological conditions and sausage manufacture practices. PMID:22061128

  3. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  4. Non-volcanic CO2 Earth degassing: Case of Mefite d'Ansanto (southern Apennines), Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Avino, R.; Caliro, S.; Costa, A.; Minopoli, C.; Vilardo, G.

    2010-06-01

    Mefite d'Ansanto, southern Apennines, Italy is the largest natural emission of low temperature CO2 rich gases, from non-volcanic environment, ever measured in the Earth. The emission is fed by a buried reservoir, made up of permeable limestones and covered by clayey sediments. We estimated a total gas flux of ˜2000 tons per day. Under low wind conditions, the gas flows along a narrow natural channel producing a persistent gas river which has killed over a period of time people and animals. The application of a physical numerical model allowed us to define the zones which potentially can be affected by dangerous CO2 concentration at breathing height for humans. The geometry of the Mefite gas reservoir is similar to those designed for sequestering CO2 in geological storage projects where huge amounts of CO2 should be injected in order to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration. The approach which we have used at Mefite to define hazardous zones for the human health can be applied also in case of large CO2 leakages from storage sites, a phenomena which, even if improbable, can not be ruled out.

  5. FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

    2014-02-24

    The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents.

  6. Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

  7. Autochthonous and migratory birds as a dispersion source for Ixodes ricinus in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Alessandro; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lorusso, Vincenzo; Malia, Egidio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out in a protected wooded area, which is part of the Parco Regionale Gallipoli Cognato Piccole Dolomiti Lucane, one of the most important ecological reserves in southern Italy. From April 2010 to April 2011, 212 birds, comprising 22 species from 12 families, were captured and examined for ticks. A total of 75 (35.4 %) birds were found infested by ticks, with 451 ticks being collected. All ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, of which 241 (53.4 %) were larvae and 210 nymphs (46.6 %). The highest intensity of infestation was found in April 2010, when 117 ticks were retrieved on 25 birds. No ticks were found on birds (n = 5) netted in December 2010. High infestation rates were recorded on blackbirds (Turdus merula) (90 %; 29 birds examined) and on mistle thrushes (Turdus viscivorus) (100 %; 2 birds examined). The highest intensity of infestation by larvae was found on wrens (5.6 larvae/bird) and by nymphs on mistle thrushes (11.5 nymphs/bird). Temperature and number of hours of light showed to influence the activity of larvae and nymphs. These data support the notion that birds may be responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of I. ricinus in Europe, thus playing a role in the epidemiology of certain tick-borne pathogens. PMID:22610454

  8. Preliminary assessment of landslides resulting from the earthquake of 23rd November 1980 in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1981-12-01

    This paper examines the hazards, mechanisms and effects of landsliding provoked by the 1980 earthquake in Campania and Basilicata Regions, Southern Italy. The effects of seismically-induced mass-movement are assessed with respect to slope stability and damage to both settlements and roads. Whereas the mechanism of cyclic loading of soils, which can give rise to landslides, is different from the pore-pressure, gravity loading and strength-reduction mechanisms that normally cause slope failure, the morphology of slides is often indistinguishable and this made it difficult to identify which slides were directly caused by the earthquake. However, creep in potential shear planes undoubtably became more widespread, and the incidence of small, bowl-shaped slides Increased as a direct result of the earthquake. Although variations in the detailed stress-pattern within individual slopes meant that some very mobile soil and rock masses did not move, 36 settlements reported landslide damage and 29 roads were affected by landslides occurring during the earthquake and its immediate aftermath. A full assessment of the disaster, together with an explanation of the geography of the disaster area, can be found in Alexander (1982).

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora spp. in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machačová, T; Bártová, E; Di Loria, A; Sedlák, K; Guccione, J; Fulgione, D; Veneziano, V

    2013-11-15

    In some European countries there is an increasing interest on donkey. Despite there are few data regarding the donkey's parasitic diseases especially those with a protozoal etiology as neosporosis. Samples used in the study were collected from 238 domestic donkeys during year 2010 in Southern Italy from 207 females and 31 males of five breeds (Martina-Franca, Amiata, Sicilian-Grey, Ragusano, Sardinian) and crossbreeds with the average age 9 years (1 month - 24 year). Sera were tested by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Neospora caninum; the sera were marked positive, if more than 30% inhibition was found. Out of a total 238 donkeys, 28 (11.8%) were found positive for Neospora antibodies with 12% in females and 6% in males. Different seroprevalence 15.4%, 16%, 12% and 8.8% were found in age categories <1 year, 1-4 years, 5-9 years and ≥10 years, respectively. The seroprevalence ranged in different breeds from 36% (Sicilian-Grey) to 0% (Sardinian) and in different use from 17% (for breeding) to 0% (for meat production). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated evidence of a significant (P<0.05) association between crossbreed origin of samples and risk of protozoan infection; age of donkeys was also significant risk factor for protozoan infection. No statistical significant difference (P>0.05) was found among genders and use of donkeys and risk of N. caninum infection. This is the first serological survey for Neospora spp. performed in donkeys.

  10. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  11. Engineering Geological and Petrographic Characterization of Migmatites Belonging to the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; Punturo, R.; Mineo, S.; Ortolano, G.; Castelli, F.

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory characterization of migmatite rocks, affected by tunneling works in southern Calabria (Italy), has been carried out with the purpose of investigating the relationship between some potentially interdependent petrographic and petrophysical features with the mechanical behavior of the excavated rocks. Mineralogical and petrographic investigation allowed estimating the modal composition of the rock and the grain size of the constituting minerals, as well as examining the intergranular contacts and associated microfractures. The velocity of seismic waves within the specimens has been measured and calculated, along with the elastic properties of the rock. Specimens were also characterized from the physical-mechanical point of view and their mode of failure was considered. Results show that the mechanical behavior of migmatites varies within the sample population, although the specimens belong to the same sampling area. It is controlled by both porosity and modal composition of the rock. Thus, primary minerals were grouped with respect to their elastic properties; their abundance/deficiency within the specimen controls its mechanical strength. This is also reflected in the modes of failure associated to different strength values. This is a new consideration in the laboratory characterization of this rock type, largely cropping out in several contexts worldwide. Results should be taken into account before starting engineering works, in order to avoid errors resulting from considering this rock as a homogeneous material from the mechanical and petrographic points of view.

  12. Geological and geophysical characterization of the southeastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2015-02-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results obtained by the joint analysis of in situ geophysical surveys, aerial photos interpretation, morphotectonic investigation, geological field survey and borehole data. The joint analysis of different data allowed us (1) to show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) to detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) to image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) to characterize the geometry of an active landslide affecting the study area.

  13. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Pliocene Bianco section, Calabria, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rio, D.; Thunell, R.; Sprovieri, R.; Bukry, D.; Destefano, E.; Howell, M.; Raffi, I.; Sancetta, C.; Sanfilippo, A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated micropaleontological and geochemical study was carried out on the Pliocene-age Bianco section located in Calabria, southern Italy. This section is somewhat unique for the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region in that it contains abundant calcareous and siliceous microfossils. Based on the biostratigraphic findings, it ranges in age from approximately 3.7-3.0 Ma. The Bianco section is composed of marly mudstones intercalated with diatomites, with the diatomites being particularly common in the upper 50 m of the section (above 3.1 Ma). The diatomites contain an abundant benthic foraminiferal assemblage and have a low organic carbon content indicating that bottom waters were fairly well-oxygenated during their deposition. Faunal and floral indicators suggest a cooling of surface waters in this region at 3.1 Ma. The diatom assemblages within the Bianco diatomites are very similar to those living in the Gulf of California, suggesting an upwelling origin for these silica-rich units. A model is proposed which attributes diatomite formation to upwelling induced by climatically controlled changes in local hydrography. ?? 1989.

  14. Spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic analyses of plasters from ancient buildings in Lamezia Terme (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Raffaella; Gigliotti, Valentina; Panarello, Mario; Bloise, Andrea; Crisci, Gino M.; Miriello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the results of the spectroscopic, microchemical and petrographic study carried out on six plasters coming from three important residential buildings of the 18th century, located in Lamezia Terme (Catanzaro, Southern Italy). To study the provenance of the raw materials used to make the plasters, one sample of limestone and two samples of sand were also collected from the quarries near Lamezia Terme and compared with the historical plasters. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy (OM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses allowed to determine the mineralogical, petrographical and chemical characteristics of the plasters, identify the pigments used for their coloration and provide useful information about the building techniques, the raw materials employed and the production technology of plasters during the 18th century in Lamezia Terme. SEM-EDS microanalysis also revealed the presence of gold and silver on the surface of two samples.

  15. The Earthquake Early Warning System In Southern Italy: Performance Tests And Next Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Emolo, A.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) is the software platform for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in Southern Italy, that integrates recent algorithms for real-time earthquake location, magnitude estimation and damage assessment, into a highly configurable and easily portable package. The system is under active experimentation based on the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet). PRESTo processes the live streams of 3C acceleration data for P-wave arrival detection and, while an event is occurring, promptly performs event detection and provides location, magnitude estimations and peak ground shaking predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained by an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation. At each time step, it uses information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. Magnitude estimation exploits an empirical relationship that correlates it to the filtered Peak Displacement (Pd), measured over the first 2-4 s of P-signal. Peak ground-motion parameters at any distance can be finally estimated by ground motion prediction equations. Alarm messages containing the updated estimates of these parameters can thus reach target sites before the destructive waves, enabling automatic safety procedures. Using the real-time data streaming from the ISNet network, PRESTo has produced a bulletin for about a hundred low-magnitude events occurred during last two years. Meanwhile, the performances of the EEW system were assessed off-line playing-back the records for moderate and large events from Italy, Spain and Japan and synthetic waveforms for large historical events in Italy. These tests have shown that, when a dense seismic network is deployed in the fault area, PRESTo produces reliable estimates of earthquake location and size within 5-6 s from the event origin time (To). Estimates are provided as probability density functions whose uncertainty typically decreases with time

  16. Development of ground motion attenuation relationships for southern Italy based on attenuation models and stochastic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2011-12-01

    The evaluation of the expected peak ground motion caused by an earthquake is an important problem in earthquake seismology. It is particularly important for regions where strong-motion data are lacking. With the approach presented in this study of using data from small earthquakes, it is possible to extrapolate the peak motion parameters beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. To provide a description of the high frequency attenuation and ground motion parameters in southern Italy we used seismic recordings coming from two different projects: the SAPTEX (Southern Apennines Tomography Experiment) and the CAT/SCAN (Calabria Apennine Tyrrhenian - Subduction Collision Accretion Network). We used about 10,000 records with magnitudes between M=2.5 and M=4.7. Using regression model with the large number of weak-motion data, the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling were determined. To properly calibrate the source scaling it was necessary to compute moment magnitudes of several events in the data set. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the "Cut And Paste" and the SLUMT methods. Both methods determine the source depth, moment magnitude and focal mechanisms using a grid search technique. The methods provide quality solutions in the area in a magnitude range (2.5-4.5) that has been too small to be included in the Italian national earthquake catalogues. The derived database of focal mechanisms allowed us to better detail the transitional area in the Messina Strait between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (central-western Sicily). Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the derived propagation parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration for several faults, magnitude, and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak

  17. Depth-weighted Inverse and Imaging methods to study the Earth's Crust in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Inversion means solving a set of geophysical equations for a spatial distribution of parameters (or functions) which could have produced an observed set of measurements. Imaging is instead a transformation of magnetometric data into a scaled 3D model resembling the true geometry of subsurface geologic features. While inversion theory allows many additional constraints, such as depth weighting, positivity, physical property bounds, smoothness, focusing, imaging methods of magnetic data derived under different theories are all found to reduce to either simple upward continuation or a depth-weighted upward continuation, with weights expressed in the general form of a power law of the altitude, with the half of the structural index as exponent. Note however that specifying the appropriate level of depth weighting is not just a problem in these imaging techniques but should also be considered in standard inversion methods. We will also investigate the relationship between imaging methods and multiscale methods. A multiscale analysis is well suitable to study potential fields because the way potential fields convey source information is strictly related to the scale of analysis. The stability of multiscale methods results from mixing, in a single operator, the wavenumber low-pass behaviour of the upward continuation transformation of the field with the enhancement high-pass properties of n-order derivative transformations. So, the complex reciprocal interference of several field components may be efficiently faced at several scales of the analysis and the depth to the sources may be estimated together with the homogeneity degrees of the field. We will describe the main aspects of both the kinds of interpretation under the study of multi-source models and apply either inversion or imaging techniques to the magnetic data of complex crustal areas of Southern Italy, such as the Campanian volcanic district and the Southern Apennines. The studied area includes a Pleistocene

  18. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  19. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above. PMID:27656665

  20. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  1. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (ML<3.3) occurred in the VA and surrounding regions between 2001-2014. We integrated waveforms recorded at 46 seismic stations belonging to 3 different networks: a dense temporary network installed by INGV in 2005-2006, the permanent national network of INGV, and the trigger-mode monitoring network managed by the local operator ENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE

  2. Novel monitoring protocol for the Monte Cotugno Dam (Southern Italy) healthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Loperte, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    to evaluate the water level in the inner part of dam on dependence of the minimum and maximum water level in the basin. These surveys have allowed to identify areas of the side facing upstream, at which sampling coring were carried out, and the samples were subsequently analyzed in the laboratory with the aim to evaluate the state of conservation and permeability. ERT images also permitted to identify areas affected by water infiltration below the basin level, which underwent to a visual inspection through an underwater drone. This underwater survey confirmed the presence of deteriorated areas and submerged fractured bituminous zone. This, the flaring of the reservoir was carried out as far as the managing body saw fit. After, in correspondence of the minimum basin level, a visual inspection of all the bituminous face was performed, thus identifying fractured zones on which to intervene immediately. As conclusion, we can state that the integrated approach here presented was crucial in order to identify, areas of the facing bituminous needing urgent interventions. [1] A. Loperte, M Bavusi, G. Cerverizzo, V Lapenna, and F Soldovieri, "Integrated geophysical investigations by GPR and ERT on the largest rock fill dam in Europe: Monte Cotugno dam (Southern Italy)", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-9972, 2012

  3. Serpentinite Carbonation in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) for CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmela Dichicco, Maria; Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic gas emissions are projected to change future climates with potentially nontrivial impacts (Keller et al., 2008 and references therein) and the impacts of the increased CO2 concentration are, among others, the greenhouse effect, the acidification of the surface of the ocean and the fertilization of ecosystems (e.g. Huijgen and Comans, 2003). Geologic Sequestration into subsurface rock formations for long-term storage is part of a process frequently referred to as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS. A major strategy for the in situ geological sequestration of CO2 involves the reaction of CO2 with Mg-silicates, especially in the form of serpentinites, which are rocks: i) relatively abundant and widely distributed in the Earth's crust, and ii) thermodynamically convenient for the formation of Mg-carbonates (e.g., Brown et al., 2011). In nature, carbonate minerals can form during serpentinization or during hydrothermal carbonation and weathering of serpentinites whereas industrial mineral carbonation processes are commonly represented by the reaction of olivine or serpentine with CO2 to form magnesite + quartz ± H2O (Power et al., 2013). Mineral carbonation occurs naturally in the subsurface as a result of fluid-rock interactions within serpentinite, which occur during serpentinization and carbonate alteration. In situ carbonation aims to promote these reactions by injecting CO2 into porous, subsurface geological formations, such as serpentinite-hosted aquifers. In the northern sector of the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) extensively occur serpentinites (Sansone et. al., 2012) and serpentinite-hosted aquifers (Margiotta et al., 2012); both serpentinites and serpentinite-hosted aquifers are the subject of a comprehensive project devoted to their possible use for in situ geological sequestration of CO2. The serpentinites derived from a lherzolitic and subordinately harzburgitic mantle, and are within tectonic slices in association with metadolerite dykes

  4. DDF-curves updating in climate change scenarios for Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzoa, L.; Freni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently trends in extreme rainfall were investigated on the global, regional and local scales. On the global scale, there is robust observational evidence that the frequency and intensity of extreme events significantly changed over the last decades. For this reason, climate change effects on extreme rainfall should be accounted in the design of hydraulics infrastructures, in particular in the definition of rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves. The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of the effects of statistically significant trends in extreme rainfall on the rainfall depth-duration-frequency (DDF) curves for the return periods typically used in the design of urban drainage systems. The methodology proposed in this study was applied in Southern Italy, specifically in Sicily. Firstly, the detection and quantification of trends in the annual maximum rainfall series of different durations, recorded in 65 rain gauges over the 1950-2008 period, were carried out. For each duration, the moving averages were computed and then the Mann-Kendall test was applied. Results showed that, for all the durations, increasing and decreasing trends occurred over the examined period. The generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) has been employed to compute extreme rainfall with return periods equal to 5, 10 and 20 years. The magnitude of statistically significant trends were used in order to modify the GEV parameters and define the DDF curves in some climate scenarios. The study highlighted the need to revise and update design criteria to account for potential future variations of extreme rainfall due to climate change.

  5. Digital photogrammetric analysis and electrical resistivity tomography for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata region, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bari, Claudia; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Puglisi, Claudio; Sdao, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Digital photogrammetric analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques were applied to evaluate the volume of material involved in a complex roto-translational slide occurred in the territory of Picerno (Basilicata region, southern Italy). Analytical and digital photogrammetric techniques facilitated a multi-temporal analysis of aerial photos for the years 1997, 2004 and 2006. In order to identify different geomorphologic features (scarps, terraces and trenches) of the landslide and their development, the analytical and digital photo interpretation was performed at the maximum scale of 1:5000. Geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out to verify photo-interpretation results. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for 1997, 2004 and 2006 were produced by applying the Grid Adaptive method. The differential DEMs (2006-1997; 2006-2004; 2004-1997) for the most dangerous part of the landslide allowed us to recognize the areas affected either by deposition or erosion and also estimate any altitudinal changes in each geomorphologic unit. To detect the sliding surface and estimate the thickness of the sliding material, several transversal and longitudinal ERT profiles were obtained. The electrical images of subsurface supported by stratigraphical data from boreholes were integrated with the information from the DEMs. The altitudinal changes and the sizes of the source and accumulation areas allowed us to estimate the volume of material involved in the mass movement. The fusion of data from different sensors allows us to gather indications on the surface and subsurface characteristics of the landslide providing useful information for landslide mitigation activities. Such an approach can help both to improve our knowledge and overcome the drawbacks of each methodology.

  6. Mantle wedge anisotropy in Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy), from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Park, Jeffrey; Lucente, Francesco Pio

    2008-12-01

    We constrain mantle wedge seismic structure in the Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy) using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at station CUC of the Mednet seismographic network. Station CUC lies above the northern portion of the Calabrian slab segment, which is recognized from deep seismicity and tomographic imaging as a narrow, laterally high-arched slab fragment, extending from the surface below Calabria down to the transition zone. To better define the descending slab interface and possible shear-coupled flow in the mantle wedge above the slab, we computed receiver functions from the P-coda of 147 teleseismic events to analyze the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases from interfaces beneath CUC. We stack the RF data-set with back azimuth to compute its harmonic expansion, which relates to the effects of interface dip and anisotropy at layer boundaries. The seismic structure constrained through the RF analysis is characterized in its upper part by a sub-horizontal Moho at about 25 km depth, overlying a thin isotropic layer at top of mantle. For the deeper part, back-azimuth variation suggests two alternative models, each with an anisotropic layer between two dipping interfaces near 70- and 90-km depth, with fast- and slow-symmetry axes, respectively, above the Apennines slab. Although independent evidence suggests a north-south strike for the slab beneath CUC, the trend of the inferred anisotropy is 45° clockwise from north, inconsistent with a simple downdip shear-coupled flow model in the supra-slab mantle wedge. However complexities of flow and induced rock fabric in the Tyrrhenian back arc may arise due to several concurring factors such as the arcuate shape of the Apennines slab, its retreating kinematics, or slab edge effects.

  7. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Impieri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species), respiratory apparatus diseases (11), toothache, decay etc. (10) and rheumatic pains (8). The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants. PMID:17983476

  8. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    De Natale, Antonino; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries. PMID:19228384

  9. Coastline shifts and probable ship landing site submerged off ancient Locri-Epizefiri, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennent, J.M.; Stanley, J.-D.; Hart, P.E.; Bernasconi, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A geophysical survey provides new information on marine features located seaward of Locri-Epizefiri (Locri), an ancient Greek settlement on the Ionian coastal margin in southern Italy. The study supplements previous work by archaeologists who long searched for the site's harbor and recently identified what was once a marine basin that is now on land next to the city walls of Locri. Profiles obtained offshore, between the present coast and outer shelf, made with a high-resolution, seismic subbottom-profiling system, record spatial and temporal variations of buried Holocene deposits. Two of these submerged features are part of a probable now-submerged ship landing facility. The offshore features can be linked to coastline displacements that occurred off Locri: a sea-to-land shift before Greek settlement, followed by a shoreline reversal from the archaeological site back to sea, and more recently, a return landward. The seaward directed coastal shift that occurred after Locri's occupation by Greeks was likely caused by land uplift near the coastal margin and tectonic seaward shift of the coast, as documented along this geologically active sector of the Calabrian Arc. The seismic survey records an angular, hook-shaped, low rise that extends from the present shore and is now buried on the inner shelf. The rise, enclosing a core lens of poorly stratified to transparent acoustic layers, bounds a broad, low-elevation zone positioned immediately seaward of the shoreline. Close proximity of the raised feature to the low-elevation area suggests it may have been a fabricated structure that functioned as a wave-break for a ship-landing site. The study indicates that the basin extended offshore as a function of the coastline's seaward migration during and/or after Greek occupation of Locri.

  10. A plastic flow model for the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide in Senerchia, Southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.; Wasowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A previously developed model for stress and velocity fields in two-dimensional Coulomb plastic materials under self-weight and pore pressure predicts that long, shallow landslides develop slip surfaces that manifest themselves as normal faults and normal fault scarps at the surface in areas of extending flow and as thrust faults and thrust fault scarps at the surface in areas of compressive flow. We have applied this model to describe the geometry of slip surfaces and ground stresses developed during the 1995 reactivation of the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide in Senerchia, southern Italy. This landslide is a long and shallow slide in which regions of compressive and extending flow are clearly identified. Slip surfaces in the main scarp region of the landslide have been reconstructed using surface surveys and subsurface borehole logging and inclinometer observations made during retrogression of the main scarp. Two of the four inferred main scarp slip surfaces are best constrained by field data. Slip surfaces in the toe region are reconstructed in the same way and three of the five inferred slip surfaces are similarly constrained. The location of the basal shear surface of the landslide is inferred from borehole logging and borehole inclinometry. Extensive data on material properties, landslide geometries, and pore pressures collected for the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide give values for cohesion, friction angle, and unit weight, plus average basal shear-surface slopes, and pore-pressures required for modelling slip surfaces and stress fields. Results obtained from the landslide-flow model and the field data show that predicted slip surface shapes are consistent with inferred slip surface shapes in both the extending flow main scarp region and in the compressive flow toe region of the Acquara - Vadoncello landslide. Also predicted stress distributions are found to explain deformation features seen in the toe and main scarp regions of the landslide. ?? 2005 Elsevier

  11. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  12. Fissumella motolae new genus new species from the late Aptian-early Albian of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Erzika; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Lucia, Matteo; Parente, Mariano; Ciria, Alex; Caus, Esmeralda

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera, together with calcareous algae and rudist bivalves, play a key role in the biostratigraphy of Cretaceous carbonate platforms of the peri-Adriatic area. In the biozonation currently adopted for the carbonate platforms of central and southern Apennines (Italy) there is a stratigraphic interval, roughly corresponding to most of the Albian stage, which is poorly defined and assigned to a single biozone, called "Ostracoda and Miliolidae" biozone (Chiocchini et al., 2008). We describe here a new peneropliform benthic foraminifer, Fissumella motolae n. gen., n. sp. which could be used for a finer biostratigraphic subdivision of this interval. Its porcelaneous test shows a peneropliform shape with rounded margins. In the early stage of growth the chambers are streptospirally arranged, becoming later planispiral involute. The aperture is single, migrating during ontogeny from an interiomarginal position to the center of septa. The chamber lumina are traversed by few and short radial septula. Fissumella motolae is a common constituent of benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Apennine Carbonate Platform. We have found it in the same stratigraphic interval in several stratigraphic sections distributed along a NW-SE transect from Monte Croce (in the Aurunci Mts.) to Monte Tobenna (in the Picentini Mts.) to Monte Motola (in the Cilento Promontory). It first appears in the levels with Archaeoalveolina reicheli, close to Aptian-Albian boundary, and then continues for some tens of meters, associated with Praechrysalidina infracretacea, Cuneolina parva, Sabaudia minuta, conical imperforate foraminifers, miliolids, textularids, nezzazzatids, dasycladalean green algae and ostracods. Carbon isotope stratigraphy has been used to better constrain the correlation between the studied sections and their chronostratigraphic calibration. Chiocchini, M., Chiocchini, R. A., Didaskalou, P., and Potetti, M., 2008. Microbiostratigrafia del Triassico superiore, Giurassico e

  13. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Infascelli, Roberta; Faugno, Salvatore; Pindozzi, Stefania; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European Directive 91/676, Italian rules 152/99 and 258/00), nitrate leakage is considered a pollution indicator related to breeding activities and must be kept within limits. Simulation studies were carried out in the Italian province of Caserta to evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater. Manure was also collected from 35 livestock farms and the nitrogen content measured in the laboratory. The results showed an average content of 2 kg/m3 of nitrogen, corresponding to 50 kg per animal and year, while the nitrate concentrations in the groundwater were found to be lower than those predicted by simulation. The nitrogen content found in buffalo manure <60% of the standard content produced by the bovine species (on average 83 kg nitrogen per adult animal per year). The fact that the bovine species is used as the standard reference for legislation on nitrogen production explains the inconsistency observed between the impact of buffalo livestock on the environment predicted by simulation and the nitrate concentration measured in the groundwater. Although it would be out of line with current regulations, it would theoretically be possible to increase the buffalo load on the territory without environmentally negative effects. Therefore, in this context, the common referral points, i.e. the American Midwest Point Service and others usually consulted for the assessment of livestock impact in terms of nutritional excretion and the risk of pollution for the environment, should be revisited.

  14. Antibiotic prescribing for dental conditions: a community-based study in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, G; Arcoraci, V; Blandino, G; Miragliotta, G; Schito, A M; Pasquantonio, G; Nicoletti, G; Caputi, A P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate for which conditions antibiotics are being used in community dental practice, and which clinical features represent the most common reason for an antibacterial approach to the treatment of dental conditions. The study was carried out from November 1998 to June 1999. Dentists were selected according to the different areas of southern Italy, from a list provided by the Italian Society of Dentists. Out of 87 selected dentists, 33 agreed to participate and filled in 1615 questionnaires for each therapeutic intervention ending with antibiotic treatment. Analysis of data indicated that alveolar-gingival abscesses were the most commonly treated infection, accounting for 23.6% of total treatments, followed by acute periodontitis (20.6%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (18.5%). Parenteral antibiotics were chosen in 7.8% of cases. Penicillins were the most commonly used group, 40.1% of total treatments, followed by macrolides (30.2%) and cephalosporins (13.4%). Moreover, penicillins were widely used for post-surgery therapy (52.1%) and disodontiasis of the 3rd molar (50.8%), while macrolides were the most commonly used group for gingivitis (44.1%) and parodontal diseases (55.0%). The choice of parenteral antibiotics was related to severe general symptoms (odds ratios [OR], 4.4; 95% CI: 2.2-9.0), pain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.1) and lymphonodal involvement (OR, 6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that antibiotic treatment is often based on the eradication of as many microorganisms as possible, and on the clinical assessment of the patients, rather than on any knowledge of the pathogens involved. PMID:11892902

  15. Genesis of autochthonous and allochthonous Apulian karst bauxites (Southern Italy): Climate constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Buccione, Roberto; Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-07-01

    The Apulian Carbonate Platform (ACP) in southern Italy has experienced several episodes of subaerial exposure, which were in some cases associated with the formation of karst bauxite deposits. The ACP contains both autochthonous canyon-like bauxite and allochthonous Salento-type bauxite, with the latter having been derived from a weathered and eroded pristine bauxite deposit. The remnants of this pristine bauxite are preserved as transported pebbles embedded in a clayey matrix. The autochthonous bauxite and the pebbles of the allochthonous bauxite have the same texture of sub-spheroidal components (ooids) dispersed in a fine-grained matrix. The fractal dimension of ooids from both deposits is very similar and corresponds to the growth of "aggregates" under a diffusion-controlled process. The ooids of the autochthonous bauxite have a different composition to those in the pebbles of the allochthonous bauxite, because they formed under different climatic conditions. During the Turonian, autochthonous bauxite ooids formed in alternating wet tropical conditions (promoting Al-hematite formation) and drier conditions (favouring boehmite stability). In the allochthonous pebbles, ooids formed mainly in a dry climate, promoting the formation of large boehmite cores. The ooids/matrix ratio and the geometrical features of the ooids reflect these climate differences. The differences in composition and age (post-Turonian) of the Salento-type bauxite bedrock suggest that the pristine bauxite that produced the Salento-type pebbles was different in composition to and younger in age than the Canyon-like bauxite. The latter probably formed during a middle Campanian emersion event (evidenced by large karstic cavities), which is correlated with the subaerial exposure of karst recorded on the Adriatic island of Brač.

  16. Methane production and consumption in an active volcanic environment of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Simona; Tedesco, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes were measured, using closed chambers, in the Crater of Solfatara volcano, Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy), along eight transects covering areas of the crater presenting different landscape physiognomies. These included open bare areas, presenting high geothermal fluxes, and areas covered by vegetation, which developed along a gradient from the central open area outwards, in the form of maquis, grassland and woodland. Methane fluxes decreased logarithmically (from 150 to -4.5 mg CH4 m(-2)day(-1)) going from the central part of the crater (fangaia) to the forested edges, similarly to the CO2 fluxes (from 1500 g CO2 m(-2)day(-1) in the centre of the crater to almost zero flux in the woodlands). In areas characterized by high emissions, soil presented elevated temperature (up to 70 degrees C at 0-10 cm depth) and extremely low pH (down to 1.8). Conversely, in woodland areas pH was higher (between 3.7 and 5.1) and soil temperature close to air values. Soil (0-10 cm) was sampled, in two different occasions, along the eight transects, and was tested for methane oxidation capacity in laboratory. Areas covered by vegetation mostly consumed CH4 in the following order woodland>macchia>grassland. Methanotrophic activity was also measured in soil from the open bare area. Oxidation rates were comparable to those measured in the plant covered areas and were significantly correlated with field CH4 emissions. The biological mechanism of uptake was demonstrated by the absence of activity in autoclaved replicates. Thus results suggest the existence of a population of micro-organisms adapted to this extreme environment, which are able to oxidize CH4 and whose activity could be stimulated and supported by elevated concentrations of CH4.

  17. Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: a survey in a small village of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, E; Cetani, F; Chiavistelli, S; Meola, A; Saponaro, F; Centoni, R; Cianferotti, L; Marcocci, C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT) in the adult population living in a village in Southern Italy. All residents in 2010 (n=2045) were invited by calls and 1046 individuals accepted to participate. Medical history, calcium intake, calcium, albumin, creatinine, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25OHD were evaluated. NPHPT was defined by normal albumin-adjusted serum calcium, elevated plasma PTH, and exclusion of common causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (serum 25OHD <30 ng/ml, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and thiazide diuretics use), overt gastrointestinal and metabolic bone diseases. Complete data were available for 685 of 1046 subjects. Twenty subjects did not meet the inclusion criteria and 341 could not be evaluated because of thawing of plasma samples. Classical PHPT was diagnosed in four women (0.58%). For diagnosing NPHPT the upper normal limit of PTH was established in the sample of the population (n=100) who had 25OHD ≥30 ng/ml and eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and was set at the mean+3s.d. Three males (0.44%) met the diagnostic criteria of NPHPT. These subjects were younger and with lower BMI than those with classical PHPT. Our data suggest, in line with previous studies, that NPHPT might be a distinct clinical entity, being either an early phenotype of asymptomatic PHPT or a distinct variant of it. However, we cannot exclude that NPHPT might also represent an early phase of non-classical SHPT, since other variables, in addition to those currently taken into account for the diagnosis of NPHPT, might cumulate in a normocalcemic subject to increase PTH secretion. PMID:26155986

  18. Sedimentological and palaeoecological integrated analysis of a Miocene channelized carbonate margin, Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassi, Davide; Carannante, Gabriele; Checconi, Alessio; Simone, Lucia; Vigorito, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Lower-Middle Miocene temperate marine carbonates occur in the Matese Mountains, Southern Apennines (Italy). These carbonates formed in an open-shelf depositional system with an uneven margin, 10 km long and up to 6 km wide. Shelf margin morphology shows multiple submarine channelized carbonate deposits which are dominated by coralline red algae and subordinate bryozoans. Two main channel networks (Pietraroia and Regia Piana channels) with their sedimentary bodies were analysed. The studied submarine channels grew by sediment accumulation as prograding bodies on a tectonic modelled substrate. Shallow-water rhodalgal skeletal debris, from moderately re-mobilized up to significantly re-worked, built up the complex channel-system fills in which sedimentary lenses overlapped and partially amalgamated one another when they were still unlithified. The early channelized succession is characterized by parautochthonous bryozoan floatstone and rhodolith/bryozoan floatstone representing soft muddy substrates in a low water turbulence and high turbidity setting. The rhodoliths, dominated by melobesioid coralline algae, are sub-discoidal and sub-spheroidal in shape with a characteristic loosely-packed inner arrangement. These sediments, whose latter portion underwent submarine diagenetic processes (incipient to evoluted hard-grounds), were eroded and successively covered by shallower water gravitative deposits constituted by rhodolith floatstone/rudstone. Their rhodoliths, constituted by melobesioids, mastophoroids and subordinate lithophylloids and sporolithaceans, are mainly spheroidal/sub-spheroidal in shape with subordinate sub-discoidal specimens, with massive and laminar inner arrangements. The lack in early lithification can be drawn back to the physiography of the channelized shelf margin, to the active tectonic as well as to the temperate-type carbonate dominant biogenic components. The depositional surface profile and local hydrodynamic conditions were the major

  19. Geohazard assessment through the analysis of historical alluvial events in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo

    2015-04-01

    The risk associated with extreme water events such as flash floods, results from a combination of overflows and landslides hazards. A multi-hazard approach have been utilized to analyze the 1773 flood that occurred in conjunction with heavy rainfall, causing major damage in terms of lost lives and economic cost over an area of 200 km2, including both the coastal strip between Salerno and Maiori and the Apennine hinterland, Campania region - Southern Italy. This area has been affected by a total of 40 flood events over the last five centuries, 26 of them occurred between 1900 and 2000. Streamflow events have produced severe impacts on Cava de' Tirreni (SA) and its territory and in particular four catastrophic floods in 1581, 1773, 1899 and 1954, caused a pervasive pattern of destruction. In the study area, rainstorm events typically occur in small and medium-sized fluvial system, characterized by small catchment areas and high-elevation drainage basins, causing the detachment of large amount of volcaniclastic and siliciclastic covers from the carbonate bedrock. The mobilization of these deposits (slope debris) mixed with rising floodwaters along the water paths can produce fast-moving streamflows of large proportion with significant hazardous implications (Violante et al., 2009). In this context the study of 1773 historical flood allows the detection and the definition of those areas where catastrophic events repeatedly took place over the time. Moreover, it improves the understanding of the phenomena themselves, including some key elements in the management of risk mitigation, such as the restoration of the damage suffered by the buildings and/or the environmental effects caused by the floods.

