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Sample records for aquatic level ii

  1. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Presented are the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the significance of synthetic musk compounds in the aquatic environment. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than p

  2. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  3. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  4. ESTIMATION OF AQUATIC SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining species sensitivity and population-level responses of aquatic organisms to contaminants are critical components of criteria development and ecological risk assessment. To address data gaps in species sensitivity, the U.S. EPA developed the Interspecies Correlation Est...

  5. ESTIMATION OF AQUATIC SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining species sensitivity and population-level responses of aquatic organisms to contaminants are critical components of criteria development and ecological risk assessment. To address data gaps in species sensitivity, the U.S. EPA developed the Interspecies Correlation Est...

  6. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  7. Environmental estrogens in an urban aquatic ecosystem: II. Biological effects.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Melissa M; Minarik, Thomas A; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Curran, Erin M; Bartell, Stephen E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2013-11-01

    Urban aquatic ecosystems are often overlooked in toxicological studies even though they serve many ecosystem functions and sustain fish populations despite large-scale habitat alterations. However, urban fish populations are likely exposed to a broad range of stressors, including environmental estrogens (EEs) that may affect anatomy, physiology and reproduction of exposed fish. Although significant progress has been made in establishing ecological consequences of EE exposure, these studies have focused largely on hydrologically simple systems that lack the complexity of urban aquatic environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and biological effects of EEs across a large urbanized aquatic ecosystem. A multi-pronged study design was employed relying on quantitative determination of select EEs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and repeated biological monitoring of wild-caught and caged fish for indications of endocrine disruption. Over three years, EEs were measured in aqueous samples (n=42 samples) and biological effects assessed in >1200 male fish across the 2000km(2) aquatic ecosystems of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Chicago, IL. Our study demonstrated that in addition to water reclamation plant (WRP) effluents, non-WRP sources contribute significant EE loads to the aquatic ecosystem. While resident and caged male fish responded with the induction of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin, an indicator of EE exposure, neither resident nor caged sunfish exhibited prevalent histopathological changes to their reproductive organs (i.e., intersex) that have been reported in other studies. Vitellogenin induction was greater in spring than the fall and was not correlated with body condition factor, gonadosomatic index or hepatosomatic index. Exposure effects were not correlated with sites downstream of treated effluent discharge further affirming the complexity of sources and effects of EEs in urban aquatic ecosystems

  8. Atlas of Ohio Aquatic Insects: Volume II, Plecoptera

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Scott A.; Armitage, Brian J.; Baumann, Richard W.; Clark, Shawn M.; Bolton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We provide volume II of a distributional atlas of aquatic insects for the eastern USA state of Ohio. This treatment of stoneflies (Plecoptera) is companion to Armitage et al. (2011) on caddisflies (Trichoptera). We build on a recent analysis of Ohio stonefly diversity patterns based on large drainages (DeWalt et al. 2012), but add 3717 new records to the data set. We base most analyses on the United States Geological Survey Hierarchical Unit Code eight (HUC8) drainage scale. In addition to distributional maps for each species, we provide analyses of species richness versus HUC8 drainage area and the number of unique locations in a HUC8 drainage, species richness versus Ohio counties, analyze adult presence phenology throughout the year, and demonstrate stream size range affiliation for each species. New information This work is based on a total of 7797 specimen records gathered from 21 regional museums, agency data, personal collections, and from the literature Table 1. To our knowledge this is the largest stonefly data set available for a similarly sized geopolitical area anywhere in the world. These data are made available as a Darwin Core Archive supported by the Pensoft Integrated Publishing Toolkit (DeWalt et al. 2016b). All known published papers reporting stoneflies from Ohio are detailed in Suppl. material 1. We recovered 102 species from Ohio, including all nine Nearctic families Table 2​. Two species were removed from the DeWalt et al. (2012) list and two new state records added. Perlidae (32 spp.) was most speciose, compared to the low diversity Pteronarcyidae (2 spp.) and Peltoperlidae (1 sp.). The richest HUC8 drainages occurred in northeastern, south-central, and southern regions of the state where drainages were heavily forested, had the highest slopes, and were contained within or adjacent to the unglaciated Allegheny and Appalachian Plateaus. Species poor drainages occurred mainly in the northwestern region where Wisconsinan

  9. Methane Carbon Supports Aquatic Food Webs to the Fish Level

    PubMed Central

    Sanseverino, Angela M.; Bastviken, David; Sundh, Ingvar; Pickova, Jana; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) are produced by anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in lakes. In spite of extensive freshwater CH4 emissions, most of the CH4 is typically oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) before it can reach the lake surface and be emitted to the atmosphere. In turn, it has been shown that the CH4-derived biomass of MOB can provide the energy and carbon for zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of specific fatty acids synthesized by MOB in fish tissues having low carbon stable isotope ratios. Fish species, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes were collected from a shallow lake in Brazil and analyzed for fatty acids (FA) and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C). The fatty acids 16∶1ω8c, 16∶1ω8t, 16∶1ω6c, 16∶1ω5t, 18∶1ω8c and 18∶1ω8t were used as signature for MOB. The δ13C ratios varied from −27.7‰ to −42.0‰ and the contribution of MOB FA ranged from 0.05% to 0.84% of total FA. Organisms with higher total content of MOB FAs presented lower δ13C values (i.e. they were more depleted in 13C), while organisms with lower content of MOB signature FAs showed higher δ13C values. An UPGMA cluster analysis was carried out to distinguish grouping of organisms in relation to their MOB FA contents. This combination of stable isotope and fatty acid tracers provides new evidence that assimilation of methane-derived carbon can be an important carbon source for the whole aquatic food web, up to the fish level. PMID:22880091

  10. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  11. EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AQUATIC MESOCOSM TROPIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic mesocosms were dosed with an environmentally relevant concentration of 17-a-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to study the significance of trophic status (N, P levels) on the attenuation and bioavailability of synthetic estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Estrogenic activity was asse...

  12. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conduc...

  13. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conduc...

  14. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  15. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France

    SciTech Connect

    St-Pierre, S.; Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M.; Bontoux, J.G.

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 {micro}Gy h{sup {minus}1}. These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations, and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations.

  16. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes.

  17. Cooperative Mn(II) oxidation between two bacterial strains in an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Yaohui; Hu, Chengzhi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-02-01

    In natural or engineered environments, diverse interspecific interactions among two or more microbial taxa may profoundly affect the transformation of organic compounds in the media. Little is known, however, about how these organisms and interactions affect the transformation of heavy metals. Recently, we found an interaction between two non-Mn(II)-oxidizing (when in monoculture) strains, Arthrobacter sp. QXT-31 and Sphingopyxis sp. QXT-31, which, when cultured in combination, resulted in Mn(II)-oxidizing activity in synthetic media. In order to study the occurrence likelihood of cooperative Mn(II) oxidation in natural water and discharged effluent, we initially identified an optimal ratio of the two strains in a combined culture, as well as the impacts of external factors on the cooperative oxidation. Once preferred initial conditions were established, we assessed the degree and rate of Mn(II) oxidation mediated by the combined QXT-31 strains (henceforth referred to as simply 'QXT-31') in three different water types: groundwater, domestic sewage and coking wastewater. Results showed that Mn(II) oxidation only occurred when the two strains were within a specific ratios range. When introduced to the test waters at the preferred ratio, QXT-31 demonstrated high Mn(II)-oxidizing activities, even when relative abundance of QXT-31 was very low (roughly 1.6%, calculated by 454 pyrosequencing events on 16S rcDNA). Interestingly, even under low relative abundance of QXT-31, removal of total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the test waters was significantly higher than the control treatments that were not inoculated with QXT-31. Data from our study indicate that cooperative Mn(II) oxidation is most likely to occur in natural aquatic ecosystems, and also suggests an alternative method to treat wastewater containing high concentrations of Mn(II).

  18. Responses of blood pressure and lactate levels to various aquatic exercise movements in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chien, K-Y; Chen, W-C; Kan, N-W; Hsu, M-C; Lee, S-L

    2015-12-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women represent the main attending group in head-out aquatic exercise (HOAE). Blood pressure (BP) significantly increases both during water immersion and aquatic walking. Based on risk concerns, it is important to evaluate BP responses in postmenopausal women doing HOAE. The aim of this study was to determine BP, lactate levels, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) changes associated with performing 3 different movements at 3 levels of exercise intensity in water. Twelve postmenopausal women (59.9±0.6 years old) participated in 3 aquatic trials involving running (RU), rocking (RO), and scissor kicks (SK) on separate days. Systolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), lactate levels, RPE, and motion cadence were measured at rest; upon reaching 50%, 65%, and 80% of heart rate reserve for 6 minutes; and 10 and 30 minutes after exercise. Under similar RPE responses at 3 levels of intensity, SK resulted in higher systolic BP, MAP, and lactate levels than RO at 10 minutes after exercise (P<0.05) and the lowest motion cadence (P<0.05). RO resulted in the lowest MAP and diastolic BP responses during exercise (P<0.05). RU resulted in lower responses of lactate levels at high exercise intensity (P<0.05). RO resulted in lower diastolic BP and MAP responses compared with RU and SK during exercise. These findings suggest that RO movement in aquatic exercises is more suitable for people at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  19. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Metagenomic Characterization of Viruses within Aquatic Microbial Samples

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Shannon J.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Yooseph, Shibu; Halpern, Aaron L.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Glass, John I.; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Fadrosh, Douglas; Miller, Christopher S.; Sutton, Granger; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J. Craig

    2008-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on our planet. Interactions between viruses and their hosts impact several important biological processes in the world's oceans such as horizontal gene transfer, microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Interrogation of microbial metagenomic sequence data collected as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Expedition (GOS) revealed a high abundance of viral sequences, representing approximately 3% of the total predicted proteins. Cluster analyses of the viral sequences revealed hundreds to thousands of viral genes encoding various metabolic and cellular functions. Quantitative analyses of viral genes of host origin performed on the viral fraction of aquatic samples confirmed the viral nature of these sequences and suggested that significant portions of aquatic viral communities behave as reservoirs of such genetic material. Distributional and phylogenetic analyses of these host-derived viral sequences also suggested that viral acquisition of environmentally relevant genes of host origin is a more abundant and widespread phenomenon than previously appreciated. The predominant viral sequences identified within microbial fractions originated from tailed bacteriophages and exhibited varying global distributions according to viral family. Recruitment of GOS viral sequence fragments against 27 complete aquatic viral genomes revealed that only one reference bacteriophage genome was highly abundant and was closely related, but not identical, to the cyanomyovirus P-SSM4. The co-distribution across all sampling sites of P-SSM4-like sequences with the dominant ecotype of its host, Prochlorococcus supports the classification of the viral sequences as P-SSM4-like and suggests that this virus may influence the abundance, distribution and diversity of one of the most dominant components of picophytoplankton in oligotrophic oceans. In summary, the abundance and broad geographical distribution of viral sequences within

  20. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: metagenomic characterization of viruses within aquatic microbial samples.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Shannon J; Rusch, Douglas B; Yooseph, Shibu; Halpern, Aaron L; Heidelberg, Karla B; Glass, John I; Andrews-Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Fadrosh, Douglas; Miller, Christopher S; Sutton, Granger; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J Craig

    2008-01-23

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on our planet. Interactions between viruses and their hosts impact several important biological processes in the world's oceans such as horizontal gene transfer, microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Interrogation of microbial metagenomic sequence data collected as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Expedition (GOS) revealed a high abundance of viral sequences, representing approximately 3% of the total predicted proteins. Cluster analyses of the viral sequences revealed hundreds to thousands of viral genes encoding various metabolic and cellular functions. Quantitative analyses of viral genes of host origin performed on the viral fraction of aquatic samples confirmed the viral nature of these sequences and suggested that significant portions of aquatic viral communities behave as reservoirs of such genetic material. Distributional and phylogenetic analyses of these host-derived viral sequences also suggested that viral acquisition of environmentally relevant genes of host origin is a more abundant and widespread phenomenon than previously appreciated. The predominant viral sequences identified within microbial fractions originated from tailed bacteriophages and exhibited varying global distributions according to viral family. Recruitment of GOS viral sequence fragments against 27 complete aquatic viral genomes revealed that only one reference bacteriophage genome was highly abundant and was closely related, but not identical, to the cyanomyovirus P-SSM4. The co-distribution across all sampling sites of P-SSM4-like sequences with the dominant ecotype of its host, Prochlorococcus supports the classification of the viral sequences as P-SSM4-like and suggests that this virus may influence the abundance, distribution and diversity of one of the most dominant components of picophytoplankton in oligotrophic oceans. In summary, the abundance and broad geographical distribution of viral sequences within

  1. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  2. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  3. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND WILDLIFE. II. USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asfaw, Amha, Mark R. Ellersieck and Foster L. Mayer. 2003. Interspecies Correlation Estimations (ICE) for Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms and Wildlife. II. User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effe...