  20. Role of lichens in weathering of granodiorite in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Saporito, Natalina; La Russa, Mauro F.; Le Pera, Emilia; Macchione, Maria; Puntillo, Domenico; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the role of five recurrent epilithic lichen species (Aspicilia intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold, Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Elix, D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders, Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner and Lecanora bolcana (Pollini) Poelt), which encrust granodiorite spheroidal boulders exposed in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy), in weathering of plutonic rocks in a typical mountainous Mediterranean environment. A detailed investigation was carried out on the lichen-rock interface of each species, by comparing them mutually and with lichen-free granodiorite samples. For this purpose, the lichen species were sampled together with the encrusted rock surface for detailed mineral-petrographic analyses performed in thin and ultra-thin sections. Optical and scanning electron microscopy of these sections and of bulk samples permitted us to highlight the peculiar modes of physical and chemical attacks of lichen thalli and hyphae on and into the substratum for each species. Crack systems often parallel to the outer rock surface appear often intruded by hyphae, which cause rupture of primary minerals, with detachment and progressive incorporation of their fragments into the thallus. In particular, the species L. bolcana and T. atra revealed an unexpected, partly endolithic behavior, presumably enhanced by the presence of rock fractures earlier generated by other physical breakage processes already affecting the spheroidal boulders in the Sila mountains. Dissolution features often affect primary minerals (even quartz), that may show very peculiar patterns which are suggestive of a biologically-induced control. Various phyllosilicate clay minerals were identified using SEM-EDS microprobe analyses and FT-IR spectroscopy, which also enabled the identification of possible amorphous silica (or quartz micrograins), rhizocarpic acid and carotenoid at the encrusted granodiorite interface. In contrast, neither oxalic

  1. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  2. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  3. Late Pleistocene differential uplift inferred from the analysis of fluvial terraces (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Salvatore Ivo; Giannandrea, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The stratigraphic architecture and morphological assemblage of the Pleistocene fluvial terraces contained in two contiguous fluvial valleys are used to understand the spatial distribution and the timing of the differential uplift that affected two different geological and geomorphological settings of an active orogen. The study areas, both placed in the eastern sector of the southern Apennines of Italy, are the Sant'Arcangelo sedimentary basin and the Valsinni Ridge anticline. Pleistocene uplift rate of 0.7-0.9 mm y- 1 and historical earthquakes affecting those areas suggest active tectonics. Based on the synthem units used to classify the fluvial deposits in the field, several strath, fill, and fill-cut terraces have been mapped in the middle valleys of the Agri and Sinni rivers. Four Middle Pleistocene high terraces (Qes) are found in the Sant'Arcangelo Basin and cut its infill, and three Late Pleistocene low terraces (Qt) are found at both the Agri and Sinni valley flanks. The Agri and Sinni rivers cross-cut the NW-SE-oriented fold-and-thrust belt of the southern Apennines from W to E, producing a transverse drainage. As a result, ten- to hundred-metre deep gorges and wide floodplains were created in the middle reach of the river valleys. Computation of the bedrock incision rates from the Qes1, Qes4, and SQt1 terraces, corresponding to 1.2 ± 0.2 mm y- 1 at 400-240 ka and 0.8 ± 0.2 mm y- 1 in the last 240 ka, together with the terrace profile arrangements in the Agri and Sinni valleys, allow for the documentation of i) the differential uplift of the study area and ii) the age of terrace abandonment corresponding to the beginning age of the vertical incision in the valley floor sediments to form the Qt terraces. The differential uplift is subsequently discussed in a space and time-sequence evolution of the Late Pleistocene to assess the complex morphotectonic development that occurred in the eastern threshold of the basin. The differential uplift of both the

  4. Why is the central area of the Alburni Mts in southern Italy so full of caves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Simona; Gueguen, Erwan; Parise, Mario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The Alburni Mts represent one of the most important karst area of southern Italy, with about 250 registered caves. Located in the southern Apennines, they constitute an impressive carbonate massif within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Campania-Lucania platform. The study area is located inside the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni, and is bounded by two major rivers: the Calore and Tanagro rivers. This area has been repeatedly affected during Pleistocene by the activity of a regional, partly blind, NW-SE-striking fault system responsible for several huge earthquakes. The massif is limited to the north by an important normal fault zone (Alburni Line), whereas towards the E-SE it is bounded by a complex fault system linking the Alburni Mts to the Maddalena Mts across the Auletta basin and the Vallo di Diano valley. The entire massif is structured by NW-SE trending transtensional faults delimiting half-graben basins, and offset also by NE-SW trending faults. In particular, structural and geomorphological data have shown that the central area of the calcareous ridge is characterized by a relative structural low rhombic-shaped in planimetric view. Approximately 180 karst caves of the known 250, including some of the most significant from a speleological viewpoint, are located in this area. Is this simply due to repeated exploration activity in the last 25 years in this specific sector or might it be related to geological matter? New morphometric and structural data suggest that a relevant transversal structure, consisting of a complex NE-SW fault system, responsible for the genesis of the downthrown area in the central sector of the flat-topped ridge, was able to create the tectonic framework for the development of a great number of karst caves which present peculiar features and hydrological behaviour due to such structural controls. In this contribution we present and discuss these data, aimed at contributing to increase the knowledge on an area of sure

  5. Mercury and methylmercury contamination in Mytilus galloprovincialis from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy): risk evaluation for consumers.

    PubMed

    Di Leo, A; Cardellicchio, N; Giandomenico, S; Spada, L

    2010-11-01

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (Me-Hg) concentrations were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from 10 stations located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Taranto Gulf) an important semi-enclosed basin in Italy, devoted to mussel culture activities. The obtained results show that THg and Me-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.236 to 0.559 μg g(-1) d.w. and from 0.066 to 0.155 μg g(-1) d.w., respectively. Consequently, the Me-Hg/THg ratios ranged from 17% to 49%. The dietary intake of THg and Me-Hg were studied among children and adults from Taranto (Southern Italy). The estimated weekly intake for THg and Me-Hg was below the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by European Food Safety Autority (EFSA) for all sampled mussels, though their consumption provides a THg intake in children near the PTWI. PMID:20728495

  6. Gas Hazard from Natural CO2 Emissions in Central and Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Costa, A.; Avino, R.; Baldini, A.; Caliro, S.; Frondini, F.; Granieri, D.; Minopoli, C.; Morgantini, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies at regional scale showed that the central and southern Italy are affected by an active and intense process of CO2 Earth degassing. Considering the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater of large regional aquifers, Chiodini et al. (2004) elaborated a regional map of CO2 Earth degassing, pointing out the presence of two large CO2 degassing structures (62000 km2) a northern one, the tuscan roman degassing structure (TRDS) and a southern one, the campanian degassing structure (CDS). The deeply derived CO2 released by these two structures was estimated in ~ 9.2 Mt/y (Chiodini et al., 2004). This amount, which is globally relevant being ~ 10% of the present-day total CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes of the Earth, is of low magnitude with respect to the amount of CO2 that is estimated to be injected in the storage sites. TRDS and CDS are characterized by the presence of many vents of cold CO2 rich gases and areas of anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2. The gas manifestations are generally fed by buried carbonate reservoirs, covered by low permeability formations, where the gas produced at depth accumulates before the expulsion at the surface. More than 100 gas emissions are located in the Italian territory and represent a serious hazard for humans and animals. Gas flow rates are very high. For example, the biggest gas emissions daily release into atmosphere hundreds of tons of CO2, amounts similar to those released by diffuse degassing from active volcanoes (CO2 fluxes from 6 t/d to 2800 t/d, mean of 430 t/d, Morner and Etiope, 2002). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 air concentration can reach high values resulting in lethal effects to humans or animals. The last lethal accident occurred in 2003 in Tuscany, at Mt. Amiata. However, the most dangerous gas emission is Mefite d'Ansanto, located in the Southern Apennine, where three persons were killed during 1990's and historical

  7. Permian magmatism, Permian detachment faulting, and Alpine thrusting in the Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Florian; Froitzheim, Niko; Geisler-Wierwille, Thorsten; Schlöder, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Lombardo. It is therefore an Alpine structure. (4) Several south-directed Alpine thrusts duplicate the lithostratigraphy, including the detachment, and are related to the Orobic thrust further north. They also offset the Biandino Fault. U-Pb zircon ages measured with LA-ICP-MS (work in progress) will further clarify the temporal relations between the intrusions, volcanics, and the shear zones. Froitzheim, N., Derks, J.F., Walter, J.M. & Sciunnach, D. 2008. Evolution of an Early Permian extensional detachment fault from synintrusive, mylonitic flow to brittle faulting (Grassi Detachment Fault, Orobic Anticline, southern Alps, Italy) Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 298; 69-82. doi:10.1144/SP298.4 Thöni, M., Mottana, A., Delitala, M. C., De Capitani, L. & Liborio, G. 1992. The Val Biandino composite pluton: A late Hercynian intrusion into the South-Alpine metamorphic basement of the Alps (Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 12, 545-554. Sciunnach, D. 2001. Early Permian palaeofaults at the western boundary of the Collio Basin (Valsassina, Lombardy). Natura Bresciana. Annuario del Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali, Brescia, Monografia, 25, 37-43.

  8. Use of modeled and satelite soil moisture to estimate soil erosion in central and southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termite, Loris Francesco; Massari, Christian; Todisco, Francesca; Brocca, Luca; Ferro, Vito; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Pampalone, Vincenzo; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an accurate comparison between two different approaches aimed to enhance accuracy of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in estimating the soil loss at the single event time scale. Indeed it is well known that including the observed event runoff in the USLE improves its soil loss estimation ability at the event scale. In particular, the USLE-M and USLE-MM models use the observed runoff coefficient to correct the rainfall erosivity factor. In the first case, the soil loss is linearly dependent on rainfall erosivity, in the second case soil loss and erosivity are related by a power law. However, the measurement of the event runoff is not straightforward or, in some cases, possible. For this reason, the first approach used in this study is the use of Soil Moisture For Erosion (SM4E), a recent USLE-derived model in which the event runoff is replaced by the antecedent soil moisture. Three kinds of soil moisture datasets have been separately used: the ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); satellite retrievals from the European Space Agency - Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI); modeled data using a Soil Water Balance Model (SWBM). The second approach is the use of an estimated runoff rather than the observed. Specifically, the Simplified Continuous Rainfall-Runoff Model (SCRRM) is used to derive the runoff estimates. SCRMM requires soil moisture data as input and at this aim the same three soil moisture datasets used for the SM4E have been separately used. All the examined models have been calibrated and tested at the plot scale, using data from the experimental stations for the monitoring of the erosive processes "Masse" (Central Italy) and "Sparacia" (Southern Italy). Climatic data and runoff and soil loss measures at the event time scale are available for the period 2008-2013 at Masse and for the period 2002-2013 at Sparacia. The results show that both the approaches can provide

  9. Ar-Ar investigations on Quarternary volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, A.; Principe, C.; Villa, I. M.

    2003-04-01

    Volcanic sanidines and phlogopites from feldspathoid- or sanidine-bearing volcanic sequences of Monte Vulture (Southern Italy) were analysed using Ar-Ar stepwise heating. In all samples phlogopite and sanidine are internally inhomogeneous as observed in a plot of Cl/K ratio vs step-age. At least two phases that are degassed during different temperature steps can be distinguished, resulting in internal discordance. Hence, all samples are affected by impurities and have to be treated as heterochemical mixtures. These effects are strongest in phlogopite. The high uncertainty of the calculated ages mirrors the statistically significant age discordance. The calculation of average ages was focused on isochemical steps. Isochron calculations necessarily give less precise ages because of the excessive scatter of datapoints. Moreover, most coarse grained phlogopites could contain excess 40Ar (as suggested by non-atmospheric intercepts in isochron plots) which could be of mantle origin. The analysed phlogopites from carbonatitic and melilite-foiditolite rocks of the upper stratigraphical sequence of Monte Vulture are Mg-rich, which indicates a mantle provenance (Stoppa and Woolley, 1997). All calculated phlogopite ages have, therefore, to be considered with caution. One sample, PG5, contains both sanidine and matrix phlogopite. This offers the possibility to directly compare the analytical results and further decipher possible inconsistencies. Ages were calculated as the average of isochemical steps, and errors are indicated at the 95% confidence level. Sanidine gives a weighted average age of 752±13 ka in agreement with the phlogopite age of 801±88 ka. In comparison to these average step ages, an isochron over five sanidine-steps yields an age of 737±35 ka (MSWD=1.5) and an atmospheric intercept of 295±49. The eruptive time-span covered by the analysed samples is 75±20 ka, confirming that the eruption history of Monte Vulture has been organised in clusters of activity

  10. Strategies for 2nd Grade zonation on susceptibility to seismic-induced landslides in Southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarallo, D.; Rapolla, A.; Paoletti, V.; di Nocera, S.; Matano, F.

    2010-12-01

    Key Words: Seismic-induced Landslides, Landslide Susceptibility, Evaluation Strategies, Southern Italy Southern Apennines, Italy, are characterized by a very high seismic hazard and the shaking related to this seismicity has been a major cause for landslide triggering. An effective study of seismic hazard of a landslide-prone region should therefore include a detailed assessment of the seismic slope stability, to be carried out at different scales (Fell et al., 2008). Due to the complexity of the different factors controlling slope stability there are currently only a few grade-2 methods (scales 1:50.000-1:10.000) for assessing seismic-induced landslide susceptibility. We here present an application to different seismic areas (Sannio and Irpinia) in Southern Apennines, Italy, of a new strategy for zonation on seismic-induced landslide susceptibility. These areas are characterized by several landslides most of them triggered by the main 1980 Irpinia earthquake. The new GIS-based approach (Rapolla et al., 2010) employs only three factors that we believe are most significant in the susceptibility assessment: i) the properties of outcropping rock/soil expressed as transversal seismic velocity (Vs) ii) the slope angle, iii) the MCS (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg) Intensity. The lithological characteristics of the study areas were obtained from geological maps with 1:25000 scale. The attribution of the representative shear wave velocity value to the lithological units required a careful evaluation of their geotechnical and geophysical behavior. The slope angles were obtained from high resolution digital elevation model of the topography of the investigated areas. Finally, the seismic input for computing the MCS Intensity was derived from the macroseismic scenario for the worst event expected in the study area. Each of the three parameters was expressed as a Significance percentage and the resulting Seismic Landslide Susceptibility level was given by the average of the

  11. Dry fermented sausages of Southern Italy: a comparison of free amino acids and biogenic amines between industrial and homemade products.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Antonella; Belsito, Emilia L; De Marco, Rosaria; Di Gioia, Maria L; Liguori, Angelo; Siciliano, Carlo; Spinella, Mariagiovanna

    2012-04-01

    This paper compares some important parameters and the free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of cured industrial and homemade meat products. To this aim, industrial and homemade "soppressata" and "salsiccia", typical dry fermented sausages produced in Southern Italy, were analyzed. The homemade sausages showed a higher level of free biogenic amines than that manufactured industrially, most likely because biogenic amine formation in industrial products is limited by the use of starter cultures. The industrial sausages are characterized by a higher total free amino acid content than the homemade products. Overall, free amino acid and biogenic amine contents demonstrated that appreciable differences exist between homemade and industrial sausages.

  12. [Water as risk factor for helminthiasis in domestic ruminants in the central and southern Italy and zoonotic risk].

    PubMed

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2003-01-01

    The findings of recent epidemiological surveys regarding the distribution of helminths in sheep, cattle, and buffaloes in central and southern Italy show that the presence of water in breeding, such as streams, canals, brooks, rivers and lakes, is a risk factor for the following helminths, agents of emerging zoonosis: Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Trichostrongylus spp., Ostertagia spp., Nematodirus spp., Haemonchus spp., Bunostomum spp., and Oesophagostomum spp. The Authors report up-to-date data on the distribution of the above cited helminths, as well as their essential morphological and biological characteristics and their zoonotic role.

  13. The seismogenic structure of the 2013-2014 Matese seismic sequence, Southern Italy: implication for the geometry of the Apennines active extensional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, L.; Milano, G.; Burrato, P.; Palano, M.; Cannavò, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismological, geological and geodetic data have been integrated to characterize the seismogenic structure of the late 2013-early 2014 moderate energy (maximum local magnitude MLmax = 4.9) seismic sequence that struck the interior of the Matese Massif, part of the Southern Apennines active extensional belt. The sequence, heralded by a ML = 2.7 foreshock, was characterized by two main shocks with ML = 4.9 and ML = 4.2, respectively, which occurred at a depth of ˜17-18 km. The sequence was confined in the 10-20 km depth range, significantly deeper than the 1997-1998 sequence which occurred few km away on the northeastern side of the massif above ˜15 km depth. The depth distribution of the 2013-14 sequence is almost continuous, albeit a deeper (16-19 km) and a shallower (11-15 km) group of events can be distinguished, the former including the main shocks and the foreshock. The epicentral distribution formed a ˜10 km long NNW-SSE trending alignment, which almost parallels the surface trace of late Pliocene-Quaternary southwest-dipping normal faults with a poor evidence of current geological and geodetic deformation. We built an upper crustal model profile for the eastern Matese massif through integration of geological data, oil exploration well logs and seismic tomographic images. Projection of hypocentres on the profile suggests that the seismogenic volume falls mostly within the crystalline crust and subordinately within the Mesozoic sedimentary cover of Apulia, the underthrust foreland of the Southern Apennines fold and thrust belt. Geological data and the regional macroseismic field of the sequence suggest that the southwest-dipping nodal plane of the main shocks represents the rupture surface that we refer to here as the Matese fault. The major lithological discontinuity between crystalline and sedimentary rocks of Apulia likely confined upward the rupture extent of the Matese fault. Repeated coseismic failure represented by the deeper group of events in the

  14. Geodetic Measurements and Modelling at Neapolitan Volcanoes(Southern Italy): Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Pingue, F.; Obrizzo, F.

    2004-12-01

    We show the recent results about geodetic observations and modelling at two very explosive and densely populated volcanoes in Southern Italy, namely Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei caldera. The two areas, characterised by the highest volcanic risk in the World because of the density of population and exposed value, are among the best monitored ones in the World. Geodetic monitoring at these areas started more than 30 years ago, and was progressively improved in the last decade, including dense networks making use of both terrestrial and space techniques. The monitored period includes two strong unrests at Campi Flegrei caldera, not followed by eruptions, characterised by uplift of up to 3 m in few years, with rates up to 1 m/year, and intercurring subsidence with rates up to .08 m/year. Somma Vesuvius is on the contrary characterised, in the last 30 years, by a marked stability, except for a very localised subsidence at the young active center (Vesuvius) and a peculiar ring-like subsidence all around the volcanic edifice. The fast uplift and subsidence at Campi Flegrei has been modelled as due to shallow inflation sources and a dominant effect of passive slip along the ring faults bordering the collapsed area. Numerical modelling taking carefully into account the geometry of ring faults gives an accurate description of observed displacements. At Somma-Vesuvius, subsidence of Vesuvius cone is modelled in terms of gravitationally-induced slip along the contact limits between the older caldera and the younger active edifice. The ring-like subsidence around the whole edifice is modelled in terms of normal fault-like behaviour of the contacts among the loaded basement and the superimposed volcanic edifice, subject to the extensional tectonic stress of the area. Both models of ground deformations at the two areas appear very consistent with the behaviour of local volcano-tectonic seismicity, and enlighten the very important role played by volcano-tectonic structures in

  15. Long-term variation of rainfall erosivity in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Porto, P.; La Spada, C.

    2015-12-01

    The changes in rainfall erosivity have been investigated using the rainfall erosivity factor (R) proposed for USLE by Wischmeier and Smith (R W-S ) and some simplified indexes (the Fournier index modified by Arnoldus, F, a regional index spatial independent, R Fr , and a regional index spatial dependent, R Fs ) estimated by indirect approaches. The analysis has been carried out over 48 rainfall stations located in Calabria (Southern Italy) using data collected in the period 1936-2012 and divided in three sub-periods. The series of the erosivity indexes and of some precipitation variables have been analyzed for evidence of trends using standard methods. The simplified indexes suggested a general underestimation of the rainfall erosivity with respect to R W-S . The mean underestimation ranged between 23 and 54 % for R Fr and from 10 to 15 % for R Fs . Both the sign and the magnitude of the trends were different for the different stations depending on the variable and sub-period considered. In general, the erosivity increased during the period 1936-1955 (1st sub-period) and during the more recent sub-period (1992-2012, 3rd sub-period), whereas it decreased during 1958-1977 (2nd sub-period). The evidence of trends was generally higher for R W-S than for R Fr and R Fs . Focusing on the most recent sub-period (3rd sub-period), all the variables analyzed showed mainly increasing trends but with different magnitude. More particularly, R W-S showed a mean increment of 29 %; F, R Fr and R Fs increased by 11, 15 and 18 %, respectively; the maximum intensity of 0.5-h precipitation increased by 5 %; and the annual precipitation increased by 22 %. Consequently, it remains difficult to define which precipitation variable plays the dominant role in the temporal variation of rainfall erosivity in the region. However, the overall results suggest that the indexes estimated by indirect procedures (F, R Fr , and R Fs ) should be used with caution for climate change analysis, despite

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the older (> 40 ka) ignimbrites on the Campanian Plain, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, H. E.; Rolandi, G.; Jackson, J. C.; Cannatelli, C.; Doherty, A. L.; Petrosino, P.; De Vivo, B.

    2016-09-01

    The Campanian Plain in southern Italy has been volcanically active for at least the last 300 ka. The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erupted at 39.3 ka, has a volume of ≥ 310 km3 and a great areal extent. However, significant, but scattered deposits of older ignimbrites underlie the CI and document a long history of volcanism. We examined the mineralogy and geochemistry of 11 older ignimbrite strata by optical petrography, electron microprobe, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and various whole-rock geochemical techniques. We have analyzed strata at Durazzano (116.1 ka), Moschiano (184.7 ka), Seiano Valley (245.9 and 289.6 ka), and Taurano - Acqua Feconia (157.4, 183.8, 205.6, and 210.4 ka) that have been previously dated on unaltered sanidine. The older ignimbrites are highly altered with loss on ignition (LOI) that ranges from 17 to 8 wt%. Whole-rock compositions reflect variable element mobility during weathering; e.g., CaO is enriched and Na2O depleted relative to hydration. X-ray diffraction identified major chabazite, kaolinite, and illite alteration products in some samples. Rhabdophane-(Nd), usually intergrown with chabazite and Mn-carbonate, indicates that some LREE were also mobilized during weathering. The phenocryst mineralogy is typical for Campanian Plain (CP) magmas and consists of plagioclase (An88 Ab11 Or1 to An32 Ab63 Or5), potassium feldspar (Or40 Ab57 An3 to Or79 Ab18 An3), biotite (TiO2 = ~ 4-7 wt%, BaO = up to 2 wt%, F = up to 2 wt%), diopside (Ca47Mg47Fe6 to Ca48Mg29Fe23), and titaniferous magnetite. Relatively immobile trace elements Zr, Hf, Th, Ta, V, and Nb were used to investigate element abundance and ratio compared to the Campanian Ignimbrite and other CP magmas. Zr/Hf of the older ignimbrites is similar to that of the CI, but Ta is depleted relative to Th and V is enriched compared to CI. Th/Ta and Nb/V distributions for most of the older ignimbrites are similar to those in the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff with the exception of

  17. Using faults for PSHA in a volcanic context: the Etna case (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Gee, Robin; Pace, Bruno; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    At Mt. Etna volcano (Southern Italy), recurrent volcano-tectonic earthquakes affect the urbanised areas, with an overall population of about 400,000 and with important infrastructures and lifelines. For this reason, seismic hazard analyses have been undertaken in the last decade focusing on the capability of local faults to generate damaging earthquakes especially in the short-term (30-5 yrs); these results have to be intended as complementary to the regulatory seismic hazard maps, and devoted to establish priority in the seismic retrofitting of the exposed municipalities. Starting from past experience, in the framework of the V3 Project funded by the Italian Department of Civil Defense we performed a fully probabilistic seismic hazard assessment by using an original definition of seismic sources and ground-motion prediction equations specifically derived for this volcanic area; calculations are referred to a new brand topographic surface (Mt. Etna reaches more than 3,000 m in elevation, in less than 20 km from the coast), and to both Poissonian and time-dependent occurrence models. We present at first the process of defining seismic sources that includes individual faults, seismic zones and gridded seismicity; they are obtained by integrating geological field data with long-term (the historical macroseismic catalogue) and short-term earthquake data (the instrumental catalogue). The analysis of the Frequency Magnitude Distribution identifies areas in the volcanic complex, with a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship representative of different dynamic processes. Then, we discuss the variability of the mean occurrence times of major earthquakes along the main Etnean faults estimated by using a purely geologic approach. This analysis has been carried out through the software code FISH, a Matlab® tool developed to turn fault data representative of the seismogenic process into hazard models. The utilization of a magnitude-size scaling relationship

  18. Evaluation of the return periods of water crises and evaporation in Monte Cotugno reservoir (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copertino, Vito; Lo Vecchio, Giuseppina; Marotta, Lucia; Pastore, Vittoria; Ponzio, Giuseppe; Scavone, Giuseppina; Telesca, Vito; Vita, Michele

    2010-05-01

    In the past water resources management has been dealt and solved increasing water availabilities; today such opportunities have been considerably reduced and the technical-scientific perspectives are addressed above all to improve water system effectiveness and to promote an use of water resources that holds account of the droughts frequency and based on a correct estimate of the hydrologic balance. In this work a study on the water stored in Monte Cotugno reservoir in Sinni river - Basilicata (Southern Italy) - is proposed, estimating water crises return periods and reservoir evaporation. For such purpose the runs method was applied, based on the comparison between the temporal series of the "water volume" hydrological variable and a threshold representative of the "normal" conditions regarding which the availability in excess or defect was estimated. This allowed to individualize the beginning and the end of a water crisis event and to characterize the droughts in terms of duration, sum deficit and intensity. Therefore the return period was evaluated by means of the methodology proposed by Shiau and Shen in 2001, turned out equal approximately to 6 years. Such value was then verified with a frequency analysis of the "water volume" random variable, using the Weibull's distribution. Subsequently, the Fourier's analysis in the last twenty years was carried out, obtaining the same result of the previous methods. Moreover, in proximity of the Monte Cotugno reservoir the weather station of Senise is located, managed by ALSIA (Agenzia Lucana di Sviluppo e Innovazione in Agricultura), that provides in continuous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, and global solar radiation since 2000. Such parameters allowed to apply five methods for reservoir evaporation estimate selected from those proposed in the literature, of which the first three, the Jensen-Haise's method, Makkink's method and Stephens-Stewart's one are based on solar radiation

  19. Assessment of land degradation susceptibility by scenario analysis: A case study in Southern Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märker, Michael; Angeli, Luca; Bottai, Lorenzo; Costantini, Roberto; Ferrari, Raffaella; Innocenti, Lucia; Siciliano, Giuseppina

    2008-01-01

    In the Mediterranean area land degradation phenomena are becoming more and more important due to future climate change and increasing climate variability, as highlighted in recent global assessment projects such as the "Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" or "The Dialogue on Water and Climate". Thus, there is consistent evidence that extreme events such as droughts and floods are more frequent than before. On the other hand the Mediterranean area is strongly influenced by human activities such as cultivation over hundreds of years. However, in the last decades the cultivation methods and techniques are subject to profound changes such as mechanization, use of fertilizers and pesticides, remodellation of entire hillslopes etc. This particular situation leads to, and aggravates the existing stress on land resources. As a result, land degradation and soil erosion phenomena are leading to decreasing soil productivity or the loss of fertile top soil and related water quality and quantity issues. The Centre for Soil Erosion Studies (CRES) in Grosseto, Tuscany recently started a study to identify and monitor changes of land-use in southern Tuscany, Italy. The aim of this study is to assess land degradation sensitivity by scenario analysis. As a proxi for land degradation surface wash erosion processes such as rill and interill erosion processes are chosen. These present day processes are identified by aerial photo interpretation and subsequently modelled with a simple RUSLE approach on a monthly basis. In this study boundary conditions such as future precipitation were taken from the A2 future climate scenario published by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Moreover, current land-use was identified from aerial photographs and future land-use scenarios were developed considering ecological and socio-economical issues for present day conditions of the test area. Subsequently, the different climate and land

  20. Kinematics and geological constraints of the slow-moving Pisciotta rock slide (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Carratù, M. T.; La Barbera, G.; Santoro, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Pisciotta landslide is a slow-moving deep-seated rock slide in the Campania region of southern Italy, which has damaged a provincial road several times in the last decades and currently poses a hazard to the national railway that intersects the toe of the landslide. The landslide involves an Oligocene turbidite series, which is composed of intercalated calcarenites, marls and mudrocks. The principal objectives of this study were to investigate the morphological evolution of the unstable slope, quantitatively analyse ground deformations and construct an engineering-geological model that is consistent with the spatial features of the landslide. The long-term evolution of the unstable slope was assessed through the examination of available aerial photos from 1943 to 2006. Kinematic analyses of the ground deformations were conducted based on observed progressive displacement of the road, as evident from the topographic maps and orthophotos (1955-2006), and the bi-weekly displacement survey of 50 targets distributed across the landslide area (September 2006-March 2009). The engineering-geological model of the landslide was reconstructed from the stratigraphic data obtained from the study of borehole data and monitoring of inclinometers as well as from geological, structural and geophysical surveys. The analysis of the aerial photographs revealed an early stage of deformation in 1943, which has been gradually widening since then. In addition to the main scarp and the landslide flanks, other significant landslide structures such as the longitudinal and transverse cracks as well as the positive or negative morphologies were monitored and mapped in the subsequent years. These studies indicated a progressive erosion of the upper part of the slope and a bulging of the foot. Long-term kinematic analysis based on the progressive displacements of the road allowed the measurement of the ground deformations from 1955 to 2009, which revealed a cumulative horizontal displacement

  1. Numerical model to support the management of groundwater resources of a coastal karstic aquifer (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of the research is to define management apporouches for a coastal karstic aquifer. The core of the tools uses numerical modelling, applied to groundwater resource of Salento (southern Italy) and criteria to reduce the quantitative and qualitative degradation risks. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. The approach chosen was based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium by which it is assumed that the real heterogeneous aquifer can be simulated as homogeneous porous media within cells or elements. The modelled aquifer portion extends for 2230 km2, and it was uniformly discretized into 97,200 cells, each one of 0.6 km2. Vertically, to allow a good lithological and hydrogeological discretization, the area was divided into 12 layers, from 214 to -350 m asl. Thickness and geometry of layers was defined on the basis of the aquifer conceptualisation based on the 3d knowledge of hydrogeological complexes. For the boundary conditions, inactive cells were used along the boundary with the rest of Murgia-Salento aquifer, as conceptual underground watershed due to the absence of flow. About the sea boundary was used CHD boundary cells (Constant Head Boundary). Additional boundary conditions were used for SEAWAT modelling, as initial concentration and constant concentration, in the latter case for cells shaping the coastline. A mean annual net rainfall (recharge) was calculated in each cell with a GIS elaboration, ranged from 68 to 343 mm, 173 mm an average. The recharge or infiltration was calculated using an infiltration coefficient (IC) (defined as infiltration/net rainfall ratio) for each hydrogeological complex, assuming values equal to 1 inside endorheic areas. The mean annual recharge was equal to 150 mm. The model was implemented using MODFLOW and SEAWAT codes in steady-state conditions to obtain a starting point for following transient scenarios, using piezometric data of thirties as

  2. Identifying the locations of future eruptions within large calderas: Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Danielle; Kilburn, Christopher; Sobradelo, Rosa; Edwards, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Large calderas, with surface areas of 100 km2 or more, are among the most populated active volcanoes on Earth. New vents commonly open at locations across the caldera floor. An important goal for hazard mitigation, therefore, is to develop reliable methods for evaluating the most likely location for a future eruption. A preferred approach is to analyse statistically the distributions of previous vents. Using the Campi Flegrei caldera as a test case, we here examine the sensitivity of results to starting assumptions, notably the choice of data set for defining preferred vent locations. Situated immediately west of Naples, in southern Italy, Campi Flegrei poses a direct threat to more than 300,000 people. It has been in episodic unrest since the late 1950s. The unrest is the first since the last eruption in Campi Flegrei in 1538 and suggests that the caldera may have re-entered a state with an increased probability of an eruption. Since the most recent episode of caldera collapse 15.5 ka BP, at least 60 intra-caldera eruptions have occurred across the 150 km2 that make up the modern onshore area of Campi Flegrei. The eruptions have been concentrated within three epochs: 15.5-9.5 ka BP (Epoch 1, c. 27 eruptions), 8.6-8.2 ka BP (Epoch 2; c. 6 eruptions) and 4.8-3.8 ka BP (Epoch 3; c. 27 eruptions). Recent statistical studies of future vent locations have assumed that (1) only data from Epoch 3 are relevant to modern Campi Flegrei, and (2) repeated eruptions from the same vent can be incorporated, whether they are independent events or belong to a connected sequence of activity. We have relaxed these assumptions to investigate data from all epochs and to distinguish between independent and related eruptions from the same vent. Quadrat and nearest-neighbour statistics show that eruptions from Epochs 1 and 2 were distributed within an annulus 3-5 km around modern Pozzuoli, but that, in agreement with previous studies, eruptions occurred preferentially NE-ENE of Pozzuoli

  3. Tectonic controls on the genesis of ignimbrites from the Campanian Volcanic Zone, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolandi, G.; Bellucci, F.; Heizler, M.T.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Campanian Plain is an 80 x 30 km region of southern Italy, bordered by the Apennine Chain, that has experienced subsidence during the Quaternary. This region, volcanologically active in the last 600 ka, has been identified as the Campanian Volcanic Zone (CVZ). The products of three periods of trachytic ignimbrite volcanism (289-246 ka, 157 ka and 106 ka) have been identified in the Apennine area in the last 300 ka. These deposits probably represent distal ash flow units of ignimbrite eruptions which occurred throughout the CVZ. The resulting deposits are interstratified with marine sediments indicating that periods of repeated volcano-tectonic emergence and subsidence may have occurred in the past. The eruption, defined as the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), with the largest volume (310 km3), occurred in the CVZ 39 ka ago. The products of the CI eruption consist of two units (unit-1 and unit-2) formed from a single compositionally zoned magma body. Slightly different in composition, three trachytic melts constitute the two units. Unit-1 type A is an acid trachyte, type B is a trachyte and type C of unit-2 is a mafic trachyte. The CI, vented from pre-existing neotectonic faults, formed during the Apennine uplift, Initially the venting of volatile-rich type A magma deposited the products to the N-NE of the CVZ. During the eruption, the Acerra graben already affected by a NE-SW fault system, was transected by E-W faults, forming a cross-graben that extended to the gulf of Naples. E-W faults were then further dislocated by NE-SW transcurrent movements. This additional collapse significantly influenced the deposition of the B-type magma of unit-1, and the C-type magma of unit-2 toward the E-SE and S, in the Bay of Naples. The pumice fall deposit underlying the CI deposits, until now thought to be associated with the CI eruption, is not a strict transition from plinian to CI-forming activity. It is derived instead from an independent source probably located near the

  4. Warfarin Anticoagulant Therapy: A Southern Italy Pharmacogenetics-Based Dosing Model

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaccara, Cristina; Conti, Valeria; Liguori, Rosario; Simeon, Vittorio; Toriello, Mario; Severini, Angelo; Perricone, Corrado; Meccariello, Alfonso; Meccariello, Pasquale; Vitale, Dino Franco; Filippelli, Amelia; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Warfarin is the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant worldwide. However, warfarin therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events because of a large interindividual dose-response variability. We investigated the effect of genetic and non genetic factors on warfarin dosage in a South Italian population in the attempt to setup an algorithm easily applicable in the clinical practice. Materials and Methods A total of 266 patients from Southern Italy affected by cardiovascular diseases were enrolled and their clinical and anamnestic data recorded. All patients were genotyped for CYP2C9*2,*3, CYP4F2*3, VKORC1 -1639 G>A by the TaqMan assay and for variants VKORC1 1173 C>T and VKORC1 3730 G>A by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. The effect of genetic and not genetic factors on warfarin dose variability was tested by multiple linear regression analysis, and an algorithm based on our data was established and then validated by the Jackknife procedure. Results Warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1-1639 G>A (29.7%), CYP2C9*3 (11.8%), age (8.5%), CYP2C9*2 (3.5%), gender (2.0%) and lastly CYP4F2*3 (1.7%); VKORC1 1173 C>T and VKORC1 3730 G>A exerted a slight effect (<1% each). Taken together, these factors accounted for 58.4% of the warfarin dose variability in our population. Data obtained with our algorithm significantly correlated with those predicted by the two online algorithms: Warfarin dosing and Pharmgkb (p<0.001; R2 = 0.805 and p<0.001; R2 = 0.773, respectively). Conclusions Our algorithm, which is based on six polymorphisms, age and gender, is user-friendly and its application in clinical practice could improve the personalized management of patients undergoing warfarin therapy. PMID:23990957

  5. Appropriateness of hospitalization for CAP-affected pediatric patients: report from a Southern Italy General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Fabio; De Brasi, Daniele; Siani, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease, responsible for significant healthcare expenditures, mostly because of hospitalization. Many practice guidelines on CAP have been developed, including admission criteria, but a few on appropriate hospitalization in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate appropriate hospital admission for CAP in a pediatric population. Methods We evaluated appropriate admission to a Pediatric Unit performing a retrospective analysis on CAP admitted pediatric patients from a Southern Italy area. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiological signs. Appropriate hospital admission was evaluated following clinical and non-clinical international criteria. Family ability to care children was assessed by evaluating social deprivation status. Results In 2 winter seasons 120 pediatric patients aged 1-129 months were admitted because of CAP. Median age was 28.7 months. Raised body temperature was scored in 68.3% of patients, cough was present in 100% of cases, and abdominal pain was rarely evidenced. Inflammatory indices (ESR and CRP) were found elevated in 33.3% of cases. Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were found positive in 20.4%. Trans-cutaneous (TC) SaO2 was found lower than 92% in 14.6%. Dyspnoea was present in 43.3%. Dehydration requiring i.v. fluid supplementation was scored in 13.3%. Evaluation of familial ability to care their children revealed that 76% of families (derived from socially depressed areas) were "at social risk", thus not able to appropriately care their children. Furthermore, analysis of CAP patients revealed that "at social risk" people accessed E.D. and were hospitalized more frequently than "not at risk" patients (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI: 1,15 to 11,12; p = 0.01), and that admitted "at social risk" people presented without clinical signs of severity (namely dyspnoea, and/or SaO2 ≤ 92%, and/or dehydration) more frequently than "not at risk" population (p = 0.005). Conclusion

  6. Geoethics and hazard education. A comparison between Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Zumbo, Rosarianna

    2015-04-01

    reactions. The design, the game and handling are a key to access the mental representation of the traumatic event that the child has formed. They are also used as indicators of the child experience and how he solves the traumatic elements of the event. The present work aims to collect testimonies and mental maps of drawn by Calabria (Southern Italy) and Malta students. A critical comparison was made on the natural disasters experiences reported by students.

  7. Multiscale/Multitemporal Urban pattern morphology monitoring in southern Italy by using Landsat TM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, R.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) satellite imagery. The investigation was focused on four small towns in southern Italy, for which the border was extracted from NASA Landsat images acquired in 1976 (MSS), in 1991 (TM) and 1999 (ETM). The border was analyzed using the box counting method, which is a well-know technique to estimate the spatial fractal dimension, that quantifies the shape irregularity of an object. The obtained results show that the fractal dimension of the border of the investigated towns is a good indicator of the dynamics of the regular/irregular urban expansion.

  8. Assessing the role of Climate Variability in the recent evolution of coastlines in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Paola, Gianluigi; Atkinson, David; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Walker, Ian

    2016-04-01

    During the last century, Climatic Variability (CV) and change effects have generated a discernable impact on the world's coasts, most notably through changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges, flooding, coastal erosion and sea-level rise. This study explores CV signals and coastal responses along a 36 km stretch of coast in the Molise region of southern Italy on the Central Adriatic Sea. Two dominant signals of CV in the Mediterranean region of Europe are characterized by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) patterns. The NAO is the leading mode of CV in the North Atlantic region and periods with positive NAO index values are typically associated with above average wind speeds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic and western Europe, with anomalously northerly flows across the Mediterranean region and enhanced trade winds over the sub-tropical North Atlantic. Although NAO is one of the most prominent patterns in all seasons, its relative role in regulating the variability of the European climate during non-winter months is not as clear as for the winter season. In contrast, the EAWR exerts strong influence on precipitation in the Mediterranean region such that, during the negative phase of EAWR, wetter conditions prevail across central Europe and the Mediterranean region, with precipitation extremes often occurring during these periods. This study examines the effects of NAO and EAWR on coastline response in the Molise region, which has a microtidal regime (ordinary tidal excursions of 30-40 cm). GIS analysis of shoreline changes from historical aerial photography from 1954-2011 was performed and 20 years (1989-2008) of wave data were analysed from the nearby Ortona buoy to define trends and extreme event occurrence in the wave climate in the study area. Finally, statistical associations between NAO, EAWR, and other CV indices of possible influence (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, Scandinavia Pattern, or the East

  9. Relation between Oceanographic parameters and Optical properties in 5 coastal areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Braga, Federica; Betti, Mattia; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Grilli, Federica; Pascucci, Simone; Marini, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the CLAM-PHYM (Coasts-and-Lake-Assessment-and-Monitoring-by-Prisma-Hyperspectral-Mission) project it was carried out an oceanographic cruise (27/08-13/09/2010) along the coasts of southern Italy in order to analyze the physical, biochemical and optical properties of some coastal areas. The sampling areas are: the Gulf of Taranto, the Policoro area, the Cetraro Bay, the Gulf of Augusta and the Gulf of Gela. CTD profiles and reflectance measurements of the sea surface and along the water column with portable field spectroradiometers were collected. Water samples were also collected for the analysis of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and CDOM. These optically active substances interact with solar radiation along the water column through absorption and scattering phenomena. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between the bio-optical concentrations of optically-active-substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ; this relation, if reversed, can be used to map the concentrations of optically-active-substances from hyperspectral-satellite-data. Results stress high biological activity in the Gulf of Taranto and in the Gulf of Gela showing the highest values of chlorophyll-a and aCDOM440. These areas are characterized by the presence of important industrial and port sites. The Gela's gulf, where we found the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and CDOM, is also characterized by the runoff of the Salso river increasing the biological activity. The correlations found in the Gulf of Taranto between Kd, chlorophyll a and aCDOM440 indicate that the high concentrations of CDOM are primarily due to phytoplankton rather than from terrestrial source. The Gulf of Taranto shows the best site among those investigated where to identify bio-optical relationships between the concentrations of optically active substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ. The preliminary results encourage the combined use of

  10. The decapod fauna (Axiidea, Anomura, Brachyura) from the Late Pleistocene of Trumbacà, Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Garassino, Alessandro; Pasini, Giovanni; De Angeli, Antonio; Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    We report a rich faunal assemblage from the Tyrrhenian (Late Pleistocene) of Trumbacà, located in the southern area of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The only brachyuran reported to date from this locality is Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880) by Vazzana (2008). The studied specimens have been assigned, as follows: ?Corallianassa sp., Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Dardanus substriatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861), Paguristes cf. P. syrtensis de Saint Laurent 1970, Anapagurus sp., Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880), Ranina propinqua Ristori, 1891, Ebalia cf. E. deshayesi Lucas, 1846, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767), Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803), Derilambrus cf. D. angulifrons (Latreille, 1825), Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783), Carcinus sp., Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), and Xantho cf. X. incisus (Leach, 1814). The studied assemblage enlarges our knowledge on the evolution of the Mediterranean decapod faunas. PMID:26689358

  11. Local Earthquakes Tomography in the Southern Tyrrhenian Region (Italy): Geophysical and Petrological Inferences on Subducting Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.; Rotolo, S. G.; D'Anna, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy, is characterised by the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere -since Middle Miocene- beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The related Benioff zone is seismically active to a depth > 500 km. The tomoDD code [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was adopted to perform the tomography, using a set of 2463 earthquakes located in the window 14°30' E - 17°E and 37°N - 41°N, and recorded by seismic networks of the INGV in the period 1981-2005. Several inversions were performed using different selections of absolute and differential data obtained varying the maximum RMS and the threshold of the inter-event distance. Various synthetic and experimental tests were executed to evaluate the resolution and stability of the tomographic inversion. The inversions carried out for the synthetic and the restoration-resolution test [Zhao et al., 1992] were repeated several times with the same procedure used in the inversion of experimental data. The lack of bias in the models, related to the different grid- node positions, was tested performing inversions rotating, translating and deforming the original grid. To evaluate the dependence on the initial model, several inversions were also done using different 1D and 3D models simulating slab features. Finally, 35 models resulting from the inversions were synthesized in an average model obtained by interpolating each velocity model into a fixed grid. Each velocity value interpolated was weighted with a corresponding DWS (Derivative Weight Sum) resulting thus a Weighted Average Velocity model. The highly resolved sections through the average Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models allowed us to image several relevant features of the structure of the subducting Ionian slab and of the Southern Tyrrhenian mantle: -the hypocenters are localized in the NW dipping fast area (Vp>8.2 km/s), 50-60 km thick, most likely composed litospheric mantle. Just below, an aseismic low Vp zone (6.6 - 7.7 km/s) 20-25 km thick, is assigned to the partially

  12. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  13. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region Oussama Broutou1, Nuray Baser1, Francesco Porcelli2, Vincenzo Verrastro1, Flutura Lamaj1 1International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM)- Institute of Bari (IAMB), Italy 2Dept. of Soil, Plant and Food Science (Di.S.S.P.A.), University of Bari, Bari, Italy D. suzukii (Diptera Drosophilidae family, sub-genus Sophophora); is a vinegar fly, known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in USA. This insect gained an increasing attention for its heavy infestations on strawberry, blueberry and raspberry in the U.S.A, occurred in 2008 and 2009. D. suzukii has been reported also in Europe, (Spain October 2008), and later on in Italy and France. The first captures occurred in Italy, in Trento province, in 2009. By 2010-2012, other captures were done in Italy, involving other regions, such as: Piemonte, Val d'Aosta, Lombardia, Liguria, Marche Campania and Sicilia. D. suzukii has been indicated by EPPO, as a possible threat for Mediterranean fruit production. An advanced study was carried out in order to find out the potential phytosanitary risk for Mediterranean grapes producing areas, considering that there are only few reports for damages on this crop. By the way Italy is at the third place in the world for grapes production (2011) and at the first place for grapes economical value (2011). The first identification of D. suzukii in Apulia was made in October 2012 and reported to the regional plant protection service in January 2013 by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAMB) and by Bari University (UNIBA). The aim of this study is to estimate the susceptibility of different grapes varieties to such a pest. Ten varieties of table grapes from nine different localities of Bari and Taranto province were used in this study. We tested 23 samples cultivated with organic agriculture method and 16 samples cultivated by conventional agriculture. Thirty berries were collected from

  14. Tephra layers along the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy: Links to the X-5 & X-6 using volcanic glass geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, P.; Albert, P. G.; Crocitti, M.; De Rosa, R.; Menzies, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the geochemistry of glass fragments from three visible tephra layers outcropping in Southern Italy. Two tephra deposits (LeS1 and LeS2), outcropping in the Palinuro area (Cilento, Southern Italy), correspond stratigraphically to the CIL1 and CIL2 tephra units (Giaccio et al., 2012), respectively; in turn these are correlated with the X-5 (ca. 105 ka) and X-6 (ca. 108 ka) marine tephra markers on the basis of their major element glass compositions. In order to reinforce these tephra correlations we examine both their major and trace element glass compositions. LeS1 compositions were compared with other correlatives of the X-5 tephra layer (POP3 [Sulmona basin], TM-25 [Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM)], CIL1 [Palinuro]) from the central Mediterranean. Our data validate a correlation of the Palinuro tephra layer, LeS1, to the X-5 correlatives. The Palinuro tephra deposit, LeS2, has glass compositions which correspond precisely with correlatives of the X-6 marker tephra (CIL2 [Palinuro], TM-27 [LGdM], I-9 [Ionian Sea] and PRAD 2812 [PRAD1-2, Adriatic Sea]). A tephra in the Valle del Crati (Calabria) appears to overlap in composition with the LeS2 tephra, indicating a probable correlation with the X-6 marker. These new data provide a detailed geochemical characterisation of two widespread marker horizons and are crucial for establishing precise correlations of sedimentary archives across the central Mediterranean region.

  15. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Rosario; Mazzaccara, Cristina; Pezzuti, Massimo; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n = 500; BMI > 40 kg/m2) and controls (n = 216; BMI < 25 kg/m2) was sequenced to determine the mtDNA haplogroups. The T and J haplogroup frequencies were higher and lower, respectively, in obese subjects than in controls. Women bearing haplogroup T or J had twice or half the risk of obesity. Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that haplogroup T and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for a high degree of morbid obesity, namely, BMI > 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy. PMID:23936828

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP.

  17. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  18. Provenance and accommodation pathways of late Quaternary sediments in the deep-water northern Ionian Basin, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Dominici, Rocco; Muto, Francesco; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    The northern Calabria along the southeastern coast of Italy provides a favorable setting in which to study complete transects from continental to deep-marine environments. The present northern Ionian Calabrian Basin is a wedge-top basin within the modern foreland-basin system of southern Italy. The Ionian margin of northern Calabria consists of a moderately developed fluvial systems, the Crati and Neto rivers, and diverse smaller coastal drainages draining both the Calabria continental block (i.e., Sila Massif) and the southern Apennines thrust belt (i.e., Pollino Massif). The main-channel sand of the Crati and Neto rivers is quartzofeldspathic with abundant metamorphic and plutonic lithic fragments (granodiorite, granite, gneiss, phyllite and sedimentary lithic fragments). Sedimentary lithic fragments were derived from Jurassic sedimentary successions of the Longobucco Group. The mud samples contain mostly phyllosilicates, quartz, calcite, feldspars and dolomite. Traces of gypsum are present in some samples. The I-S mixed layers, 10 Å-minerals (illite and micas), chlorite and kaolinite are the most abundant phyllosilicates, whereas smectite and chlorite/smectite mixed layers are in small amounts. The geochemical signatures of the muds reflect a provenance characterized by both felsic and mafic rocks with a significant input from carbonate rocks. Furthermore, the degree of source-area weathering was most probably of low intensity rather than moderately intense because CIA values for the studied mud samples are low. Extrapolation of the mean erosion budget from 1 to 25 Ma suggests that at least 5 to 8 km of crust have been removed from the Calabrian orogenic belt and deposited in the marine basins. The Calabrian microplate played an important role in the dynamic evolution of southern Italian fossil and modern basins, representing the key tectonic element of the entire orogenic belt.

  19. RFLPs of the APOB gene: comparative study between Greeks and southern Italian peoples.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, G; Leone, O; Falcone, E; Rose, G; Brancati, C; Carotenuto, L

    1993-06-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at codons 2488 (XbaI), 3611 (MspI), and 4154 (EcoRI) of the apolipoprotein B gene were investigated in sample groups from Athens (Greece) and Calabria (southern Italy) to verify whether the distribution of the APOB gene variants in Calabria, where Greek colonization occurred in the eighth century B.C., reflects that of the present Greek population. A sample from Apulia, a southern Italian region having a history different from that of Calabria, was also analyzed. Three specific DNA regions, each containing the polymorphic site, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction on 243 samples, and the restriction data for the three groups were compared. The allelic frequencies of the samples from Apulia and Greece showed variability patterns that agree with those found in Caucasians, whereas the Calabrian sample shows remarkable peculiarities, mainly for the EcoRI RFLP. Linkage disequilibrium analyses of pairs of markers showed strong D linkage values between X-M markers, whereas the D linkage values between M-R markers were too small to be reliably estimated. Last, for both Apulians and Greeks, X-R markers showed linkage disequilibrium, whereas for Calabrians they did not. Estimates of XMR haplotypic frequencies were computed; they were found to be appreciably different between Calabrian and Greek samples, whereas the frequencies in the Apulian sample were approximately midway between those in Calabrians and Greeks.

  20. First evaluation of the threat posed by antifouling biocides in the Southern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Ansanelli, Giuliana; Parrella, Luisa; Di Landa, Giuseppe; Massanisso, Paolo; Schiavo, Simona; Minopoli, Carmine; Lanza, Bruno; Boggia, Raffaella; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-08-01

    The CARISMA project (characterization and ecological risk analysis of antifouling biocides in the Southern Adriatic Sea) aims to appraise the quality of the Southern Adriatic Sea between Italy (Apulia region) and Albania and, in particular, the impact due to the use of biocidal antifouling coatings. Under this project, a preliminary survey at the main hot spots of contamination (e.g. ports and marinas) was conducted at the end of the nautical season in 2012. Chemical seawater analyses were complemented with ecotoxicological assays and the results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). As expected, PCA splits the Albanian and Italian ports, according to the different degrees of contamination indicated for the two countries by the experimental data, highlighting the most critical situation in one port of Apulia. In addition, in order to assess the potential adverse ecological effects posed by antifouling agents (i.e. tributyltin (TBT)-irgarol-diuron) on non-target marine organisms, hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated. The results showed a low risk posed by irgarol and diuron whereas the probability of adverse effects was high in the case of TBT.

  1. Comparison of two landslide inventory maps in the Cervaro basin, Puglia, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossa, S.; Cardinali, M.

    2003-04-01

    Reliable and accurate landslide inventory maps are mandatory elements of any landslide hazard or risk assessment. However, the quality, completeness, resolution and reliability of the landslide inventory maps are rarely ascertained. The lack of proper information on the quality of the inventory maps and on the reliability of the techniques used to complete the inventories may compromise the hazard or risk assessment. We present the results of a comparison of two landslide inventory maps prepared for an area of 132 km2, in the Cervaro River basin, in the NW Puglia Region of Southern Italy. The two landslide maps were prepared by different techniques. The first map (Map A) was prepared through the analysis of the literature on slope movements in the study area. Single landslides and landslide areas for which information was available where identified and sites where landslides were studied or where slope failures were reported were checked the field. Landslides were identified and mapped in the field at 1:25,000 scale. Field checks concentrated mostly in the urban areas and along the main roads. The second map (Map B) was obtained through the systematic interpretation of two sets of black and white aerial photographs, flown at a nominal scale of 1:33,000 scale, in 1954 and in 1990-91, respectively. When interpreting the two sets of aerial photographs care was taken in the identification of sites where landslides had changed (reactivations) or where new landslides had occurred. Analysis of the aerial photographs was carried out by two geomorphologists, using a discussion (or double) stereoscope. The methodology guarantees a cross check on the photo-interpretation and a more reliable landslide map. Comparison of the two landslide maps in a GIS allows for a quantitative estimate of the differences between the two inventories. Map A shows 27 landslides, for a total landslide area of 10.51 km2, 7.96% of the study area. Map B portrays 645 landslides, for a total landslide

  2. Magma evolution as seen through zircon geochemistry: an example from the Southern Adamello Batholith, N. Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, C.; Schaltegger, U.; Gerdes, A.; Frick, D.; Guenther, D.; Brack, P.

    2012-04-01

    Zircon is an ubiquitous accessory mineral often used for U-Pb geochronology but is also an important recorder of geochemical information. The trace element and isotopic characteristics of zircon yield potential for tracking changes in an evolving magma through time. With recent advances in U-Pb zircon geochronology, 10-100 ka to Ma timescales are observed for incremental pluton construction (Michel et al., 2008, Schaltegger et al., 2009). In observed 100 ka timescales of zircon crystallization, can zircon record the processes that produce trace element variations in a magma? This study focuses on the Val Fredda Complex (VFC) in the southern tip of the 43 to 33 Ma Adamello batholith, N. Italy. The VFC displays complex relationships among mafic melts that were injected into solidifying felsic magmas. Single zircon crystals were dated using CA-ID-TIMS. With permil uncertainties on 206Pb/238U zircon dates, zircons reveal complexities within single populations. The mafic units crystallized potential autocrystic zircons over a duration of 100 - 150ka, whereas the felsic units record up to 200ka of zircon crystallization. In order to understand these complex zircon populations, we analyzed Hf isotopes and trace elements, on the same volume of zircon used for U-Pb dating, following the TIMS-TEA method (Schoene et al., 2010). This detailed zircon study will allow us to look at how magmas are evolving with time. Hf isotopes of VFC mafic zircons reveal distinct ɛHf values between the three mafic units and their ɛHf values remain consistent through time, whereas the VFC felsic units record more complexity in their ɛHf values. We observe changes such as increasing and slight decreases in ɛHf with time which suggest different processes are occurring to produce the different felsic units. Trace element ratios in zircon reveal differences which allow us to make distinctions between felsic and mafic units (e.g. Th/U, (Lu/Gd)N, REEs). The VFC records 200 ka of zircon

  3. Olive cultivars adaptability in Southern Italy in present and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, M.; Alfieri, S.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Menenti, M.; De Lorenzi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops is very significant and likely to provide the single major opportunity to cope with the effects of the changing climate on agricultural ecosystems. Assessment of adaptive capacity must rely on quantitative descriptions of plant responses to environmental factors (e.g. soil water availability, temperature). Moreover climate scenario needs to be downscaled to the spatial scale relevant to crop and farm management. Distributed models of crop response to environmental forcing might be used for this purpose, but severely constrained by the very scarce knowledge on variety-specific values of model parameters, thus limiting the potential exploitation of intra-specific biodiversity towards adaptation. We have developed an approach towards this objective that relies on two complementary elements: a)a distributed model of the soil plant atmosphere system to downscale climate scenarios to landscape units, where generic model parameters for each species are used; b)a data base on climatic requirements of as many varieties as feasible for each species relevant to the agricultural production system of a given region. By means of this approach, the adaptability of some olive cultivars was evaluated in a composite (hills and plains) area of Southern Italy (Valle Telesina, Campania Region, about 20.000 ha). The yearly average temperature is 22.5 °C and rainfall ranges between 600 and 900 mm. Two different climate scenarios were considered: current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios at low spatial resolution were generated with general circulation models (AOGCM) and down-scaled by means of a statistical model (Tomozeiu et al., 2007). The climate was represented by daily observations of minimum, maximum temperature and precipitation on a regular grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km; 50 realizations were used for future climate. The soil water regime of 45 soil units was described for

  4. Measuring forest floor evaporation from interception in prescribed burned forests in Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuditta, Elisabetta; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Greco, Roberto; Ialongo, Gianluca; Esposito, Assunta; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are one of the major environmental issue in the Mediterranean area. Prescribed burning (PB) is increasingly used in Europe as a practice to reduce fire risk, through dead fine fuel reduction. Several studies have focused on fire effects on vegetation and soil microbial community, but very few on ecosystem processes involved in water cycle. This study aims to estimate interception by the litter and fermentation layer and the successive evaporation flux in laboratory conditions, using a water balance and 2H and 18O isotopes mass balance calculation, in order to assess PB effects on the hydrology and ecosystem in pine plantations. PB was carried out in spring 2014 in three pine plantations of Southern Italy, dominated by Pinus halepensis (Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni National Park, CVDANP), P. pinaster (Vesuvio National Park, VNP) and P. pinea (Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, CVNR). A dataset concerning the effects of PB on vegetation structure, floristic composition, microbial biomass and activity in the fermentation layer and 5-cm of soil beneath is available for the same stands. In each plantation, two cores of litter and fermentation layer were sampled in a burned area and in a near unburned area (control), respectively, with a collector to extract an "undisturbed" core. Then, each core was transferred in a lysimeter installed in the Water Lab of Delft University of Technology. In total, three lysimeters were set up and each experiment was carried out in duplicate. The laboratory had constant temperature, and both temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 15 minutes. To simulate rainfall, ~1 litre of tap water was sprinkled uniformly on the lysimeter with a plant spray (equivalent to 32 mm of rain). The precipitation was sprinkled every 3 days for a period of two months. Soil moisture and temperature were measured during the experiment every 15 minutes in the top and bottom of the litter and fermentation layer. Interception water was

  5. Modelling a strike-slip fault system affecting porous carbonates in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilona, A.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Johnson, G.; Shackleton, R.

    2012-12-01

    Investigating the deformation processes as well as the characteristics and distribution of their end-products is a crucial issue to improve geo-fluid exploitation in carbonate reservoirs (≈50% of natural geo-fluids). Indeed, besides the primary controls on the petrophysical properties of limestones, which are due to nature and organization/shape of the constituent elements (i.e. grains, pores, cement, clay minerals), both containment and migration of fluids in these rocks are influenced by fault zones and fractures. In this contribution we integrate quantitative structural analysis and numerical modelling approaches aiming at testing a new workflow useful to create a 3D discrete fracture network (DFN) model of a reservoir starting from outcrop data collected in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy). The presence of several quarries in the Island provides 3D exposures of ≈25 m-thick Lower-Pleistocene high-porosity grainstones crosscut by two conjugate sets of strike-slip faults. This fault system, documented by Tondi et al. (2012), is comprised of three types of structure: single compactive shear bands (CSB); zones of bands (ZB); and, faults. CSBs are narrow tabular features with porosity less than the surrounding host rocks, and have thicknesses and displacements on the order of a few mm. The growth process for these structures involves localizing further deformation within zones of closely-spaced CSBs and, possibly, along continuous slip surfaces within fault rocks overprinting older ZBs. The transitions from one growth step to another are recorded by different values of the dimensional parameters (i.e. length, thickness and displacement) for the structures. These transitions are also reflected by the ratios and distributions of the dimensional parameters. The DFN model was built by means of the Fracture Modelling module of the commercial software package Move from Midland Valley©. The analysis of an aerial photo was performed firstly to delimit the

  6. Geochemistry and argon thermochronology of the Variscan Sila Batholith, southern Italy: source rocks and magma evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, R.A.; Messina, A.; de Vivo, B.; Russo, S.; Woodruff, L.G.; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Sila batholith is the largest granitic massif in the Calabria-Peloritan Arc of southern Italy, consisting of syn to post-tectonic, calc-alkaline and metaluminous tonalite to granodiorite, and post-tectonic, peraluminous and strongly peraluminous, two-mica??cordierite??Al silicate granodiorite to leucomonzogranite. Mineral 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic analyses document Variscan emplacement and cooling of the intrusives (293-289 Ma). SiO2 content in the granitic rocks ranges from ???57 to 77 wt%; cumulate gabbro enclaves have SiO2 as low as 42%. Variations in absolute abundances and ratios involving Hf, Ta, Th, Rb, and the REE, among others, identify genetically linked groups of granitic rocks in the batholith: (1) syn-tectonic biotite??amphibole-bearing tonalites to granodiorites, (2) post-tectonic two-mica??Al-silicate-bearing granodiorites to leucomonzogranites, and (3) post-tectonic biotite??hornblende tonalites to granodiorites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns display variable values of Ce/Yb (up to ???300) and generally small negative Eu anomalies. Degree of REE fractionation depends on whether the intrusives are syn- or post-tectonic, and on their mineralogy. High and variable values of Rb/Y (0.40-4.5), Th/Sm (0.1-3.6), Th/Ta (0-70), Ba/Nb (1-150), and Ba/Ta (???50-2100), as well as low values of Nb/U (???2-28) and La/Th (???1-10) are consistent with a predominant and heterogeneous crustal contribution to the batholith. Whole rock ??18O ranges from ???+8.2 to +11.7???; the mafic cumulate enclaves have the lowest ??18O values and the two-mica granites have the highest values. ??18O values for biotite??honblende tonalitic and granodioritic rocks (9.1 to 10.8???) overlap the values of the mafic enclaves and two-mica granodiorites and leucogranites (10.7 to 11.7???). The initial Pb isotopic range of the granitic rocks (206Pb/204Pb ???18.17-18.45, 207Pb/204Pb ???15.58-15.77, 208Pb/204Pb ???38.20-38.76) also indicates the predominance of a crustal source

  7. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  8. Simulations of soil water balance in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrella, D.; Castellini, M.; Giglio, L.; di Giacomo, E.; Lopez, R.

    2009-04-01

    The available approaches for predicting the soil hydraulic functions include direct methods, using laboratory and field experiments, and indirect methods, such as the application of pedo-transfer functions or inverse methods. This last approach consists of a non-linear estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters by minimising the residuals between observed and simulated values of variables, such as the volumetric water content (theta) and the soil water pressure head (h). Numerical models are increasingly being used to simulate water and solute movement in the vadose zone for a variety of applications in research and soil/water management. While a large number of models of various complexity have been developed over the years, relatively few have been tested under field conditions. Soil water flow in physically-based models is described by Richards' equation. Application of this equation requires knowledge of the two functions: the soil water retention, theta(h), and the hydraulic conductivity, K(h). Inverse procedures have been successfully applied to analyse laboratory results using multistep or evaporation methods. During the last years, the application of inverse method is increasing by being applied to field experiments. Recently, several Authors have estimated the effective soil hydraulic function parameters with the inverse method by using evapotranspiration (ET) and soil water content data collected from a lysimeter experiment for a soil cropped with wheat. The objective of this paper is to test different strategies to optimize the simulation of soil water content dynamics for a typical cultivation of water melon (Cuccumis citrullus) for the area of "Arco Jonico Metapontino" located in Basilicata and Puglia regions (Southern Italy). The strategies utilized in the comparison are based on: (i) direct measurements of the theta(h) and the K(h); (ii) utilization of pedotransfer functions starting from textural information and (iii) inverse procedures including

  9. Molecular characterization of two rare human G8P[14] rotavirus strains, detected in Italy in 2012.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Roberto; Ianiro, Giovanni; Morea, Anna; Chironna, Maria; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco M

    2016-10-01

    Since 2007, the Italian Rotavirus Surveillance Program (RotaNet-Italy) has monitored the diversity and distribution of genotypes identified in children hospitalized with rotavirus acute gastroenteritis. We report the genomic characterization of two rare human G8P[14] rotavirus strains, identified in two children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in the southern Italian region of Apulia during rotavirus strain surveillance in 2012. Both strains showed a G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 genomic constellation (DS-1-like genomic background). Phylogenetic analysis of each genome segment revealed a mixed configuration of genes of animal and zoonotic human origin, indicating that genetic reassortment events generated these unusual human strains. Eight out of 11 genes (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, VP7, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5) of the Italian G8P[14] strains exhibited close identity with a Spanish sheep strain, whereas the remaining genes (VP4, NSP1 and NSP2) were more closely related to human strains. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions of outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 were compared with vaccine and field strains, showing high conservation between the amino acid sequences of Apulia G8P[14] strains and human and animal strains bearing G8 and/or P[14] proteins, and revealing many substitutions with respect to the RotaTeq™ and Rotarix™ vaccine strains. Conversely, the amino acid analysis of the four antigenic sites of VP6 revealed a high degree of conservation between the two Apulia strains and the human and animal strains analyzed. These results reinforce the potential role of interspecies transmission and reassortment in generating novel rotavirus strains that might not be fully contrasted by current vaccines. PMID:27449953

  10. The mineral contents of some Boletaceae species from Sicily (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Venturella, Giuseppe; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Compagno, Riccardo; Saitta, Alessandro; Alaimo, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Data on the accumulation of metals in wild edible and inedible macrofungi of the Boletaceae family are discussed here and compared with data reported in literature from northern Italy and other European countries, as well as from China, Brazil, and Africa. The results show a significant difference in the values detected in Sicilian fungi compared to those reported in the literature.

  11. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  12. A high resolution tephrochronological record of MIS 14-12 in the Southern Apennines (Acerno Basin, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, P.; Jicha, B. R.; Mazzeo, F. C.; Russo Ermolli, E.

    2014-03-01

    Lithological, mineralogical, and glass chemical analyses on juvenile fragments extracted from 20 tephra layers embedded within the lacustrine sediments of the Acerno Basin (Southern Apennines, Italy) were carried out together with four sanidine 40Ar/39Ar age determinations. The measured ages span the interval between 561 and 493 ka. Middle Pleistocene eruptive activity at Roman Province volcanoes was identified as the main possible source of the investigated tephra layers. Some of them were correlated with precise terrestrial counterparts corresponding to large explosive events of the Sabatini (e.g. Tufo Giallo della Via Tiberina) and Alban Hills volcanic districts (e.g. Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria). The integration of tephrochronology and pollen analyses allowed the Acerno lacustrine sedimentation to be constrained between MIS 14 and 12, which overlaps with several well-studied, lacustrine successions of the Southern Apennines. The correlation with other tephrostratigraphic records from intramontane basins in central-southern Apennines testifies to the wide dispersal of at least three tephra layers that serve as marker layers, thus improving the resolution of the Middle Pleistocene Italian tephrostratotype.

  13. Investigation of subsidence in the Manfredonia Gulf (Southern Italy) through multitemporal DInSAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triggiani, M.; Refice, A.; Capolongo, D.; Bovenga, F.; Caldara, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of an experiment aimed at detecting possible displacements due to subsidence in the coastal area of the Tavoliere plain, Puglia Region, in Southern Italy, through analysis of remotely sensed data. The Tavoliere is the second largest Italian plain. Its coastal area, between the urban centers of Manfredonia and Barletta, is composed of a 50 km long sandy beach (Manfredonia gulf), linking the Gargano massif at north with the Murge plateau in the south-east. Both areas belong to the carbonate Mesozoic Apulian platform. The current configuration of the Gulf was reached recently, as a consequence of the Holocene sea level rise. During the Neolithic age the plain was occupied by an elongated lagoon (Salpi Lagoon) [1]. During the 2nd century B.C., alluvial deposition caused the lagoon to be separated into two basins: the so-called Salpi lake at south and the Salso lake at north. To cope with the increasing demand of arable lands and with the necessity to make unhealthy areas accessible to humans, some reclaims were accomplished by diverting and channelling the rivers crossing the Tavoliere plain, and by levelling dune belts. At present, the beach is separated by low artificial dunes from the areas already reclaimed and intensely cultivated or exploited as evaporation basin for salt production. In the last decades, the coastal area has been retreating due to a reduction in sediment input necessary for coastal equilibrium. The levelling of dunes and the decrease of fluvial turbid discharge due to dam constructions are probably the cause of this deficit in sediment supply. During highly intense hydrodynamic and meteorological events, sea waters often penetrate deeply inland, flooding intensively cultivated areas. These events are occurring with growing frequency and rates. They are an indication of the possibility that those areas are subject to subsidence at a faster rate in comparison to the surroundings. An example is the salt marsh located inland of the

  14. Longitudinal Strain in the Forearc of a Rollback-Subduction System Forced to Change Length: Structural evolution of the Crotone Basin in NE Calabria, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. A.; Seeber, L.

    2009-12-01

    Calabria. A characteristic fluvial conglomerate that locally caps the evaporite sequence records this thrusting by a systematic fracturing of the cobbles. After a well-known mid-Pliocene basin-forming extensional event, we find evidence of a basin-wide contractional event affecting the entire Neogene sequence up to the mid-to-late Pliocene. The data show a north-south compression with vergence to the north. This arc-longitudinal shortening may correlate with mid-Pliocene N-S shortening reported in the southern Apennines. Finally, many of these shortening structures are cut or reactivated by a recent (mid-Pleistocene?) faults, that accommodate extension also directed N-S to NW-SE. Our data show a shift from radial to longitudinal tectonics in the Pliocene as the Crotone basin nears the oblique collision with Apulia. Longitudinal forearc shortening may lead to extension in the Pleistocene, as the forearc squeezes through the narrow between Africa (Sicily) and Apulia, and begins lengthening as rollback consumes progressively wider Ionian lithosphere.

  15. Risk analysis and perception of an hypothetic volcanogenic tsunami along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita

    2016-04-01

    The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.

  16. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire for Italian adults living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed for individuals living in Sicily, southern Italy. This study was conducted on a convenient sample of 178 adult volunteers aged 18-80 years recruited in the urban population of Catania. Dietary intake estimated by 2 FFQs was compared with six 24-h recalls covering a period of 10 months. A total of 110 food items were included in the FFQ. Person's coefficients between the first FFQ and mean of the six 24-h recalls showed high correlations for coffee, tea, pasta and dairy products, alcohol, total fats and carbohydrates (in women). The test-retest analysis showed high reproducibility of the FFQ. We showed that our FFQ provided a useful estimate of both food and nutrient intake in a healthy adult population.

  17. A multivariate approach for mapping fire ignition risk: the example of the National Park of Cilento (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Guglietta, Daniela; Migliozzi, Antonello; Ricotta, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in fire management led landscape managers to adopt an integrated fire fighting strategy in which fire suppression is supported by prevention actions and by knowledge of local fire history and ecology. In this framework, an accurate evaluation of fire ignition risk and its environmental drivers constitutes a basic step toward the optimization of fire management measures. In this paper, we propose a multivariate method for identifying and spatially portraying fire ignition risk across a complex and heterogeneous landscape such as the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano, and Alburni (southern Italy). The proposed approach consists first in calculating the fire selectivity of several landscape features that are usually related to fire ignition, such as land cover or topography. Next, the fire selectivity values of single landscape features are combined with multivariate segmentation tools. The resulting fire risk map may constitute a valuable tool for optimizing fire prevention strategies and for efficiently allocating fire fighting resources.