  4. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND WILDLIFE. II. USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asfaw, Amha, Mark R. Ellersieck and Foster L. Mayer. 2003. Interspecies Correlation Estimations (ICE) for Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms and Wildlife. II. User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effe...

  5. Physical activity levels and pattern of use for youth participants at a traditional aquatic venue.

    PubMed

    Ramos, William D; Chen, Ya-Ling; Kang, Sangguk

    2017-06-01

    In an effort to encourage youth to acquire recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), we need to examine affordances available to enhance opportunities. Included for consideration should be built environments such as swimming pools which can have significant impacts through leisure service delivery to promote active lifestyles. For this study, The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), was employed at a traditional aquatic venue during July and August in the Midwestern region of the U.S. Data was collected on three physical activity postures for youths age 4 to 18 along with variables including: (a) age, (b) gender, (c) physical activity posture, and (d) areas of participation termed target areas. A total of 3780 observations were taken into account during analysis. To detect differences among key variables, One-Way ANOVA and t-tests were performed. Descriptive results indicated that MVPA accounted for 70% of activity in the aquatic venue. Overall, female youths generated more MVPA within target areas compared to males, and youth as a single group consistently scored higher in all target areas as well as overall in MVPA. Significant differences were discovered in relation to several target areas. Findings from the study indicate that the use of a traditional aquatic venue can have positive impacts on youth physical activity and assist in meeting national standards for daily requirements of MVPA. It is also indicated that design features of an aquatic venue can play a role in determining levels of engagement and physical activity.

  6. Artificial Regulation of Water Level and Its Effect on Aquatic Macrophyte Distribution in Taihu Lake

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; An, Shuqing

    2012-01-01

    Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15–30 m resolution) to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989–2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000–2010 were 0.06–0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season) and 0.22–0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season) than in the 1989–1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CVa) decreased from 10.21% in 1989–1999 to 5.41% in 2000–2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000–2010 relative to 1989–1999. Neither annual average water level nor CVa influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes) that was present historically. PMID:23028639

  7. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; An, Shuqing

    2012-01-01

    Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution) to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season) and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season) than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a)) decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a) influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes) that was present historically.

  8. Utilization of water hyacinth weed (Eichhornia crassipes) for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aquatic environments: an adsorption isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Mahamadi, C; Nharingo, T

    2010-10-01

    The potential of Eichhornia crassipes biomass for the adsorption of three metal ions, Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II), from aqueous solution was studied using five two-parameter adsorption isotherm equations--Langmuir, Freundlich, Flory-Huggins, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The equilibrium adsorption data were obtained at different initial metal ion concentrations (C0 = 10-60 mg/L), 3 h contact time, 30 degrees C temperature, a dosage of 2 g/L, agitation rate of 150 rpm and buffered at pH 4.84. Langmuir isotherms gave monolayer sorption capacities (qm) of 26.32, 12.60 and 12.55 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) metal ions, respectively. The same trend of metal uptake was indicated by plots of sorption favourability (S(F)). Negative values of deltaGads0 indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic in nature, and values from the Temkin isotherm constant, bT, suggested a mechanism consistent with an ion-exchange process. The results from these studies indicated that E. crassipes biomass has promising potential for the removal of toxic metals from aquatic environments.

  9. Methylmercury levels and bioaccumulation in the aquatic food web of a highly mercury-contaminated reservoir.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Luis; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Bayona, Josep M; Díez, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    The low Ebro River basin (NE Spain) represents a particular case of chronic and long-term mercury pollution due to the presence of an industrial waste (up to 436 μg/g of Hg) coming from a chlor-alkali plant Albeit high total mercury (THg) levels have been previously described in several aquatic species from the surveyed area, methylmercury (MeHg) values in fish individuals have never been reported. Accordingly, in order to investigate bioaccumulation patterns at different levels of the aquatic food web of such polluted area, crayfish and various fish species, were analysed for THg and MeHg content. At the hot spot, THg mean values of crayfish muscle tissue and hepatopancreas were 10 and 15 times, respectively, greater than the local background level. Higher mean THg concentrations were detected in piscivorous (THg=0.848 ± 0.476 μg/g wet weight (ww); MeHg=0.672 ± 0.364 μg/g ww) than in non-piscivorous fish (THg=0.305 ± 0.163 μg/g ww; MeHg=0.278 ± 0.239 μg/g ww). Although these results indicated that THg in fish increased significantly with increasing trophic position, the percentage of the methylated form of Hg was not strongly influenced by differences in relative trophic position. This is an important finding, since the fraction of THg as MeHg in the top fish predator was unexpectedly lower than for other species of the aquatic food chain. Moreover, mean THg concentrations in piscivorous fish exceed the maximum level recommended for human consumption. From our findings, it is clear that for this specific polluted system, speciation becomes almost mandatory when risk assessment is based on MeHg, since single measurements of THg are inadequate and could lead to an over- or under-estimation of contamination levels.

  10. Regionalizing aquatic ecosystems based on the river subbasin taxonomy concept and spatial clustering techniques.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Chen, Jiongfeng; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Jiahu

    2011-11-01

    Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  11. Chemodynamics of soft nanoparticulate complexes: Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with fulvic acids and aquatic humic acids.

    PubMed

    Town, Raewyn M; van Leeuwen, Herman P; Buffle, Jacques

    2012-10-02

    The dynamics of metal complexation by small humic substances (fulvic acid and aquatic humic acid, collectively denoted as “fulvic-like substance”, FS) are explored within the framework of concepts recently developed for soft nanoparticulate complexants. From a comprehensive collection of published equilibrium and dissociation rate constants for CuFS and NiFS complexes, the association rate constant, ka, is determined as a function of the degree of complexing site occupation, θ. From this large data set, it is shown for the first time that ka is independent of θ. This result has important consequences for finding the nature of the rate limiting step in the association process. The influence of electric effects on the rate of the association process is described, namely (i) the accelerating effect of the negatively charged electrostatic field of FS on the diffusion of metal ions toward it, and (ii) the extent to which metal ions electrostatically accumulate in the counterionic atmosphere of FS. These processes are discussed qualitatively in relation to the derived values of ka. For slowly dehydrating metal ions such as Ni(H2O)6 2+ (dehydration rate constant, kw), ka is expected to derive straight from kw. In contrast, for rapidly dehydrating metal ions such as Cu(H2O)6 2+, transport limitations and electric effects involved in the formation of the precursor outer-sphere associate appear to be important overall rate-limiting factors. This is of great significance for understanding the chemodynamics of humic complexes in the sense that inner-sphere complex formation would not always be the (sole) rate limiting step.

  12. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  13. Contribution of science to farm-level aquatic animal health management.

    PubMed

    Corsin, F; Giorgetti, G; Mohan, C V

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of science to farm level disease management is a story of two worlds. The development of effective vaccines has allowed for the control of important salmonid diseases such as furunculosis, yersiniosis and vibriosis and has significantly reduced farmers' reliance on antibiotics. Control of diseases for which cost-effective vaccines have yet to be developed has been achieved through the development of increasingly targeted antibiotics and chemotherapeutants. Increasingly, accurate and rapid diagnostic and water quality tests have allowed farmers to improve farm-level aquatic animal health management. In developed countries, these achievements have been possible thanks to the strong link between science and farm management. This link has been assisted by the presence of strong farmer organizations capable of coordinating research projects and hosting meetings at which scientific information is discussed and disseminated. Although Asia is responsible for the production of about 90% of aquaculture products, it presents a rather different picture from the above. Science has indeed made significant progress in health management but the links with farm management are still weak. Management practices capable of preventing important health problems in shrimp and fish farming are still poorly adopted by farmers. This is largely due to constraints in the dissemination of information to the large number of producers involved, the limited resources of both producers and their countries and the lack of effective farmer organizations capable of liaising with the scientific world. Recently, the Asian region has witnessed some successful examples of aquatic animal health management through the adoption of simple Better Management Practices. Efforts so far have been largely focused on shrimp farming, although activities have been initiated to adopt a similar approach to other commodities. The need for both observational and experimental epidemiological studies to

  14. Binding of mercury(II) to aquatic humic substances: Influence of pH and source of humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haitzer, M.; Aiken, G.R.; Ryan, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Conditional distribution coefficients (KDOM???) for Hg(II) binding to seven dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates were measured at environmentally relevant ratios of Hg(II) to DOM. The results show that KDOM??? values for different types of samples (humic acids, fulvic acids, hydrophobic acids) isolated from diverse aquatic environments were all within 1 order of magnitude (1022.5??1.0-1023.5??1.0 L kg-1), suggesting similar Hg(II) binding environments, presumably involving thiol groups, for the different isolates. KDOM??? values decreased at low pHs (4) compared to values at pH 7, indicating proton competition for the strong Hg(II) binding sites. Chemical modeling of Hg(II)-DOM binding at different pH values was consistent with bidentate binding of Hg(II) by one thiol group (pKa = 10.3) and one other group (pKa = 6.3) in the DOM, which is in agreement with recent results on the structure of Hg(II)-DOM bonds obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS).

  15. Population-level effects and recovery of aquatic invertebrates after multiple applications of an insecticide.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, G Peter; Preuss, Thomas G; Hamer, Mick; Galic, Nika; Strauss, Tido; van den Brink, Paul J; De Laender, Frederik; Bopp, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Standard risk assessment of plant protection products (PPP) combines "worst-case" exposure scenarios with effect thresholds using assessment (safety) factors to account for uncertainties. If needed, risks can be addressed applying more realistic conditions at higher tiers, which refine exposure and/or effect assessments using additional data. However, it is not possible to investigate the wide range of potential scenarios experimentally. In contrast, ecotoxicological mechanistic effect models do allow for addressing a multitude of scenarios. Furthermore, they may aid the interpretation of experiments such as mesocosm studies, allowing extrapolation to conditions not covered in experiments. Here, we explore how to use mechanistic effect models in the aquatic risk assessment of a model insecticide (Modelmethrin), applied several times per season but rapidly dissipating between applications. The case study focuses on potential effects on aquatic arthropods, the most sensitive group for this substance. The models provide information on the impact of a number of short exposure pulses on sensitive and/or vulnerable populations and, when impacted, assess recovery. The species to model were selected based on their sensitivity in laboratory and field (mesocosm) studies. The general unified threshold model for survival (GUTS) model, which describes the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of chemicals in individuals, was linked to 3 individual-based models (IBM), translating individual survival of sensitive organisms into population-level effects. The impact of pulsed insecticide exposures on populations were modeled using the spatially explicit IBM metapopulation model for assessing spatial and temporal effects of pesticides (MASTEP) for Gammarus pulex, the Chaoborus IBM for populations of Chaoborus crystallinus, and the "IdamP" model for populations of Daphnia magna. The different models were able to predict the potential effects of Modelmethrin applications to key arthropod

  16. Landscape level influence: aquatic primary production in the Colorado River of Glen and Grand canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yard, M. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.; Bennett, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Irregular features common to canyon-bound regions intercept solar incidence (photosynthetic photon flux density [PPFD: μmol m-2 s-1]) and can affect ecosystem energetics. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is topographically complex, typical of most streams and rivers in the arid southwest. Dam-regulated systems like the Colorado River have reduced sediment loads, and consequently increased water transparency relative to unimpounded rivers; however, sediment supply from tributaries and flow regulation that affects erosion and subsequent sediment transport, interact to create spatial and temporal variation in optical conditions in this river network. Solar incidence and suspended sediment loads regulate the amount of underwater light available for aquatic photosynthesis in this regulated river. Since light availability is depth dependent (Beer's law), benthic algae is often exposed to varying levels of desiccation or reduced light conditions due to daily flow regulation, additional factors that further constrain aquatic primary production. Considerable evidence suggests that the Colorado River food web is now energetically dependent on autotrophic production, an unusual condition since large river foodwebs are typically supported by allochthonous carbon synthesized and transported from terrestrial environments. We developed a mechanistic model to account for these regulating factors to predict how primary production might be affected by observed and alternative flow regimes proposed as part of ongoing adaptive management experimentation. Inputs to our model include empirical data (suspended sediment and temperature), and predictive relationships: 1) solar incidence reaching the water surface (topographic complexity), 2) suspended sediment-light extinction relationships (optical properties), 3) unsteady flow routing model (stage-depth relationship), 4) channel morphology (photosynthetic area), and 5) photosynthetic-irradiant response for dominant algae (Cladophora

  17. Heavy metals in aquatic organisms of different trophic levels and their potential human health risk in Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Lu, Xueqiang; Wang, Naili; Xin, Meinan; Geng, Shiwei; Jia, Jing; Meng, Qinghui

    2016-09-01

    Fourteen aquatic organism samples were collected from Bohai Bay, and concentrations of five heavy metals were measured to evaluate the pollution levels in aquatic organisms and the potential risk to human health. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were much higher than those of Cd, Cr, and Pb in all the organisms. In general, the heavy metal concentration levels were in the order phytoplankton < zooplankton < fish < shrimp < shellfish. Heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic-level aquatic organisms in Bohai Bay were compared to those in the organisms from other worldwide coastal waters. The concentration levels of most heavy metals were higher than the 75th percentile, except that Pb concentration was between the 25th and 50th percentiles. The calculated bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cr, Cu, and Pb for phytoplankton were less than 100, indicating no accumulation in primary producers. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Pb for zooplankton was the highest, indicating significant Pb accumulation in zooplankton. For higher trophic-level aquatic organisms, the order of BAF values was fish < shrimp < shellfish for most metals except for Pb. The human health risk assessment suggests that strict abatement measures of heavy metals must be taken to decrease the health risk caused by consuming aquatic products.