  18. Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire for Italian adults living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the reliability and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specifically developed for individuals living in Sicily, southern Italy. This study was conducted on a convenient sample of 178 adult volunteers aged 18-80 years recruited in the urban population of Catania. Dietary intake estimated by 2 FFQs was compared with six 24-h recalls covering a period of 10 months. A total of 110 food items were included in the FFQ. Person's coefficients between the first FFQ and mean of the six 24-h recalls showed high correlations for coffee, tea, pasta and dairy products, alcohol, total fats and carbohydrates (in women). The test-retest analysis showed high reproducibility of the FFQ. We showed that our FFQ provided a useful estimate of both food and nutrient intake in a healthy adult population. PMID:27333325

  19. Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy) and in Adeane (Southern Senegal)

    PubMed Central

    Ellena, Rachele; Quave, Cassandra L.; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Senegalese migrant communities of Turin (Piedmont, NW Italy) and their peers living in Adeane (Casamance, Southern Senegal), both among healers and laypeople. Through 27 in-depth interviews, 71 medicinal plant taxa were recorded and identified in Adeane and 41 in Turin, for a total of 315 different folk remedies recorded in Senegal and 62 in Turin. The large majority of the medicinal plants recorded among Senegalese migrants in Turin were also used in their country of origin. These findings demonstrate the resilience of home remedies among migrants and consequently the role they should have in shaping public health policies devoted to migrant groups in Western Countries, which seek to seriously take into account culturally sensitive approaches, that is, emic health-seeking strategies. PMID:22761638

  20. A Multivariate Approach for Mapping Fire Ignition Risk: The Example of the National Park of Cilento (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglietta, Daniela; Migliozzi, Antonello; Ricotta, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in fire management led landscape managers to adopt an integrated fire fighting strategy in which fire suppression is supported by prevention actions and by knowledge of local fire history and ecology. In this framework, an accurate evaluation of fire ignition risk and its environmental drivers constitutes a basic step toward the optimization of fire management measures. In this paper, we propose a multivariate method for identifying and spatially portraying fire ignition risk across a complex and heterogeneous landscape such as the National Park of Cilento, Vallo di Diano, and Alburni (southern Italy). The proposed approach consists first in calculating the fire selectivity of several landscape features that are usually related to fire ignition, such as land cover or topography. Next, the fire selectivity values of single landscape features are combined with multivariate segmentation tools. The resulting fire risk map may constitute a valuable tool for optimizing fire prevention strategies and for efficiently allocating fire fighting resources.

  1. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  2. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  3. The 28 December 1908 Earthquake in the Straits of Messina (Southern Italy) and Contemporary Italian Seismology: Theories, Instruments, Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, G.

    2008-12-01

    Italian seismology has a long and prestigious tradition which has seen the contributions of many scholars ever since the earliest decades of the 18th century. In the last 25 years of the 19th century Italian seismology underwent a very strong and original development, especially from the point of view of the honing of a method of earthquake observation, which significantly influenced European seismology. Born outside the institutions in the second half of the 1870s, the first network of instrumental earthquake observations in Italy was developed and consolidated within the institutions only between the second half of the 1880s and the mid-1890s. A striking series of large earthquakes that affected southern Italy between 1894 and 1908 (1894 Calabria, Me = 6.1, 1905 Calabria Me = 6.5, 1907 Calabria, Me = 6.0 and 1908 Straits of Messina, Me = 7.1) triggered a lively debate within the seismological community and also among scholars and institutions. The early years of the 20th century are the time when, thanks also to Italian experiences, Emil Wiechert and Boris Galitzin designed and set up the first modern seismographs. The 1908 earthquake, one of the strongest earthquakes of Italian history, marked a turning point in the history of Italian seismology and in the relationships bewteen the national government and the scientific community. This work aims at presenting the scientific context of theories, instruments and observations at the time of the 1908 earthquake and discussing their impact on the Italian seismology of that period.

  4. Trends of Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cerebrocardiovascular Disease: Southern Italy from 1988/9 to 2008/9

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto; Capuano, Rocco; Capuano, Eduardo; Mazzotta, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the trends of cardiovascular risk factor prevalence between 1988/9 and 2008/9 in the 25–74-year-old population in an area of Southern Italy. We compared three cross-sectional studies conducted in random population samples, in 1988/9, 1998/9, and 2008/9 in Salerno, Italy. The methodology of data collection (lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycaemia, and smoking) and conducting tests which the population underwent during the three phases was standardized and comparable. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking was calculated and standardized for age. A total of 3491 subjects were included. From 1988/9 to 2008/9, in males, the prevalence of all four risk factors was reduced. In women, there was a clear reduction of hypertension, a similar prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, and an increase of smoking and diabetes. In the area of Salerno, our data confirm that the global prevalence of the major risk factors is decreasing in men, but their absolute values are still far from optimization. In women, diabetes and smoking showed a negative trend, therefore requiring targeted interventions. These data are now used as a base for executive targeted programs to improve prevention of cardiovascular disease in our community. PMID:27213054

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  6. Renifer aniarum (Digenea: Reniferidae), an introduced North American parasite in grass snakes Natrix natrix in Calabria, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2011-07-12

    Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study. PMID:21932535

  7. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  9. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  10. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  11. Aeromagnetic investigation of southern Calabria and the Messina Straits (Italy): Tracking seismogenic sources of 1783 and 1908 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minelli, Liliana; Vecchio, Antonio; Speranza, Fabio; Nicolosi, Iacopo; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; Chiappini, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Southern Calabria and the NE corner of Sicily (Italy) were struck in 1783 and 1908 A.D. by two of the most catastrophic earthquakes ever in European history. Although it is generally acknowledged that the seisms were yielded by normal faults rupturing the upper crust of the Calabria-Peloritani terrane, no consensus exists on seismogenic source location and orientation. Here we report on a high-resolution low-altitude aeromagnetic survey of southern Calabria and Messina Straits. In southern Calabria we document a broad weakly positive (5-10 nT) anomaly zone interrupted by three en echelon SW-NE null to negative magnetic anomaly corridors. Euler deconvolution and magnetic modeling show that the anomaly pattern is produced by a 1-1.5 km thick crustal "layer" located within 3 km depth. This layer is offset by a 25 km long NE trending fault that corresponds to the Armo normal fault, recently inferred to be the source for the 1908 earthquake. Few kilometers to the south, we also document a subparallel and previously unrecognized fault, entering the Messina Straits and likely joining the Armo fault at depth. Further east, we model a 40 km long normal fault, probably extending northeastward for additional 40 km, running along the south Calabria axis from Aspromonte to the Serre mountains and partly following the 18 km long surface rupture witnessed by Déodat de Dolomieu after the 1783 earthquake. Thus, aeromagnetic data suggest that the sources of the 1783 and 1908 earthquakes are en echelon faults belonging to the same NW dipping normal fault system straddling the whole southern Calabria.

  12. Lava-flow hazard on the SE flank of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, G. M.; Iovine, G.; Di Gregorio, S.; Lupiano, V.

    2008-11-01

    A method for mapping lava-flow hazard on the SE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Southern Italy) by applying the Cellular Automata model SCIARA -fv is described, together with employed techniques of calibration and validation through a parallel Genetic Algorithm. The study area is partly urbanised; it has repeatedly been affected by lava flows from flank eruptions in historical time, and shows evidence of a dominant SSE-trending fracture system. Moreover, a dormant deep-seated gravitational deformation, associated with a larger volcano-tectonic phenomenon, affects the whole south-eastern flank of the volcano. The Etnean 2001 Mt. Calcarazzi lava-flow event has been selected for model calibration, while validation has been performed by considering the 2002 Linguaglossa and the 1991-93 Valle del Bove events — suitable data for back analysis being available for these recent eruptions. Quantitative evaluation of the simulations, with respect to the real events, has been performed by means of a couple of fitness functions, which consider either the areas affected by the lava flows, or areas and eruption duration. Sensitivity analyses are in progress for thoroughly evaluating the role of parameters, topographic input data, and mesh geometry on model performance; though, preliminary results have already given encouraging responses on model robustness. In order to evaluate lava-flow hazard in the study area, a regular grid of n.340 possible vents, uniformly covering the study area and located at 500 m intervals, has been hypothesised. For each vent, a statistically-significant number of simulations has been planned, by adopting combinations of durations, lava volumes, and effusion-rate functions, selected by considering available volcanological data. Performed simulations have been stored in a GIS environment for successive analyses and map elaboration. Probabilities of activation, empirically based on past behaviour of the volcano, can be assigned to each vent of the grid, by

  13. Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

    PubMed Central

    Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia; Genchi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. As key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis causing heart worm disease (HW) in Italy is discussed on the basis of retrospective historical reports until the 90's and later on until 2009. For long time, D. immitis has been considered mainly present along the Po River Valley and northward areas, while L. infantum in south-central Italy and Sicily and Sardinia. Comparison of current available and historical data (up to 1989) confirms that HW and CanL, although with different prevalence rates, have been changing their distribution patterns in Italy as a result of many biological and ecological factors, including those related to vector distribution and introduction of new species (e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, a competent vector of D. immitis). New autochthonous foci of HW in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia and Calabria regions) have recently been reported. Although analysing retrospective data may represent a difficult task, the "paradigm" about the dual distribution of HW and CanL in northern and southern Italy cannot yet be considered valid. The research needs for managing HW and CanL in previously uninfected areas are discussed. PMID:19426441

  14. Local pattern of stress field and seismogenic sources in the Pergola-Melandro basin and the Agri valley (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Luigi; Pondrelli, Silvia; Frepoli, Alberto; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Moro, Marco

    2004-03-01

    Our study area is a ca 50 km long section of the central-southern Apennines tectonic belt that includes the Pergola-Melandro basin (PM) and the Agri valley (AV). This region is located between the areas affected by the 1980 Ms= 6.9 Irpinia and the 1857 M= 7.0 val d'Agri earthquakes and is characterized by rare historical events and very low and sparse background seismicity. In this study we provide new seismological and geophysical information to identify the characteristics of the seismotectonics in the area as the prevailing faulting mechanism and the fit of local to regional stress field. These data concern focal mechanisms from waveform modelling and P-wave polarities, analyses of borehole breakouts and detailed investigation of two seismic sequences. All the data cover a significantly broad range of magnitudes and depths and suggest that no important local variation in stress orientation seems to affect this area, which shows a NE-SW direction of extension consistent with that regionally observed in southern Italy. Such local homogeneity in the stress field pattern is peculiar to the study area; the variations of orientation and/or type of stress observed in the northern Apennines, or less than only 100 km toward the northwest within the same tectonic belt, are absent here. Furthermore, there is a suggestion for a northeastward sense of dip of the seismogenic faults in the region, an interesting constraint to the characterization of seismic sources.

  15. Tracing mercury pathways in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) by total concentration and isotope determination.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M; Tamburrino, S; Oliveri, E; Marchetti, A; Durante, C; Berni, A; Quinci, E; Sprovieri, M

    2015-10-01

    The mercury (Hg) pollution of sediments is the main carrier of Hg for the biota and, subsequently, for the local fish consumers in Augusta Bay area (SE Sicily, Italy), a coastal marine system affected by relevant sewage from an important chlor-alkali factory. This relationship was revealed by the determination of Mass Dependent (MDF) and Mass Independent Fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in sediment, fish and human hair samples. Sediments showed MDF but no MIF, while fish showed MIF, possibly due to photochemical reduction in the water column and depending on the feeding habitat of the species. Benthic and demersal fish exhibited MDF similar to that of sediments in which anthropogenic Hg was deposited, while pelagic organisms evidenced higher MDF and MIF due to photoreduction. Human hair showed high values of δ(202)Hg (offset of +2.2‰ with respect to the consumed fish) and Δ(199)Hg, both associated to fish consumption.

  16. Tracing mercury pathways in Augusta Bay (southern Italy) by total concentration and isotope determination.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, M; Tamburrino, S; Oliveri, E; Marchetti, A; Durante, C; Berni, A; Quinci, E; Sprovieri, M

    2015-10-01

    The mercury (Hg) pollution of sediments is the main carrier of Hg for the biota and, subsequently, for the local fish consumers in Augusta Bay area (SE Sicily, Italy), a coastal marine system affected by relevant sewage from an important chlor-alkali factory. This relationship was revealed by the determination of Mass Dependent (MDF) and Mass Independent Fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in sediment, fish and human hair samples. Sediments showed MDF but no MIF, while fish showed MIF, possibly due to photochemical reduction in the water column and depending on the feeding habitat of the species. Benthic and demersal fish exhibited MDF similar to that of sediments in which anthropogenic Hg was deposited, while pelagic organisms evidenced higher MDF and MIF due to photoreduction. Human hair showed high values of δ(202)Hg (offset of +2.2‰ with respect to the consumed fish) and Δ(199)Hg, both associated to fish consumption. PMID:26074159

  17. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area. PMID:26806294

  18. From Extension to Transcurrence: Regime Transition as a new key to Interpret Seismogenesis in the Southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fracassi, U.; Vannoli, P.; Burrato, P.; Basili, R.; Tiberti, M. M.; di Bucci, D.; Valensise, G.

    2006-12-01

    The backbone of the Southern Apennines is perhaps the largest seismic moment release area in Italy. The region is dominated by an extensional regime dating back to the Middle Pleistocene, with maximum extension striking SW-NE (i.e. orthogonal to the mountain belt). The full length (~ 200 km) of the mountain range has been the locus of several destructive earthquakes occurring in the uppermost 10-12 km of the crust. This seismicity is due to a well documented normal faulting mechanism. Instrumental earthquakes (e.g. 5 May 1990, 31 Oct 2002, 1 Nov 2002; all M 5.8) that have occurred in the foreland, east of the Southern Apennines, have posed new questions concerning seismogenic processes in southern Italy. Although of moderate magnitude, these events unveiled the presence of E-W striking, deeper (13-25 km) strike-slip faults. Recent studies suggest that these less known faults belong to inherited shear zones with a multi-phase tectonic history, the most recent phase being a right-lateral reactivation. The direction of the maximum horizontal extension of these faults (in a transcurrent regime) coincides with the maximum horizontal extension in the core of the Southern Apennines (in an extensional regime) and both are compatible with the general framework provided by the Africa-Europe convergence. However, the regional extent along strike of the E-W shear zones poses the issue of their continuity from the foreland towards the thrust-belt. The 1456 (M 6.9) and 1930 (M 6.7) earthquakes, that occurred just east of the main extensional axis, were caused by faults having a strike intermediate between the E-W, deeper strike-slip faults in the foreland and the NW-SE-trending, shallower normal faults in the extensional belt. Hence, the location and geometry of these seismogenic sources suggests that there could be a transition zone between the crustal volumes affected by the extensional and transcurrent regimes. To image such transition, we built a 3D model that incorporates

  19. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and <16 ka BP, i.e. during the LGM. A yellowish-brown Calcic Luvisol developed in the loess. Thus, the soils reflect rather the interglacial soil formation in a Mediterranean environment than the glacial soil formation in a steppe environment. References Allen, J.R.M., Watts, W.A., Huntley, B. (2000): Weichelian palynostratigraphy, palaeovegetation and palaeoenvironment; the record from Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy. Quaternary International, 73/74: 91-110. Brückner, H., 1980. Marine Terrassen in Süditalien. Eine quartärmorphologische Studie über das Küstentiefland von Metapont. Düsseldorfer Geographische Schriften, 14, 235 p. Di Donato, V., Esposito, P., Russo-Ermolli, E., Scarano, A., Cheddadi, R. (2008): Coupled atmospheric and marine palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the last 35 ka in the Sele Plain - Gulf of Salerno area (southern Italy). Quaternary International, 190: 146-157. Follieri, M., Giardini, M., Magri, D., Sadori, L. (1998): Palynostratigraphy of the last glacial period in the volcanic region of central Italy. Quaternary International, 47/48: 3-20. Zander, A., Fülling, A., Brückner, H. & Mastronuzzi, G. (2006): OSL dating of Upper Pleistocene littoral sediments: a contribution to the chronostratigraphy of raised marine terraces bordering the Gulf of Taranto, South Italy. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria

  20. Cyclostratigraphic calibration of cretaceous magnetic polarity events (Cismon, Southern Alps, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, H.

    1994-01-01

    In an introductory section the problems of constructing a geologic time scale and the role of magnetic reversals and Milankovitch cycles in geochronology are outlined. Results of a detailed cyclostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic study of the Valanginian/Hauterivian part of the pelagic limestone section at Cismon in the Southern Alps are presented and used in conjunction to estimate the duration of magnetic subchrons between CM10N and CM8. The new estimates are shorter than in most published time scales by a factor of two to three. More research along these lines may make a revision of the Early Cretaceous time scale necessary. ?? 1994 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. The Monte Orfano Conglomerate revisited: stratigraphic constraints on Cenozoic tectonic uplift of the Southern Alps (Lombardy, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciunnach, Dario; Scardia, Giancarlo; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Premoli Silva, Isabella

    2010-09-01

    The Monte Orfano Conglomerate (MOC), exposed in the foothills of the Southern Alps (northern Italy), is one of the few outcrops of sediments documenting the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Alpine retrowedge. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy allowed us to constrain the upper part of the MOC, formerly attributed to the Early-Middle Miocene in the type-locality, to the earliest Miocene (Neogene part of the NN1 nannofossil zone). A likely latest Oligocene age is therefore suggested for the bulk of the underlying conglomerates, whose base is not exposed. Deposition of the MOC can be placed within the post-collisional tectonic uplift of the Alps, documented in the Lake Como area by the Como Conglomerate (CC) at the base of the Gonfolite Lombarda Group, and supports the correlation with Upper Oligocene clastic sediments cropping out further to the East, in the Lake Garda and in the Veneto-Friuli areas (“ molassa”). The remarkable difference in petrographic composition between the western (CC) and eastern (MOC) clastics deposited in the Alpine retro-foreland basin highlights the synchronous tectonic activity of two structural domains involving different crustal levels. Whilst the bulk of the CC, that straddles the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, records largely the tectonic exhumation of the Alpine axial chain crystalline complexes, the coeval MOC consists of detritus derived from the superficial crustal section (Triassic to Paleogene sedimentary rocks) of the Alpine retrowedge and constrains the onset of the post-collisional deformation phase of the Southern Alps as not younger than the Late Oligocene.

  2. AMS fabric and tectonic evolution of Quaternary intramontane extensional basins in the Picentini Mountains (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we report the results of combined geological, structural, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies carried out on Quaternary deposits in the Picentini Mountains, southern Apennines (Italy). The study concerns four small continental basins, Acerno, Tizzano, Iumaiano, and Piano del Gaudo, related to fluvial-lacustrine depositional environments, ranging in altitude from 600 to 1,200 m a.s.l. and strongly incised during recent time. Stratigraphic and structural analyses, integrated by low- and high-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), show that the formation of these basins has been controlled by extensional and transtensional tectonics. Most of the AMS sites exhibit a well-defined magnetic foliation parallel to the bedding planes. A well-defined magnetic lineation has also been measured within the foliation planes. In the Iumaiano, Tizzano, and Piano del Gaudo basins, magnetic lineations cluster around NNE-SSW trend and are parallel to the stretching directions inferred by structural analysis of faults and fractures. On the basis of structural, sedimentological, and high-field AMS data, we suggest a tectonic origin for the magnetic lineation, analogously to what has been observed in other weakly deformed sediments from Neogene and Quaternary extensional basins of the Mediterranean region. Our results demonstrate that onset and the evolution of the investigated basins have been mainly controlled since lower Pleistocene by NW-SE normal and transtensional faults. This deformation pattern is consistent with a prevalent NE-SW extensional tectonic regime, still active in southern Apennines, as revealed by seismological and geodetic data.

  3. Modes and timing of fracture network development in poly-deformed carbonate reservoir analogues, Mt. Chianello, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Dati, Francesco; Mazzoli, Stefano; Ciarcia, Sabatino; Guerriero, Vincenzo; Iannace, Alessandro

    2012-04-01

    Structural and paleostress analyses carried out on a kilometre-sized outcrop of allochthonous shallow-water carbonate units of the southern Apennines allowed us to unravel a superposed deformation pattern associated with plate convergence. The reconstructed tectonic evolution involves: (i) early extensional faulting and fracturing associated with bending of the foreland lithosphere during forebulge and foredeep stages (including the development of both 'tangential' and 'radial' normal fault and tensile fractures; Early-Middle Miocene); (ii) large-scale thrusting and folding (Late Miocene); (iii) transcurrent faulting (including two distinct sub-stages characterized by different remote stress fields; Pliocene-Early Pleistocene), and (iv) extensional faulting (late Quaternary). Stage (i) normal faults - generally occurring as conjugate sets - and related fractures and veins are variably deformed and overprinted by later horizontal shortening. Despite having experienced such a long and complex structural history, the studied carbonates are characterized by a 'background' fracture network - including two joint/vein sets orthogonal to each other and to bedding - that appears to be associated with the early fault sets that formed during the first (foredeep/forebulge-related) deformation stage. Therefore, away from younger (Late Miocene to Quaternary) fault zones, the permeability structure of the studied carbonates appears to be essentially controlled by the early, inherited fracture network. As a similar fracture network is likely to characterize also the buried Apulian Platform carbonates, representing the reservoir units for major oil fields in southern Italy, our results also bear possible implications for a better understanding of fluid flow in the subsurface and related hydrocarbon production.

  4. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  5. Characterization of measles virus strains circulating in Southern Italy (Palermo area, Sicily) between 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Urone, Noemi; Colomba, Claudia; Ferraro, Donatella

    2016-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) was classified in 24 genotypes that show a distinct geographic distribution. Genotypes contain multiple distinct lineages. In 2011 large outbreaks of measles occurred in Italy and in many European countries. Aims of this study are to analyze the intra-genotype variability and to follow the importation and the spread of new MV strains in Sicily. A fragment of 450 bps of MV C-terminal nucleoprotein was sequenced from sera of 73 Sicilian patients with symptomatic measles infections, occurred between 2010 and 2011. Five MV strains were D4 genotype and 68 were D8 genotype. The MV/D4 sequences were related to MV/D4-Enfield variant. Two lineages of MV/D8 genotypes, related to MV/D8-Villupuram variant and to a strain found in Birmingham in 2006 respectively, were identified. This is the first study that reports the co-circulation of different MV genotypes and lineages in Sicily suggesting multiple origins of the outbreak that occurred during 2010 and 2011 years.

  6. Calcio-carbonatite melts and metasomatism in the mantle beneath Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Wall, Frances; Stoppa, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    At Mt. Vulture volcano (Basilicata, Italy) calcite globules (5-150 μm) are hosted by silicate glass pools or veins cross-cutting amphibole-bearing, or more common spinel-bearing mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. The carbonate globules are rounded or elongated and are composed of a mosaic of 2-20 μm crystals, with varying optical orientation. These features are consistent with formation from a quenched calciocarbonatite melt. Where in contact with carbonate amphibole has reacted to form fassaitic pyroxene. Some of these globules contain liquid/gaseous CO 2 bubbles and sulphide inclusions, and are pierced by quench microphenocrysts of silicate phases. The carbonate composition varies from calcite to Mg-calcite (3.8-5.0 wt.% MgO) both within the carbonate globules and from globule to globule. Trace element contents of the carbonate, determined by LAICPMS, are similar to those of carbonatites worldwide including ΣREE up to 123 ppm. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios of the xenolith carbonate are similar to the extrusive carbonatite and silicate rocks of Mt. Vulture testifying to derivation from the same mantle source. Formation of immiscibile silicate-carbonatite liquids within mantle xenoliths occurred via disequilibrium immiscibility during their exhumation.

  7. The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily.

    PubMed

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Anagnostou, Paolo; Busby, George B J; Ferri, Gianmarco; Thomas, Mark G; Taglioli, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Bolnick, Deborah; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Luiselli, Donata; Shepherd, Gillian B; Tusa, Sebastiano; Facella, Antonino; Capelli, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    Greek colonisation of South Italy and Sicily (Magna Graecia) was a defining event in European cultural history, although the demographic processes and genetic impacts involved have not been systematically investigated. Here, we combine high-resolution surveys of the variability at the uni-parentally inherited Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in selected samples of putative source and recipient populations with forward-in-time simulations of alternative demographic models to detect signatures of that impact. Using a subset of haplotypes chosen to represent historical sources, we recover a clear signature of Greek ancestry in East Sicily compatible with the settlement from Euboea during the Archaic Period (eighth to fifth century BCE). We inferred moderate sex-bias in the numbers of individuals involved in the colonisation: a few thousand breeding men and a few hundred breeding women were the estimated number of migrants. Last, we demonstrate that studies aimed at quantifying Hellenic genetic flow by the proportion of specific lineages surviving in present-day populations may be misleading.

  8. A population prevalence study on influenza infection in dogs in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2014-07-01

    Despite several data on influenza infection in dogs, the first natural outbreak of canine influenza virus, closely related to H3N8 equine subtype, dates back to 2004 in Florida. Subsequent studies highlighted the role of dogs in adaptation of H5N1 to mammals and the susceptibility of dogs to different subtypes of influenza. A prevalence study was carried out on 562 sera collected from pet and kennel dogs in the south of Italy. A c-ELISA test was employed and c-ELISA-positive, c-ELISA-doubtful and random c-ELISA-negative samples were also tested in subtype- specific HI test using H3N8 and H3N2 strains. c-ELISA detected a positivity of 3.56%. HI performed with the H3N8 revealed 2 positive samples and when performed with the H3N2, HI revealed 47 positive samples. c-ELISA proved to be a sensitive and specific technique. HI is a specific method only when the test antigen is homologous to the circulating virus and, because non-specific-hemagglutination inhibitors may be present in dog sera, false positives can result. The study emphasizes that due to their close contact with humans dogs must be a target for testing. Furthermore because it remains to be determined how long antibodies to influenza virus persist in canine sera, the observed prevalence might be underestimated.

  9. Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, A; Raimondo, M L; Santos, J; Phillips, A J L

    2012-06-01

    Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an intensive sampling of diseased cucurbits as well as tomato and bell pepper was done and the fungal pathogens present on them were isolated. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolates were determined through a study of ribosomal RNA gene sequences (ITS cluster and D1/D2 domain of the 28S rRNA gene). Combining morphological, culture and molecular data, six species were distinguished. One of these (Pa. cucumerina) is already known. Four new species are described as Plectosphaerella citrullae, Pa. pauciseptata, Pa. plurivora and Pa. ramiseptata. Acremonium cucurbitacearum is shown to be a synonym of Nodulisporium melonis and is transferred to Plectosphaerella as Plectosphaerella melonis comb. nov. A further three known species of Plectosporium are recombined in Plectosphaerella. PMID:23105152

  10. A study to constrain the geometry of an active fault in southern Italy through borehole breakouts and downhole logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola

    2011-10-01

    Identification of an active fault and the local versus regional present-day stress field in the Irpinia region (southern Apennines) have been performed along a 5900 m deep well (San Gregorio Magno 1) by a detailed breakout and geophysical log analysis. The selected area is characterized by diffuse low magnitude seismicity, although in historical times moderate to large earthquakes have repeatedly struck it. On 23rd November 1980 a strong earthquake ( M = 6.9) nucleated on a 38-km long normal fault, named Irpinia fault, producing the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows a direction of minimum horizontal stress N18°±24°, fairly consistent with the regional stress trend (N44°±20°). The small discrepancy between our result and the regional stress orientation might be related to the influence of local stress sources such as variations of the Irpinia fault plane orientation and the presence of differently oriented active shear zones. This paper shows for the first time a detailed analysis on the present-day stress along a well to identify the Irpinia fault at depth and constrain its geometry.

  11. Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P.

    PubMed

    Mariotti Lippi, Marta; Foggi, Bruno; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Revedin, Anna

    2015-09-29

    Residue analyses on a grinding tool recovered at Grotta Paglicci sublayer 23A [32,614 ± 429 calibrated (cal) B.P.], Southern Italy, have demonstrated that early modern humans collected and processed various plants. The recording of starch grains attributable to Avena (oat) caryopses expands our information about the food plants used for producing flour in Europe during the Paleolithic and about the origins of a food tradition persisting up to the present in the Mediterranean basin. The quantitative distribution of the starch grains on the surface of the grinding stone furnished information about the tool handling, confirming its use as a pestle-grinder, as suggested by the wear-trace analysis. The particular state of preservation of the starch grains suggests the use of a thermal treatment before grinding, possibly to accelerate drying of the plants, making the following process easier and faster. The study clearly indicates that the exploitation of plant resources was very important for hunter-gatherer populations, to the point that the Early Gravettian inhabitants of Paglicci were able to process food plants and already possessed a wealth of knowledge that was to become widespread after the dawn of agriculture. PMID:26351674

  12. The 9 September 2010 torrential rain and flash flood in the Dragone catchment, Atrani, Amalfi Coast (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, C.; Braca, G.; Esposito, E.; Tranfaglia, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we use a multi-hazard approach to analyse the 9 September 2010 flash flood in the Dragone basin, a 9 km2 catchment located along the Amalfi rocky coastal range, southern Italy. In this area, alluvial fan flooding has been the most frequent and destructive geologic hazard since Roman times. Sudden torrents of water (flash floods) are caused by high-intensity and very localized cloudbursts of short duration, inducing slope erosion and sediment delivery from slope to stream. The elevated bed load transport produces fast-moving hyperconcentrated flows with significant catastrophic implications for communities living at the stream mouth. The 9 September 2010 rainstorm event lasted 1 h with an intensity rainfall peak of nearly 120 mm h-1. High topographic relief of the Amalfi coastal range and positive anomalies of the coastal waters conditioned the character of the convective system. Based on geological data and post-event field evidence and surveys, as well as homemade videos and eyewitness accounts, it is reported that the flash flood mobilized some 25 000 m3 of materials with a total (water and sediment) peak flow of 80 m3 s-1. The estimated peak discharge of only clear water was about 65 m3 s-1. This leads to a sediment bulking factor of 1.2 that corresponds to a flow with velocities similar to those of water during a flood.

  13. Reservoir-induced seismicity associated with the Pertusillo lake (Southern Italy): poroelastic and time-dependent earthquake nucleation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalli, Flaminia; Hainzl, Sebastian; Urpi, Luca; Improta, Luigi; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The Pertusillo artificial lake in Southern Italy is one of the known water reservoirs showing protracted seismicity for several years after the initial filling in 1965. For a period of about twelve years in between 2001 and 2013 we have records of seismicity and water level changes. In this period more than 1800 events with local magnitude ranging between -0.2 and 3.2 are observed; in the same period the water column fluctuated in average of 15 m per year. We model stress and time-dependent pore-pressure due to water level variations associated with the Pertusillo lake. The solutions are given for a homogeneous, porous-elastic half-space and considering the decoupled approximation when resolving the governing partial differential equations (i.e. elastic stresses influence the pore pressure but not vice versa). Stress and pore-pressure are used to compute seismicity rate changes through the rate-and-state nucleation model. Our approach is a first-order approximation of the problem of reservoir-induced earthquakes because we are not considering information of the complex crustal structure in our methodology. However, it allows for understanding the relative importance of the driving forces and quantifying the primary consistency between modelled and observed seismicity. All the discrepancies between forecasted and observed seismicity might reveal the need of considering different settings of the surrounding area, as for example the existence of high-permeable fracture zones and layers with different elastic and hydraulic parameters.

  14. Mapping the main Leishmania phlebotomine vector in the endemic focus of the Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Erika; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Carbone, Sabrina; Gradoni, Luigi; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Maroli, Michele

    2007-05-01

    Geographical information systems and remote sensing were used to analyze the distribution of the Leishmania infantum-Phlebotomus perniciosus parasite-vector system in relation to environmental features of two opposite sides (coastal and Apennine) of Mt. Vesuvius, an area of intense transmission of human and canine leishmaniasis in southern Italy. Weekly phlebotomine collections were carried out during two consecutive warm seasons (2004- 2005) in 24 and 25 sites of the coastal and Apennine sides, respectively. Sandflies were caught using over one-thousand and seven hundred 20 x 20 cm-sticky traps placed in different environments. A total of 873 sandflies were collected, of which 284 (32.5%) were identified as P. perniciosus. The cumulative density (number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap/two nights) of this vector species was 3.9. P. perniciosus was significantly more abundant in the coastal side (5.8) as compared to the Apennine side (1.4). The main environmental differences between the two sides were the aspect (south-west for the coastal and north-east for the Apennine side) and land use. The predominance of green vegetated environments (forest, semi-natural and agricultural areas) in the coastal side, in contrast with the predominance of artificial surfaces (namely urban environment) in the Apennine side, could be responsible for the different P. perniciosus densities between the two surveyed areas.

  15. The cry wolf issue in seismic early warning applications: a feasibility study for the Campanian Region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iervolino, I.; Convertito, V.; Manfredi, G.; Zollo, A.; Giorgio, M.; Pulcini, G.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic risk management consists of mitigation strategies, planning and emergency preparedness. Early warning systems (EWS), based on real-time analysis of ground motion proxy measures, may play a role in reducing vulnerability of built environment and lifelines. EWS applications may not be cost free and their effectiveness is related to missed and false alarm probabilities (PMA and PFA respectively). The Campanian region in southern Italy is developing a seismic early warning systems for the active area where the Irpinia 1980 earthquake was generated. The work herein discussed represents a feasibility study on the cry wolf issue in seismic early warning applications. The false and missed alarm events are formulated in terms of structural response parameters and ground motion intensity measures. PMA and PFA are computed simulating the EWS prediction of ground motion by use of simulated ground motion; the site where the structure is supposed to be located is assumed to be at 100 km from the EW network. The I and II type risk are evaluated for the decisional rule adopted and operating characteristic curves are developed.

  16. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy): a sedimentological/ecological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Massimo; Tropeano, Marcello; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Acquafredda, Pasquale; Baldacconi, Rossella; Festa, Vincenzo; Lisco, Stefania; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Moretti, Vincenzo; Scotti, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  17. Geophysical prospecting in archaeology: investigations in Santa Venera, south suburb of Poseidonia-Paestum, Campania, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Bavusi, M.; Lapenna, V.; Del Lungo, S.; Sabelli, R.; Gizzi, F. T.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is the result of a joint work between geophysicists and archaeologists in which the authors have used geophysical techniques to investigate the Greek and Roman settlement of Paestum, southern Italy for preventive archaeological research (commonly termed 'rescue archaeology') on an area of the ancient settlement affected by new building work and infrastructure. Starting from a background analysis of the archaeological and geological features of the site, an integrated geophysical approach based on magnetic, GPR and geoelectrical surveys was carried out on the Santa Venera area, a site selected to build a car parking. High-density and high-resolution cross-correlated geophysical surveys were carried out in different parts of the area to better resolve the structures. Systematic excavations confirmed the clues suggested by geophysical prospecting about the presence of archaeological remains such as walls, canals and tombs. By the use of non-destructive geophysical techniques a two-fold aim was reached: to properly plan the building of the infrastructure and preserve the ancient artefacts according to the advanced European guidelines on the protection of archaeological heritage.

  18. Clonal dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 carrying blaKPC-3 in a hospital in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Iula, Dora Vita; de Luca, Cristiana; Roscetto, Emanuela; Vollaro, Antonio; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC-carbapenemase have emerged as one of the most important multidrug-resistant Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. Here, we report the first isolation and subsequent dissemination of a K. pneumoniae ST512 producing KPC-3 carbapenemase in a hospital in southern Italy. Isolates were obtained from blood, throat swabs, sputum, catheters, and urine of patients admitted to different hospital wards. Antimicrobial MICs were determined for all isolates by automated systems and confirmed by Etest. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by the modified Hodge test and by a disc synergy test, and carbapenemase genes were investigated by PCR. All isolates were characterized by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Most isolates were multidrug resistant with exception of some isolates intermediately susceptible to gentamicin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PCR analysis showed that isolates harbored the bla(KPC-3) gene associated with bla(TEM) and bla(SVH). PFGE and MLST showed that all isolates belonged to the same ST512 clone recently described in Israel.

  19. Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P.

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti Lippi, Marta; Foggi, Bruno; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Revedin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Residue analyses on a grinding tool recovered at Grotta Paglicci sublayer 23A [32,614 ± 429 calibrated (cal) B.P.], Southern Italy, have demonstrated that early modern humans collected and processed various plants. The recording of starch grains attributable to Avena (oat) caryopses expands our information about the food plants used for producing flour in Europe during the Paleolithic and about the origins of a food tradition persisting up to the present in the Mediterranean basin. The quantitative distribution of the starch grains on the surface of the grinding stone furnished information about the tool handling, confirming its use as a pestle-grinder, as suggested by the wear-trace analysis. The particular state of preservation of the starch grains suggests the use of a thermal treatment before grinding, possibly to accelerate drying of the plants, making the following process easier and faster. The study clearly indicates that the exploitation of plant resources was very important for hunter–gatherer populations, to the point that the Early Gravettian inhabitants of Paglicci were able to process food plants and already possessed a wealth of knowledge that was to become widespread after the dawn of agriculture. PMID:26351674

  20. Groundwater recharge areas of a volcanic aquifer system inferred from hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data: Mount Vulture, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Serena; Paternoster, Michele; Kohfahl, Claus; Pekdeger, Asaf; Meyer, Hanno; Hubberten, Hans Wolfgang; Spilotro, Giuseppe; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Environmental isotope techniques, hydrogeochemical analysis and hydraulic data are employed to identify the main recharge areas of the Mt. Vulture hydrogeological basin, one of the most important aquifers of southern Italy. The groundwaters are derived from seepage of rainwater, flowing from the highest to the lowest elevations through the shallow volcanic weathered host-rock fracture zones. Samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected at 48 locations with elevations ranging from 352 to 1,100 m above sea level (a.s.l.), for stable isotope (δ18O, δD) and major ion analyses. A complete dataset of available hydraulic information has been integrated with measurements carried out in the present study. Inferred recharge elevations, estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient of δ18O, range between 550 and 1,200 m a.s.l. The isotope pattern of the Quaternary aquifer reflects the spatial separation of different recharge sources. Knowledge of the local hydrogeological setting was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study to define the recharge and discharge patterns identifying the groundwater flow pathways of the Mt. Vulture basin. The integration of all the data allowed for the tracing of the groundwater flows of the Mt. Vulture basin.

  1. Active degassing of mantle-derived fluid: A geochemical study along the Vulture line, southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Martelli, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Paternoster, M.; Stuart, F. M.

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a geochemical study of gas emissions along a NE-SW transect in southern Italy in order to test the hypothesis that the region around Monte Vulture is affected by degassing of mantle-derived fluids through a lithospheric discontinuity. We also investigated lavas from the Monte Vulture volcano displaying 3He/4He (up to ~ 6.0 Ra) and Sr isotopes that are consistent with an origin in mantle that has had minimal pollution from subducted Adriatic slab. Similar 3He/4He in fluids from around Mt. Vulture indicate that the deep volcanic system is still degassing. Mantle-derived He occurs in fluids along the length of the Vulture line, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is a deep tectonic discontinuity along which mantle fluids and/or melts advect to the surface. The CO2/3He ratios are highly variable (2.7 × 108-2.15 × 1011) in response to processes such as gas dissolution into aquifers, addition of crustal gases and degassing fractionation.

  2. Inorganic contaminants from diffuse pollution in shallow groundwater of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy). Implications for geochemical survey.

    PubMed

    Cuoco, E; Darrah, T H; Buono, G; Verrengia, G; De Francesco, S; Eymold, W K; Tedesco, D

    2015-02-01

    The Campanian Plain (CP) shallow aquifer (Southern Italy) represents a natural laboratory to validate geochemical methods for differentiating diffuse anthropogenic pollution from natural water-rock interaction processes. The CP is an appropriate study area because of numerous potential anthropogenic pollution vectors including agriculture, animal husbandry, septic/drainage sewage systems, and industry. In order to evaluate the potential for geochemical methods to differentiate various contamination vectors, 538 groundwater wells from the shallow aquifer in Campanian Plain (CP) were sampled. The dataset includes both major and trace elements. Natural water-rock interactions, which primarily depend on local lithology, control the majority of geochemical parameters, including most of the major and trace elements. Using prospective statistical methods in combination with the traditional geochemical techniques, we determined the chemical variables that are enriched by anthropogenic contamination (i.e. NO3, SO4 and U) by using NO3 as the diagnostic variable for detecting polluted groundwater. Synthetic agricultural fertilizers are responsible for the majority of SO4 and U pollution throughout the CP area. Both SO4 and U are present in the groundmass of synthetic fertilizers; the uranium concentration is specifically applicable as a tracer for non-point source agricultural fertilizer contamination. The recognition of non-geological (anthropogenic) inputs of these elements has to be considered in the geochemical investigations of contaminated aquifers.

  3. Evaluation of a bioassays battery for ecotoxicological screening of marine sediments from Ionian Sea (Mediterranea Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Parlapiano, Isabella; Biandolino, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    Sediments are an ecologically important component of the aquatic environment and may play a key role in mediating the exchange of contaminants between particulate, dissolved, and biological phases. For a comprehensive assessment of potential sediment toxicity, the use of a single species may not detect toxicant with a specific mode of action. Therefore it is advisable to carry out ecotoxicological tests on a base-set of taxa utilizing test species belonging to different trophic levels. This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments from seven sites of Mar Piccolo estuary (Southern, Italy), four of them were located in the first inlet and three in the second inlet of Mar Piccolo estuary. Sediment samples from a site in Taranto Gulf were used as control sediment. Dunaliella tertiolecta, Tigriopus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Corophium insidiosum, were employed to identify the quality of sediments. The integration of biological tests results showed that all sampling sites located in the first inlet of Mar Piccolo were identified as toxic, according to all tests, while the sites of second inlet were found not toxic. The results obtained in this study indicate that the use of a battery of biological tests have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine e coastal waters. PMID:21912868

  4. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  5. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk.

  6. Use of SSR and retrotransposon-based markers to interpret the population structure of native grapevines from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Villano, Clizia; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Santoro, Xenia; Aversano, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    Native grapevines are the quintessential elements of Southern Italy winemaking, and genomic characterization plays a role of primary importance for preservation and sustainable use of these unexploited genetic resources. Among the various molecular techniques available, SSR and retrotransposons-based markers result to be the most valuable for cultivars and biotypes distinctiveness. A total of 62 accessions including 38 local grape cultivars were analyzed with 30 SSR, four REMAP and one IRAP markers to assess their genetic diversity and obtain a complete genomic profiling. The use of VrZAG79, VrZAG112, VVS2, VVMD25 and VVMD5 combined with retrotransposon-based markers proved to be the most discriminating and polymorphic markers for the rapid and unambiguous identification of minority grapevines from Campania region, which is considered one of the most appreciated Italian districts for wine production. Results revealed 58 SSR marker-specific alleles, 22 genotype-specific SSR alleles, and four REMAP and IRAP private bands. Cases of synonymy and homonymy were discovered. In conclusion, we provided evidences that the integrating SSR and retrotransposon-based markers is an effective strategy to assess the genetic diversity of autochthonous grapes, allowing their easy identification.

  7. Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Surgery Wards of a Large Teaching Hospital in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Silvano; Gioia, Renato; De Simone, Giuseppe; Noviello, Silvana; Lombardi, Domenico; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Filippelli, Amelia; Rega, Maria Rosaria; Massari, Angelo; Elberti, Maria Giovanna; Grisi, Lucilla; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Surgical infections represent an increasingly important problem for the National Health System. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganisms concerned as well as the utilization of antibiotics in the General and Emergency Surgery wards of a large teaching hospital in southern Italy in the period 2011–2013. Methods Data concerning non-duplicate bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility were retrieved from the Vitek 2 database. The pharmacy provided data about the consumption of antibiotics in the above reported wards. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test were used. Results In all, 94 Gram-negative were isolated in 2011, 77 in 2012, and 125 in 2013, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa always being the most frequently isolated microorganisms. A. baumannii showed high rates of resistance to carbapenems (with values of 100% in 2011 and 2012) and low rates of resistance to tigecycline, colistin and amikacin. In the same years, there were respectively 105, 93, and 165 Gram-positive isolated. The rate of MRSA isolates ranged from 66% to 75% during the study period. Conclusions Our results show no significant increase in antimicrobial resistance over the period in question, and a higher rate of both MRSA isolates and resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii compared with other European data. PMID:26075047

  8. Surveillance of human influenza A(H3N2) virus from 1999 to 2009 in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    DE Donno, A; Idolo, A; Quattrocchi, M; Zizza, A; Gabutti, G; Romano, A; Grima, P; Donatelli, I; Guido, M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of influenza virus co-infections in humans and changes in the genetic variability of A(H3N2) virus strains in southern Italy from 1999 to 2009. A partial sequence of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene by human influenza H3N2 strains identified in oropharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness was analysed by DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. During the seasons 1999-2000, 2002-2003, 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, the influenza viruses circulating belonged to subtype H3N2. However, A(H1N1) subtype virus and B type were respectively prevalent during the 2000-2001, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 seasons. The HA sequences appeared to be closely related to the sequence of the influenza A vaccine strain. Only the 2002-2003 season was characterized by co-circulation of two viral lineages: A/New York/55/01(H3N2)-like virus of the previous season and A/Fujian/411/02(H3N2)-like virus, a new H3 variant. In this study, over the decade analysed, no significant change was seen in the sequences of the HA gene of H3 viruses isolated.

  9. Biochemical and lysosomal biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Biomarkers are internationally recognized as useful tools in marine coastal biomonitoring, in particular, as early-warning signals at the level of individual organisms to assess biological effects of pollutants and other stressors. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis has been employed as a sentinel organism to assess biological pollution effects in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy), a coastal lagoon divided into two small inlets, connected to the open sea through one natural and one artificial narrow openings. Mussels were collected in June 2013 at three sites located within each of the two inlets of the Mar Piccolo. Biological effects were investigated through a suite of biomarkers suitable to reflect effects and/or exposure to contaminants at biochemical and cellular levels. Biochemical biomarkers included glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities; as histochemical biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscin and neutral lipid accumulation, and lysosomal structural changes were considered. As a whole, results highlighted differences among the three study sites, particularly for GST, AChE, and lipofuscins, which are consistent with the variations of the chemical pollutants in sediments. The applied biomarkers showed that a stress syndrome likely to be ascribed to environmental pollutants is occurring in mussels living in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, in particular, the ones inhabiting the first inlet.

  10. Landslides in tectonically active areas and their influence on sediment supply to basins: examples from Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; McDonald, Jordan

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are a key mechanism of sediment delivery from hillslopes and can produce volumes of sediment that are potentially significant for basin stratigraphy. In tectonically active areas, landslides are highly sensitive to tectonic and lithological boundary conditions, but this sensitivity and the impact that landslides have on the overall sediment supply from catchments remain largely unquantified. Here we use a combination of DEM analysis and fieldwork to quantify the distribution and volumes of landslides along the strike of active normal faults in Southern Italy, where fault throw rates and lithology are well constrained. We then explore the geomorphic, tectonic and lithological variables controlling landslide occurrence. Additionally, we compare the landslide distribution with the transient incision that is affecting footwall channels as a result of active normal faulting. Finally, we quantify the grain size distributions (GSD) supplied by landslides across different lithologies and landslide types, and we compare them with those being supplied by bedrock weathering. Our results show that landslide frequency is highly influenced by lithology and the amount of incision experienced by the catchments, and that landslides supply on average GSDs that are 50% coarser than those supplied by the weathering of the same lithology. Landslides triggered during landscape adjustment to tectonics therefore have a significant impact both on the volumes and grain sizes of sediment exported to neighbouring basins, and the development of transient stratigraphy.

  11. Use of SSR and retrotransposon-based markers to interpret the population structure of native grapevines from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Villano, Clizia; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Santoro, Xenia; Aversano, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    Native grapevines are the quintessential elements of Southern Italy winemaking, and genomic characterization plays a role of primary importance for preservation and sustainable use of these unexploited genetic resources. Among the various molecular techniques available, SSR and retrotransposons-based markers result to be the most valuable for cultivars and biotypes distinctiveness. A total of 62 accessions including 38 local grape cultivars were analyzed with 30 SSR, four REMAP and one IRAP markers to assess their genetic diversity and obtain a complete genomic profiling. The use of VrZAG79, VrZAG112, VVS2, VVMD25 and VVMD5 combined with retrotransposon-based markers proved to be the most discriminating and polymorphic markers for the rapid and unambiguous identification of minority grapevines from Campania region, which is considered one of the most appreciated Italian districts for wine production. Results revealed 58 SSR marker-specific alleles, 22 genotype-specific SSR alleles, and four REMAP and IRAP private bands. Cases of synonymy and homonymy were discovered. In conclusion, we provided evidences that the integrating SSR and retrotransposon-based markers is an effective strategy to assess the genetic diversity of autochthonous grapes, allowing their easy identification. PMID:24973024

  12. Geological and geophysical characterization of the south-eastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the south-eastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results of the in situ geophysical investigation. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) by earthquakes and ambient noise measurements were carried out in the study area. The results were supported by interpretation of aerial photos, geological field surveys, morphotectonic investigation and borehole data. The joint analysis of geological, ERT and HVSR data allowed us to (1) show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) characterize the geometry of an active landslide that caused damages to structures and infrastructures.

  13. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  14. Carbonate microfacies analysis of penecontemporaneous dolomites of the Carnian Travenanzes Formation (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebergall, Simon Michael; Breda, Anna; Preto, Nereo; Habler, Gerlinde; Peckmann, Jörn; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    clay abundance reflects a high siliciclastic input in an alluvial plain to marginal marine setting, the nodular dolomite is consistent with growth under vadose conditions, where solutes are transported by capillary flow. (2) Reworking and synsedimentary deformation indicate a depositional environment with temporarily high water energy, either due to tidal currents or storm events. Nevertheless, the lack of fossils precludes common marine conditions. The presence of evaporite minerals, even though they may have formed as secondary phases, suggests hypersaline conditions during deposition. (3) Laminated dolomites agree with formation in a hypersaline coastal ephemeral lake or sabkha environment. The lamination has been interpreted as a result of layered microbial mats, but could be alternatively explained by periodically alternating sediment input. Diverse facies distribution reflects alternating ephermal lake/peritidal and subaerial vadose conditions in a transitional marine to terrestrial environment. Accordingly, the mode of dolomite formation is expected to have varied along with the environmental conditions. Breda, A., Preto, N. (2011) Anatomy of an Upper Triassic continental to marginal-marine system: the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate Travenanzes Formation (Dolomites, Northern Italy). Sedimentology 58, 1613-1647. Preto et al. (2015) Primary dolomite in the Late Triassic Travenanzes Formation Dolomites, Northern Italy: Facies control and possible bacterial influence. Sedimentology 62, 697-716.

  15. Sulphuric acid speleogenesis and landscape evolution: Montecchio cave, Albegna river valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccini, Leonardo; De Waele, Jo; Galli, Ermanno; Polyak, Victor J.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2015-01-01

    Montecchio cave (Grosseto province, Tuscany, Italy) opens at 320 m asl, in a small outcrop of Jurassic limestone (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), close to the Albegna river. This area is characterised by the presence of several thermal springs and the outcropping of travertine deposits at different altitudes. The Montecchio cave, with passage length development of over 1700 m, is characterised by the presence of several sub-horizontal passages and many medium- and small-scale morphologies indicative of sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS). The thermal aquifer is intercepted at a depth of about 100 m below the entrance: the water temperature exceeds 30 °C and sulphate content is over 1300 mg l- 1. The cave hosts large gypsum deposits from 40 to 100 m below the entrance that are by-products of the reaction between sulphuric acid and the carbonate host rock. The lower part of the cave hosts over 1 m thick calcite cave raft deposits, which are evidence of long-standing, probably thermal, water in an evaporative environment related to significant air currents. Sulphur isotopes of gypsum have negative δ34S values (from - 28.3 to - 24.2‰), typical of SAS. Calcite cave rafts and speleogenetic gypsum both yield young U/Th ages varying from 68.5 ka to 2 ka BP, indicating a rapid phase of dewatering followed by gypsum precipitation in aerate environment. This fast water table lowering is related to a rapid incision of the nearby Albegna river, and was followed by a 20-30 m fluctuation of the thermal water table, as recorded in the calcite raft deposits and gypsum crusts.

  16. First hydroacoustic evidence of marine, active fluid vents in the Naples Bay continental shelf (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Genovese, Simona; Sacchi, Marco; Barra, Marco; Rumolo, Paola; Tamburrino, Stella; Mazzola, Salvatore; Basilone, Gualtiero; Placenti, Francesco; Aronica, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of a multidisciplinary research aimed at the detection and mapping of Active Fluid Vents (AFVs) at the seafloor of the Naples Bay, Italy. This segment of the Campania continental margin is characterised by severe Quaternary extension and intense volcanism at Ischia and Procida islands, the Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complexes. High resolution hydroacoustic profilers were used to identify and localize fluid emission from the seafloor. ROV direct observation showed that each emission centre is generally composed by the coalescence of several emitting points. CTD probes showed that there are no significant gradients in temperature profiles. The results of this study include the detection and mapping of 54 fluid emission points all located in the - 71/- 158 m depth range, and spatially distributed into four main clusters. Three of the described clusters are located along the margin of a complex, toe-shaped seafloor morphology southwest of the Somma-Vesuvius, representing the shallow expression of partly buried, coalesced depositional features (namely, two flank collapses and one pyroclastic flow) associated with the Late Pleistocene activity of the volcano. The fourth AFV cluster was detected at the morphological - high, located about 8 km south of Naples (Banco della Montagna), represented by a field of volcaniclastic diapirs composed of massive pumiceous deposits originated from the Campi Flegrei intruding rising through the latest Quaternary-Holocene marine deposits. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AFV in this area could be genetically linked to the interaction between volcanic related seafloor morphologies and the main, NE striking faults present in the area, i.e. the Magnaghi-Sebeto line and the Vesuvian fault.

  17. A river-dominated delta in Naples harbour (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea margin, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, A.; Marsella, E.; Sammartino, S.

    2003-04-01

    Naples Harbour is located on the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea margin between the volcanic areas of the Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius. Volcanic products are consequently interlayered within the sedimentary succession of Naples Harbour. The interpreation of high resolution seismic reflection profiles and cores permitted to investigate the depositional systems that characterized the highstand systems tract between 10-50 m of water depth. In addition, a multibeam survey permitted to image the morphology of the sea floor. The harbour results characterized by a regressive/progradational coast river dominated. We recognize two depositional systems younger than 4 ka: the oldest one is elongated toward northwest and dominated by shoreface processes; the youngest one instead located in front of the river dominated by submarine channel-levees processes. This change in the depositional system distribution with time was probably induced by a change in the hydrodinamic regimes.

  18. Epidemiology and genetics of FTD: a door-to-door survey in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Colao, Rosanna; Puccio, Gianfranco; Curcio, Sabrina AM; Mirabelli, Maria; Maletta, Raffaele; Anfossi, Maria; Gallo, Maura; Geracitano, Silvana; Conidi, Maria Elena; Di Lorenzo, Raffale; Clodomiro, Alessandra; Cupidi, Chiara; Marzano, Sandra; Comito, Francesco; Valenti, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Maria Angela; Ghani, Mahdi; Xi, Zhengrui; Sato, Christine; Moreno, Danielle; Borelli, Annelisa; Leone, Rosa Anna; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Bruni, Amalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate FTD prevalence, identify FTD-related mutations, correlate FTD phenotype with mutations in a Southern Italian population. Methods Study population consisting of subjects ≥50 years of age residing in the Community of Biv. on January 1, 2004. Door-to-door two-phase design. Genetic and biochemical analyses were done on samples collected from 32 patients. Results Prevalence rates were 0.6 for AD, 0.4 for VD, 3.5 for FTD, 0.2 for Parkinson Dementia and 1.2 for unspecified dementia. Three GRN (one known and two novel) mutations with reduced plasma protein levels were found associated to three distinct phenotypes (behavioural, affective and delirious type). Conclusions We report an unusually high FTD prevalence in the investigated population, but a low prevalence of AD. We confirm the heterogeneity of FTD phenotype associated with different GRN mutations. PMID:22819134

  19. New data on the paleogeography of Southern Tuscany (Italy) since Late Miocene time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandeli, E.; Bartolini, C.; Dini, A.; Antolini, E.

    2010-09-01

    In order to add new data to the knowledge of the paleogeography of Southern Tuscany and the Tuscan shelf, a multidisciplinary study on the petrology and distribution of magmatic clasts of the widely exposed Messinian, Pliocene, and Quaternary sediments in Southern Tuscany was carried out. The magmatic clasts consist of porphyric aplites and subordinate granite porphyries, which derive from eroded subvolcanic acidic bodies. The porphyric aplite clasts were analyzed in detail to define their textural, petrographic, and chemical (major and trace elements, Sr and Nd isotopic composition) features. The porphyric aplite clasts show strong affinities with the 8.4-7.9 Ma old Capo Bianco aplite, whereas the granite porphyry clasts have affinities with the Portoferraio porphyry (ca. 8 Ma) which intruded the Cretaceous and Paleogene Flysch Units and the Ophiolitic Unit in central-western Elba Island (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea). The present outcrops of the Capo Bianco aplite in central Elba Island cannot be considered as the source rock for the Late Messinian gravels, because at that time such Capo Bianco aplite (located at the lower portion of the laccolitic stack) was there buried at several kilometers depth. However, other Capo Bianco-like aplitic bodies outcropped during the latest Miocene in the host rocks above and also around the 6.8 Ma M. Capanne Pluton in the western Elba areas. The exposure of such bodies was made possible by the activation of the central Elba detachment fault (=CEF), due to the uplift of the M. Capanne pluton. This uplift displaced a significant portion of the cover (including the upper portion of the laccolithic stack) of the granitoid body at about 6, 7 Ma, thus allowing the erosion of the lower part of the laccolith complex made up of the Capo Bianco aplite and of the Portoferraio porphyry and leaving still buried the M. Capanne pluton. The paleogeographic picture of Southern Tuscany arising from the collected evidences is the following: during

  20. Unmasking the 1349 earthquake source (southern Italy): paleoseismological and archaeoseismological indications from the Aquae Iuliae fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Paolo Antonio Costantino; Naso, José Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The 9th September, 1349, earthquake was one of the most catastrophic events experienced along the Apennines. At least three main shocks struck a vast area of the Molise-Latium-Abruzzi regions, and damage was even sustained by the distant monumental buildings of Rome. The southern-most shock (Mw ˜ 6.7) occurred at the border between southern Latium and western Molise, razing to the ground the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, amongst others, and devastating Montecassino Abbey. As with other Medieval catastrophic sequences (e.g., in December 1456, Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0), this earthquake has not yet been associated to any seismogenic source; thus, it still represents a thorn in the flesh of earthquake geologists. We have here carried out a reappraisal of the effects of this earthquake, and through an interpretation of aerial photographs and a field survey, we have carried out paleoseismological analyses across a poorly known, ˜N130 normal fault that crosses the Molise-Campania border. This structure showed repeated surface ruptures during the late Holocene, the last one of which fits excellently with the 1349 event, both in terms of the dating and the rupture dimension. On the other hand, archaeoseismic analyses have also indicated the faulting of an Augustean aqueduct. The amount of apparent offset of the aqueduct across the fault traces shows that there were other surface faulting event(s) during the Roman-High Middle-Age period. Therefore, in trying to ascertain whether these events were associated with known (potentially of 346 AD or 848 AD), or unknown earthquakes in the area, it became possible that this ˜20-km-long fault (here named the Aquae Iuliae fault) is characterized by high slip rates and a short recurrence time. This is in agreement with both the similar behaviour of the neighbouring northern Matese fault system, and with recent GPS analyses showing unexpectedly high extension rates in this area.

  1. Broadband waveform inversion of moderate earthquakes in the Messina Straits, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    We report the first application of the Cut and Paste (CAP) method to compute earthquake focal mechanisms in the Messina Straits area by waveform inversion of Pnl and surface wave segments. This application of CAP has furnished new knowledge about low-magnitude earthquake mechanics that will be useful for improved understanding of the local geodynamics. This is possible because the CAP inversion technique can be applied to small earthquakes, for which traditional moment tensor inversion methods are not appropriate and P-onset focal mechanisms in the study area fail because of a lack of sufficient observations. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 23 earthquakes with local magnitudes in the range of 3-4 occurring in the 2004-2008 time period, and recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in the northern part of the study area while co-existence of normal faulting and strike-slip has been detected in the southern part. In the whole area of investigation the T-axes of focal mechanisms display a preferential northwest-southeast direction of extension. Combined with the findings of previous investigations, this improved database of focal mechanisms allows us to better detail the transitional area between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (western-central Sicily). The observed spatial change of seismic deformation regime offers new data to current seismotectonic and seismic hazard investigations in the area of Messina Straits where a magnitude 7.2 earthquake caused more than 60,000 casualties on 28 December 1908.

  2. Almond tree and organic fertilization for soil quality improvement in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Masciandaro, Grazia; Mennone, Carmelo; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2012-03-01

    The semi-arid Mediterranean region, characterized by long dry periods followed by heavy bursts of rainfall, is particularly prone to soil erosion. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the soil quality under different practices of bio-physical amelioration which involve the soil-plant system (almond trees) and microorganism-manure. This study, carried out in the South of Italy (Basilicata Region- Pantanello farm), considered two types of fertilization (mineral and organic) and three slope gradients (0, 2 and 6%), in order to evaluate the effects of management practices in resisting soil erosion. Chemical (organic carbon and nitrogen), physical (soil shrinkage and bulk density) and biochemical (dehydrogenase activity and hydrolytic enzyme activities) parameters were selected as markers to follow agro-ecological changes with time. The organic treatment affected soil microbiological and physico-chemical properties by increasing soil nutrient availability, microbial activity, and improving soil structure. The consistently higher values of the hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease) often observed in the presence of plants and on the 0 and 2% slopes, suggested the stimulation of nutrient cycles by tree roots, which improve the conditions for soil microorganisms in carrying out their metabolic activity. In the 6% slope and, in particular, in the mineral fertilizer treatment, soil metabolism was lower as suggested by the dehydrogenase activity which was 50% lower than that found in the 0 and 2% slopes, this seemed to be related to a slowdown in the nutrient cycling and organic carbon metabolism. However, on this slope, in both mineral and organic treatments, a significant stimulation of hydrolytic enzyme activities and an improvement of soil structure (reduction of bulk density of about 10% and increase in total shrinkage from 20 to 60%) were observed with plants compared to the control soil. The combination of organic

  3. Flood and landslide multiple hazard and the effect on the road network (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Polemio, Maurizio; Aurora Pasqua, Angela

    2010-05-01

    Intense and/or prolonged rainy periods can lead to the development of territorial crisis during which landslides and floods simultaneously trigger on wide areas. During these crises the possibility to manage the emergency phases and ensure the maintenance of man activities which are usually carried out in the hit area is mainly tied to the road network efficiency. Unfortunately, in areas characterized by rugged morphology, long road tracks pass through unstable lands which are frequently affected by landslide phenomena. At the same time, on coastal areas the road network is most intensely exposed to the action of rivers, especially if the bridges crossing them are not enough wide to convey also ordinary river floods. This situation can be easily recognized in many areas all around the world: in the present work we present the methodological approach and an exemplificative case study on a test area located in Calabria (South Italy). Here, also because of a low efficiency of the road network, during heavy rainfall periods, landslides and floods cause several traffic interruptions which hinder or set back the movements of people and stuffs and, in the most severe cases, make difficult emergency management actions. Data concerning damage caused to the road network by landslides and floods have been extracted from a wide archive containing data on historical landslides and floods occurred through the past centuries all over the region. For the selected study area these data have been uploaded in a GIS, in order to obtain the phenomena/damage distribution during the most severe rainfall events occurred through the past century. Data concerning triggering rainfall, extracted from a regional rainfall database, have been treated in order to schematize some main models of rainfall/phenomena distribution which occurred in the past and can be used for preventive measures. The results of this activity can be exploited for practical purposes, to define scenarios and strategies

  4. Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper

  5. Landscape response to normal fault growth and linkage in the Southern Apennines, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2016-04-01

    It is now well-established that landscape can record spatial and temporal variations in tectonic rates. However, decoding this information to extract detailed histories of fault growth is often a complex problem that requires careful integration of tectonic and geomorphic data sets. Here, we present new data addressing both normal fault evolution and coupled landscape response for two normal faults in the Southern Apennines: the Vallo di Diano and East Agri faults. By integrating published constraints with new data, we show that these faults have total throws of up to 2100 m, and Holocene throw rates of up to 1 mm/yr at their maximum. We demonstrate that geomorphology is effectively recording tectonics, with relief, channel and catchment slopes varying along fault strike as normal fault activity does. Therefore, valuable information about fault growth and interaction can be extracted from their geomorphic expression. We use the spatial distribution of knickpoints on the footwall channels to infer two episodes of base level change, which can be associated with distinct fault interaction events. From our detailed fault throw profiles, we reconstruct the amount of throw accumulated after each of these events, and the segments involved in each, and we use slip rate enhancement factors derived from fault interaction theory to estimate the magnitude of the tectonic perturbation in each case. From this approach, we are able to reconstruct pre-linkage throw rates, and we estimate that fault linkage events likely took place 0.7 ± 0.2 Ma and 1.9 ± 0.6 Ma in the Vallo di Diano fault, and 1.1 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.9 Ma in the East Agri fault. Our study suggests that both faults started their activity at 3.6 ± 0.5 Ma. These fault linkage scenarios are consistent with the knickpoint heights, and may relate to soft-linkage interaction with the Southern Apennines normal fault array, the existence of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Our combined geomorphic and

  6. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  7. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption. PMID:25912965

  8. Stability model and risk assessment for the Montescaglioso Landslide (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanti, Marco; Chiessi, Vittorio; Guarino, Paolo Maria; Spizzichino, Daniele; Troccoli, Alessandro; Vizzini, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the final results of a landslide risk assessment evaluation implemented for the recent Montescaglioso landslide emergency occurred on 3rd December 2013 when a large and rapid slope failure, triggered by prolonged and intense rainfall, affected a big portion of the SW slope of the village. The slope failure damaged a main road, private homes and commercial buildings. The Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, Italy) is located on the top of a conglomerate hill overlying a gentle slope constituted by Plio-Pleistocene clays. The area has been affected since ancient time by different landslide typologies and mechanism, as determined by a direct geomorphological survey and from mapping and available technical literature. Phenomena such as rock-falls and rock lateral spreading in the upper part of the hill, and rotational/translational slides and earth flows can be recognized in the area. Landslides are mainly promoted by the geological and structural setting of the area as well as by very low mechanical characteristics of sediments outcropping in the area. After the emergency phase, a detailed program of field survey and laboratory campaign has been implemented during the last year. A detailed topographical analysis has been developed by using the LIDAR survey in order to define morphometric conditions and geometry modifications of the slope affected by the landslide. Based on the studies carried out in the area, the research has been aimed to assessing the stability conditions (residual landslide risk) of the SW slope of the hill trough an extended geological, geomorphological and geotechnical campaign linked with numerical study of present instability mechanism. The geological and geotechnical model of the slope has been defined trough the analysis of the past and recent logs obtained from several boreholes and also through the results of many mechanical test performed on samples taken in the area. The numerical study has been carried out

  9. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  10. Geomorphic signature of active tectonics in the southern Abruzzi Periadriatic hilly belt (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racano, Simone; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Centamore, Ernesto; Dramis, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The geo-structural setting of the southern Abruzzi hilly belt that stretches from the northeastern front of the Maiella Massif to the Adriatic coast is characterized by deep-seated northeast verging thrusts masked by a thick cover of Late Pliocene-Middle Pleistocene marine deposits. Most authors consider this area tectonically inactive while only few of them support the hypothesis of its recent activity from the analysis of the river network pattern. Geological and geomorphological investigations carried out in the area have clearly shown the occurrence of surface deformations resulting from the continued activity of compressive tectonics up to recent times. The analysis of the study area by of a 10 m resolution DTM (using the open-source QGIS software) confirmed and supplemented field observations. Particularly significant in this context is the topographic setting of the alluvial strath terraces in the river valleys that develop transversally to the buried thrusts. In correspondence of these structures, topographic highs have grown up displacing the middle-Pleistocene planation surface developed on top of the hilly belt, from the Maiella piedmont to the coastal zone, and diverting laterally the river courses uphill. In the same places, as along the Alento and Foro rivers that cross by antecedence the grown up topographic highs, the long profiles of terraces bend eastward and the height difference between the terrace orders, essentially related all around the area to the Quaternary regional uplift, strongly increases. In some cases, surficial faults have lowered the terraces into graben troughs or have displaced them until assuming an uphill trend. This recent tectonic activity should be taken in account in assessing the seismic hazard of the study area.

  11. 3D Strucutural Geological Model of the Alpi Mt. Area (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Bruna, Vincenzo; Lamarche, Juliette; Viseur, Sophie; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The study area is located in the inner portion of the southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. The Alpi Mt. is the only portion of the Apulian domain cropping in this sector. In fact, it is considered as a structural analogue of the Val d'Agri and Tempa Rossa reservoirs (Basilicata). The Alpi Mt. tectonic unit is composed of two main cronostratigraphic intervals, represented by a 2000m-thick Mesozoic carbonate succession and a Messinian mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession. The Messinian interval is made up of a Lower Messinian sedimentary cycle, wich form a paraconformity with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates, and an Upper Messinian cycle characterized by a marked unconformity at the bottom. This study aims to better understand the role exerted by the precontractional tectonic structures during the Messinian interval, wich are responsible for the development of the sedimentary angular unconformity. To reach this goal, a 3D structural geological model was build up by using the Gocad(R) software. The construction of the 3D model was gained through the integration of several results related to geological field mapping, well log analysis and seismic reflection data. Focusing on the Upper Messinian sedimentary horizon, in order to achieve the true geometry and kinematics of the high-angle extensional faults that bound the sedimentary depocenters, the model was restored through vertical line methodology. This process allows to obtain more information about location, geometry, and sedimentary depocenter orientations. Furthermore, the 3D structural model brings some important results from the 3D fault analysis that are represented by attitude, geometry and dimensional parameters of the fault network that affect the study area.

  12. Block modeling of Crustal Velocity in Italy and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, E.; Battaglia, M.; Murray, M. H.; Burgmann, R.

    2004-12-01

    We use GPS measurements and block modeling to investigate the present-day deformation of the Italian peninsula and surrounding regions. The central Mediterranean displays an assemblage of lithospheric blocks with different structural and kinematics features and a variety of geodynamic processes, including subduction, back-arc spreading, rifting, thrusting, normal and strike-slip faulting, trapped between the relatively rigid African and Eurasian plates, for which global plate motion models predict a NW-SE convergence at about 7 mm/yr. The block model incorporates secular velocity and fault geometry estimates, as well as elastic strain accumulation. With this model we can assess whether different hypotheses are compatible with geodetic data, estimates of fault slip rates and locking depths, areas of rigid block rotation, and regions of anomalous strain accumulation. We present a geodetic velocity solution for Italy and surrounding areas, obtained from the analysis of continuous and survey-mode Global Positioning System observations collected between 1991 and 2002. The velocities are relative to a stable Eurasian frame. The block model shows extension in the Apennines, shortening in the central Alps, Dinarides and Ionian Island (Epiro coast), and right-lateral slip along the Kefallinia fault zone. The predicted faults slip rates are in good agreement with geodetic and geologic observations. The deformation pattern observed in the Adriatic domain suggests that the Adriatic is a microplate (Adria) and that the southern boundary with the Nubia plate and the Aegean domain may be located along the Apulia Escarpment and the Kefallinia fault.