  18. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    PubMed

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).

  19. The growth and development of a level II trauma center.

    PubMed

    Webster, Arvie M

    2007-01-01

    Attaining verification as a Level II Trauma Center requires dedication, flexibility, and continuous education. This article contains the history, birth, and growth of a Level II Trauma Center through a trauma resource clinician's experiences. It is intended to share the thoughts, processes, and technological advances of establishing a Level II Trauma Center.

  20. Pesticide levels and environmental risk in aquatic environments in China--A review.

    PubMed

    Grung, Merete; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Steen, Anne Orderdalen; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2015-08-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of pesticides in the world today. Along with the widespread use of pesticides and industrialization, there is a growing concern for water quality. The present review aims to provide an overview of studies on pesticides in aquatic environments in China. The levels in the water, sediment and biota were scored according to a detailed environmental classification system based on ecotoxicological effect, which is therefore a useful tool for assessing the risk these compounds pose to the aquatic ecosystem. Our review reveals that the most studied areas in China are the most populated and the most developed economically and that the most frequently studied pesticides are DDT and HCH. We show maps of where studies have been conducted and show the ecotoxicological risk the pesticides pose in each of the matrices. Our review pinpoints the need for biota samples to assess the risk. A large fraction of the results from the studies are given an environmental classification of "very bad" based on levels in biota. In general, the risk is higher for DDT than HCH. A few food web studies have also been conducted, and we encourage further study of this important information from this region. The review reveals that many of the most important agricultural provinces (e.g., Henan, Hubei and Hunan) with the largest pesticide use have been the subject of few studies on the environmental levels of pesticides. We consider this to be a major knowledge gap for understanding the status of pesticide contamination and related risk in China. Furthermore, there is also a lack of studies in remote Chinese environments, which is also an important knowledge gap. The compounds analyzed and reported in the studies represent a serious bias because a great deal of attention is given to DDT and HCH, whereas the organophosphate insecticides dominating current use are less frequently investigated. For the future, we point to the need for an organized

  1. A Screening-Level Approach for Comparing Risks Affecting Aquatic Ecosystem Services over Socio-Environmental Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T. C.; Conde, D.; Villamizar, S. R.; Reid, B.; Escobar, J.; Rusak, J.; Hoyos, N.; Scordo, F.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; Velez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing risks to aquatic ecosystems services (ES) is challenging and time-consuming, and effective strategies for prioritizing more detailed assessment efforts are needed. We propose a screening-level risk analysis (SRA) approach that scales ES risk using socioeconomic and environmental indices to capture anthropic and climatic pressures, as well as the capacity for institutional responses to those pressures. The method considers ES within a watershed context, and uses expert input to prioritize key services and the associated pressures that threaten them. The SRA approach focuses on estimating ES risk affect factors, which are the sum of the intensity factors for all hazards or pressures affecting the ES. We estimate the pressure intensity factors in a novel manner, basing them on the nation's (i) human development (proxied by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, IHDI), (ii) environmental regulatory and monitoring state (Environmental Performance Index, EPI) and (iii) the current level of water stress in the watershed (baseline water stress, BWS). Anthropic intensity factors for future conditions are derived from the baseline values based on the nation's 10-year trend in IHDI and EPI; ES risks in nations with stronger records of change are rewarded more/penalized less in estimates for good/poor future management scenarios. Future climatic intensity factors are tied to water stress estimates based on two general circulation model (GCM) outcomes. We demonstrate the method for an international array of six sites representing a wide range of socio-environmental settings. The outcomes illustrate novel consequences of the scaling scheme. Risk affect factors may be greater in a highly developed region under intense climatic pressure, or in less well-developed regions due to human factors (e.g., poor environmental records). As a screening-level tool, the SRA approach offers considerable promise for ES risk comparisons among watersheds and regions so that

  2. Tritium and 14C background levels in pristine aquatic systems and their potential sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Claval, David; Cossonnet, Catherine; Zebracki, Mathilde; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Radakovitch, Olivier; Calmon, Philippe; Leclerc, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Tritium and (14)C are currently the two main radionuclides discharged by nuclear industry. Tritium integrates into and closely follows the water cycle and, as shown recently the carbon cycle, as does (14)C (Eyrolle-Boyer et al., 2014a, b). As a result, these two elements persist in both terrestrial and aquatic environments according to the recycling rates of organic matter. Although on average the organically bound tritium (OBT) activity of sediments in pristine rivers does not significantly differ today (2007-2012) from the mean tritiated water (HTO) content on record for rainwater (2.4 ± 0.6 Bq/L and 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq/L, respectively), regional differences are expected depending on the biomass inventories affected by atmospheric global fallout from nuclear testing and the recycling rate of organic matter within watersheds. The results obtained between 2007 and 2012 for (14)C show that the levels varied between 94.5 ± 1.5 and 234 ± 2.7 Bq/kg of C for the sediments in French rivers and across a slightly higher range of 199 ± 1.3 to 238 ± 3.1 Bq/kg of C for fish. This variation is most probably due to preferential uptake of some organic carbon compounds by fish restraining (14)C dilution with refractory organic carbon and/or with old carbonates both depleted in (14)C. Overall, most of these ranges of values are below the mean baseline value for the terrestrial environment (232.0 ± 1.8 Bq/kg of C in 2012, Roussel-Debet, 2014a) in relation to dilution by the carbonates and/or fossil organic carbon present in aquatic systems. This emphasises yet again the value of establishing regional baseline value ranges for these two radionuclides in order to account for palaeoclimatic and lithological variations. Besides, our results obtained from sedimentary archive investigation have confirmed the delayed contamination of aquatic sediments by tritium from the past nuclear tests atmospheric fallout, as recently demonstrated from data chronicles (Eyrolle

  3. Aquatic ecotoxicology: from the ecosystem to the cellular and molecular levels.

    PubMed

    Boudou, A; Ribeyre, F

    1997-02-01

    This review of aquatic ecotoxicology is presented in three parts. First, we discuss the fundamental concepts and stress the importance of its ecological basis and the complexity and diversity of the field of investigation, which result from actions and interactions between the physicochemical characteristics of the biotopes, the structural and functional properties of the living organisms, and the contamination modalities. Ecotoxicological mechanisms, regardless of the level of biological complexity, primarily depend on the bioavailability of the toxic products. Numerous processes control the chemical fate of contaminants in the water column and/or sediment compartments; accessibility to the biological barriers that separate the organisms from their surrounding medium depends directly on bioavailability. Second, we review the principal methodologies of the field, from in situ studies at the ecosystem/ecocomplex level to bioassays or single species tests. Third, we focus on mercury, selected as a reference contaminant, in order to illustrate the main ecotoxicological concepts, the complementarity between field and laboratory studies, and the indispensable multidisciplinarity of the approaches.

  4. Aquatic ecotoxicology: from the ecosystem to the cellular and molecular levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boudou, A; Ribeyre, F

    1997-01-01

    This review of aquatic ecotoxicology is presented in three parts. First, we discuss the fundamental concepts and stress the importance of its ecological basis and the complexity and diversity of the field of investigation, which result from actions and interactions between the physicochemical characteristics of the biotopes, the structural and functional properties of the living organisms, and the contamination modalities. Ecotoxicological mechanisms, regardless of the level of biological complexity, primarily depend on the bioavailability of the toxic products. Numerous processes control the chemical fate of contaminants in the water column and/or sediment compartments; accessibility to the biological barriers that separate the organisms from their surrounding medium depends directly on bioavailability. Second, we review the principal methodologies of the field, from in situ studies at the ecosystem/ecocomplex level to bioassays or single species tests. Third, we focus on mercury, selected as a reference contaminant, in order to illustrate the main ecotoxicological concepts, the complementarity between field and laboratory studies, and the indispensable multidisciplinarity of the approaches. PMID:9114275

  5. Microbial community-level toxicity testing of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Kristian K; Jørgensen, Niels O G; Nielsen, Tommy H; Winding, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Complex microbial communities may serve as ideal and ecologically relevant toxicity indicators. We here report an assessment of frequently used methods in microbial ecology for their feasibility to detect toxic effects of the environmentally important surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on microbial communities in lake water and treated waste water. The two microbial communities were evaluated for changes in community structure and function over a period of 7 weeks in replicated aquatic microcosms amended with various levels of LAS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg l(-1)) and inorganic nutrients. In general, the two communities behaved similarly when challenged with LAS. Following lag periods of 1-3 weeks, LAS was degraded to non-toxic substances. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments and [3H]leucine incorporation were the most sensitive assays with effect levels of 0-1 and 1-10 mg LAS l(-1), respectively. Community-level physiological profiles and pollution-induced community tolerance determinations using Biolog microplates demonstrated less sensitivity with effect levels of 10-100 mg LAS l(-1). Total cell counts and net uptake of inorganic N and P were unaffected even at 100 mg LAS l(-1). Interestingly, different microbial communities developed in some replicate microcosms, indicating the importance of stochastic events for community succession. We conclude that microbial community-level toxicity testing holds great promise and suggest a polyphasic approach involving a range of independent methods targeting both the structure and function of the tested microbial communities.

  6. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part II: ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-08-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are environmental contaminants found in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world as a result of both anthropogenic and natural production. The ecological risk posed by these compounds to organisms in freshwater environments, with a specific focus on aquatic macrophytes, was characterized. The plants evaluated were Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum and M. sibiricum and the HAAs screened were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). Laboratory toxicity data formed the basis of the risk assessment, but field studies were also utilized. The estimated risk was calculated using hazard quotients (HQ), as well as effect measure distributions (EMD) in a modified probabilistic ecological risk assessment. EMDs were used to estimate HAA thresholds of toxicity for use in HQ assessments. This threshold was found to be a more sensitive measure of low toxicity than the no observed effect concentrations (NOEC) or the effective concentration (EC10). Using both deterministic and probabilistic methods, it was found that HAAs do not pose a significant risk to freshwater macrophytes at current environmental concentrations in Canada, Europe or Africa for both single compound and mixture exposures. Still, HAAs are generally found as mixtures and their potential interactions are not fully understood, rendering this phase of the assessment uncertain and justifying further effects characterization. TCA in some environments poses a slight risk to phytoplankton and future concentrations of TFA and CDFA are likely to increase due to their recalcitrant nature, warranting continued environmental surveillance of HAAs.

  7. Removal of Cd(II) from Aquatic System Using Oscillatoria sp. Biosorbent

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Hafeziyan, Seyede Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions by native and dried Oscillatoria sp. Cyanobacterium biomass was investigated in the batch mode. The Oscillatoria sp. was prepared from Molecular and Cell Laboratory of University of Mazandaran and grown in BG-11 medium. A comparison of Cd(II) adsorption properties of dried with native Oscillatoria sp. biomass was made, the dried one showed a higher biosorption capacity and faster kinetic. The influence of solution pH, contact time, biomass concentration, initial metal ion concentration, and presence of coions using dried Oscillatoria sp. biomass as well as pretreatment on the biosorption capacity of the biomass were studied. Various pretreatments of Oscillatoria sp. increased biosorption of Cd(II) at pH 7 in comparison with native biomass. However, heating at 100°C in a water bath showed significant improvement in Cd(II) biosorption capacity. The experimental biosorption data was well fitted to the Freundlich model compared to the Langmuir model, and the amount of Cd(II) removed from solution increased with increasing Cd(II) concentration. In addition, the dried biomass was investigated for Cd(II) removal from the simulated real sample containing about 14 mg/l Cd(II) at pH 7, under the same experimental condition. PMID:22654593

  8. Ecosystem-level studies of terrestrial carbon reveal contrasting bacterial metabolism in different aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Attermeyer, Katrin; Premke, Katrin; Hornick, Thomas; Hilt, Sabine; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2013-12-01

    aquatic food web via microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) directly associated with t-POM(L) and via benthic macroinvertebrates by shredding of t-POM(L). The latter pathway represents a "benthic shortcut" which efficiently transfers t-POM(L) to higher trophic levels.