  13. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy). In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean) and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount) located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of spring discharges, allowed us to

  14. Sediment yield estimation in mountain catchments of the Camastra reservoir, southern Italy: a comparison among different empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Danese, Maria; Gioia, Dario; Piccarreta, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Sedimentary budget estimation is an important topic for both scientific and social community, because it is crucial to understand both dynamics of orogenic belts and many practical problems, such as soil conservation and sediment accumulation in reservoir. Estimations of sediment yield or denudation rates in southern-central Italy are generally obtained by simple empirical relationships based on statistical regression between geomorphic parameters of the drainage network and the measured suspended sediment yield at the outlet of several drainage basins or through the use of models based on sediment delivery ratio or on soil loss equations. In this work, we perform a study of catchment dynamics and an estimation of sedimentary yield for several mountain catchments of the central-western sector of the Basilicata region, southern Italy. Sediment yield estimation has been obtained through both an indirect estimation of suspended sediment yield based on the Tu index (mean annual suspension sediment yield, Ciccacci et al., 1980) and the application of the Rusle (Renard et al., 1997) and the USPED (Mitasova et al., 1996) empirical methods. The preliminary results indicate a reliable difference between the RUSLE and USPED methods and the estimation based on the Tu index; a critical data analysis of results has been carried out considering also the present-day spatial distribution of erosion, transport and depositional processes in relation to the maps obtained from the application of those different empirical methods. The studied catchments drain an artificial reservoir (i.e. the Camastra dam), where a detailed evaluation of the amount of historical sediment storage has been collected. Sediment yield estimation obtained by means of the empirical methods have been compared and checked with historical data of sediment accumulation measured in the artificial reservoir of the Camastra dam. The validation of such estimations of sediment yield at the scale of large catchments

  15. Late Quaternary tectonics in the inner Northern Apennines (Siena Basin, southern Tuscany, Italy) and their seismotectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Martini, Ivan; Picozzi, Matteo; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Defining the most recent Quaternary tectonics represents a challenging task for neotectonic, palaeoseismological and seismotectonic studies. This paper focuses on an integrated approach to reconstructing the latest Quaternary deformation affecting the northern part of the Siena Basin (inner Northern Apennines, i.e., southern Tuscany, Italy) near the town of Siena, and to discuss the seismological implications. Field work and structural and stratigraphic analyses, coupled with the interpretation of reflection seismic lines, have been combined to define the geometry, kinematics and age of mesoscopic to map-scale faults which have affected the mainly Quaternary continental and Pliocene marine deposits. The resulting dataset describes a tectonic setting characterized by coeval SW- and NW-trending transtensional and normal faults, respectively, dissecting alluvial sediments younger than 23.9 ± 0.23 ka. Seismic interpretation sheds light on the geometrical setting of the faults at deeper levels, down to 1-2 km, and provides support for the presence of a wide brittle shear zone defined by conjugated fault segments, locally giving rise to an asymmetrical negative flower-like structure. Faults and their damage zones have controlled (and still control) the discharge of gas vents (mainly CO2 and H2S) and hydrothermal circulation (which deposits travertine) since at least 23.216 ± 0.124 ka. The resulting complete data set provides support for our description of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonics which were active until the late Quaternary, providing additional information about the seismotectonic framework of an area characterized by low seismicity and generally low-magnitude earthquakes (M < 4), but having experienced significant seismic events over the last few centuries.

  16. A prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the Mt. Vesuvius area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Capelli, G

    2001-12-13

    A dog microfilariae prevalence and risk factor survey was conducted in 51 contiguous municipalities of the Mt. Vesuvius area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding filarial worms in this zone. Between May 1999 and June 2000, blood samples were collected from 351 asymptomatic dogs. Blood samples were examined using a modified Knott's technique and histochemical staining in order to count and identify microfilariae. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and choroplethic municipal maps (MMs) were drawn by a geographical information system (GIS) software. Microfilariae were detected in 63 of the 351 dogs surveyed, constituting a total filarial prevalence of 17.9%. In particular, 56 dogs (15.9%) showed only microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum; three dogs (0.8%) only microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens; two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both D. reconditum and D. repens and two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. High D. reconditum prevalence was associated with hunting practice, masculine gender and older dogs. There was also a tendency to find high prevalence in dogs sampled in the afternoon. In conclusion, the presence of microfilariae of D. reconditum in 92% of microfilaraemic dogs indicates that this filarial worm was the predominant filarial species in dogs in the Mt. Vesuvius area. In addition, the general trends of the MMs showed that D. immitis and D. repens were present only in a few municipalities, whereas D. reconditum was widely and homogeneously spread throughout the entire study area.

  17. Volcanic soils and landslides: the case study of the Ischia island (southern Italy) and relationship with other Campania events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Mele, G.; De Mascellis, R.; Terribile, F.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated investigation has been carried out over the soils involved in the landslide phenomena occurred in the 2006 at Mt. Vezzi in the Ischia island (southern Italy). Chemical, physical (i.e. particle size distribution, hydrological analyses and direct measurements of soil porosity), mineralogical and micromorphological properties of three soil profiles selected in two of the main detachment crowns were analysed. The studied soils, having a volcanic origin, showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity of all the studied properties in correspondence of the 2C horizon, also identified as sliding surface of the landslide phenomena. With respect to the above horizons, the 2C showed (i) as a grey fine ash, almost pumices free, with a silt content increased by the 20%, (ii) ks values one order of magnitude lower, (iii) a porosity concentrated in the small size (15 to 30 μm modal class) pores characterized by very low percolation threshold (around 15-25 μm), (iv) occurrence of expandable clay minerals and (v) higher Na content in the exchange complex. Therefore, most of these properties indicated 2C as a lower permeability horizon than the above. Nevertheless, only the identification of a thin (6.5 mm) finely stratified ash layer on the top of 2C enabled to assume this interface as an impeding layer to vertical and horizontal water fluxes, as testified by the hydromorphic features (e.g. Fe / Mn concretions) within and on the top of the layer. Despite the Mt. Vezzi soil environment has many properties (high gradient northern facing slope, similar forestry, volcanic origin of the parent material) in common with those of many Campania debris-mud flows, the results of this study did not support the found relationship between Andosols and debris-mudflows, but emphasize the role of vertical discontinuities as landslide predisposing factor.

  18. Time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity tomographies for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata Region, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Raffaele; de Bari, Claudia; Calamita, Giuseppe; Loperte, Antonio; Perrone, Angela; Satriani, Antonio; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The rainwater infiltration into the soil and the increase of pore water pressure in the vadose zone can be considered the main causes of shallow landslides triggering. The standard techniques used to measure the water content of the soil and the piezometric levels in areas of potential instability are the TDR method and the piezometric measurements, respectively. These techniques, while allowing to obtain direct information of the considered parameter, provide a punctual information about the specific hydrological characteristics of the investigated soil. Recently, the literature reports many examples of applications of indirect methods for the study and the estimate of water content in the first layers of the subsoil. In particular, the 2D electrical resistivity tomography has been applied for obtaining information about the temporal and spatial patterns of water infiltration processes. This paper reports the results obtained in the area affected by the Picerno landslide (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), which represents one of the test sites of Morfeo project (Monitoraggio e Rischio da Frana mediante dati EO) funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The studied slope has been frequently involved in reactivation phenomena the most recent of which occurred on March 2006. In the area, we have installed a prototype system for time-dependent analysis of electrical resistivity images and TDR measurements. The geophysical results are opportunely integrated with the piezometric data. The system is composed of a 48-channel cable connected to the georesistivimeter Syscal Pro Switch 48, the electrodes are placed at a distance of 1 m. Two holes used to measure the piezometric level and another four equipped with TDR probes are located along the acquisition profile. The electrical resistivity tomographies and the water content measurements are performed with time intervals selected by considering the rainfall intensity and frequency. The first preliminary result of this

  19. Degradation Pathways for Geogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Soil Gases from the Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Cabassi, J.; Capecchiacci, F.; Nisi, B., Sr.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases from the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) was analyzed to investigate the effects of biogeochemical processes occurring within the crater soil on gases discharged from the hydrothermal reservoir and released into the atmosphere through diffuse degassing. In this system, two fumarolic vents (namely Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova) are the preferential pathways for hydrothermal fluid uprising. For our goal, the chemistry of VOCs discharged from these sites were compared to that of soil gases. Our results highlighted that C4-C9 alkanes, alkenes, S-bearing compounds and alkylated aromatics produced at depth were the most prone to degradation processes, such as oxidation-reduction and hydration-dehydration reactions, as well as to microbial activity. Secondary products, which were enriched in sites characterized by low soil gas fluxes, mostly consisted of aldheydes, ketons, esters, ethers, organic acids and, subordinately, alcohols. Benzene, phenol and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) produced at depth were able to transit through the soil almost undisturbed, independently on the emission rate of diffuse degassing. The presence of cyclics was possibly related to an independent low-temperature VOC source, likely within sedimentary formations overlying the hydrothermal reservoir. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were possibly due to air contamination. This study demonstrated the strict control of biogeochemical processes on the behaviour of hydrothermal VOCs that, at least at a local scale, may have a significant impact on air quality. Laboratory experiments conducted at specific chemical-physical conditions and in presence of different microbial populations may provide useful information for the reconstruction of the degradation pathways controlling fate and behaviour of VOCs in the soil.

  20. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  1. A stable isotope study of fossil mammal remains from the Paglicci cave, Southern Italy. N and C as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacumin, P.; Bocherens, H.; Delgado Huertas, A.; Mariotti, A.; Longinelli, A.

    1997-04-01

    A set of 102 tooth and bone samples of Pleistocene age (32,600-13,300 yr BP) belonging to the species Cervus elaphus, Bos primigenius and Equus caballus and coming from the Paglicci cave (Southern Italy) was studied for the carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotopic composition of bone and dentine collage and for the carbon (δ 13C c) isotopic composition of tooth enamel carbonate. The amount of collagen extracted from bone and tooth samples (mg/g) was rather variable, representing approximately only 0.5-15% of the collagen present in a fresh bone. However, the loss of an important fraction of the original collagen during diagenesis did not change the in vivo isotopic composition. In general, when the δ 13C of both collagen and carbonate and the δ 15N of collagen obtained from each level for the three species are compared, wild ox shows the most increased values, deer the most decreased values and horse shows intermediate results. These differences are probably related to distinct diets or to differences in their physiological behaviour. However, the isotopic results suggest that the three species considered lived in an open environment with a diet based on C 3 plants. The stratigraphic sequence of light and heavy nitrogen isotope values between 19,000 and 15,000 may be related to shifts from arid to humid conditions, while the overall trend shown by δ 13C toward lighter values may be related to a progressive development of a forest habitat.

  2. Crustal Stress and Strain Distribution in Sicily (Southern Italy) from Joint Analysis of Seismicity and Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presti, D.; Neri, G.; Aloisi, M.; Cannavo, F.; Orecchio, B.; Palano, M.; Siligato, G.; Totaro, C.

    2014-12-01

    An updated database of earthquake focal mechanisms is compiled for the Sicilian region (southern Italy) and surrounding off-shore areas where the Nubia-Eurasia convergence coexists with the very-slow residual rollback of the Ionian subducting slab. High-quality solutions selected from literature and catalogs have been integrated with new solutions estimated in the present work using the Cut And Paste (CAP) waveform inversion method. In the CAP algorithm (Zhao and Helmberger, 1994; Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), each waveform is broken up into Pnl and surface wave segments, which are weighted differently during the inversion procedure. Integration of the new solutions with the ones selected from literature and official catalogs led us to collect a database consisting exclusively of waveform inversion data relative to earthquakes with minimum magnitude 2.6. The seismicity and focal mechanism distributions have been compared with crustal motion and strain data coming from GNSS analyses. For this purpose GNSS-based observations collected over the investigated area by episodic measurements (1994-2013) as well as continuous monitoring (since 2006) were processed by the GAMIT/GLOBK software packages (Herring et al., 2010) following the approach described in Palano et al. (2011). To adequately investigate the crustal deformation pattern, the estimated GNSS velocities were aligned to a fixed Eurasian reference frame. The good agreement found between seismic and geodetic information contributes to better define seismotectonic domains characterized by different kinematics. Moving from the available geophysical information and from an early application of FEM algorithms, we have also started to investigate stress/strain fields in the crust of the study area including depth dependence and relationships with rupture of the main seismogenic structures.

  3. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations.

  4. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Di Pietro, Francesco; Frisiello, Michele; Di Pietro, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS) to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep) populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%). The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4%) supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected) sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  5. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  6. Evidences of a lithospheric fault zone in the Sicily Channel continental rift (southern Italy) from instrumental seismicity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, M.; Parisi, L.

    2014-10-01

    Sicily Channel is a portion of Mediterranean Sea, between Sicily (Southern Italy) and Tunisia, representing a part of the foreland Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt. The seismicity of the region is commonly associated with the normal faulting related to the rifting process and volcanic activity of the region. However, certain seismic patterns suggest the existence of some mechanism coexisting with the rifting process. In this work, we present the results of a statistical analysis of the instrumental seismicity and a reliable relocalization of the events recorded in the last 30 yr in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method and 3-D Vp and Vs tomographic models. Our procedure allows us to discern the seismic regime of the Sicily sea from the Tyrrhenian one and to describe the main features of an active fault zone in the study area that could not be related to the rifting process. We report that most of the events are highly clustered in the region between 12.5°-13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth of 5-40 km, and reaching 70 km depth in the southernmost sector. The alignment of the seismic clusters, the distribution of volcanic and geothermal regions and the location of some large events occurred in the last century suggest the existence of a subvertical shear zone extending for least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial distribution of the seismic moment suggests that this transfer fault zone is seismically discontinuous showing large seismic gaps in proximity of the Ferdinandea Island, and Graham and Nameless Bank.

  7. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination. PMID:26706907

  8. Groundwater recharge assessment at local and episodic scale in a soil mantled perched karst aquifer in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, V.; De Vita, P.; Manna, F.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Groundwater recharge assessment of karst aquifers, at various spatial and temporal scales, is a major scientific topic of current importance, since these aquifers play an essential role for both socio-economic development and fluvial ecosystems. In this study, groundwater recharge was estimated at local and episodic scales in a representative perched karst aquifer in a region of southern Italy with a Mediterranean climate. The research utilized measurements of precipitation, air temperature, soil water content, and water-table depth, obtained in 2008 at the Acqua della Madonna test area (Terminio Mount karst aquifer, Campania region). At this location the aquifer is overlain by ash-fall pyroclastic soils. The Episodic Master Recession (EMR) method, an improved version of the Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method, was applied to estimate the amount of recharge generated episodically by individual rainfall events. The method also quantifies the amount of precipitation generating each recharge episode, thus permitting calculation of the Recharge to the Precipitation Ratio (RPR) on a storm-by-storm basis. Depending on the seasonally varying air temperature, evapotranspiration, and precipitation patterns, calculated values of RPR varied between 35% and 97% among the individual episodes. A multiple linear correlation of the RPR with both the average intensity of recharging rainfall events and the antecedent soil water content was calculated. Given the relatively easy measurability of precipitation and soil water content, such an empirical model would have great hydrogeological and practical utility. It would facilitate short-term forecasting of recharge in karst aquifers of the Mediterranean region and other aquifers with similar hydrogeological characteristics. By establishing relationships between the RPR and climate-dependent variables such as average storm intensity, it would facilitate prediction of climate-change effects on groundwater recharge. The EMR methodology

  9. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using satellite VEGETATION, MODIS, TM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, C.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Therefore variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 1998 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different type of environmenta diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective is to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at different temporal and

  10. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using VEGETATION, MODIS, TM satellite time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didonna, I.; Coluzzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 2000 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION, MODIS and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different types of environmental diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective was to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at differen temporal and

  11. Hydrochemical features of groundwater in a coastal gypsum karst (Marina di Lesina, Gargano, Southern Italy) in relation to tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Campana, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    As part of a complex monitoring aimed at collecting suitable data for conceptual and numerical modelling of the coastal gypsum karst of Marina di Lesina (Gargano, Southern Italy), 64 groundwater samples were collected during three surveys at different depths from 9 monitoring wells aligned along two transects. The transects, perpendicular to the Acquarotta canal, are less of 1 Km long. The canal is directly connected to the sea and to the Lesina Lagoon and behaves as an oscillating border following sea tides. The sampling campaigns were carried out concurrently to phases of increasing, decreasing, and low tide and provide different frameworks of the chemical composition of ground waters. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) of ground water samples ranges from 0.2 g/l to 35 g/l and increases generally along the flow lines towards the canal, and downward. The concentrations of the major ions deviate from theoretical ones defined by non-reactive mixing lines, which have as saline end-member either standard seawater or local seawater sampled offshore.Owing to the multi-component character of the hydrochemical system, the cation concentrations are controlled by competition among concurrent water-rock interaction processes that overlap to non-reactive freshwater-saltwater (FW-SW) mixing, being even triggered and/or enhanced by the same mixing, with feedback loops: gypsum and calcite dissolution, ion exchange (with direction depending on hydrodynamic conditions mainly driven by tides, and justified due to the presence of clay in the gypsum bedrock), and dedolomitization. The geochemical study also highlights the involvement of saline ground waters belonging to regional circuits that develop in the huge Mesozoic carbonate basement. The study highlights that in the saturated thickness of the gypsum coastal aquifer closer to the coast, the hydrochemical system is extremely reactive and strongly influenced by the different groundwater hydraulic conditions induced by the tide phases.

  12. Field test of a multi-frequency electromagnetic induction sensor for soil moisture monitoring in southern Italy test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calamita, G.; Perrone, A.; Brocca, L.; Onorati, B.; Manfreda, S.

    2015-10-01

    Soil moisture is a variable of paramount importance for a number of natural processes and requires the capacity to be routinely measured at different spatial and temporal scales (e.g., hillslope and/or small catchment scale). The electromagnetic induction (EMI) method is one of the geophysical techniques potentially useful in this regard. Indeed, it does not require contact with the ground, it allows a relatively fast survey of hillslope, it gives information related to soil depth greater than few centimetres and it can also be used in wooded areas. In this study, apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil moisture (SM) measurements were jointly carried out by using a multi-frequency EMI sensor (GEM-300) and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probes, respectively. The aim was to retrieve SM variations at the hillslope scale over four sites, characterized by different land-soil units, located in a small mountainous catchment in southern Italy. Repeated measurements of ECa carried out over a fixed point showed that the signal variability of the GEM-300 sensor (Std. Err. ∼[0.02-0.1 mS/m]) was negligible. The correlation estimated between point ECa and SM, measured with both portable and buried TDR probes, varied between 0.24 and 0.58, depending on the site considered. In order to reduce the effect of small-scale variability, a spatial smoothing filter was applied which allowed the estimation of linear relationships with higher coefficient of correlation (r ∼ 0.46-0.8). The accuracy obtained in the estimation of the temporal trend of the soil moisture spatial averages was in the range ∼4.5-7.8% v/v and up to the ∼70% of the point soil moisture variance was explained by the ECa signal. The obtained results highlighted the potential of EMI to provide, in a short time, sufficiently accurate estimate of soil moisture over large areas that are highly needed for hydrological and remote sensing applications.

  13. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  14. Immigrants living in an urban milieu with sanitation in Southern Italy: persistence and transmission of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination.

  15. Sleep quality and duration is related with diet and obesity in young adolescent living in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, Roberta; Marventano, Stefano; Castellano, Sabrina; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Matalone, Margherita; Mistretta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sleeping habits, Mediterranean diet pattern, and weight status in an adolescent population. The sample consisted of 1586 individuals aged 11-14 years attending 15 secondary schools of Sicily, Southern Italy. School were randomly selected and the data collected during two school years. Anthropometric data was collected and body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic information, sleep duration, pediatric daytime sleepiness questionnaire (PDSS), physical activity and dietary habits (including adherence to the Mediterranean Diet using the KIDMED score) were further collected. The mean age was 12±0.7 and about 24% were overweight and obese. An inverse correlation between total sleep time and body mass index (β=-0.829, P=0.021), fat mass (β=-0.526, P=0.025), and waist circumference (β=-0.426, P=0.045) was found. Similar results were found for weekdays sleep time, while an inverse relationship was found with PDSS score. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet was higher in under/normal weight adolescent with a significant linear association between the KIDMED score and the PDSS, weekdays sleep time and total sleep time. Sleep duration was also associated positively with fruits and vegetable intake and negatively with sweet and snack consumption and eating outside habits. Short sleep duration and poor sleep were associated with an increase in BMI and fat mass as well as to unhealthy eating behaviors. These findings suggest that sleep patterns could be a potential target for obesity prevention programs in young adolescence. PMID:27656277

  16. Effects of source rocks, soil features and climate on natural gamma radioactivity in the Crati valley (Calabria, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; De Rosa, Rosanna; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    The study, which represents an innovative scientific strategy to approach the study of natural radioactivity in terms of spatial and temporal variability, was aimed to characterize the background levels of natural radionuclides in soil and rock in the urban and peri-urban soil of a southern Italy area; to quantify their variations due to radionuclide bearing minerals and soil properties, taking into account nature and extent of seasonality influence. Its main novelty is taking into account the effect of climate in controlling natural gamma radioactivity as well as analysing soil radioactivity in terms of soil properties and pedogenetic processes. In different bedrocks and soils, activities of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th (4) K) and total radioactivity were measured at 181 locations by means of scintillation γ-ray spectrometry. In addition, selected rocks samples were collected and analysed, using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and an X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), to assess the main sources of radionuclides. The natural-gamma background is intimately related to differing petrologic features of crystalline source rocks and to peculiar pedogenetic features and processes. The radioactivity survey was conducted during two different seasons with marked changes in the main climatic characteristics, namely dry summer and moist winter, to evaluate possible effects of seasonal climatic variations and soil properties on radioactivity measurements. Seasonal variations of radionuclides activities show their peak values in summer. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) K exhibit a positive correlation with the air temperature and are negatively correlated with precipitations. PMID:26891362

  17. Regional deformation analysis in the Sannio-Matese area (Southern Apennines, Italy) by GPS surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrizzo, Francesco; Sepe, Vincenzo; Brandi, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Andrea; de Martino, Prospero; Dolce, Mario; Tammaro, Umberto; Pingue, Folco

    2010-05-01

    The central-southern Apennines and the Calabrian arc are among the most actively deforming zones of the Mediterranean basin connected with the motion of Africa and Aegean-Anatolian systems with respect to Eurasia. The tectonic stress, caused in this area by the convergence of the confining blocks, is elastically accumulated and periodically released along crustal discontinuities (faults) during earthquakes. A detailed knowledge of the ongoing crustal strain rates is fundamental to constrain geodynamical models of the Italian peninsula and to understand the characteristics of the active tectonic stress release. Given the low deformation rates in the Central Mediterranean area, only a long-term monitoring can yield the necessary data set to model and understand the ongoing tectonic processes. The Matese carbonatic massive occupies a surface of beyond 1000 km2 between the Campania Apennine northernmost part while Monti del Sannio, consisting primarily of quaternary deposits. It is located to the East of massive and represent the area of Apennine chain which degrades to East towards the Bradanica foredeep and it's delimited, in its complex, from Volturno, Biferno, Tammaro and Calore rivers. The area was interested in historical events by several destructive earthquakes with an Intensity I greater or equal than IX MCS (1456, 1688, 1702, 1732, 1805, 1962), besides by seismic sequences of low energy (1885, 1903, 1905, 1990, 1992, 1997). The first studies surveying the area started from 1990-2000 with the definition of geodetic networks, covering all or part of the massive Matese, with the aim of the evaluation of seismogenic sources responsible for the seismicity of the area. A preliminary study from the geological and structural point of view was focused on the area extending among Benevento, Campobasso, Caserta, Isernia and L'Aquila provinces, in order to accurately define the sites in which the vertices of the network could be installed. After a careful inspection of

  18. Terrestrial Laser Scanner for assessing rockfall susceptibility in the Cilento rocky coast (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Valerio; Matasci, Battista; Abellan, Antonio; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio; Santo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls and other types of landslides are the dominant processes causing a retreat of sea cliffs. The coastal areas constitute an important tourist attraction and a large number of people rest beneath the cliffs on a daily basis, considerably increasing the risk associated to rockfalls. We present an approach to assess rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale based on terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point clouds. The test area is a coastal cliff situated in the southern part of the Cilento (Centola Municipality, Campania Region), in which a natural arch was formed. This cliff is constituted by heavy fractured carbonate rock mass with a strong structural control. In June 2015 TLS data were acquired with long-range scanner RIEGL VZ1000®. The structural analysis of the cliff was performed in the field and using Coltop 3D software on the point cloud. As a result, 10 discontinuity sets (joint, faults and bedding planes) were individuated and the different characteristics such as orientation, spacing and persistence were measured. The kinematically unstable areas were highlighted using a script that computes an index of susceptibility to rockfalls based on the spatial distribution of failure mechanisms. The susceptibility index computation is based on the average surface that every joint set (or combinations of two joint sets in the case of wedge failure) forms on the topography according to its spacing, trace length, and incidence angle. This susceptibility index also depends on the steepness of the joint set (or of the intersection line in the case of wedge failure). As a result the most important discontinuity sets in terms of potential planar failure, wedge failure and toppling were individuated and an assessment of rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale was achieved. Results show that the kinematically feasible failures are not equally distributed along the cliff but concentrated on certain areas. The most susceptible areas for planar failure are related to

  19. Sediment supply and grain size export from normal fault footwalls in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Boluda, Duna; D'Arcy, Mitch; Whittaker, Alex; Allen, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The sedimentary record is the only physical evidence we have of mass transfer across the Earth's surface. In order to understand and ultimately decode this record, it is of key importance to characterize the sediment fluxes that generate stratigraphy. Sediment fluxes from catchments to basins, and their grain size distribution, can be highly sensitive to tectonic, geomorphic and lithological boundary conditions. However, the way in which these variables interact to determine the volume, locus and calibre of sediment released from catchments to basins remains unclear. Here we use a combination of DEM analysis and fieldwork to quantify the controls on sediment export from catchments crossing tectonically active faults in the Southern Apennines, where fault throw rates along strike, landslide abundances and hanging-wall stratigraphies are well-constrained, over timescales up to 1 Myr. We first use catchment drainage areas and estimates of fault throw rate and channel transport capacities as the main variables to estimate sediment supply along the fault footwalls. Sediment volumes, flux rates, and grain sizes are estimated using three complementary methodologies: 1) based on fault slip rates and topographic steady-state; 2) the BQART model*; 3) Shields stress-based approaches. We then compare these predictions with field data of the grain size distributions exported along the fault footwall catchments; the sediment volumes and grain sizes supplied by landslide populations in the field area; and the volumes and grain sizes of sediments stored in the hangingwall basins. Our analysis shows that 1) fault throw rates strongly influence channel and hillslope gradients and hence they exert a critical control on the calibre of the sediment released from footwall catchments; 2) grain size distributions correlate with the magnitudes of the sediment fluxes exported from catchments, and both vary significantly along the strike of active faults; 3) bedrock lithology modulates the

  20. Erosion-vegetation dynamics in the Lucciolabella biancane badland cultural landscape (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccherini, Simona; Vergari, Francesca; Santi, Elisa; Marignani, Michela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Torri, Dino; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present the results of multidisciplinary and long-lasting investigations on the complex cause-effect relationship among water erosion processes and vegetation cover on the Lucciolabella Natural Reserve, located in Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany). The area is a Site of Community Importance, where the cultural landscape of biancane badlands - water erosion landforms generated on Plio-Pleistocene marine clay outcrops - is preserved. We explored the direction and rate of change in land use and natural habitats of the biancana badland landscapes over the last 50 years, evaluating the erosion-vegetation dynamics and examining the processes involved in the biancana badland area. Historical information, such as early cadastral documents and diachronically analyzed aerial photographs, has been used to construct a database of the natural trends of modifications relative to habitat and plant species distribution, with the analysis of the consequent variations on the frequency of instability events. Old and recent land use maps were compared by using the TWINSPAN classification. Soil erodibility evaluation on the eroded biancana surfaces, regosols and well-developed vertisols, was carried out together with a decadal erosion monitoring program and the investigation of the physico-chemical properties of parent material. We also considered the effects of a few roots on saturated soil shear strength to introduce direct links between plants and soil processes. Moreover we run the LANDPLANER model in order to deepen the effect of the fragmentation of the vegetation cover on water erosion processes affecting biancana badlands. Long-lasting geomorphological survey and field erosion monitoring highlighted that biancana stations experience a very strong surface lowering rate due to water erosion, attaining an average rate of 2.4 - 2.6 cm/a. Moreover, biancanas in a more juvenile development phase, such as the ones of Lucciolabella Natural Reserve, show the maximum

  1. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  2. The Prevalence of Fragility Fractures in a Population of a Region of Southern Italy Affected by Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Notarnicola, Angela; Pesce, Vito; Mudoni, Simona; Tafuri, Silvio; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    In the literature there is no clear evidence of a relationship between thyropathies and fragility fractures. The aim of our study is to define the prevalence of thyroid disease in a study sample made up of subjects with fragility fractures and from the same geographical area. We retrospectively studied the “hospital discharge records” (HDR) in the Apulian Database for the period 2008–2013 in order to identify all those patients with fragility fractures that required hospitalization. After detecting the prevalent population, we identified the patients affected by thyroid disease. We observed that, between 2008 and 2013 in Apulia, 16,636 patients were affected by hyperthyroidism. In the same period there were 92,341 subjects with hypothyroidism. The incidence of fragility fractures was 4.5% in the population with hyperthyroidism. As regards the population with hypothyroidism, the incidence of fragility fractures was 3.7%. Furthermore, we assessed the statistical connection between thyroid disease and fragility fractures revealing a higher incidence in patients with hyperthyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism. PMID:27807539

  3. Multiple refertilisation of oceanic mantle: new insights into the evolution of the southern sector of the Ligurian Tethys from Mt. Pollino ophiolites (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; D'Antonio, Massimo; Zanetti, Alberto; Petrosino, Paola; Aulinas, Meritxell

    2015-04-01

    Southern Apennine ophiolites consist of a serpentinized peridotite basement and a reduced crustal sequence characterized by lack of sheeted-dyke complexes, relatively small volumes of intruded gabbros, and a discontinuous basaltic and pelagic sediments cover. These ophiolites are believed to represent fragments of the Ligurian branch of Tethys oceanic crust that were obducted on continental crust during its closure. A thorough petrological investigation has been carried out on ophiolites that crop out widely along the boundary between Basilicata and Calabria, close to Mt. Pollino (Southern Italy). All peridotite samples contain large amount of serpentine, and are characterized by millimeter-sized porphyroclasts of olivine and orthopyroxene, varying from anhedral to subhedral and showing internal deformation. Clinopyroxene is present as large crystals or as exsolution lamellae in orthopyroxene. Spinels are typically anhedral. The protoliths of all samples were likely depleted harzburgites and/or cpx-poor lherzolites. Three samples (named Type-1) have MgO = 40.9-41.3 wt.%, while the other samples (named Type-2) have higher concentrations of MgO = 43.3-44.6 wt.%. The Type-1 peridotites have the highest values of Al2O3, CaO, SiO2, Sc and V, but lower Ni and Co contents. Peridotites show chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong, but variable depletions in LREE. Type-1 peridotites are less depleted, whereas Type-2 peridotites are strongly depleted HREE pattern regions are poorly variable, showing chondritic values. The geochemical variations displayed by major oxides and trace elements, and the positive relationship between Fo content of olivine and Cr# of spinel suggest high degrees of partial melting (~20%). However, the degree of partial melting inferred on the basis of LREE concentrations of clinopyroxenes is much lower than that recorded by the spinel-olivine equilibrium (maximum ~6% near-fractional melting of a spinel-facies depleted mantle for both

  4. Real-Time Estimation of Earthquake Location, Magnitude and Rapid Shake map Computation for the Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Convertito, V.; de Matteis, R.; Iannaccone, G.; Lancieri, M.; Lomax, A.; Satriano, C.

    2005-12-01

    A prototype system for earthquake early warning and rapid shake map evaluation is being developed and tested in southern Italy based on a dense, wide dynamic-range seismic network (accelerometers + seismometers) under installation in the Apenninic belt region (Irpinia Seismic Network). This system forms a regional Earthquake Early Warning System consisting of a seismic sensor network covering a portion of the expected epicentral area for large earrthquakes. Considering a warning window ranging from tens of seconds before to hundred of seconds after an earthquake, several public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance (hospitals, gas pipelines, railways, railroads, ...) of the Regione Campania are potential test-sites for testing innovative technologies for data acquisition, processing and transmission. A potential application of an early warning system in the Campania region based on the Irpinia network, should consider an expected time delay to the first energetic S wave train varying between 14-20 sec at 40-60 km distance to 26-30 sec at about 80-100 km, from a crustal earthquake occurring in the source region. The latter is the typical time window available for mitigating earthquake effects through early warning in the city of Naples (about 2 million of inhabitants including suburbs). We have developed a method for real time earthquake location following a probabilistic approach. The earthquake location is expressed as a probability density function for the hypocenter location in 3D space based on the concept of equal differential-time (EDT). It provides a location as the maximum of a stack over quasi-hyperbolic surfaces. On each surface the difference of calculated travel-times at a pair of stations is equal to the difference of observed arrival times at the same pair of stations. For an increasing number of P-wave readings, progressively acquired in the short time after the occurrence of an earthquake, the EDT method can be generalized by

  5. Characterization of Essential Oil Components from Aromatic Plants that Grow Wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naviglio, Daniele; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Vitulano, Manuela; Trifuoggi, Marco; Gallo, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis and Mentha spicata growing wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) have been extracted by hydro-distillation, quantified and characterized by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass-spectrometry (MS). Sixty-nine compounds were identified and classified according to their chemical classes. The results showed that the composition of the essential oils was extremely variable and specific for each botanical species. Hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in all essential oils except for sage where aldehydes and ketones were the most representative compounds. Only for thyme was a higher content of alcohols found.

  6. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  7. Imaging 2D structures by the CSAMT method: application to the Pantano di S. Gregorio Magno faulted basin (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Patella, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    A controlled source audiofrequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been undertaken in the Pantano di San Gregorio Magno faulted basin, an earthquake prone area of Southern Apennines in Italy. A dataset from 11 soundings, distributed along a nearly N-S 780 m long profile, was acquired in the basin's easternmost area, where the fewest data are available as to the faulting shallow features. A preliminary skew analysis allowed a prevailing 2D nature of the dataset to be ascertained. Then, using a single-site multi-frequency approach, Dantzig's simplex algorithm was introduced for the first time to estimate the CSAMT decomposition parameters. The simplex algorithm, freely available online, proved to be fast and efficient. By this approach, the TM and TE mode field diagrams were obtained and a N35°W ± 10° 2D strike mean direction was estimated along the profile, in substantial agreement with the fault traces within the basin. A 2D inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase curves at seven almost noise-free sites distributed along the central portion of the profile was finally elaborated, reinforced by a sensitivity analysis, which allowed the best resolved portion of the model to be imaged from the first few meters of depth down to a mean depth of 300 m b.g.l. From the inverted section, the following features have been outlined: (i) a cover layer with resistivity in the range 3-30 Ω m ascribed to the Quaternary lacustrine clayey deposits filling the basin, down to an average depth of about 35 m b.g.l., underlain by a structure with resistivity over 50 Ω m up to about 600 Ω m, ascribed to the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock; (ii) a system of two normal faults within the carbonate basement, extending down to the maximum best resolved depth of the order of 300 m b.g.l.; (iii) two wedge-shaped domains separating the opposite blocks of the faults with resistivity ranging between 30 Ω m and 50 Ω m and horizontal extent of the order of some tens of metres, likely

  8. The contribution of fluvial and mass wasting processes to sedimentary budget in mountain catchments of the southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M.; Danese, M.; Gioia, D.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion quantification is an important topic for both scientific and social community, although the large number of prediction models developed in the last decades showed controversial results and limited reliability (Boardman, 2006 and references therein). On the other hand, direct measurements of sediment flux are extremely rare and limited to a few years. This is true also for southern Apennines where, in this work, the sediment yield has been estimated in a wide sector of the axial zone, by using simple empirical relationships, such as the statistical correlation between some geomorphic parameters of the drainage network and the measured suspended sediment yield at the outlet of several drainage basins of Italy (Ciccacci et al., 1980). The test area includes several mountain catchments of the central-western sector of the Basilicata region, characterized by strong differences in litho-structural, morphological and tectonic features. In this area, classical and GIS-aided quantitative geomorphic analysis allowed to estimate several geomorphic indexes and topographic attributes, which are used to estimate fluvial turbid transport data (Tu, mean annual suspension sediment yield), an expression of the erosion degree within the drainage basin. In particular, in this study Tu calculation was modified considering also some morphological and climate parameters, with the aim to relate this index to the real physiography of the studied area and to recent (i.e. the last ten years) pluviometric trend. Then, Tu index is converted into a mean denudation rate, giving a mean bulk density to the rocks outcropping into drainage basins. Denudation rates obtained through Tu method have been compared with those estimated by published study of long-term erosion rates and with data of historical sediment accumulation in the artificial reservoir of the Camastra dam. In order to assess also the contribution of mass movement processes to the sedimentary yield, a landslide inventory map

  9. The role of river trajectories and channel recovery potential within sustainable river management: some case studies from southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Patrizio Ciro Aucelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Most of Italian and European rivers have undergone notable channel adjustments since the last 150-200 years. Major adjustments fall within the second half of the last century and consisted in overall channel narrowing and degradation, accompanied by important pattern changes. In the cases of the six investigated rivers located in southern Italy (namely Trigno, Biferno, Fortore, Volturno, Sinni and Crati), major adjustments occurred from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s. They consisted in channel narrowing up to 98%, bed level lowering from -2 to -10m and extensive changes from multi-thread to single thread pattern that led to the abandonment of extensive channel areas and consistent increase of floodplain and terraced areas. The integrated analysis of river trajectories and potential control factors, both of natural and anthropic origin, showed that human disturbances, especially gravel mining and river control works, are key driving factors of channel adjustments. Furthermore, the presence of major hydraulic structures along the rivers Biferno, Fortore, Sinni and Trigno significantly influenced the amounts of channel adjustments which are sharply higher within the reaches located downstream of such structures. Considering the last 15-20 years, most of the evolutionary trajectories of the investigated reaches highlight ongoing channel stabilization or even some appreciable channel recovery. Particularly, channel widening had occurred in those reaches that are not under the direct influence of major hydraulic structures (check-dams and dams) and in which in-channel interventions had pratically ceased and woody riparian vegetation developed only in a discontinuous manner. Conversely, the reaches that are located immediately downstream of major hydraulic structures, in which control works are placed very close to the actual riverbanks and/or a continuous riparian forest has developed, appear stable, only locally affected by very slight widening, or even affected by

  10. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  11. Soil erosion risk scenarios in the Mediterranean environment using RUSLE and GIS: An application model for Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O.; Antronico, L.; Coscarelli, R.; Iaquinta, P.