  9. What is an appropriate level of protection? An example considering selenium exposures by aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    DeForest, David K; Adams, William J; Chapman, Peter M

    2008-10-01

    Evaluating population-level risks to ecological receptors or developing toxicity thresholds intended to be protective of a population requires a population model to truly understand possible chemical-related impacts to the population of interest. For various reasons (e.g., lack of training in the application of population models to ecotoxicological questions), we often use laboratory-based (more common) or field-based (less common) toxicity data to develop a toxicity threshold that is assumed to be protective of population-level effects. Under this latter approach, an appropriate level of protection against exposure should focus on protecting the viability and productivity of populations of organisms, that is, maintaining approximately the same density of individuals over time. The EC values can be used to set technically defensible levels of protection, with the appropriate effect level being determined on the basis of data- and site-specific considerations and dose-response relationships that are amenable for use as inputs in population models. Even without the use of predictive population models, the ECO10 or EC20 are commonly used values in risk assessment or criteria development with the assumption of adequate protection of populations. In the Se example presented here, there is strong evidence that egg hatchability is the critical toxicity endpoint for birds based on dietary organic Se exposures and that mallards are a sensitive bird species. These factors support that the dietary Se EC10 derived by Ohlendorf (2003) is sufficiently low to not have any measurable effects on aquatic birds in the field. Further, effect levels below the EC10 are likely to be statistically indistinguishable from the controls in most situations (as it was for Se in this example), and, for Se and other naturally occurring elements, it is not unusual for lower EC values to approach or fall below background levels at a site. A determination as to whether higher EC values would also

  10. Bioaccumulation and detection of trace levels of cadmium in aquatic systems by Eichhornia crassipes

    PubMed Central

    Wolverton, B. C.; McDonald, Rebecca C.

    1978-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) may be used as a sensitive biological indicator for continuously monitoring trace quantities of toxic heavy metals in aquatic systems. A river water system polluted with cadmium was simulated while other factors of temperature, day-night cycle, water quality, and light intensity remained constant. When the water hyacinth is maintained in river water containing 0.001 mg/l. of cadmium chloride, the plant's root system will concentrate this element at an average rate of 0.9, 1.4, and 3.0 μg Cd/g root dry weight after 24, 48, and 72 hr exposure periods, respectively. At a higher cadmium concentration of 0.01 mg/l., cadmium was concentrated in the roots much faster to levels of 6.8, 13.6, and 39.1 μg/g root after 4, 8, and 24 hr exposure periods, respectively. At initial concentrations of 0.05 mg/l. cadmium, the roots contained 29.5, 48.8, and 156 μg/g root following 4, 8, and 24 hr exposure periods, respectively. During these same time intervals, the water hyacinth sorbed 56.7, 153, and 281 μg/g root when the initial cadmium concentration was increased to 0.10 mg/l. The water hyacinth tops can also assist in the monitoring process when cadmium contamination levels are 0.10 mg/l. and greater. At this initial cadmium concentration, cadmium is translocated into the tops. After 8 hr, the tops averaged 1.1 μg/g top. After 24 hr, this concentration was increased to 6.1 μg/g top. PMID:738234

  11. Polyphenolic allelochemicals from the aquatic angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum inhibit photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Leu, Eva; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Goussias, Charilaos; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2002-12-01

    Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) is a highly competitive freshwater macrophyte that produces and releases algicidal and cyanobactericidal polyphenols. Among them, beta-1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose (tellimagrandin II) is the major active substance and is an effective inhibitor of microalgal exoenzymes. However, this mode of action does not fully explain the strong allelopathic activity observed in bioassays. Lipophilic extracts of M. spicatum inhibit photosynthetic oxygen evolution of intact cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophs. Fractionation of the extract provided evidence for tellimagrandin II as the active compound. Separate measurements of photosystem I and II activity with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) thylakoid membranes indicated that the site of inhibition is located at photosystem II (PSII). In thermoluminescence measurements with thylakoid membranes and PSII-enriched membrane fragments M. spicatum extracts shifted the maximum temperature of the B-band (S(2)Q(B)(-) recombination) to higher temperatures. Purified tellimagrandin II in concentrations as low as 3 microM caused a comparable shift of the B-band. This demonstrates that the target site of this inhibitor is different from the Q(B)-binding site, a common target of commercial herbicides like 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Measurements with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy suggest a higher redox midpoint potential for the non-heme iron, located between the primary and the secondary quinone electron acceptors, Q(A) and Q(B). Thus, tellimagrandin II has at least two modes of action, inhibition of exoenzymes and inhibition of PSII. Multiple target sites are a common characteristic of many potent allelochemicals.

  12. Polyphenolic Allelochemicals from the Aquatic Angiosperm Myriophyllum spicatum Inhibit Photosystem II1

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Eva; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Goussias, Charilaos; Gross, Elisabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragaceae) is a highly competitive freshwater macrophyte that produces and releases algicidal and cyanobactericidal polyphenols. Among them, β-1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose (tellimagrandin II) is the major active substance and is an effective inhibitor of microalgal exoenzymes. However, this mode of action does not fully explain the strong allelopathic activity observed in bioassays. Lipophilic extracts of M. spicatum inhibit photosynthetic oxygen evolution of intact cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophs. Fractionation of the extract provided evidence for tellimagrandin II as the active compound. Separate measurements of photosystem I and II activity with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) thylakoid membranes indicated that the site of inhibition is located at photosystem II (PSII). In thermoluminescence measurements with thylakoid membranes and PSII-enriched membrane fragments M. spicatum extracts shifted the maximum temperature of the B-band (S2QB− recombination) to higher temperatures. Purified tellimagrandin II in concentrations as low as 3 μm caused a comparable shift of the B-band. This demonstrates that the target site of this inhibitor is different from the QB-binding site, a common target of commercial herbicides like 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. Measurements with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy suggest a higher redox midpoint potential for the non-heme iron, located between the primary and the secondary quinone electron acceptors, QA and QB. Thus, tellimagrandin II has at least two modes of action, inhibition of exoenzymes and inhibition of PSII. Multiple target sites are a common characteristic of many potent allelochemicals. PMID:12481084

  13. Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Phillipsen, Ivan C; Kirk, Emily H; Bogan, Michael T; Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D; Lytle, David A

    2015-01-01

    Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits-such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history-that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic insects that represent the range of dispersal abilities and habitat requirements observed in desert stream insect communities. For each species, we tested for linear relationships between genetic distances and geographic distances using Euclidean and landscape-based metrics of resistance. We found that the moderate-disperser Mesocapnia arizonensis (Plecoptera: Capniidae) has a strong isolation-by-distance pattern, suggesting migration-drift equilibrium. By contrast, population structure in the flightless Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) is influenced by genetic drift, while gene flow is the dominant force in the strong-flying Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The best-fitting landscape model for M. arizonensis was based on Euclidean distance. Analyses also identified a strong spatial scale-dependence, where landscape genetic methods only performed well for species that were intermediate in dispersal ability. Our results highlight the fact that when either gene flow or genetic drift dominates in shaping population structure, no detectable relationship between genetic and geographic distances is expected at certain spatial scales. This study provides insight into how gene flow and drift interact at the regional scale for these insects as well as the organisms that share similar habitats and dispersal abilities.

  14. The Interplay Between Predation, Competition, and Nutrient Levels Influences the Survival of Escherichia coli in Aquatic Environments.

    PubMed

    Wanjugi, P; Fox, G A; Harwood, V J

    2016-10-01

    Nutrient levels, competition from autochthonous microorganisms, and protozoan predation may all influence survival of fecal microorganisms as they transition from the gastrointestinal tract to aquatic habitats. Although Escherichia coli is an important indicator of waterborne pathogens, the effects of environmental stressors on its survival in aquatic environments remain poorly understood. We manipulated organic nutrient, predation, and competition levels in outdoor microcosms containing natural river water, sediments, and microbial populations to determine their relative contribution to E. coli survival. The activities of predator (protozoa) and competitor (indigenous bacteria) populations were inhibited by adding cycloheximide or kanamycin. We developed a statistical model of E. coli density over time that fits with the data under all experimental conditions. Predation and competition had significant negative effects on E. coli survival, while higher nutrient levels increased survival. Among the main effects, predation accounted for the greatest variation (40 %) compared with nutrients (25 %) or competition (15 %). The highest nutrient level mitigated the effect of predation on E. coli survival. Thus, elevated organic nutrients may disproportionately enhance the survival of E. coli, and potentially that of other enteric bacteria, in aquatic habitats.

  15. Nano modification of NZVI with an aquatic plant Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II) and Hg(II) from water: Aging time and mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Abdolmaleki, M K; Mousavinia, F; Foroughifard, S; Karimzadeh, A

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports the preparation and stabilization of nano zero valent iron (NZVI) on a modified aquatic plant, Azolla filiculoides, and investigates its potential for the adsorption/reduction of Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions from aqueous media even after six months of storage in the lab condition. XRD, TEM and zeta potential results demonstrated that the Azolla-NaOH could be a good stabilizer of aged NZVI (six months) and the green support suppressed the oxidation and aggregation of immobilized NZVI. Kinetic and equilibrium models for lead and mercury ions uptake were developed by considering the effect of the initial Pb(II) and Hg(II) concentrations, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial pH and effect of temperature. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum uptake by Azolla-OH-NZVI was 20min. The removal of toxic metal ions has been monitored in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms models have also been utilized to the equilibrium uptake results. The uptake kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, confirming chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanisms and not involving a mass transfer in solution. The thermodynamic results confirmed that the uptake of Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80°C. XRD and zeta potential data displayed the existence of Pb(0) and Hg(0) on the Azolla-OH-NZVI surface. The nanobioadsorbent revealed high recyclability due to its reasonable uptake efficiency after 7th adsorption-desorption cycles. The proposed nano biocomposite could also be utilized to uptake Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions from the real water (Anzali lagoon water). However, coated NZVI with Azolla filiculoides as a green and environmentally friendly support suppressed rapid oxidation and aggregation of the immobilized NZVI, therefore vastly enhancing the probability of environmental transport and reducing

  16. Bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of the antidepressants sertraline and fluoxetine in laboratory-constructed, 3-level aquatic food chains.

    PubMed

    Boström, Marja L; Ugge, Gustaf; Jönsson, Jan Åke; Berglund, Olof

    2017-04-01

    Although reports of pharmaceutical bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are increasing, less is known about trophic transfer in aquatic food webs. The bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of sertraline and fluoxetine, 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) frequently detected in aquatic environments, were tested by exposing constructed aquatic food chains to SSRIs under controlled laboratory conditions. Both of these ionizable, weak base pharmaceuticals showed lower bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with increasing trophic level (i.e., no biomagnifications) in 2 3-level food chains (Acer platanoides, fed to Asellus aquaticus, in turn fed to Notonecta glauca or Pungitius pungitius). Mean sertraline BAFs in A. platanoides, A. aquaticus, N. glauca, and P. pungitus were 2200 L/kg, 360 L/kg, 26 L/kg, and 49 L/kg, respectively, and mean fluoxetine BAFs 1300 L/kg, 110 L/kg, 11 L/kg, and 41 L/kg, respectively. The weak influence of diet was further demonstrated by measured BAFs being equal to or lower than measured bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Organism lipid content was not positively correlated with BAFs, suggesting that other processes are driving interspecific differences in SSRI bioaccumulation. The empirically derived parameter values were introduced into a proposed bioaccumulation model, and a poor correlation was found between modeled and empirical BAFs (predicted r(2)  = -0.63). In conclusion, the apparent lack of biomagnification of these ionizable pharmaceuticals suggests that environmental concern should not necessarily focus only on higher trophic levels, but also on species showing high BCFs at any trophic level. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1029-1037. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates. Part II: the antidepressant drug fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Nentwig, Gerrit

    2007-02-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant and high-prescription-volume drug, is excreted unchanged or as a glucuronide from the human organism. Little is known about its fate in sewage treatment plants. Effects of fluoxetine on life-cycle parameters of the midge Chironomus riparius, especially development (mean emergence time), emergence, sex ratio, and fecundity, were assessed, as well as effects on reproduction of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and of the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Due to the moderate lipophilic properties of the compound with a log P (OW) of 4.05, C. riparius and L. variegatus were exposed to fluoxetine via spiked artificial sediment at a nominal concentration range between 0.15 and 5.86 mg/kg (dry weight). Additionally, a test was performed exposing P. antipodarum via water in a nominal concentration range between 0.64 and 400 mug/L. As endpoints, emergence rate and timing, sex ratio, clutch numbers and clutch size of the midges, the number of worms in the oligochaete test, as well as the number of embryos in the snail test were monitored. For C. riparius, no clear substance-related effects were observed; for L. variegatus, the results indicated a slight increase in reproduction, which was statistically significant at nominal fluoxetine concentrations of 0.94 and 2.34 mg/kg. In P. antipodarum, the antidepressant reduced reproduction significantly. No observed effect concentration (NOEC) and 10% effect concentration (EC(10)) were determined to be 0.47 and 0.81 mug/L, respectively, based on measured fluoxetine concentrations in water. These low values indicate that P. antipodarum and possibly other aquatic mollusks are sensitive to fluoxetine and that the drug might pose a risk to gastropod populations in the field.

  18. Aquatic life water quality criteria derived via the UC Davis method: II. Pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Fojut, Tessa L; Palumbo, Amanda J; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic life water quality criteria were derived for five pyrethroids using a new methodology developed by the University of California, Davis (TenBrook et al.2010). This methodology was developed to provide an updated, flexible, and robust water quality criteria derivation methodology specifically for pesticides. To derive the acute criteria, log-logistic SSDs were fitted to the medium-sized bifenthrin,cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin acute toxicity data sets while the X-cyhalothrin and permethrin acute data sets were larger, and Burr Type III SSDs could be fitted to these data sets. A review of the cyfluthrin acute criterion revealed that it was not protective of the most sensitive species in the data set, H. azteca, so the acute value was adjusted downward to calculate a more protective criterion. Similarly, the cypermethrin criteria were adjusted downward to be protective of H. azteca.Criteria for bifenthrin, X-cyhalothrin, and permethrin were calculated using the median fifth percentile acute values while the cyfluthrin and cypermethrin criteria were calculated with the next lowest acute value (median first percentile). Chronic data sets were limited in all cases, so ACRs were used for chronic criteria calculations, instead of statistical distributions. Sufficient corresponding acute and chronic data were not available for bifenthrin, cypermethrin, or permethrin, so a default ACR was used to calculate these chronic criteria while measured ACRs were used for cyfluthrin and X-cyhalothrin. A numeric scoring system was used to sort the acute and chronic data, based on relevance and reliability, and the individual study scores are included in the Supporting Information.According to the USEPA (1985) method, the data sets gathered for these five pyrethroids would not be sufficient to calculate criteria because they were each missing at least one of the eight taxa required by that method. The USEPA (1985)method generates robust and reliable criteria, and the goal of

  19. Biosorption of aquatic copper (II) by mushroom biomass Pleurotus eryngii: kinetic and isotherm studies.

    PubMed

    Kan, Shi-Hong; Sun, Bai-Ye; Xu, Fang; Song, Qi-Xue; Zhang, Sui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption is an effective method for removing heavy metals from effluent. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the adsorption performance of the widely cultivated novel mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, for the removal of Cu(II) from single aqueous solutions. Kinetics and equilibria were obtained using a batch technique. The sorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the adsorption equilibria are best described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption process is exothermic because both the Langmuir-estimated biosorption capacity and the heat of adsorption estimated from the Temkin model decreased with increasing tested temperature. Based on the adsorption intensity estimated by the Freundlich model and the mean adsorption free energy estimated by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model, the type of adsorption is defined as physical adsorption. The biomass of the macro-fungus P. eryngii has the potential to remove Cu(II) from a large-scale wastewater contaminated by heavy metals, because of its favorable adsorption, short biosorption equilibrium time of 20 min and remarkable biosorption capacity (15.19 mg g⁻¹ as calculated by the Langmuir model). The adsorbed metal-enriched mushroom is a high-quality bio-ore by the virtue of its high metal content of industrial mining grade and easy metal extractability.

  20. Determination of circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in swine.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, F C; Grohs, D L; Baile, C A; Campion, D R

    1988-10-01

    A heterologous radioimmunoassay system was developed for the determination of circulating IGF-II concentrations in swine. The assay utilized a monoclonal antibody against human IGF-II (Amano Intl. Ez, VA) and bovine IGF-II (Monsanto Co., MO) as the cold standard and iodinated ligand. Serial dilutions of acid-ethanol extracted normal swine sera resulted in a curve which was parallel to the bovine IGF-II standard curve. Recovery of unlabeled standard added to extracted swine sera was 101%. Neither IGF-I nor insulin were capable of cross-reacting in this assay at levels up to 100-fold excess. Using this assay, serum IGF-II levels were determined to be significantly lower when subnormal growth hormone (GH) levels existed such as in hypophysectomized swine. However, in contrast to serum IGF-I concentrations, supranormal levels of porcine GH (pGH) did not elevate serum IGF-II concentrations after 13 wk of treatment in 25 kg hogs (initial body wt). In addition, serum IGF-II levels were reduced in fasted swine, despite a significant increase in circulating GH concentrations. Thus, although normal concentrations of GH are required for maintenance of physiological levels of IGF-II in swine, the mechanism for stimulation of IGF-II secretion is less GH-dependent than IGF-I.

  1. Comments About a Chameleon Theory: Level I/Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, John; Stankov, Lazar

    1982-01-01

    Jensen's ideas about two levels of intellectual abilities are criticized as being oversimplified. More than two levels of intellectual abilities and relationships between variables reflecting more than racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differences are suggested, arguing that Jensen's statements about race and SES differences are not properly…

  2. Labile ruthenium(ii) complexes with extended phenyl-substituted terpyridyl ligands: synthesis, aquation and anticancer evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-09-21

    Ruthenium complexes have been considered as promising substitutes for cisplatin in cancer chemotherapy. However, novel ruthenium-based therapies are faced with some limitations, such as unimpressive cytotoxicity toward solid tumors. Herein, we designed and synthesized phenyl-substituted terpyridyl ruthenium(ii) complexes ([Ru(tpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru1), [Ru(phtpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru2) and [Ru(biphtpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (Ru3)) which exhibited distinctly different anticancer activity. Ru1-Ru3 all underwent moderate aquation in buffer solution and this process was significantly inhibited by high chloride concentration. Cancer cells were found to readily uptake the relatively hydrophobic Ru3, as quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ru1 was found to be non-cytotoxic (IC50 > 100 μM) while Ru3 exhibited very promising cytotoxicity on both two-dimensional (2D) cancer cell monolayers and 3D MCTSs. An antiproliferative assay revealed that Ru3 significantly inhibited cellular DNA replication which ultimately induced apoptosis of cancer cells.

  3. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level two teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  4. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level two teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  5. Culture Curriculum for German, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetiker, Rosemary

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction in a level-2 German course is designed to be used with the text "Deutsch, Erstes Buch, Erster Teil." Instructional observations pertain to the seventh through the 12th lessons and comprise the major portion of this text including: )1) die Eisenbahn, (2) Reisen und Essen in Deutschland, (3) die Familie,…

  6. Testosterone levels and fecundity in the hermaphroditic aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to testosterone and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Lagadic, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Endocrine disruptors are known to alter endogenous free and esterified levels of androgenic and estrogenic steroid hormones in aquatic mollusks. The origin of steroids in these animals, however, remains controversial. In the present study, free and esterified testosterone concentrations were measured in the hermaphroditic aquatic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to molecules known for their androgenic (testosterone and tributyltin), anti-androgenic (cyproterone-acetate), and estrogenic (chlordecone) properties, by reference to their mode of action in vertebrates. In parallel, snail oviposition and fecundity were followed over a 21-d exposure period. Testosterone exposure resulted in increased esterified testosterone levels, whereas free testosterone concentrations remained stable. In contrast, cyproterone-acetate significantly increased the free form of testosterone with no changes in the esterified form, whereas chlordecone showed a tendency to reduce (though not significantly) esterified testosterone concentrations without changing free testosterone levels. Finally, tributyltin did not alter testosterone homeostasis. The production of egg clutches and eggs was significantly reduced only in the snails exposed to the highest concentrations of chlordecone (19.6 µg/L) and tributyltin (94.2 ng Sn/L). Overall, the present study demonstrates that uptake of testosterone from the exposure medium occurs in L. stagnalis. Moreover, it shows that cyproterone-acetate and, to a lesser extent, chlordecone can alter endogenous testosterone levels in this freshwater snail. However, the relationship between hormonal changes and snail reproduction has not been established. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1740-1745. © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M; Quinn, Laura P; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 ng/g wm. Even higher ΣDDT levels at 16,000 ng/g wm were found in House Sparrow eggs (possibly the highest ever recorded for sparrows), with a maximum of 24,400 ng/g wm. Significant eggshell thinning in Cattle Egrets (33% between thickest and thinnest) was associated with increased levels of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. There were indications of unknown use of DDT and lindane. Relative to DDT, PCBs and BFRs levels were quite low. Ordinated data showed that different terrestrial pollutant profiles converged to a homogenised aquatic profile. Converging profiles, high levels of DDT in heron and sparrow eggs, and thinning eggs shells, indicate risk and impacts at release, in the aquatic environment, and in between. If characteristic life-strategies of birds in warm areas (e.g. longer-lived and fewer eggs per clutch) increases the risk compared with similar birds living in colder regions when both experience the same environmental pollutant levels, then malaria control using DDT probably has more significant impacts on biota than previously realised. Therefore, risk assessment and modelling without hard data may miss crucial impacts and risks, as the chemical use patterns and ecologies in Africa and elsewhere may differ from the conditions and assumptions of existing risk assessment and modelling parameters. Consideration of other findings associated with DDT from the same area (intersex in fish and urogental birth defects in baby boys), together with the findings of this study (high

  8. Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - TETRA II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Bai, S.; Baum, Z.; Hoffman, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Trepanier, J.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators located on the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado. TETRA-II began operation in May 2016. When it is fully operational, TETRA-II will have approximately 10 × the sensitivity of the original TETRA array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University that detected 37 millisecond bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. A brief description of the TETRA observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary TETRA-II results will be presented.

  9. Patient Outcomes at Urban and Suburban Level I Versus Level II Trauma Centers.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Amy H; Bosson, Nichole; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Dawes, Aaron J; Putnam, Brant; Shepherd, Tchaka; Lewis, Roger J

    2017-08-01

    Regionalized systems of trauma care and level verification are promulgated by the American College of Surgeons. Whether patient outcomes differ between the 2 highest verifications, Levels I and II, is unknown. In contrast to Level II centers, Level I centers are required to care for a minimum number of severely injured patients, have immediate availability of subspecialty services and equipment, and demonstrate research, substance abuse screening, and injury prevention. We compare risk-adjusted mortality outcomes at Levels I and II centers. This was an analysis of data from the 2012 to 2014 Los Angeles County Trauma and Emergency Medical Information System. The system includes 14 trauma centers: 5 Level I and 9 Level II centers. Patients meeting criteria for transport to a trauma center are routed to the closest center, regardless of verification level. All adult patients (≥15 years) treated at any of the trauma centers were included. Outcomes of patients treated at Level I versus Level II centers were compared with 2 validated risk-adjusted models: Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and the Haider model. Adult subjects (33,890) were treated at a Level I center; 29,724, at a Level II center. We found lower overall mortality at Level II centers compared with Level I, using TRISS (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.78) and Haider (odds ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.97). In this cohort of patients treated at urban and suburban trauma centers, treatment at a Level II trauma center was associated with overall risk-adjusted reduced mortality relative to that at a Level I center. In the subset of penetrating trauma, no differences in mortality were found. Further study is warranted to determine optimal trauma system configuration and allocation of resources. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  11. Statistical analysis of serum pepsinogen I (PG I) and II (PG II) levels, PG I/PG II ratios and serum gastrin levels in a general population.

    PubMed

    Kazuo, A; Junichi, M

    1996-10-01

    To allow adoption of serum pepsinogen as a screening indicator of gastric cancer, serum pepsinogen I & II levels, the ratios of PG I / PG II and the serum gastrin levels in a general population were studied using 850 samples selected at random from a rural area in Japan. The collected data were analyzed statistically to determine the distribution characteristics by various categories of sex and age. The following results were obtained:1. The distributions of PG I and PG II, the ratios of PG I/PG II and serum gastrin values largely deviated from the normal distribution. Therefore, the use of non-parametrical methods was recommended for analysis of these data.2. Although no significant difference between all selected men and all selected women was observed in any of the three parameters of PG I and PG II levels and the ratios of PG I / PG II, a significant difference between men and women was observed for PG I levels in under-fifty age groups. On the other hand, the median serum gastrin value (92.0 pg/ml) in all selected men was significantly lower than that (101.0 pg/ml) in all selected women. A statistically significant difference between men and women was observed in serum gastrin levels both in the under-forty age group and in the sixty and over age group.3. No significant difference was observed in the pattern of changes in PG I levels with increasing age in either men or women. While PG II levels in men varied irregularly with advancing age, PG II levels in women showed obvious increases with advancing age. The ratios of PG I / PG II showed a tendency to decrease with advancing age in both men and women. Conversely, serum gastrin levels increased with advancing age in both men and women.

  12. [Low level of allozyme polymorphism in relict aquatic plants of the Far East Nelumbo komarovii Grossh. and Euryale ferox Salisb].