    2009-11-01

    Soil erosion by water (WSE) has become a relevant issue at the Mediterranean level. In particular, natural conditions and human impact have made the Calabria (southern Italy) particularly prone to intense WSE. The purpose of this investigation is to identify areas highly affected by WSE in Calabria by comparing the scenarios obtained by assuming control and preventive measures and actions, as well as actual conditions generated by forest fires, also in the presence of conditions of maximum rainfall erosion. Geographic Information System techniques have been adopted to treat data of reasonable spatial resolution obtained at a regional scale for application to the RUSLE model. This work is based on the comparison of such data with a basic scenario that has been defined by the present situation (present scenario). In this scenario: (i) R has been assessed by means of an experimental relation adjusted to Calabria on the basis of 5-min observations; (ii) K has been drawn from the soil map of Calabria including 160 soilscapes; (iii) LS has been estimated according to the RUSLE2 model by using (among other subfactors) a 40-m square cell DTM; (iv) C has been derived by processing the data inferred from the project Corine Land Cover, whose legend includes 35 different land uses on three levels; and (v) P has been hypothesized as equal to 1. For the remaining three hypothesized scenarios, the RUSLE factors have been adjusted according to experimental data and to data in the literature. In particular, forest areas subject to fire have been randomly generated as far as fire location, extension, structure, and intensity are concerned. The values obtained by the application of the RUSLE model have emphasized that land management by means of measures and actions for reducing WSE causes a notable reduction of the erosive rate decreasing from ~30 to 12.3 Mg ha - 1 y - 1 . On the other hand, variations induced by hypothetical wildfires in forests on 10% of the regional territory

  12. Changes in the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in Calabria, Southern Italy, in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariano, S. L.; Petrucci, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2015-06-01

    We exploit a catalogue of 1466 rainfall events with landslides in the 90 year period 1921-2010 to study temporal and geographical variations in the occurrence of landslides in Calabria, Southern Italy. We use daily rainfall records obtained by a network of 318 rain gauges to reconstruct 448 493 rainfall events. Combining the rainfall and the landslide information, we obtain a catalogue of 1466 rainfall events with landslides (REL) in Calabria from 1921 to 2010, where a REL is the occurrence of one or more landslide during or immediately after a rainfall event. We find that the geographical and the temporal distributions of the rainfall-induced landslides have changed in the observation period. The average and the maximum values of the cumulated event rainfall that have resulted in landslides in the recent-most 30 year period 1981-2010 are lower than the values necessary to trigger landslides in previous periods, whereas the duration of the rainfall events that triggered landslides has remained the same. This can be considered evidence of variations in rainfall conditions, but also an increase in the vulnerability of the territory. We further find that the yearly distribution of rainfall-induced landslides has changed in the observation period, analysing the variations in the number of rainfall events with landslides occurred in each month in three 30 year periods. To investigate variations in the impact of REL on the population, we compared the number of REL in each of the 409 municipalities in Calabria, with the size of the population in the municipalities, measured by national Censuses conducted in 1951, 1981, and 2011. For the purpose, we adopted two strategies. The first strategy considered impact as IREL = #REL/P and the second strategy measured impact as RREL = #REL × P, where #REL is the total number of REL in a period, and P is the size of the population in the same period and geographical area. Considering the entire observation period, IREL and RREL have

  13. Large-scale progradation, demise and rebirth of a high-relief carbonate platform (Triassic, Lombardy Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, Fabrizio; Jadoul, Flavio; Binda, Marco; Lanfranchi, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    The Upper Anisian to Early Carnian succession of the Middle Val Brembana-Pegherolo Massif (Central Southern Alps of Italy) records a complete depositional cycle from platform inception to growth, demise and rebirth. The depositional architecture of this system reflects different evolutionary stages: an inception stage which postdates a previous drowning of an Anisian carbonate platform with progradation of the carbonate platform from the nucleation areas, an aggradational stage with increasing water depth in the basins, a progradational stage where steep slopes composed of margin-derived breccias develop and a final crisis corresponding to the subaerial exposure of the platform top, followed by the deposition of shales in the basin before the rebirth of a different type of carbonate factory. The record of this evolution reflects the effects of the change in accommodation space (interplay of subsidence and eustacy), which controls the type and storage sites of the sediments produced by the carbonate factory. The effects of the changes in accommodation space are recorded in the shallow water platform as well as in the intraplatform basins, where the sediments, delivered at different rates from the platform top are stored. As a consequence, the aggradational stage corresponds to reduced sedimentation in the basins (i.e. sediments are stored on the platform top) whereas during progradation resedimented limestones are more common in the basin. Subaerial exposure rapidly halted the carbonate production on the platform top, while a major input of shales (probably reflecting a climate change and/or lowering of the base level) is recorded in the basin, where shales onlap the slope of the previous carbonate system. The rebirth of the carbonate factory after subaerial exposure of the platform top is characterized by a different composition of the carbonate factory, probably reflecting changes of the environmental conditions. The step-by-step recording of the evolution of the

  14. Paleoseismologic and geomorphic constraints to the deformation style and activity of the Cittanova Fault (southern Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial

  15. Magnetostratigraphic data from the Pignola-Abriola section (Southern Apennines, Italy): new constraints for the Norian/Rhaetian boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maron, Matteo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Katz, Miriam; Godfrey, Linda; Zaffani, Mariachiara; Bertinelli, Angela; Rigo, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    New magnetostratigraphic data have been obtained from the Norian/Rhaetian boundary section of Pignola-Abriola (Southern Apennines, Italy), which consists in 60 m of basinal cherty limestones. A total of 10 magnetozones have been identified and calibrated with conodont and radiolarian biostratigraphy. The Pignola-Abriola section was correlated to the Newark APTS with a statistical method under the assumption that stratigraphic depth is a linear proxy of time. The section was slid aside the Newark APTS producing a total of 19 possible correlation options that were evaluated by linear regression of the age-depth tie points. Then, a student t-test was applied to the linear regression coefficients to isolate the most reliable correlation options. According to our best correlation option, the Pignola-Abriola section covers the interval from E13r (~217 Ma) to E20r (~205 Ma) in the Newark APTS. The Norian/Rhaetian boundary based on the FAD of conodont Misikella posthernsteini and the base of the Proparvicingula moniliformis radiolarian Zone 1 at Pignola-Abriola (Giordano et al., 2010: Lethaia 43, 573-586) falls on the Newark APTS at ~205.4 Ma within magnetozone E20r. The magnetostratigraphy of the Pignola-Abriola section has been successfully correlated to other Late Triassic magnetostratigraphic sections from the literature spanning the Norian/Rhaetian boundary (Steinbergkogel, Oyuklu, Brumano and Pizzo Mondello) . Our magnetostratigraphic correlation reveals an apparent discrepancy in the first appearance of conodont M. posthernsteini between Pignola-Abriola and Steinbergkogel/Oyuklu. However, we infer that the forms attributed to M. posthernsteini at Steinbergkogel/Oyuklu are more similar to what we refer to as M. hernsteini/posthernsteini transition at Pignola-Abriola, a solution that virtually eliminates the discrepancy. Considering the taxonomic complexity of the M. hernsteini/posthernsteini lineage, we propose to place the Norian/Rhaetian boundary in correspondence

  16. Investigation of the buried structure of the Volturara Irpina Basin (southern Italy) by microtremor and gravimetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maresca, Rosalba; Berrino, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the structure of the Volturara Irpina Plain, a small intra-mountain basin in southern Italy. Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) measurements were performed on a 50-point grid across the plain, and contour maps of the peak frequencies and maximum amplitudes of the HVSR curves were constructed. In the deepest part of the plain, the fundamental resonance frequencies were 0.8 Hz to 0.9 Hz. Assuming that the HVSR peak frequencies interpret the fundamental resonance frequencies, and taking into account the shear-wave velocity-depth relationship derived from down-hole data, a first thickness-frequency relationship for the plain was estimated. The sediment thickness corresponds to the depth from the ground surface of the seismic basement. A power-law thickness-frequency relationship was also derived through nonlinear regression fitting of the borehole data that intercepted the bedrock. Finally, the contour map of the depth of the seismic basement was constructed by averaging the thickness estimates from the two different approaches. Gravity measurements were also acquired on a 54-point grid across the plain, most of which coincided with microtremor stations. From these data, the Bouguer gravity anomaly was computed with reference to the 1980 Ellipsoid, and using a density of 2670 kg/m3, we propose a three-dimensional interpretation of the buried structure of the plain that is mainly formed by three overlapped layers. The separately obtained microtremor and gravity results were also compared, using constraints from the drillings. Thus, we interpret the first layer as Plio-Pleistocenic sediments mostly composed of clay, silty clay, and gravel. The underlying basement has maximum depth ~ 500 m below ground level (altitude, ~ 200 m a.s.l.), and corresponds to Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These rocks are nonhomogeneous, with an upper, less compact, layer formed by unstable rocks with clay, or fractured rocks with water circulation. This is

  17. The influence of physico-chemical material properties on erosion processes in the badlands of Basilicata, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccarreta, Marco; Faulkner, Hazel; Bentivenga, Mario; Capolongo, Domenico

    2006-11-01

    Piping (tunnelling) appears to be one of the more significant methods of erosion in the badlands in the Plio-Pleistocene marine-sourced clays of the Basilicata area in Southern Italy. A detailed field investigation of the pedological, textural, mineralogical and geochemical properties of the clay-rich terrains widely outcropping in two selected badland field sites (the Fossa Bradanica area and the Bacino di Sant'Arcangelo) was undertaken to further elucidate process variability across the complex site. Paralleling findings from other piped badlands, certain physico-chemical properties of the clays were found to influence the different erosional processes in fundamental ways. The very dispersive nature of the materials enhances pipe enlargement so that subsurface flow rapidly becomes the dominant process, causing pipe enlargement by a process of positive feedback. The paper speculates on the progressive role of surface and subsurface processes in the genesis of all evolutional badland forms (calanchi, calanchi mammellonari and biancane). In an early stage, the calanchi mammellonari are produced, as slope mounds become increasingly separated by a dense network of small inclined pipes in the intermediate part of the slopes, a site which is presumed to favour elevated subsurface flow. When the overburden collapses, many cones are isolated in these portions of the slope. A second stage follows in which overland flow dominates, with the water canalizing into small gullies generated by the collapsed crust. At the base of many slopes, this same mechanism produces biancane as residual cones. Because of the structural weakness of piped materials, mass movements cannot be ruled out. In a few locations, landsliding may be involved, especially in the formation of calanchi mammellonari. In this case the intersection of the vertical pipes with the impermeable substratum focuses subsurface flow, and collapse of the surface along this failure plane. Subsequent remodelling occurs by

  18. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported. PMID:27470760

  19. New observations on the Ni-Co ores of the southern Arburese Variscan district (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Among the European Variscan regions, the Arburese district, located in the Paleozoic basement of SW Sardinia (Italy) is remarkable for its metallogenic complexity, and offers good opportunities to investigate time/space and genetic links between post-collisional Variscan intrusive magmatism and mineral deposits. The district hosts a large variety of mineral deposits and occurrences, which include the Pb-Zn (Cu, Ag) mesothermal veins of the Montevecchio Lode System, one of the largest and richest Variscan hydrothermal ore deposit of Europe, now exhausted. Ore deposits are genetically related to the emplacement of the Late Variscan (304±1 Ma) Arbus Pluton, a granitoid composite intrusion ranging from monzogabbroic to granodioritic and to peraluminous leucogranitic rock-types. After more than a century of geological studies in the area, several metallogenic issues are still unresolved; among them, the occurrence in the southern sectors of little known polymetallic Ni-Co-(Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Bi) veins, a kind of mineralization quite unusual for the Sardinian basement. These hydrothermal deposits are hosted by very low-grade metamorphic rocks at short distance from the intrusion, where contact effect generate also hornfels. Spatial, structural and textural characters of the hydrothermal system are coherent and in apparent continuity with those of the Montevecchio Lode System. Ni-Co ores are hosted by a system of parallel, 1-2 m thick high-angle veins that discontinuously follow the southwestern and southern contacts of the Arbus Pluton for about 7 km. They constantly dip SSW, sideways with respect to the pluton contact, and show a prevalence of fracture infilling (banded and brecciated) textures, with alternating quartz and siderite bands, cockades and frequent inclusions of wallrock fragments. Wallrocks are usually silicified, bleached and/or sericitized. Systematic studies of ore textures and parageneses from different veins along the system have been performed by standard

  20. Remote sensing for environmental control of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) in Apulia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belviso, Luciano

    Background. Dociostaurus maroccanus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) is a locust widely spread all over the Mediterranean region. This insect is linked to particular oviposition sites (pseudosteppa or garigue). When locusts become adults, they feed on cultivated crops, expanding on wide areas of vegetations and farmlands, threatening economical operators of agriculture and food processing. In the past years, observation attempts have been made, however, the localization of concentrations of locusts as well as their egg-pods is extremely difficult. Moreover, most of the affected areas are under the protection of National Parks Authorities that makes unacceptable any chemical pesticide treatment. The objective of this study, carried out by the University of Bari, is to obtain a behavioural model of locusts propagation using data from remote sensing, in order to predict locusts concentration and promptly act with appropriate biological countermeasures, like enthomopathogenous fungi. Data evaluation. Although insects are affected by climate changes and meteo factors, it is extremely difficult to assess their precise behaviour and the relations among different environmental factors and the global insect population. The infestation of the past years is probably due to the increase of annual temperature means but no explicit relation is currently known. Considering this phenomenon affects wide areas, remote sensing represent the only applicable solution to obtain precise data concerning land coverage, surface temperature, incidence of solar radiation as well as atmospheric contribution. After data collection, clusters are selected using neural networks methods in order to classify big territories. At present, experiments (using MODIS, ASTER, ENVISAT) show that wide areas can be grouped in just a few clusters with some of them suitable for locusts life. In the next months further investigation will be performed to refine the classification procedure. Metamodeling techniques. Metamodels are extensively used to simulate complex non-linear systems. Since there is no explicit evidence of a relationship betweeen locust life cycle and a particular environmental factor (such as temperature, humidity, etc.) this technique allows to identify critical factors (those variables whose variance is the most responsible for the overall variance of the result). Different metamodeling techniques have been compared in order to underline these relationships and to explain how to use them for improving locusts population description and modeling. Since all meteo and environmental factors are know thanks to satellite data taken during the year, simulation techniques will be experimented during the next months to assess relationships between observed variables and insect life-cycle.

  1. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  2. Hydrothermal simulation of a fractured carbonate reservoir in southern Italy and automated detections of optimal positions for geothermal doublet installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederau, Jan; Gomez, Sergio; Ebigbo, Anozie; Inversi, Barbara; Marquart, Gabriele; Scrocca, Davide

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we present the results of hydrothermal simulations for assessing the geothermal potential of a fractured carbonate reservoir in Campania (Guardia Lombardi). Local surface heat flows of up to 90 mW/m² suggest that this area is a potential medium-enthalpy geothermal reservoir. The targeted reservoir rocks are fractured shallow-water carbonates (Jurassic to Cretaceous) of the Apulia Platform. During the Apennine orogeny, those carbonates were affected by at least two tectonic phases: Thrust-related folding of the carbonate platform due to compression followed by extension which caused major normal faulting. Based on seismic interpretation, a discretized structural model is set up, comprising the reservoir unit and the overlying sedimentary cover. The model comprises an area of 42 km × 28 km and extends to a depth of about six kilometers. Results of calibrated hydrothermal reservoir simulations suggest that free convection occurs in some parts of the reservoir. For assessing optimal locations for potential hydrothermal doublet systems, a tool was developed which uses the results of the reservoir simulationsin combination with predefined constraints. Those constraints or minimum requirements consider: a) minimum temperature for operating the doublet system, b) minimum matrix permeability allowing for a pumping rate of 40 L/s, and c) social constraints (location of cities or conservation areas, where the construction of a potential geothermal energy plant would be problematic). The optimization tool ranks possible doublet system locations by evaluating an objective function for the minimum requirements. Those locations are further used to extract smaller models from the big reservoir model and simulate the operation of a hypothetical geothermal doublet system. By assessing the optimized results, an optimal location of a geothermal energy plant would produce water with a temperature of 163 °C from a depth of almost 4 km.

  3. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12-month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6-month and 12-month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  4. Assessment of atmospheric trace element concentrations by lichen-bag near an oil/gas pre-treatment plant in the Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caggiano, R.; Trippetta, S.; Sabia, S.

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy). The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations. The results showed that the concentrations of almost all the examined trace elements increased with respect to the control after 6-12 month exposures. Furthermore, Ca, Al, Fe, K, Mg and S were the most abundant trace elements both in the 6 and 12 month-exposed samples. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) results highlighted that the major sources of the measured atmospheric trace elements were related both to anthropogenic contributions due to traffic, combustion processes, agricultural practices, construction and quarrying activities, and to natural contributions mainly represented by the re-suspension of local soil and road dusts. In addition, the contribution both of secondary atmospheric reactions involving Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA) plant emissions and the African dust long-range transport were also identified.

  5. Geochemical Patterns of Geothermal Elements in Southern Italian Fumaroles and Thermal Springs in Relation with Mantle Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.; Minissale, A.; Donato, A.; Procesi, M.; Pizzino, L.; Giammanco, S.

    2015-12-01

    The review of published data together with some new data specifically made to fill gaps, to make a database of chemical and isotopic data for thermal emergences (springs, fumaroles and gas vents) in southern Italy, to be used for the publication of a Geothermal Atlas, has hallowed the re-interpretation of all the geochemical data gathered. The main conclusions are as follows. All active volcanic areas (Solfatara, Vesuvius, Ischia Isle, Mt Etna, Aeolian Islands and Pantelleria Isle) have i) high 3He/4He rations coupled with ii) high CO2 emissions and iii) geo-thermometric (isotopic) signatures that suggest the presence of active geothermal systems in all places at shallow depth. In spite of this, no one of these areas, is exploited for geothermal power generation. There are three further Quaternary volcanic areas at: Iblei Mts in Sicily, Vulture volcano in Basilicata region and Logudoro area in Sardinia Island that also have CO2-rich gas emissions, high in 3He/4He ratio, but they are not associated to any relevant thermal emission nearby. In terms of regional patterns, apart from the Calabria subduction arc area (Calabria region), the stable flat cratonic areas of Apulia in SE Italy, the Iblean Platform in SE Sicily, and most of Sardinia, the latter not involved in the Apennine Orogeny, the remaining southern Italy along the Tyrrhenian sector has huge emission of hydrothermally generated CO2 crossed, in counterflow, by descending topographically driven N2 solubilized in recharge meteoric water from the main Apennine belt. Iso-distribution maps of several of the parameters investigated even more clearly show the sectors of southern Italy affected by the intrusion of mantle magma and therefore the areas where the geothermal heat-flow is maximized by active tectonics.

  6. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain. PMID:26951697

  7. The MeTIBas project: an example of settlement continuity in a coastal changing landscape of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Di Leo, Paola; Giammatteo, Tonia; Gioia, Dario; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The MeTIBas (Italian acronym for Innovative Methods and Technologies for the Cultural Heritage in the Basilicata region) project aims to develop an innovative geoarchaeological investigation approach for large areas. Analyses of environmental dynamics, palaeoclimatic proxies, spatial and temporal evolution of settlements and, more in general, of the relationships between man and landscape have been carried also through the implementation of a Territorial Information System, drawing-up of an experimental digital geoarchaeological map, and creation of an open geoarchaeological database. The project methods have been applied in the coastal area of Metaponto, which roughly coincides with the ancient territory of the Greek settlement of Metapontum and its chora and includes a region of about 400 sq. km in the Ionian sector of the Basilicata region, southern Italy. The backshore area of the Metaponto coastal plain was characterized by the presence of wide limno-palustrine environments, reclaimed during the first decades of the last century. Geomorphological mapping, GIS-supported statistics, and analysis of the topographic features of the landforms represent the key to extract the settlement rules and the site dynamics of the study area. Site distribution and relationships with landscape elements allow us to investigate the settlement patterns and human activities and choices. A wide archive of archaeological data on the whole study area - from Prehistoric times to Roman age - has been therefore used to connect the wandering or persistence of the ancient sites in relation with different landforms and their changes during the last 5000 years. The layout of the site arrangement clearly traces the main geomorphological features of the area (i.e. settlements along fluvial scarps, sites on the flat surfaces of marine and fluvial terraces, main villages in the coastal plain). From a chronological viewpoint, after a progressive increase of the settlements and other

  8. Multiphysics numerical models of resurgent calderas ground deformation: The 1982-2010 Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy) case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    Ground deformation signals in caldera region are the expression of near-surface and/or deep-seated physical processes. As most of the geophysical analysis, the interpretation of the deformation data is usually performed setting up inverse problems, which often use Monte Carlo optimization techniques like the Simulated Annealing and the Genetic Algorithm, in order to constrain the nature of the causative sources at depth. Usually, these methods exploit the problem's solution space by iterating forward analytical models, which consider simplified geometries and homogeneous linear elastic material properties. However, several recent studies have shown that oversimplified forward models may lead to misinterpretations of the retrieved source parameters. To overcome these limitations we consider the Finite Element (FE) method as a powerful numerical tool that allows implementing models with complex geometries, material heterogeneities, as well as time dependent physical processes. For this reason, FE models are a suitable candidate to fill the gap between the accuracy achieved on the observation of ground deformation in volcanic areas and the models used for its interpretation. In this context, we investigate the driving forces responsible of the long-term ground deformation of the Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, Southern Italy, during the 1982-2010 time interval. To this purpose, we propose a new multiphysics numerical model that takes into account both the mechanical heterogeneities of the crust and the thermal conditions of geothermal system beneath the volcano. We perform a numerical Chain Rule Optimization Procedure (CROP) in a FEM environment, that considers different physical contexts linked along a common evolution line: starting from the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust, we develop a 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of CF caldera. More specifically, by carrying out two subsequent optimization procedures based on

  9. Using the potential of accessory minerals: detailed reconstruction of emplacement and crystallization sequence in the Southern Adamello Batholith, N. Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, C. A.; Schaltegger, U.; Frick, D.; Guenther, D.; Brack, P.

    2011-12-01

    Recent advances in U-Pb zircon geochronology have revealed the complexities of pluton construction, by multiple injections on 10-100 ka to Ma timescales (Michel et al., 2008, Schaltegger et al., 2009). Using high precision U-Pb dating we are potentially able to describe the duration and evolution of magmatic systems, their crystallization and emplacement within the crust. The potential exists to better understand these processes by detailed study of accessory minerals. The trace element and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals makes them important information carriers for tracking changes in a magma through time. High precision U-Pb dating, using CA-ID-TIMS and employing the ET2535 tracer solution for <0.1% precision and accuracy on 206Pb/238U zircon and titanite dates, and trace element analyses of zircon and titanite, combined with Hf isotope analysis of zircon are presented for the investigation of a complex magmatic system. This study focuses on the Val Fredda Complex (VFC) in the southern tip of the 43 to 32 Ma Adamello batholith, N. Italy. The VFC displays complex relationships among mafic melts that were injected into solidifying felsic magmas. The mafic units crystallized potential autocrystic zircons over a duration of 100 ka, with the majority of zircons co-crystallizing with titanite. The TIMS-TEA method (Schoene et al., 2010) allows us to analyze trace elements on the same volume of zircon/titanite used for U-Pb dating. Mafic zircon and titanite trace elements (e.g., Eu/Eu* and Sr) suggest that these accessory minerals crystallized prior to plagioclase fractionation. Based on experiments (Ulmer et al., 1983) and the trace element data from this study, we suggest that the mafic zircons and titanites do not represent in situ crystallization and therefore are more likely antecrystic. Data from the VFC felsic units show more complex zircon populations, including xenocrystic, antecrystic and autocrystic zircons. These felsic units have apparent

  10. Characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal system in the Campania region (southern Italy): from geological data to resource modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Inversi, B.; Scrocca, D.; Livani, M.; Petracchini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIGOR project, a characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal resources have been carried out in the Campania region (southern Italy), with a focus on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" area (province of Avellino). The VIGOR project began on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of Economic Development and the Italian National Research Council, and it deal with the exploitation of innovative uses of geothermal energy in the so-called "regions of convergence"(Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicilia). Thanks to the intense hydrocarbon exploration, carried out particularly during the 1956-1996 period, an extensive data set made up by deep wells and seismic reflection profiles exist in the study area. The previous exploration demonstrated the presence of a fractured carbonate reservoir, mainly belonging to the Cretaceous section of the Apulian shallow water carbonate platform (e.g. Scrocca 2010 and references therein), which is deformed to shape a buried antiformal stack. The culmination of the uppermost thrust unit reaches a depth of about 200 m SSL (i.e., about 1100 m below the ground level). The reservoir fluids are made up by a CO2 gas cap, which rests above an accumulation of fresh water in the central and upper part of the culmination of the deep carbonatic acquifer (e.g., Monte Forcuso 1 and 2 wells), and a saline water along the flank of the buried anticline (e.g., Bonito 1 Dir, Ciccone 1 wells). Medium enthalpy geothermal resources with a reservoir fluid temperature up to 100°C have been estimated in previous assessments at depth of 2000 m below ground level (ENEL 1987; 1994). However, the presence of thermal springs (e.g. Terme di S. Teodoro) in the area suggests the presence of an active hydraulic circuit and provide further constraints about the geochemical characteristics of the reservoir waters, and the geothermometers investigation (Duchi et al. 1995) give a possible reservoir fluid temperature up to about 124 °C. In this

  11. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  12. DMPP-added nitrogen fertilizer affects soil N2O emission and microbial activity in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Luca; De Marco, Anna; Maglione, Giuseppe; Polimeno, Franca; Di Tommasi, Paul; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Arable sites contributes to global N2O emission due to massive utilization of nitrogen fertilizers. N2O derives from the biological processes such as nitrification and denitrification influenced by soil nitrogen availability. The use of nitrogen fertilizers added with nitrification inhibitors represents one among the proposed strategy to reduce soil N2O emission form arable sites. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 3,4-dimethylphyrazole phosphate (DMPP), a nitrification inhibitor, on N2O emission and microbial activity of a soil cropped to potato in Southern Italy. The experiment was a randomized block design with two treatments applied and three replicates: control (C) and DMPP (Entec®, K+S Nitrogen) plots, both supplied with the same amount of ammonium nitrate. The nitrogen fertilizer was supplied in three events: at 0 Day After Sowing (DAS; 100 kg N ha-1), at 57 DAS (30 kg N ha-1), and at 71 DAS (30 kg N ha-1). Soil N2O emission was monitored by both dynamic and static chambers. Static chambers were located both on hills and furrows whereas dynamic chambers were located on furrows. Air samples were collected from chambers at different times and analysed by a gas chromatograph (SRI 8610C, Gas Chromatograph). Fluxes were estimated as a linear interpolation of N2O changes over a 30 min time. Microbial biomass and basal respiration were determined as CO2 evolution, analysed by means of an IRGA (Li6200, Licor), on 2 g of fresh soil over a 4h incubation time. Microbial biomass was determined by Substrate Induced Respiration method. Data show no statistical differences in N2O fluxes measured with either dynamic chambers between C and DMPP plots in studied period. However, after the first fertilization event, when the fertilizer was applied as 100 kg N ha-1, the average N2O fluxes measured with static chambers were higher in DMPP plots compared to C plots. In the same period, the microbial biomass significantly decreased in DMPP plots as compared to C

  13. Emergency preparedness activities during an ongoing seismic swarm: the experience of the 2011-2012 Pollino (Southern Italy) sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Chiauzzi, L.; De Costanzo, G.; Loperte, G.

    2012-04-01

    Facing natural disasters effects can be a very difficult task lacking suitable activities and tools to preventively prepare the involved community (people, authorities, professionals, …) to the expected events. Therefore, a suite of preventive actions should be carried out to mitigate natural risks, in particular working to reduce the territorial vulnerability with respect to the specific natural hazard at hand, and to increase people response capacity. In fact, building social capacity helps to increase the risk perception and the people capacity to adapt to and cope with natural hazards. Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, Southern Italy. At present the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area mainly affected by the seismic sequence includes 12 villages, with a total population of about 50.000 inhabitants and, according to the current seismic hazard map it has high seismicity level. Such area was hit by a magnitude Ml=5.7 event in 1998 that produced macroseismic intensity not higher that VII-VIII degree of MCS scale and caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. During the sequence, the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) and the Civil Protection of Basilicata Region decided to put in action some measures aimed at verifying and enhancing emergency preparedness. These actions have been carried out with a constant and fruitful collaboration among the main stakeholders involved (scientific community, local and national governmental agencies, civil protection volunteers, etc) trough the following main activities: 1. collaboration between scientific community and the local and national offices of Civil Protection especially in the relationship with local authorities (e.g. mayors, which are civil protection authorities in their municipality); 2. interaction between DPC

  14. Changes in the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariano, S. L.; Petrucci, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2015-10-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the geographical and temporal variations in the frequency and distribution of rainfall-induced landslides, and the consequences of the variations on landslide risk. Lack of information limits the possibility to evaluate the impact of environmental and climate changes on landslide frequency and risk. Here, we exploit detailed historical information on landslides and rainfall in Calabria, southern Italy, between 1921 and 2010 to study the temporal and the geographical variation in the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides and in their impact on the population. We exploit a catalogue with information on historical landslides from June 1920 to December 2010, and daily rainfall records obtained by a network of 318 rain gauges in the same period, to reconstruct 448 493 rainfall events (RE). Combining the rainfall and the landslide information, we obtain a catalogue of 1466 rainfall events with landslides (REL), where an REL is the occurrence of one or more landslide during or immediately after a rainfall event. We find that (i) the geographical and the temporal distributions of the rainfall-induced landslides have changed in the observation period, (ii) the monthly distribution of the REL has changed in the observation period, and (iii) the average and maximum cumulated event rainfall that have resulted in landslides in the recent 30-year period 1981-2010 are lower than the rainfall necessary to trigger landslides in previous periods, whereas the duration of the RE that triggered landslides has remained the same. We attribute the changes to variations in the rainfall conditions and to an increased vulnerability of the territory. To investigate the variations in the impact of REL on the population, we compared the number of REL in each of the 409 municipalities in Calabria with the size of the population in the municipalities measured by national Censuses conducted in 1951, 1981, and 2011. We adopted two strategies; the first

  15. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  16. Efficacy of chemical treatment of the Pietra cantone limestone in the restoration of historic buildings of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Lisci, Carla; Sitzia, Fabio; Buccellato, Giampaolo

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the efficacy of some chemical products in the restoration works of the "Pietra cantone" limestone, a calcarenitic rock belonging to the carbonatic miocenic series (lower Tortonian) of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy), widely used in historic buildings. Such stone, once used in the masonry, if is not protected by plaster or in the presence of aqueous solutions circulating, frequently shows problems of chemical-physical decay, due to their petrophysical characteristics. In fact, being characterized by a highly porous (on average 35-42% vol.) carbonate matrix low-medium cemented, are easily alterable by weathering processes (i.e., dissolution, sulfation, etc.) and by cyclic mechanism of crystallization/solubilisation of salts and hydration/dehydration of hygroscopic phases belonging to the clay component of these calcarenites. These processes induce negative effects on physical-mechanical properties of stone, producing various macroscopic forms of alteration such as decohesion, disintegration, exfoliation, alveolation, etc. Where the decay of the walls is in an advanced stage, there was a strong retreat of the vertical profile of the facade of the building, resulting in critical static-structural. As a case study was taken the historic building of a tobacco manufacture, one of the first industrial establishments in Cagliari, then owned by the Italian State Monopoly. The factory dates back to the early decades of the XVIII century, the walls of which, however, belonged to the convent of the "Frati Minori" built towards the end of the XIV century along the wall that closed the east the historic district of "Marina" in front of the port of Cagliari. In addressing the structural restoration of this building, before selecting chemical products for dealing adequately of limestone, we proceeded at the outset to a thorough analysis of the structures built in "Pietra Cantone", and their physical-mechanical decay. Only thereafter the stone

  17. Runoff generation through ephemeral streams in south-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.; Giustolisi, O.

    2012-04-01

    , in a partially urbanized catchment located in Apulia (south east of Italy). The analysis is based on full 2D simulation of the behaviour of a network of ephemeral streams. A full 2D approach integrates the hydrological and hydraulic models, in order to account first for the dynamic of catchment response to rainfall and activation of the streams, and then for the hydraulic behaviour of the streams. This analysis entails the simulation of extreme events corresponding to low, medium and high return periods, in order to identify which event presumably activate the ephemeral streams. Camarasa, A.M. and Tilford, K.A. (2002). "Rainfall-runoff modelling of ephemeral streams in the Valencia region (eastern Spain)". Hydrological Processes, 16: 3329-3344. Camarasa Belmonte, A.M, and Segura Beltran, F. (2001). "Flood events in Mediterranean ephemeral stream (ramblas) in Valencia Region, Spain". Catena, 45: 229-249. Cotecchia, V. (2006). "Il disordine idraulico evidenziato in Bari dall'evento pluviometrico dell'Ottobre 2005 e il caso dell' ex cava di Maso". Continuità - Rassegna Tecnica Pugliese, 1-2.2006: 25-76. De Vera M. (1984). "Rainfall-Runoff relationship of some catchments with karstic geomorphology under arid to semi-arid conditions". Journal of Hydrology, 68(1-4): 85-93. Polemio, M., (2010). "Historical floods and a recent extreme rainfall event in the Murgia karstic environment (Southern Italy)". Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 54(2): 195-219.

  18. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy.

    PubMed

    Raele, Donato Antonio; Galante, Domenico; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2015-10-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region.

  19. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  20. Characterization of Essential Oil Components from Aromatic Plants that Grow Wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naviglio, Daniele; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Vitulano, Manuela; Trifuoggi, Marco; Gallo, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis and Mentha spicata growing wild in the "Piana del Sele" (Salerno, Southern Italy) have been extracted by hydro-distillation, quantified and characterized by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass-spectrometry (MS). Sixty-nine compounds were identified and classified according to their chemical classes. The results showed that the composition of the essential oils was extremely variable and specific for each botanical species. Hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in all essential oils except for sage where aldehydes and ketones were the most representative compounds. Only for thyme was a higher content of alcohols found. PMID:26411033

  1. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  2. New structural and seismological evidence and interpretation of a lithospheric-scale shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system (central-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Scarfı, L.; Cannavò, F.; Koulakov, I.; Monaco, C.