    PubMed

    Koren', O G; Iatsunskaia, M S; Nakonechnaia, O V

    2012-09-01

    Using allozyme analysis, genetic variation of two relict aquatic plants from Primorsky krai, Komarov lotus (Neliumbo komarovii Grossh.) and Gorgon plant (Euryale ferox Salisb.), was examined. The absence of allozyme variation in the Primorye populations of Neliumbo komarovii along with low polymorphism level in the population of Euryale ferox (P95 = 7.69; A = 1.07; Ho = 0.072; He = 0.038) was demonstrated. Since the data for the species examined are reported for the first time ever, the pheonotypes and genetic interpretation of the enzyme systems tested are presented. The izoenzyme profiles of N. komarovii were compared with the data reported for N. nucifera from China. The absence ofallozyme variation in N. komarovii, along with extremely low level of variation revealed for E. ferox, is discussed in association with the evolutionary histories of these species, their dispersal after the Pleistocene-Holocene cooling, and survival on this territory in range boundaries.

  13. Humic substances alleviate the aquatic toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles to organisms of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Quik, Joris T K; Song, Lan; Van Den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Wouterse, Marja; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated how humic substances (HS) modify the aquatic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as these particles agglomerate in water and interact with HS. An alga species (Raphidocelis subcapitata), a cladoceran species (Chydorus sphaericus), and a freshwater fish larva (Danio rerio), representing organisms of different trophic levels, were exposed to colloids of the polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs in the presence and absence of HS. Results show that the presence of HS alleviated the aquatic toxicity of the AgNP colloids to all the organisms in a dose-dependent manner. The particle size distribution of the AgNPs' colloidal particles shifted to lower values due to the presence of HS, implying that the decrease in the toxicity of the AgNP colloids cannot be explained by the variation of agglomeration size. The surface charge of the AgNPs was found to be more negative in the presence of high concentrations of HS, suggesting an electrostatic barrier by which HS might limit interactions between particles and algae cells; indeed, this effect reduced the algae toxicity. Observations on silver ions (Ag(+)) release show that HS inhibit AgNP dissolution, depending on the concentrations of HS. When toxic effects were expressed as a function of each Ag-species, toxicity of the free Ag(+) was found to be much higher than that of the agglomerated particles. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Aquatic habitat measurement and valuation: imputing social benefits to instream flow levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Instream flow conflicts have been analysed from the perspectives offered by policy oriented applied (physical) science, theories of conflict resolution and negotiation strategy, and psychological analyses of the behavior patterns of the bargaining parties. Economics also offers some useful insights in analysing conflict resolution within the context of these water allocation problems. We attempt to analyse the economics of the bargaining process in conjunction with a discussion of the water allocation process. In particular, we examine in detail the relation between certain habitat estimation techniques, and the socially optimal allocation of non-market resources. The results developed here describe the welfare implications implicit in the contemporary general equilibrium analysis of a competitive market economy. We also review certain currently available techniques for assigning dollar values to the social benefits of instream flow. The limitations of non-market valuation techniques with respect to estimating the benefits provided by instream flows and the aquatic habitat contingent on these flows should not deter resource managers from using economic analysis as a basic tool for settling instream flow conflicts.

  15. Methods for establishing microcosms of aquatic littoral ecosystems for determining safe levels of toxicant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, P.J.; Giddings, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    This protocol describes procedures for establishing freshwater littoral communities in a laboratory, using materials collected from natural ponds. The methods were developed to assess the effects of chemical toxicants on aquatic communities; however, the systems may be adaptable to testing the potential impacts of microbial pesticides on freshwater ecosystems. Littoral ecosystems are established in 72-L glass aquaria using sediments, water, and biota from natural ponds. The microcosms are easily replicated and require little maintenance. These microcosms are static systems (no inflow or outflow) and retain a functional similarity to natural ponds for more than 6 months under artificial lighting. In testing for the effects of toxicants, at least five chemical concentrations, a no-treatment control, and a solvent control (if a carrier solvent is used) are recommended, with replication. Chemical (pH hardness, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen) and biological (e.g., zooplankton and bacterial densities, and chlorophyll concentrations) measurements are made periodically throughout the experimental period. No-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) are determined using Dunnett's procedure.

  16. Home Economics. Sample Test Items. Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Educational Testing.

    A sample of behavioral objectives and related test items that could be developed for content modules in Home Economics levels I and II, this book is intended to enable teachers to construct more valid and reliable test materials. Forty-eight one-page modules are presented, and opposite each module are listed two to seven specific behavioral…

  17. Accurate energy levels for singly ionized platinum (Pt II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reader, Joseph; Acquista, Nicolo; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Engleman, Rolf, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    New observations of the spectrum of Pt II have been made with hollow-cathode lamps. The region from 1032 to 4101 A was observed photographically with a 10.7-m normal-incidence spectrograph. The region from 2245 to 5223 A was observed with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. Wavelength measurements were made for 558 lines. The uncertainties vary from 0.0005 to 0.004 A. From these measurements and three parity-forbidden transitions in the infrared, accurate values were determined for 28 even and 72 odd energy levels of Pt II.

  18. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  19. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  20. A weight-of-evidence approach for deriving a level of concern for atrazine that is protective of aquatic plant communities.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dwayne Rj; Greer, Colleen D; Manning, Gillian; Wooding, Katie; Beckett, Kerrie J; Brain, Richard A; Marshall, Gary

    2017-07-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide widely used in the United States primarily for control of broadleaf weeds in corn and sorghum. In 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) concluded that atrazine poses potential risks to sensitive aquatic species. Consequently, a surface water monitoring program was developed to assess whether measured levels of atrazine could impact aquatic plants in vulnerable watersheds. To facilitate evaluation of the monitoring data, the Agency needed to establish a level of concern (LOC) below which atrazine would not cause unacceptable adverse effects to aquatic plant communities. Several attempts at developing a community-level LOC have followed from USEPA but none have been formally accepted or endorsed by independent Scientific Advisory Panels. As part of registration review, the USEPA needs to revisit development of a community-level LOC for atrazine that will be protective of aquatic plant communities. This article reviews 4 methods that can or have been used for this purpose. Collectively, the methods take advantage of the large number of single species and mesocosm studies that have been conducted for aquatic plants exposed to atrazine. The Plant Assemblage Toxicity Index (PATI) and the Comprehensive Aquatic Systems Model for atrazine (CASMATZ2 ) incorporate single-species toxicity data but are calibrated with micro- and mesocosm study results to calculate community-level LOCs. The Brock et al. scoring system relies exclusively on mesocosm studies. Single-species toxicity data were used in a modified version of the USEPA's Water Quality Criteria (WQC) method. The 60-day LOCs calculated using the 4 methods ranged from 19.6 to 26 µg/L. A weight-of-evidence assessment indicated that the CASMATZ2 method was the most environmentally relevant and statistically reliable method. Using all 4 methods with weights based on method reliability, the weighted 60-day LOC was 23.6 µg/L. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017

  1. Photoionization of ground and excited levels of P II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2017-01-01

    Photoionization cross section (σPI) of P II, (hν + P II → P III + e), from ground and a large number of excited levels are presented. The study includes the resonant structures and the characteristics of the background in photoionization cross sections. The present calculations were carried out in the Breit-Pauli R-matrix (BPRM) method that includes relativistic effects. The autoionizing resonances are delineated with a fine energy mesh to observe the fine structure effects. A singular resonance, formed by the coupling of channels in fine structure but not allowed in LS coupling, is seen at the ionization threshold of photoionization for the ground and many excited levels. The background cross section is seen enhanced compared to smooth decay for the excited levels. Examples are presented to illustrate the enhanced background cross sections at the energies of the core levels, 4P3/2 and 2D3/2, that are allowed for electric dipole transitions by the core ground level 2 P1/2o. In addition strong Seaton or photo-excitation-of-core (PEC) resonances are found in the photoionization of single valence electron excited levels. Calculations used a close coupling wave function expansion that included 18 fine structure levels of core P III from configurations 3s23p, 3s3p2, 3s23d, 3s24s, 3s24p and 3p3. Photoionization cross sections are presented for all 475 fine structure levels of P II found with n ≤ 10 and l ≤ 9. The present results will provide high precision parameters of various applications involving this less studied ion.

  2. Functional autonomy, bone mineral density (BMD) and serum osteocalcin levels in older female participants of an aquatic exercise program (AAG).

    PubMed

    Pernambuco, Carlos Soares; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Di Masi, Fabrizio; Monteiro, Paola Karynne Pinheiro; Dantas, Estelio H M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an AAG on BMD, osteocalcin and functional autonomy in older women. The sample consisted of eighty-two post-menopausal women with low BMD, randomly divided into two groups: the Aquatic Aerobics Group [AAG; n=42; age: 66.8±4.2years], submitted to two weekly sessions over eight months, and the Control Group (GC; n=42; age: 66.9±3.2years), which did not participate in regular exercise. BMD was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DXA] of the lumbar and femur, and serum osteocalcin was measured using electrochemiluminescence. A functional autonomy assessment protocol (GDLAM, 2004) was also applied. Statistical analyses used were repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests. The results showed a significant improvement in tests following the GDLAM protocol: 10 meters walk (10mw) -p=0.003; rising from a ventral decubitus position (RVDP) - Δ%=0.78, p<0.001; rising from a chair and moving around the house (RCMH) -p<0.001 and autonomy index (AI) -p=0.007, with more favorable results observed in the AAG when compared to the CG. The AAG achieved the best results for BMD; however, no inter or intragroup statistical differences were recorded for total femur -p=0.975 and lumbar L(2)-L(4)p=0.597. For serum osteocalcin, intra and intergroup statistical differences of p=0.042 and p=0.027 were observed in the AAG, respectively. This demonstrates that an eight-month aquatic aerobic exercise program can improve functional autonomy and osteocalcin levels, although training did not improve lumbar and total femur BMD in the older women.

  3. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  4. FROM ORGANISMS TO POPULATIONS: MODELING AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ACROSS TWO LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical step in estimating the ecological effects of a toxicant is extrapolating organism-level response data across higher levels of biological organization. In the present study, the organism-to-population link is made for the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to a range of...

  5. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  6. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  7. Mercury levels in pristine and gold mining impacted aquatic ecosystems of Suriname, South America.

    PubMed

    Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn A; Quik, Jan H M; Mol, Jan H A; van der Lugt, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 μg g(-1). Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine areas are explained by atmospheric transportation of mercury with the northeastern trade winds followed by wet deposition. Contrary to gold mining areas, where mercury is bound to drifting sediments, in "pristine" areas the mercury is freely available for bio-accumulation and uptake. Impacts on piscivorous reptiles, birds, and mammals are unknown, but likely to be negative.

  8. Developing Watershed Level Indicators for Predicting Aquatic Condition in Stream Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape level information is critical for resource managers to monitor, assess and prioritize protection and restoration efforts within individual watersheds. Spatial landscape indicators incorporate information on natural infrastructure (undeveloped and vegetated riparian area...

  9. Developing Watershed Level Indicators for Predicting Aquatic Condition in Stream Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape level information is critical for resource managers to monitor, assess and prioritize protection and restoration efforts within individual watersheds. Spatial landscape indicators incorporate information on natural infrastructure (undeveloped and vegetated riparian area...

  10. Level I and Level II Abilities in Asian, White and Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.; Inouye, Arlene R.

    In a study in which Asian-American, white, and black children in grades 2-6 in a California school district were given a battery of tests including measures of IQ, scholastic achievement, and short-term memory, factor analysis of the tests yielded two main factors identified as Level I (memory) and Level II (general intelligence) in Jensen's…

  11. Level I and Level II Abilities in Asian, White and Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.; Inouye, Arlene R.

    In a study in which Asian-American, white, and black children in grades 2-6 in a California school district were given a battery of tests including measures of IQ, scholastic achievement, and short-term memory, factor analysis of the tests yielded two main factors identified as Level I (memory) and Level II (general intelligence) in Jensen's…

  12. Impact assessment report: R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station aquatic monitoring program. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.J.; Johnson, G.F.; Summers, J.K.; Smith, R.P.; Ross, R.N.

    1981-06-01

    This document is a summary and interpretation of findings from aquatic monitoring studies that have been conducted since 1976 at the site of the R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station on the upper Potomac River. Because the studies are very diverse and most of the findings are in numerous unpublished reports, this report serves as a compendium of results and also integrates the findings into a meaningful assessment of plant effects.

  13. Comparative studies on Pb and Cd levels in parasites of terrestrial and aquatic animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Taraschewski, H.

    1995-12-31

    Several fish parasites (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Nematoda) and organs of their respective intermediate and final hosts were analyzed for heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). Pb and Cd were also quantified in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as in different organs of the large intestinal roundworm Ascaris suum. The levels of these heavy metals in the parasites were compared to those of muscle, liver, kidney and intestine of the respective definitive hosts cattle and swine obtained from a slaughter house. Most parasites accumulated significantly higher levels of metals than their final hosts. This was most conspicuous in acanthocephalans which contained up to 3 {times} 10{sup 3} fold more lead than the muscle of their fish hosts and up to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 4} more lead than the water surrounding the fish. In these helminths cadmium was enriched up to 400 fold compared to the muscle of the fish and up to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 4} compared to the water. In contrast to the accumulation capacity of adult acanthocephalans their larvae contained about 30 to 180 times less Pb and Cd. Thus, the predominant accumulation of both metals appears in the adult worms. The cestodes of fish and the liver flukes of cattle accumulated the metals up to 200 fold compared to the muscle of their hosts. The nematodes did not contain higher levels of the metals than their hosts. Thus, parasites, especially acanthocephalans, seem to be sensitive bioindicators of Pb and Cd in their environments.

  14. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Rivero, Jesús Manuel; Reyes-Fierro, Ana Victoria; Peralta-Pérez, Ma Del Rosario; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Salmerón, Ivan; Rubio-Arias, Héctor; Rocha-Gutiérrez, Beatriz A

    2017-04-25

    The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops.

  15. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Rivero, Jesús Manuel; Reyes-Fierro, Ana Victoria; Peralta-Pérez, Ma. Del Rosario; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Salmerón, Ivan; Rubio-Arias, Héctor; Rocha-Gutiérrez, Beatriz A.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops. PMID:28441345

  16. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  17. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Carbaryl

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2012 Final National Recommended Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Carbaryl in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  1. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  2. Aquatic Life Criteria - Lead

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    References and documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Lead. These documents include the safe levels of Lead in water that should protect the majority of species.

  3. Interest variability and finding a reliable response level for aquatic bioassays used in compliance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.; Gully, J.; Markle, P.

    1995-12-31

    The issue of uncontrolled interest variability in implementing chronic bioassay test results in compliance settings has been contentious. Since it is desirable that only reliable test data be used in determining compliance, a quantitative measure of reliability is needed. This study utilized reference toxicant data from the TOXIS data base to examine interest precision characteristics for Fathead minnow, Ceriodaphnia, kelp, abalone, and sea urchin protocols. Dispersion of response level (RL) data at 1.5, 10, 15, 25, 40, and 50% effect was examined by lab for each protocol. The 95% Cl band about the mean dose-response curve typically shows greater dispersion at lower doses and effects, with up to 10% effect being included for zero dose of toxicant. On a relative basis (CV), each protocol exhibited high variability at low RL, followed by a flattening of the CV-RL relationship at some characteristic RL. From this point, CV becomes approximately constant, and this point is termed the Reliable Response Level, RLL. For most tests, RRL occurred between 15--40% effect, with 30--40% CV values. Interlab comparisons demonstrated obvious differences in lab performance with any given protocol, suggesting a basis for lab performance goals. Study results indicate that each protocol has an RRL above which the reliability of test data is constant and may be predicted; variability increases markedly below the RRL represents the point where determinate and indeterminate errors are small or controlled, such that test performance is predictable. The RRL/point estimation models allow setting of lab performance criteria, comparison of multiple sample test results, comparisons of lab performance, and setting of toxicity objectives based on test reliability criteria.

  4. Wavelengths, energy levels and hyperfine structure of Mn II and Sc II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Townley-Smith, Keeley I. M.; Hala, .

    2015-08-01

    For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Groups at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Imperial College London (ICL) have measured atomic data of astronomical interest. Our spectrometers include Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at NIST and ICL covering the region 1350 Å to 5.5 μm and a 10.7-m grating spectrometer at NIST covering wavelengths from 300 - 5000 Å. Sources for these spectra include high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) lamps, Penning discharges, and sliding spark discharges. Recent work has focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure (HFS) constants for iron-group elements. The analysis of FT spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn II is being led by ICL and is described in a companion poster [1]. Current work being led by NIST includes the analysis of HFS in Mn II, analysis of Mn II in the vacuum ultraviolet, and a comprehensive analysis of Sc II.Comprehensive HFS constants for Mn II are needed for the interpretation of stellar spectra and incorrect abundances may be obtained when HFS is omitted. Holt et al. [2] have measured HFS constants for 59 levels of Mn II using laser spectroscopy. We used FT spectra of Mn/Ni and Mn/Cu HCLs covering wavelength ranges from 1350 Å to 5.4 μm to confirm 26 of the A constants of Holt et al. and obtain values for roughly 40 additional levels. We aim to obtain HFS constants for the majority of lines showing significant HFS that are observed in chemically-peculiar stars.Spectra of Sc HCLs have been recorded from 1800 - 6700 Å using a vacuum ultraviolet FT spectrometer at NIST. Additional measurements to cover wavelengths above 6700 Å and below 1800 Å are in progress. The spectra are being analyzed by NIST and Alighar Muslim University, India in order to derive improved wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters.This work was partially supported by NASA, the STFC and PPARC (UK), the Royal Society of the UK

  5. Evaluation of the toxicity of superfine materials to change the physiological functions of aquatic organisms of different trophic levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgalev, S.; Morgaleva, T.; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We assessed ecological and biological effects caused by the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the laboratory researches into water test-organisms of different trophic levels. We studied the physiological functions of water organisms on adding into the environment superfine materials of various chemical nature and structural characteristics: metallic nanoparticles of nikel (nNi), argentum (nAg), platinum (nPt), aurum (nAu), binary NPs (powder of titanium dioxide - nTiO2, aluminum oxide - nAl2O3, zink oxide - nZnO, silicon nitride - nSi3N4, silicon carbide (nSiC) and carbon nanotubes (BT-50, MCD- material). We observed the dependence of developing the complex of unfavourable biological effects in water plants and entomostracans’ organisms on the physical and chemical properties of superfine materials. We determined the values of NOEC, L(E)C20 and L(E)C50 for aquatic organisms of various regular groups. We found out the most vulnerable elements of the communities’ trophic structure and the possibility of a breakdown in the water ecosystem food pyramid.

  6. Curriculum Guides for Level I and Level II: National Manpower Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Mental Retardation, Toronto (Ontario).

    Curriculum guides to levels I and II of the Canadian National Manpower Model, which elaborate on content originally presented in 1971, are provided for personnel training programs in the field of mental retardation and related handicapping areas. The guides are said to be based on a philosophy that demands society's acceptance of retarded and…

  7. Analysis of medicine consumption in peacekeeping level II hospitals.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lan; Liu, Huiling; Li, Chunfeng; Gao, Guangkai

    2014-01-01

    The peacekeeping military units of contributing countries are unfamiliar with the conditions prevailing in foreign mission areas and therefore have difficulties with medical supplies storage. The aim of this study is to provide reasonable and practical guidance on the maintenance of medical supplies in the peacekeeping military units of contributing countries. A total of 1,972 prescriptions were received by the pharmacy in the peacekeeping level II hospital in the Republic of Sudan from February to July of 2009 including a total of 186 drug categories and 17,713 minimum packing units. Pairwise comparison was performed using the c2 test. When the total number of samples was smaller than 40, the Fisher's exact test was adopted for pairwise comparison. The majority of the consumed medicines mainly belonged to 6 categories, including specialty drugs, anti-microbial drugs, Chinese patent medicines, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system drugs, and drugs regulating fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Altogether, the drugs in the 6 categories accounted for 74% of all consumed medicines that were divided into a total of 20 categories. Medicine consumption in peacekeeping level II hospitals is unique, therefore the drugs used in military medical facilities should be prepared according to their actual needs in the area of peacekeeping operations.

  8. Influence of the steady background turbulence level on second sound dynamics in He II II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalban-Canassy, M.; Hilton, D. K.; Sciver, S. W. Van

    2007-01-01

    We report complementary results to our previous publication [Dalban-Canassy M, Hilton DK, Van Sciver SW. Influence of the steady background turbulence level on second sound dynamics in He II. Adv Cryo Eng 2006;51:371-8], both of which are aimed at determining the influence of background turbulence on the breakpoint energy of second sound pulses in He II. The apparatus consists of a channel 175 mm long and 242 mm 2 in cross section immersed in a saturated bath of He II at 1.7 K. A heater at the bottom end generates both background turbulence, through a low level steady heat flux (up to qs = 2.6 kW/m 2), and high intensity square second sound pulses ( qp = 100 or 200 kW/m 2) of variable duration Δ t0 (up to 1 ms). Two superconducting filament sensors, located 25.4 mm and 127 mm above the heater, measure the temperature profiles of the traveling pulses. We present here an analysis of the measurements gathered on the top sensor, and compare them to similar results for the bottom sensor [1]. The strong dependence of the breakpoint energy on the background heat flux previously illustrated is also observed on the top sensor. The present work shows that the ratio of energy received at the top sensor to that at the bottom sensor diminishes with increasing background heat flux.

  9. In a mature trauma system, there is no difference in outcome (survival) between Level I and Level II trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Frederick B; Osler, Turner; Lee, John C; Sakorafas, Lois; Wu, Daniel; Evans, Tracy; Edavettal, Mathew; Horst, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The state of Pennsylvania (PA) has one of the oldest, most well-established trauma systems in the country. The requirements for verification for Level I versus Level II trauma centers within PA differ minimally (only in the requirement for patient volume, residency, and research). We hypothesized that there would be no difference in outcome at Level I versus Level II trauma centers. Odds of mortality for 16 Level I and 11 Level II hospitals in PA over a 5-year period (2004-2008) was computed using a random effects logistic regression model. Overall adjusted mortality rates at Level I versus Level II hospitals were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon's rank sum test. The crude mortality rates for 140,691 patients over the 5-year period were similar (5.07% Level II vs. 5.48% Level I), but statistically significant (odds ratio mortality at Level I = 1.084, p = 0.002 Fisher's exact test). Although Level I centers had on average crude mortality rates that were higher than those of Level II centers, median adjusted mortality rates were not different for the two types of centers (Wilcoxon's rank sum test). Performance of Level I versus Level II shows considerable variability among centers (basic random effects model, age, blunt/penetrating, and Injury Severity Score [ISS]). However, Level II centers seem no different from Level I. As trauma systems mature, the distinction between Level I and Level II trauma centers blurs. The hierarchal descriptors "Level I" or "Level II" in a mature trauma system is pejorative and implies in those hospitals labeled "Level II" as inferior, and as such should be replaced with nonhierarchal descriptors.

  10. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  11. Aquatic Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  12. IV. Aquatics

    Treesearch

    Michael K.. Young

    2011-01-01

    The problem of invasive aquatic species has long been recognized by scientists at the Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fausch and others (2006, 2009) recently overviewed this issue. A point that often distinguishes nonnative aquatic species from nonnatives in other environments is that the presence of some species is frequently prized by managers and the public. For...

  13. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  14. The Perspectives of Fieldwork Educators Regarding Level II Fieldwork Students.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Debra J

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten occupational therapists employed in pediatric and adult rehabilitation settings participated in focus groups to discuss their perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks in working with occupational therapy students. Participants identified professional values, opportunities for continued professional development, recruitment of future employees, and pride in learning experiences available as incentives for working with students. Fieldwork educators who had supervised students lacking foundational communication, problem-solving, and clinical skills were cautious about accepting future Level II students. Time constraints and lack of preparation for the educator role were perceived as barriers to working with students. Fieldwork educators expected the academic institution to provide efficient support, including training for the educator role, information regarding the expectations of the academic program, and ongoing communication over the fieldwork experience. Strategies for strengthening the ties between academic programs and fieldwork sites were explored.

  15. The CMS Level-1 trigger system for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadamuro, L.

    2017-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. During Run II, the LHC has increased the centre-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions up to 13 TeV and may progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2×1034 cm‑2 s‑1 or higher. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition system has been upgraded. The upgraded CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger benefits from the recent μTCA technology and is designed to maintain the performance under high instantaneous luminosity conditions. More sophisticated, innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: this drastically reduces the trigger rate and improves the trigger efficiency for a wide variety of physics processes. In this document, we present the overall architecture of the upgraded Level-1 trigger system. The performance of single object triggers, measured on collision data recorded during the 2016 running period, are also summarised.

  16. Aquatic dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Heidi; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the fascination of the aquatic world, it can be associated with some medical risks. Natural bodies of water, swimming pools and aquariums contain many living organisms. Some of these aquatic species may cause traumatic or toxic skin reactions after contact as well as life-threatening systemic reactions. Most frequently, the injuries include poisonous bites and stings by coelenter-ates, worms,stinging fish,mollusks and echinoderms or skin infections. A basic knowledge regarding the flora and fauna that populate the aquatic world can help to avoid contact with such organisms,or if it happens,to promptly initiate appropriate therapy.

  17. ATRAZINE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR OPP LEVEL OF CONCERN AND OW WATER QUALITY CRITERION FOR AQUATIC LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine is a relatively water-soluble and persistent herbicide that can reach concentrations of possible ecological concern for aquatic plants in vulnerable watersheds in regions with high agricultural usage of atrazine. As a consequence, the U.S. EPA Office of Water is current...