    2016-06-01

    Geological, gravimetric, and seismological data from the central-eastern Sicily (Italy) provide evidences of a NW-SE oriented shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system. This structure consists of a near 100 km long lithospheric-scale structural and seismic boundary. In the near-surface, it shows Plio-Pleistocene vertical-axis structural rotations, kilometer-scale topographic imprint, progressive wrenching, and large down-faulting. All these features, together with its location south-west of the subduction system, allow us to interpret the shear zone as the upper plate expression of an abandoned Subduction Transform Edge Propagator fault, working before slab detachment, currently reactivated by elastic rebound or mantle upwelling mechanism triggered by slab detachment, to form an incipient transform belt separating compartments characterized by different motion in the modern context of Africa-Europe convergence.

  3. First compositional evidences on the local production of Dressel 2-4 amphorae in Calabria (Southern Italy): characterization and mixing simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miriello, D.; Bloise, A.; De Luca, R.; Apollaro, C.; Crisci, G. M.; Medaglia, S.; Taliano Grasso, A.

    2015-06-01

    Dressel 2-4 amphorae are a type of pottery, which was used to transport wine and produced in the Mediterranean area between the first century BC and the second century AD. This study shows, for the first time, that their production also occurred in Ionian Calabria. These results were achieved by studying 11 samples of archaeological pottery (five samples of Dressel 2-4 and six samples of other ceramic types) taken from Cariati (Calabria—Southern Italy). The composition of the pottery was compared with that of the local raw materials (clays and sands) potentially usable for their production. Samples were studied by polarized optical microscopy and analysed by XRF, XRPD and Raman spectroscopy. An innovative approach, based on Microsoft Excel optimizer "Solver" add-in on geochemical data, was used to define the provenance of archaeological pottery and to calculate the mixtures of local clay and sand needed for the production of the pottery itself.

  4. The Forced Surrender of Infants Born to Unwed Mothers in Southern Italy. A Case Study of Late Nineteenth Century Practices in the Town of Forio d'Ischia.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-10-01

    For many centuries, unwed mothers in southern Italy were forced to surrender their infants because of a number of social, religious, economic, and political pressures. This study focuses on the policies and practices that were in place in southern Italy regarding illegitimate infants in the late nineteenth century. A detailed analysis of the policies and practices present in the town of Forio d'Ischia during the 20-year period 1880-1899 is also presented. During these two decades, there were 37 illegitimate live births representing 0.70% of the 5249 live births recorded in this town. Although small in number, these illegitimate births, referred to as spuri in Italian, from the Latin spurius, meaning bastard, were managed by standard predetermined procedures. These included anonymity for the parents, the transfer of such infants to an official town receiver of foundlings, and their transport to Naples' orphanage, the Real Casa Santa dell'Annunziata. This orphanage maintained fairly detailed records about the children who were delivered to it. After a few days at the orphanage, infants were often entrusted to the care of external wet nurses, preferably outside of Naples. This was done in the belief that infant survival was better assured in more rural environments. The case of an illegitimate infant, Antonino Spinalbese, is presented in detail. Born on 14 February 1882 in the town of Forio d'Ischia, he was brought to the orphanage 4 days later. Following a two-day stay at the orphanage, he was entrusted to an external wet nurse, Michele Mondella, and her husband, Ciro Fiscale di Felice, a mariner in the town of Torre del Greco. The available evidence indicates that Antonino Spinalbese became a mariner like his stepfather. As a crew member of the passenger ship, Vulcano, he made three trips from Naples to New York City in 1922 and 1923. PMID:26233712

  5. Comments on: Carbonatites in a subduction system: The Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy) by d'Orazio et al., (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Principe, C.; Giannandrea, P.

    2008-07-01

    [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334] describe a new finding of alvikite Ca-carbonatite at Vulture. They stress its importance as being the first carbonatite to be discovered in a subduction environment. They suggest that this rock is different from the other Italian carbonatites, considered as 'rocks sharing a carbonatitic affinity', which are radiogenic and chemically diluted by addition of sedimentary limestone. They note that Vulture 'alvikite' is not diluted and is very unradiogenic with respect to other Italian carbonatites. However, they maintain that Vulture 'alvikite' carbonate is derived from subducted limestones. We present an account of the field relationships relating to the above-mentioned rocks, setting the geological and petrographic records straight and describing pyroclastic rocks. We did not find that these rocks are formed from alvikite dykes or lava, but instead recognised them to be a continuous blanket of 'flaggy', welded tuff. We found that the rocks consist of physically separated melilitite and carbonatite juvenile lapilli settled into a carbonatite ash matrix form the rock. We disagree with the geochemical interpretation of the rock by [D'Orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Tonarini, S., Doglioni, C., 2007. Carbonatites in a subduction system: the Pleistocene alvikites from Mt. Vulture (southern Italy). Lithos 98, 313-334], and are particularly concerned by their conclusion of its carbonate origin. We remark on the rock's geodynamic assignment in the frame of an extensional tectonic setting, also referring to the other Italian carbonatite occurrences. We reject any ad hoc modified subduction as a direct source of Vulture and Italian carbonatites.

  6. A Pathological Late Pleistocene canid from San Sidero (Italy): implications for social- and feeding-behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iurino, Dawid Adam; Fico, Rosario; Petrucci, Mauro; Sardella, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Evidence of diseases on vertebrate fossil bones can provide detailed information on many aspects of extinct animals. This study focused on pathological craniodental remains (left maxilla and dentary) referred to the canid Cuon alpinus unearthed from a Late Pleistocene karst filling deposit at San Sidero (Apulia, southern Italy). These fossils show clear evidence of a chronic periodontitis that caused the animal's death. Clinical diagnosis of the disease and the timing of its development have been defined on the basis of a veterinary odontostomatology approach, in addition to radiographic and tomographic techniques. From the initiation of the infection until death, a time span of at least 6 months occurred, and three main steps have been defined: (1) the bacterial infections of the buccal cavity turning into severe periodontitis, (2) the fracture of the lower carnassial and (3) the loss of teeth due to the worsening infection that deformed and/or eroded maxillary and mandibular bones and enlarged alveoli. The analysis of the palaeopathology also provides information about the biomechanics of the bite, on the feeding behaviour and on the relationships of injured members in a pack of Late Pleistocene canids.

  7. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  8. Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Alessandro; Baldanza, Angela; Casella, Sergio; Pino, Paolo; Rasa', Riccardo; Russo, Selma

    2016-08-01

    A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density flows. The chemical classification of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.

  9. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees.

  10. Short communication: Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw milk and mozzarella cheese in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Nobili, G; Franconieri, I; Basanisi, M G; La Bella, G; Tozzoli, R; Caprioli, A; La Salandra, G

    2016-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a significant food-borne public health hazard in Europe, where most human infections are associated with 5 serogroups (O157, O26, O103, O145, and O111). In 2015, 95 food and environmental samples were examined for the presence of Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). The STEC were isolated from 2 raw milk and 1 mozzarella cheese samples that were collected in the period between June and September. To the best of our knowledge, this finding represents the first report of STEC isolation from mozzarella cheese produced in Italy, and it suggests that both the quality of raw milk used to produce mozzarella and the thermal inactivation treatment associated with the curd-stretching step should be carefully monitored. PMID:27522413

  11. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from olive orchards in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Francesca; Lazarova, Stela; Troccoli, Alberto; Vovlas, Nicola; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. The first juvenile stage is reported for the first time. Molecular characterisation of this species, using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA and ITS region, was carried out. PCR-RFLP analyses of the ribosomal gene regions determined species-specific patterns that clearly differentiate X. macroacanthum. Sequences of the D2-D3 domains and the partial 18S-ITS1 rRNA genes were analysed using several methods for inferring phylogeny to reconstruct the relationships between X. macroacanthum and other Xiphinema species.

  12. Short communication: Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw milk and mozzarella cheese in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Nobili, G; Franconieri, I; Basanisi, M G; La Bella, G; Tozzoli, R; Caprioli, A; La Salandra, G

    2016-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a significant food-borne public health hazard in Europe, where most human infections are associated with 5 serogroups (O157, O26, O103, O145, and O111). In 2015, 95 food and environmental samples were examined for the presence of Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). The STEC were isolated from 2 raw milk and 1 mozzarella cheese samples that were collected in the period between June and September. To the best of our knowledge, this finding represents the first report of STEC isolation from mozzarella cheese produced in Italy, and it suggests that both the quality of raw milk used to produce mozzarella and the thermal inactivation treatment associated with the curd-stretching step should be carefully monitored.

  13. [Ecology of Thelazia spp. in cattle and their vectors in Italy].

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Traversa, D; Otranto, D

    2004-06-01

    The genus Thelazia (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) includes a cosmopolitan group of eyeworm spirurids responsible for ocular infections in domestic and wild animals and transmitted by different species of muscids. Bovine thelaziosis is caused by Thelazia rhodesi Desmarest 1828, Thelazia gulosa Railliet & Henry 1910, and Thelazia skrjabini Erschow 1928, which occur in many countries; T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been reported mainly in the New World, while T. rhodesi is particularly common in the Old World. In Italy, T. rhodesi was reported in southern regions a long time ago and, recently, T. gulosa and T. skrjabini have been identified in autochthonous cattle first in Apulia and then in Sardinia. Thirteen species of Musca are listed as intermediate hosts of eyeworms, but only Musca autumnalis and Musca larvipara have been demonstrated to act as vectors of Thelazia in the ex-URSS, North America, ex-Czechoslovakia and more recently in Sweden. In Italy, after the reports of T. gulosa and T. skrjabini in southern regions, the intermediate hosts of bovine eyeworms were initially only suspected as the predominant secretophagous Muscidae collected from the periocular region of cattle with thelaziosis were the face flies, M. autumnalis and M. larvipara, followed by Musca osiris, Musca tempestiva and Musca domestica. The well-known constraints in the identification of immature eyeworms to species by fly dissection and also the time-consuming techniques used constitute important obstacles to epidemiological field studies (i.e. vector identification and/or role, prevalence and pattern of infection in flies, etc.). Molecular studies have recently permitted to further investigations into this area. A PCR-RFLP analysis of the ribosomal ITS-1 sequence was developed to differentiate the 3 species of Thelazia (i.e. T. gulosa, T. rhodesi and T. skrjabini) found in Italy, then a molecular epidemiological survey has recently been carried out in field conditions throughout five seasons of

  14. Tectonic and environmental evolution of Quaternary intramontane basins in Southern Apennines (Italy): insights from palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.

    2010-08-01

    Southern Apennines is characterized by active extensional tectonics with NE-SW stretching direction. The seismicity of the region is very well understood and continuously monitored. In contrast, the onset of extensional tectonics is chronologically poorly constrained. The aim of this study is that to give important constraints on the development of extensional regime and the onset of the continental deposition during Quaternary in Southern Apennines. We report the results of palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses from four Quaternary small intramontane basins in the Picentini Mountains (Southern Apennines). The sedimentary sequences are located at different altitudes, from 600 to 1200 m a.s.l., and were deposited in fluvial-lacustrine environments. We sampled 29 sites in clays and lacustrine limestones from Tizzano, Piano del Gaudo and Acerno basins and in red palaeosoils and matrix-supported conglomerates from the Iumaiano basins. In the clay and limestones samples magnetite, titano-magnetite, hematite and iron-sulphide have been recognized as the main magnetic carriers, whereas magnetite and hematite characterize the Iumaiano conglomerates and red soils. Palaeomagnetic results have been integrated with published radiometric data in order to constrain the age of each sedimentary basins. Sites from the Iumaiano basin, which represents the substrate of the Tizzano and Piano del Gaudo basins, show a reverse polarity and therefore have been attributed to the lower Matuyama chron. In contrast, palaeomagnetic data from Tizzano basin show a transition from reversed to normal polarity along the exposed section, which has been interpreted as the Matuyama/Brunhes transition. Sites from Acerno and Piano del Gaudo basins show a normal polarity, which, according to radiometric and pollen data, have been correlated to the Brunhes epoch. On the base of such results we discuss the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basins and the role of extensional tectonics in this

  15. Waveform modeling of historical seismograms of the 1930 Irpinia earthquake provides insight on ``blind'' faulting in Southern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, N. A.; Palombo, B.; Ventura, G.; Perniola, B.; Ferrari, G.

    2008-05-01

    The Southern Apennines chain is related to the west-dipping subduction of the Apulian lithosphere. The strongest seismic events mostly occurred in correspondence of the chain axis along normal NW-SE striking faults parallel to the chain axis. These structures are related to mantle wedge upwelling beneath the chain. In the foreland, faulting develops along E-W strike-slip to oblique-slip faults related to the roll-back of the foreland. Similarly to other historical events in Southern Apennines, the I0 = XI (MCS intensity scale) 23 July 1930 earthquake occurred between the chain axis and the thrust front without surface faulting. This event produced more than 1400 casualties and extensive damage elongated approximately E-W. The analysis of the historical waveforms provides the chance to study the fault geometry of this "anomalous" event and allow us to clarify its geodynamic significance. Our results indicate that the MS = 6.6 1930 event nucleated at 14.6 ± 3.06 km depth and ruptured a north dipping, N100°E striking plane with an oblique motion. The fault propagated along the fault strike 32 km to the east at about 2 km/s. The eastern fault tip is located in proximity of the Vulture volcano. The 1930 hypocenter, similarly to the 1990 (MW = 5.8) Southern Apennines event, is within the Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulian foredeep and the rupture developed along a "blind" fault. The 1930 fault kinematics significantly differs from that typical of large Southern Apennines earthquakes, which occur in a distinct seismotectonic domain on late Pleistocene to Holocene outcropping faults. These results stress the role played by pre-existing, "blind" faults in the Apennines subduction setting.

  16. The Burden of Nephrotoxic Drug Prescriptions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Population-Based Study in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ingrasciotta, Ylenia; Sultana, Janet; Giorgianni, Francesco; Caputi, Achille Patrizio; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Tari, Daniele Ugo; Linguiti, Claudio; Perrotta, Margherita; Nucita, Andrea; Pellegrini, Fabio; Fontana, Andrea; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Trifirò, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of nephrotoxic drugs can further worsening renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is therefore imperative to explore prescribing practices that can negatively affect CKD patients. Aim To analyze the use of nephrotoxic drugs in CKD patients in a general population of Southern Italy during the years 2006–2011. Methods The general practice “Arianna” database contains data from 158,510 persons, registered with 123 general practitioners (GPs) of Caserta. CKD patients were identified searching: CKD-related ICD-9 CM codes among causes of hospitalization; CKD-relevant procedures undergone in hospital (e.g. dialysis); drug prescriptions issued for a CKD-related indication. A list of nephrotoxic drugs was compiled and validated by pharmacologists and nephrologists. The summary of product characteristics was used to classify drugs as ‘contraindicated’ or ‘to be used with caution’ in renal diseases. Frequency of nephrotoxic drug use, overall, by drug class and single compounds, by GPs within one year prior or after first CKD diagnosis and within one year after dialysis entry was calculated. Results Overall, 1,989 CKD patients and 112 dialysed patients were identified. Among CKD patients, 49.8% and 45.2% received at least one prescription for a contraindicated nephrotoxic drug within one year prior or after first CKD diagnosis, respectively. In detail, 1,119 CKD patients (56.3%) had at least one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescription between CKD diagnosis and end of follow-up. A large proportion of CKD patients (35.6%) were treated with NSAIDs for periods exceeding 90 days. Contraindicated nephrotoxic drugs were used commonly in CKD, with nimesulide (16.6%) and diclofenac (11.0%) being most frequently used. Conclusions Contraindicated nephrotoxic drugs were highly prescribed in CKD patients from a general population of Southern Italy. CKD diagnosis did not seem to reduce significantly the prescription of

  17. Right-angle pattern of minor fluvial networks from the Ionian terraced belt, southern Italy: passive structural control or foreland bending?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioia, Dario; Schiattarella, Marcello; Ivo Giano, Salvatore; Di Leo, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric analyses of both the topography and drainage network are valuable tools to investigate the influence of Quaternary tectonics and eustatic cycles on coastal landscape evolution. A detailed analysis of the drainage network morphometry, combined with the study of the topographic attributes, was performed in a large (i.e. about 400 sq. km) part of the Ionian coastal belt of southern Italy. The study area represents the southernmost sector of the Bradano Foredeep and is bounded by the front of the south-Apennine chain and the edge of the Apulian Foreland. Since Middle Pleistocene, a continuous tectonic uplift occurred. In response to the interplay between such a tectonic uplift and eustatic variations of the sea level, several orders of marine terraces developed, ranging in age from about 600 ka to about 60 ka. In fact, the study area landscape is featured by a staircase of polygenic terraces (originally generated as marine terraced surfaces) gently-dipping toward the Ionian sea (slope angles ranging from 3° to 5°), repeatedly interrupted by morphological scarps. A trellis-type fluvial network deeply cut the flight of marine terraces, draining into three main rivers (Bradano, Basento, and Cavone rivers) characterized by meandering-type channels and large alluvial plains. We calculated statistical properties of landscape and estimated some geomorphic indices that reflect the interaction between erosional and tectonic processes. Studies on topographic attributes, morphometric indices, and analysis of longitudinal river profiles were integrated with classical (i.e. field survey and photo-aerial interpretation) morphostructural analysis, focused on both the relict and active landforms. Morphotectonic investigations allow us to provide new constraints on the Late Quaternary geomorphological evolution of this sector of southern Italy. The right-angle pattern of minor fluvial net which cuts the terraced surfaces is largely diffused and regularly spaced in the

  18. Validating the use of 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion represents an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture and forestry in many areas of the world, including southern Italy. Numerous models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution, based on the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management. However, there remains an important need for empirical measurements to provide a basis for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures as well as to support specific investigations and experiments. In this context, erosion plots provide useful information on gross rates of soil loss, but are unable to document the efficiency of the onward transfer of the eroded sediment within a field and towards the stream system, and thus net rates of soil loss from larger areas. The use of environmental radionuclides, particularly caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and excess lead-210 ((210)Pb(ex)), as a means of estimating rates of soil erosion and deposition has attracted increasing attention in recent years and the approach has now been recognised as possessing several important advantages. In order to provide further confirmation of the validity of the estimates of longer-term erosion and soil redistribution rates provided by (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements, there is a need for studies aimed explicitly at validating the results obtained. In this context, the authors directed attention to the potential offered by a set of small erosion plots located near Reggio Calabria in southern Italy, for validating estimates of soil loss provided by (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements. A preliminary assessment suggested that, notwithstanding the limitations and constraints involved, a worthwhile investigation aimed at validating the use of (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land could be undertaken. The results demonstrate a close consistency between the measured rates of soil

  19. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  20. Real-time measurements of Hg0 and H2S at La Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) and Mt. Amiata volcano (Siena, Central Italy): a new geochemical approach to estimate the distribution of air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Capecchiacci, F.; Di Lonardo, C.; D'Alessandro, W.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of Hg and H2S from natural and anthropogenic sources may have a great environmental impact in urban areas as well as in the surroundings of active and passive degassing volcanoes. Mercury is present in the atmosphere mainly in its elemental form (Hg0~98 %), which has a relatively high volatility, low solubility and chemical inertness. Hydrogen sulfide, one of the most abundant gas species in volcanic fluids, is highly poisoning and corrosive. In this study, an innovative real-time method for the measurements of Hg0 and H2S concentrations in air was carried out at La Solfatara Crater, a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone nested in the town of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy), and at Mt. Amiata volcano (Central Italy), where a world-class Hg mining district abandoned in the seventies and a presently-exploited geothermal field for the production of electrical energy occur. The main aims were (i) to test this new methodological approach and (ii) to investigate Hg0 and H2S concentrations and the chemical-physical parameters regulating their spatial distribution in polluted areas. A portable Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer with high frequency modulation of light polarization (Lumex RA-915M) was used in combination with a pulsed fluorescence gas analyzer (Thermo Scientific Model 450i) to measure Hg0 and H2S, respectively. The instruments were synchronized and set at high-frequency acquisition (10 sec and 1 min, respectively). Measurements were carried out along pathways (up to 12 km long) at an average speed of <10 km/h and coupled with GPS data and meteorological parameters. In selected sites, passive samplers were positioned to determine the time-integrated Hg0 and H2S concentrations to be compared with the real-time measurements. The results indicate that this approach is highly efficient and effective in providing reliable and reproducible Hg0 and H2S concentrations and can be used to identify and characterize gas emitters in different environments.

  1. New data on the FWF project P20018-N10: The Puez key-section in the Dolomites (Southern Alps; N-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Mayrhofer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Early Cretaceous ammonoids (n = 424) were collected at the Puez locality in the Dolomites of Southern Tyrol (Lukeneder and Aspmair 2006). The cephalopod fauna from the marly limestones to marls here indicates Late Valanginian to Early Aptian age. The underlying Biancone Formation (Maiolica Formation) is Early Valanginian. The deposition of the marly limestones and marls in this interval occurred during unstable conditions. Ammonoids. The ammonoid fauna comprises 27 different genera, each apparently represented by 1-2 species. The complete occurrence at the Puez section is dominated by the Phylloceratina (30%) and the Ammonitina (34%). Phyllopachyceras (17%) and Phylloceras (13%) from the Phylloceratina are the most frequent components, followed by Lytoceras (12%) from the Lytoceratina, and Barremites (10%) and Melchiorites (8%) from the Ammonitina. Phylloceatidae and Desmoceratidae are dominating the cephalopod-fauna. Some ammonoid zones defined by Hoedemaeker et al. (2003) can be recognized. The following index fossils were examined within the collections of the NHMW (Austria) and the NMB (Italy): for the latest Valanginian Criosarasinella furcillata (C. furcillate Zone and Subzone), for the middle Early Hauterivian Olcostephanus (Jeannoticeras) jeannoti (O.(J.) jeannoti Subzone), and Heinzia sayni for the lowermost Upper Barremian (H. sayni Subzone; Reboulet and Hoedemaeker (reporters) et al., submitted). The ammonoid fauna contains only descendants of the Mediterranean Province (Tethyan Realm). Most affinities of the cephalopod fauna are observed with faunas from the adjacent areas of Italy (Lessini Mountains, Belluno, southern Trento Plateau), the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Bakony, Geresce and Mecsek Mountains of Hungary. This is explained by the neighbouring position of the latter areas during the Early Cretaceous on the Apulian/Adria block and the Alpine-Carpathian microplate. The frequency of the ammonoids and the richness of the fauna make this

  2. Dense water cascading, bottom currents and sediment wave formation at the exit of the Bari canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise

  3. Quantitative precipitation and streamflow forecast for two recent extreme hydro-meteorological events in Southern Italy with a fully-coupled model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Two severe hydro-meteorological events affected Calabria Region (Southern Italy) in the second half of the year 2015. The first event, on August 12th, focused on a relatively small area near the northern Ionian coast, resulted in a rainfall intensity of about 230 mm in 24 hours involving flash flooding with several million Euros of damages. The second event mainly affected the southern Ionian coast, was more persistent (it lasted from October 30th to November 2nd), interested a wider area and led to recorded rainfall values up to 400 mm in 24 hours and 700 mm in 48 hours, resulting in severe flooding, landslides and a human loss. The fully two-way dynamically coupled atmosphere-hydrology modeling system WRF-Hydro is used to reproduce both the events, in order to assess its skill in forecasting both quantitative precipitation and streamflow with initial and lateral atmospheric boundary conditions given by the recently available 0.25° output resolution GFS grid dataset. Precipitation estimates provided by 2 km-resolution atmospheric model are compared with both ground-based data and observations from a National Civil Protection Department single-polarization Doppler radar. Discharge data from the rivers and creeks affected by heavy precipitation are not available, then streamflow results are compared with either official discharge estimates provided by authorities (first event) or recorded river stages (second event). Results show good performances of the fully-coupled hydrometeorological prediction system which allows an improved representation of the coupled atmospheric and terrestrial processes and provides an integrated solution for the regional water cycle modeling, from atmospheric processes to river outlets.

  4. Investigating fossil hydrothermal systems by means of fluid inclusions and stable isotopes in banded travertine: an example from Castelnuovo dell'Abate (southern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Marco; Boschi, Chiara; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo; Liotta, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Southern Tuscany (Italy) hosts geothermal anomalies with associated widespread CO2 gas-rich manifestations and active travertine-deposing thermal springs. Geothermal anomalies have been active since the Late Miocene and have led to the formation of widespread Late Miocene-Pleistocene travertine deposits and meso- and epithermal mineralizations. This study investigates the travertine deposit exposed in the Castelnuovo dell'Abate area of southern Tuscany. Here, a fissure-ridge type travertine deposit and its feeding conduits, currently filled with banded calcite veins (i.e. banded travertine), represent a spectacular example of fossil hydrothermal circulation in the peripheral area of the exploited Monte Amiata geothermal field. The Castelnuovo dell'Abate travertine deposit and associated calcite veins were analysed to establish the characteristics of the parent hydrothermal fluids, and the age of this circulation. The focus of the study was on fluid inclusions, rarely considered in travertine studies, but able to provide direct information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the original fluid. Uranium-thorium geochronological data provided further constraints on the: (1) age of tectonic activity; (2) age of the hydrothermal circulation; and (3) evolution of the Monte Amiata geothermal anomaly. Results indicate that brittle deformation (NW- and SE-trending normal to oblique-slip faults) was active during at least the Middle Pleistocene and controlled a hydrothermal circulation mainly characterized by fluids of meteoric origin, and as old as 300-350 ka. This is the oldest circulation documented to date in the Monte Amiata area. The fluid chemical composition is comparable to that of fluids currently exploited in the shallow reservoir of the Monte Amiata geothermal field, therefore suggesting that fluid composition has not changed substantially over time. These fluids, however, have cooled by about 70 °C in the last 300-350 ka, corresponding to a cooling rate

  5. A stochastic ensemble-based model to predict crop water requirements from numerical weather forecasts and VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelosi, Anna; Falanga Bolognesi, Salvatore; De Michele, Carlo; Medina Gonzalez, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Ensemble numerical weather predictions can be valuable data for developing operational advisory irrigation services. We propose a stochastic ensemble-based model providing spatial and temporal estimates of crop water requirements, implemented within an advisory service offering detailed maps of irrigation water requirements and crop water consumption estimates, to be used by water irrigation managers and farmers. The stochastic model combines estimates of crop potential evapotranspiration retrieved from ensemble numerical weather forecasts (COSMO-LEPS, 16 members, 7 km resolution) and canopy parameters (LAI, albedo, fractional vegetation cover) derived from high resolution satellite images in the visible and near infrared wavelengths. The service provides users with daily estimates of crop water requirements for lead times up to five days. The temporal evolution of the crop potential evapotranspiration is simulated with autoregressive models. An ensemble Kalman filter is employed for updating model states by assimilating both ground based meteorological variables (where available) and numerical weather forecasts. The model has been applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. This work presents the results of the system performance for one year of experimental service. The results suggest that the proposed model can be an effective support for a sustainable use and management of irrigation water, under conditions of water scarcity and drought. Since the evapotranspiration term represents a staple

  6. Paleoceanographic Changes in the Lagonegro Basin (Southern Italy) during the Late Triassic Linked to Oceanic Rifting in the Western Tethyan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacci, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Bertinelli, A.; Rigo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lagonegro Basin was part of the southwestern branch of the western Tethys, an actively spreading young ocean during the Late Triassic (Ciarapica and Passeri, 2002, 2005). The sedimentary environment was a deepening-upward basin, bordered to the north by the Apenninic and Apulian carbonate platforms. Paleoseismic activity is evidenced by frequent debris flows on the basin margins (Passeri et al., 2005). The Lagonegro succession is characterized by Permian to Miocene formations deposited in shallow to deep basinal environments. The Upper Triassic is comprised of deep-marine sediments belonging to the Calcari con Selce ("Cherty Limestone") Formation of late Ladinian to late Norian-early Rhaetian age and the Scisti Silicei ("Siliceous Shale") Formation of late Norian-early Rhaetian to Late Jurassic age. The "Transitional Interval" between these two formations is gradational over a 20- to 40-m interval (Miconnet, 1983). The Transitional Interval was investigated in three sections (Pignola-Abriola, Monte Volturino, and Madonna del Sirino) in the Southern Apennines (southern Italy), representing a proximal-to-distal transect across the Lagonegro Basin. The transition from mainly calcareous to mainly siliceous sedimentation may have been influenced by rapid, post-rift subsidence of the Lagonegro Basin. It also coincided with a shift to warmer or more humid conditions around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary, as reflected in a pronounced increase in the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a weathering proxy (Young and Nesbitt, 1998). Redox proxies indicate mainly oxic conditions in the deep basin, although organic-rich shale beds are present at multiple levels in the otherwise organic-poor succession. The abruptness of the transitions between organic-poor and -rich sediment layers suggests major changes in paleoceanographic conditions, possibly related to switches from lagoonal circulation (linked to a net negative water balance) to estuarine circulation (linked to a net

  7. Provenance and tectonic implications of heavy minerals in Pliocene-Pleistocene siliciclastic sediments of the southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquafredda, P.; Fornelli, A.; Piccarreta, G.; Summa, V.

    1997-10-01

    During the late Tortonian-Pleistocene, rifting in the Tyrrhenian region and compression in the Apennines coexisted, with an eastward migration of the rift basin-thrust belt-foredeep systems. In a northwest-southeast area of the southern Apennine Pliocene deposits, accumulated in piggy-back basins, and Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments deposited in the foredeep basins, are contiguous. Here our attention is focused on the heavy minerals, which are sensitive indicators of source rocks. Garnet, blue amphibole, staurolite, clinopyroxene, epidote have been analysed and compared with the minerals of the likely protoliths. Blue amphibole and staurolite derive from Early Miocene 'Tufiti di Tusa e Arenarie di Corleto' Formation; pyroxenes derive from Pleistocene Vulture volcanics and, possibly from Pliocene volcaniclastic strata cropping out in Basilicata. Interestingly, blue amphibole and staurolite, present in the Early Miocene volcanolithic and quartzofeldspathic sandstones of the 'Tufiti di Tusa e Arenarie di Corleto' Formation, are absent in Tortonian siliciclastic strata, but appear again in Pliocene-Pleistocene siliciclastic sediments. The space-time distribution of these minerals was controlled by important morphostructural modifications affecting the southern Apennine thrust belt.

  8. Applications of a synergic analytical strategy to figure out technologies in medieval glazed pottery with "negative decoration" from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannossa, Lorena Carla; Acquaviva, Marianna; Laganara, Caterina; Laviano, Rocco; Mangone, Annarosa

    2014-09-01

    Glazed pottery with "negative decoration" samples, dating back to the twelfth to thirteenth century ad and coming from three sites along the Adriatic coast, Siponto, Egnatia and Trani (Southern Italy) were characterized from physical-chemical, mineralogical and morphological points of view. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy investigations were carried out on ceramic bodies, pigments and glazes of the fragments. We aimed to outline the technological features, define the nature of decorations and coatings—glazes and engobes—and look for clues to hypothesize provenance. Results obtained show clear differences in raw materials and production technology between the impressed ceramic of Islamic tradition and the incised one of Byzantine tradition. Regarding the latter, evidences of a non-local origin can be found in the compositional diversity of raw materials used for the ceramic bodies of fragments decorated with spiral and pseudo-kufic motifs, which stressed the use of clays so far not recorded in Apulia. At the same time, at least in the case of Siponto, the compositional similarity of both ceramic bodies and materials used under the glaze for impressed ceramic and painted polychrome ceramics (RMR and protomaiolica), more likely local production, could suggest that both were produced in the same workshops.

  9. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  10. Functional comparisons between unimodal and bimodal analytical relationships in terms of water balance predictions for the case study of the Vesuvius volcanic area (Naples, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Nunzio; Nasta, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Optimal performance of large-scale numerical modeling of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVA) system mandates accurate assessment and description of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention (WRF) and hydraulic conductivity (HCF) functions. These functions are commonly described by simple unimodal analytical relations that guarantee mathematical flexibility with few parameters in the majority of soil types. However, other soils, like volcanic soils, are characterized by a complex structure yielding a bimodal or even a multimodal distribution of pore sizes. In these cases, reliable hydrologic predictions can be obtained resorting to more complex hydraulic functions, yet more accurate and robust ones. To overcome some drawbacks of the classic unimodal hydraulic relationships, Romano et al. (2011) have developed closed-form bimodal lognormal relations for improving the description of both WRF and HCF. However, the reliability of this description of the soil hydraulic behavior is often tested at the curve fitting level only. Comparisons between unimodal and bimodal soil hydraulic relationships are more effective and informative when performed in functional terms. Therefore, as the primary objective of this study, we used a hydrological balance model to quantify and compare soil moisture flow and storage regimes for 14 years (1999-2012), when characterized by unimodal or bimodal approximations of 39 measured soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics collected in volcanic Vesuvian soil located in the Campania Region Plain (Naples, Southern Italy).

  11. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  12. Low shear velocity in a normal fault system imaged by ambient noise cross correlation: The case of the Irpinia fault zone, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, Maurizio; Festa, Gaetano; Bobbio, Antonella; Serra, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    We extracted the Green's functions from cross correlation of ambient noise recorded at broadband stations located across the Apennine belt, Southern Italy. Continuous records at 26 seismic stations acquired for 3 years were analyzed. We found the emergence of surface waves in the whole range of the investigated distances (10-140 km) with energy confined in the frequency band 0.04-0.09 Hz. This phase reproduces Rayleigh waves generated by earthquakes in the same frequency range. Arrival time of Rayleigh waves was picked at all the couples of stations to obtain the average group velocity along the path connecting the two stations. The picks were inverted in separated frequency bands to get group velocity maps then used to obtain an S wave velocity model. Penetration depth of the model ranges between 12 and 25 km, depending on the velocity values and on the depth of the interfaces, here associated to strong velocity gradients. We found a low-velocity anomaly in the region bounded by the two main faults that generated the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. A second anomaly was retrieved in the southeast part of the region and can be ascribed to a reminiscence of the Adria slab under the Apennine Chain.

  13. Community-wide outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 in southern Italy, summer 2013.

    PubMed

    Germinario, Cinzia; Caprioli, Alfredo; Giordano, Mario; Chironna, Maria; Gallone, Maria Serena; Tafuri, Silvio; Minelli, Fabio; Maugliani, Antonella; Michelacci, Valeria; Santangelo, Luisa; Mongelli, Onofrio; Montagna, Cosimo; Scavia, Gaia

    2016-09-22

    In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae. No cases in adults were detected. Molecular typing showed that two distinct STEC O26:H11 strains were involved. The case-control study showed an association between STEC O26 infection and consumption of dairy products from two local plants, but not with specific ready-to-eat products. E.coli O26:H11 strains lacking the stx genes were isolated from bulk milk and curd samples, but their PFGE profiles did not match those of the outbreak isolates. This outbreak supports the view that infections with Stx2-producing E. coli O26 in children have a high probability of progressing to HUS and represent an emerging public health problem in Europe. PMID:27684204

  14. A 10,300-year-old permafrost core from the active rock glacier Lazaun, southern Ötztal Alps (South Tyrol, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainer, Karl; Bressan, David; Dietre, Benjamin; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Hajdas, Irka; Lang, Kathrin; Mair, Volkmar; Nickus, Ulrike; Reidl, Daniel; Thies, Hansjörg; Tonidandel, David

    2015-03-01

    Two cores were drilled on rock glacier Lazaun in the southern Ötztal Alps (N Italy). The average ice content of core Lazaun I is 43 vol.% and of core Lazaun II is 22 vol.%. Radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil remains of core Lazaun I yielded ages ranging from 8960 cal yr BP at a depth of ca. 23.5 m to 2240 cal yr BP at a depth of 2.8 m, indicating that the ice near the base is approximately 10,300 yr old. The rock glacier was intact since that time and the ice persisted even during warm periods of the Holocene. An ice-free debris layer between 16.8 and 14.7 m separates the rock glacier into two frozen bodies. Inclinometer measurements indicate that both frozen bodies are active and that deformation occurs within a shear horizon at a depth of 20-25 m at the base of the lower frozen body and to a minor extent at a depth of approximately 14 m at the base of the upper frozen body. The ice-free debris layer in the middle of the Lazaun rock glacier indicates a more than five centennial long drought period, which dates to about 4300-3740 cal yr BP.

  15. Geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of mantle xenoliths from the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano, central southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, H.; Kostoula, T.; Jones, A. P.; Beard, A. D.; Thirlwall, M. F.; Bodinier, J.-L.

    2002-08-01

    Spinel perido