  18. ATRAZINE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR OPP LEVEL OF CONCERN AND OW WATER QUALITY CRITERION FOR AQUATIC LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine is a relatively water-soluble and persistent herbicide that can reach concentrations of possible ecological concern for aquatic plants in vulnerable watersheds in regions with high agricultural usage of atrazine. As a consequence, the U.S. EPA Office of Water is current...

  19. Determination of mercury(II) in aquatic plants using quinoline-thiourea conjugates as a fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guodong; Ding, Yuanyuan; Gong, Zhiyong; Dai, Yanna; Fei, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a quinoline-thiourea conjugate (1-phenyl-3-(quinoline-8-yl) thiourea, PQT) was synthesized and used as a fluorescence sensor to detect mercury ion. The observation is coincident with the well-documented phenomenon that a thiocarbonyl-containing group on a fluorochrome quenches the fluorescence due to the heavy atom effect of the S atom. The large fluorescence enhancement of PQT in the buffered MeCN-water mixture (1/1 v/v; HEPES 100 mM; pH 8.0) was caused by the Hg(2+) induced transformation of the thiourea function into a urea group. As such, protic solvents can be ascribed to hydrogen bond formation on the carbonyl oxygen to reduce the internal conversion rate. The fluorescence intensity of PQT was enhanced quantitatively with an increase in the concentration of mercury ion. The limit of detection of Hg(2+) was 7.5 nM. The coexistence of other metal ions with mercury had no obvious influence on the detection of mercury. A quinolone-thiourea conjugate was used as a fluorescent probe to detect Hg(2+) in aquatic plants and the experimental results were satisfactory.

  20. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms of different trophic levels and potential health risk assessment from Taihu lake, China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yu; Yuan, Zhang; Xiaona, Hu; Wei, Meng

    2012-07-01

    Aquatic organisms of different trophic levels were taken from Taihu lake. Heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were measured in phytoplankton, zooplankton, in two species of zoobenthos, and in eight fish species, as well as in the water column and bottom sediments. Results showed that the concentration of Cu and Zn for all organisms was much higher than for other metals, and Cd was the lowest in all species. Generally, heavy metal concentrations in phytoplankton were higher than in zooplankton. In zoobenthos, the concentration in Bellamya sp.(human edible snail) was higher than that in Corbiculidae (bivalve). Metal concentrations had no significant difference between fish species but tended to be higher in predator fish such as Coilia ectenes and Erythroculter ilishaeformis than in herbivorous fish. The level of measured metals in Taihu fish was moderate-low compared with that of fresh water fishes from international results. Spatially, metal concentrations in organisms were higher in the north and west Taihu lake but lower in south and east lake and this appears to be related to river inputs that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) for all aquatic organisms in the food chain indicated that it was generally highest in planktons, followed by zoobenthos, and lowest in fish. Health risk assessment and comparison with national and international standards showed that consumption of aquatic products from the lake was generally safe but fishermen were a higher risk group especially through dietary intake of Bellamya sp.

  1. Effects of an aquatic-based exercise program to improve cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cugusi, Lucia; Cadeddu, Christian; Nocco, Silvio; Orrù, Fabio; Bandino, Stefano; Deidda, Martino; Caria, Alessandra; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Piras, Alessandra; Cabras, Sergio; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    The role of structured exercise in improving cardiometabolic profile and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) has been widely demonstrated. Little is known about the effects of an aquatic-based exercise program in patients with 2DM. To evaluate the effects of a supervised aquatic-based exercise program on cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels in patients with 2DM. Observational study, community pre-post aquatic-based exercise program, primary care intervention. Eighteen men diagnosed with 2DM (52.2 ± 9.3 years). and Cardiometabolic profile, quality of life, and physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks of an aquatic-based exercise program. The results show a significant improvement of cardiometabolic assessments (maximum oxygen consumption: 24.1 versus 21.1 mL/kg/min, P < .05; blood pressure: 125.4/77 versus 130.7/82.5 mm Hg, P < .05; fasting blood glucose: 119.6 versus 132.5 mg/dL, P < .05; body mass index: 29.9 versus 31.1 kg/m², P < .005; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 95.2 versus 104.9 mg/dL, P < .05; and diastolic function: E/E' 9.1 versus 10.1, P < .005) and an increase in quality of life and physical activity levels (Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary: 72.3 versus 67, P < .05; Problems Area About Diabetes: 20.1 versus 33.2, P < .005) and energy expenditure in general physical activity (physical activity: 3888.7 versus 1239.5 kcal/wk, P < .05). These findings demonstrate that an aquatic-based exercise program produces benefits for the cardiovascular system and metabolic profile and appears to be safe and effective in improving quality of life and increasing physical activity levels in patients with 2DM. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioaccumulation of five pharmaceuticals at multiple trophic levels in an aquatic food web - Insights from a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Lagesson, A; Fahlman, J; Brodin, T; Fick, J; Jonsson, M; Byström, P; Klaminder, J

    2016-10-15

    Pharmaceuticals derived from manufacturing and human consumption contaminate surface waters worldwide. To what extent such pharmaceutical contamination accumulates and disperses over time in different compartments of aquatic food webs is not well known. In this study we assess to what extent five pharmaceuticals (diphenhydramine, oxazepam, trimethoprim, diclofenac, and hydroxyzine) are taken up by fish (European perch) and four aquatic invertebrate taxa (damselfly larvae, mayfly larvae, waterlouse, and ramshorn snail), by tracing their bioconcentrations over several months in a semi-natural large-scale (pond) system. The results suggest both significant differences among drugs in their capacity to bioaccumulate and differences among species in uptake. While no support for in situ uptake of diclofenac and trimethoprim was found, oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine were detected in all analyzed species. Here, the highest bioaccumulation factor (tissue:water ratio) was found for hydroxyzine. In the food web, the highest concentrations were found in the benthic species ramshorn snail and waterlouse, indicating that bottom-living organism at lower trophic positions are the prime receivers of the pharmaceuticals. In general, concentrations in the biota decreased over time in response to decreasing water concentrations. However, two interesting exceptions to this trend were noted. First, mayfly larvae (primarily grazers) showed peak concentrations (a fourfold increase) of oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine about 30days after initial addition of pharmaceuticals. Second, perch (top-predator) showed an increase in concentrations of oxazepam throughout the study period. Our results show that drugs can remain bioavailable for aquatic organism for long time periods (weeks to months) and even re-enter the food web at a later time. As such, for an understanding of accumulation and dispersion of pharmaceuticals in aquatic food webs, detailed ecological knowledge is

  3. Improving the reliability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals via equilibrium passive dosing - A multiple trophic level case study on bromochlorophene.

    PubMed

    Stibany, Felix; Ewald, Franziska; Miller, Ina; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-28

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the reliability and practicability of aquatic toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals based upon the model substance bromochlorophene (BCP). Therefore, we adapted a passive dosing format to test the toxicity of BCP at different concentrations and in multiple test systems with aquatic organisms of various trophic levels. At the same time, the method allowed for the accurate determination of exposure concentrations (i.e., in the presence of exposed organisms; Ctest) and freely dissolved concentrations (i.e., without organisms present; Cfree) of BCP in all tested media. We report on the joint adaptation of three ecotoxicity tests - algal growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilization, and fish-embryo toxicity - to a silicone O-ring based equilibrium passive dosing format. Effect concentrations derived by passive dosing methods were compared with corresponding effect concentrations derived by standard co-solvent setups. The passive dosing format led to EC50-values in the lower μgL(-1) range for algae, daphnids, and fish embryos, whereas increased effect concentrations were measured in the co-solvent setups for algae and daphnids. This effect once more shows that passive dosing might offer advantages over standard methods like co-solvent setups when it comes to a reliable risk assessment of hydrophobic substances. The presented passive dosing setup offers a facilitated, practical, and repeatable way to test hydrophobic chemicals on their toxicity to aquatic organisms, and is an ideal basis for the detailed investigation of this important group of chemicals.

  4. Respective contributions of diet and medium to the bioaccumulation of pharmaceutical compounds in the first levels of an aquatic trophic web.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Simon, Laurent; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, pharmaceuticals (PCs) are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. It is known that these compounds have ecotoxic effects on aquatic organisms at low concentrations. Moreover, some of them can bioaccumulate inside organisms or trophic webs exposed at environmental concentrations and amplify ecotoxic impacts. PCs can bioaccumulate in two ways: exposure to a medium (e.g., respiration, diffusion, etc.) and/or through the dietary route. Here, we try to assess the respective contributions of these two forms of contamination of the first two levels of an aquatic trophic web. We exposed Daphnia magna for 5 days to 0, 5, and 50 μg/L (15)N-tamoxifen and then fed them with control and contaminated diets. We used an isotopic method to measure the tamoxifen content inside the daphnids after several minutes' exposure and every day before and after feeding. We found that tamoxifen is very bioaccumulative inside daphnids (BCF up to 12,000) and that the dietary route has a significant impact on contamination by tamoxifen (BAF up to 22,000), especially at low concentrations in medium.

  5. 75 FR 54648 - Proposed Information Collection; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting Reporting Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting... the distribution of nonindigenous aquatic species, primarily fish, in open waters of the United States... control number. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-NEW. Title: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species...

  6. The impact of increased oxygen conditions on metal-contaminated sediments part II: effects on metal accumulation and toxicity in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, M; Teuchies, J; Meire, P; Blust, R; Bervoets, L

    2012-06-15

    The present study evaluated the effect of increasing oxygen concentrations in overlying surface water on the accumulation and toxicity of sediment-bound metals in the aquatic invertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus, Asellus aquaticus and Daphnia magna. A 54 days experiment using three experimental treatments (90% O(2) in overlying surface water, 40% O(2) and a non-polluted control) was conducted. At 6 different time points (after 0, 2, 5, 12, 32 and 54 days) acid volatile sulfides (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured in the superficial sediment layer (0-1 cm). At each time point, accumulated metal levels as well as the available energy stores were measured in L. variegatus and A. aquaticus and each time D. magna was exposed to surface water in a 24 h toxicity test. Additionally metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) induction was quantified in L. variegatus. Oxygen induced changes in sediment AVS resulted in faster accumulation of metals from contaminated sediments in A. aquaticus, while no differences in toxicity in this species were observed. Ag, Cr, As and Co accumulation as well as toxicity in water exposed D. magna were clearly enhanced after 54 days, caused by oxidation of metal-sulfide complexes. Due to their feeding and burrowing behaviour, metal accumulation and toxicity in L. variegatus was not influenced by geochemical characteristics. Nevertheless, a rapid induction of MTLP was observed in both the 90% O(2) and the 40% O(2) treatment. The present study showed that elevated oxygen concentrations in overlying surface water can directly enhance metal accumulation and toxicity in aquatic invertebrates, however this is highly dependent on the organisms ecology and most dominant metal exposure route (water vs. sediment). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coating carbon nanotubes with humic acid using an eco-friendly mechanochemical method: Application for Cu(II) ions removal from water and aquatic ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Côa, Francine; Strauss, Mathias; Clemente, Zaira; Rodrigues Neto, Laís L; Lopes, Josias R; Alencar, Rafael S; Souza Filho, Antônio G; Alves, Oswaldo L; Castro, Vera Lúcia S S; Barbieri, Edison; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T

    2017-12-31

    In this work, industrial grade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were coated with humic acid (HA) for the first time by means of a milling process, which can be considered an eco-friendly mechanochemical method to prepare materials and composites. The HA-MWCNT hybrid material was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopies (SEM and STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. STEM and AFM images demonstrated that the MWCNTs were efficiently coated by the humic acid, thus leading to an increase of 20% in the oxygen content at the nanotube surface as observed by the XPS data. After the milling process, the carbon nanotubes were shortened as unveiled by SEM images and the values of ID/IG intensity ratio increased due to shortening of the nanotubes and increasing in the number defects at the graphitic structure of carbon nanotubes walls. The analysis of TGA data showed that the quantity of the organic matter of HA on the nanotube surface was 25%. The HA coating was responsible to favor the dispersion of MWCNTs in ultrapure water (i.e. -42mV, zeta-potential value) and to improve their capacity for copper removal. HA-MWCNTs hybrid material adsorbed 2.5 times more Cu(II) ions than oxidized MWCNTs with HNO3, thus evidencing that it is a very efficient adsorbent material for removing copper ions from reconstituted water. The HA-MWCNTs hybrid material did not show acute ecotoxicity to the tested aquatic model organisms (Hydra attenuata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio embryos) up to the highest concentration evaluated (10mgL(-1)). The results allowed concluding that the mechanochemical method is effective to coat carbon nanotubes with humic acid, thus generating a functional hybrid material with low aquatic toxicity and great potential to be applied in environmental nanotechnologies such as the removal of heavy metal ions from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Aquatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  10. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stan E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  12. Irisin levels are associated with urotensin II levels in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    He, Wan-Yu; Bai, Qiong; A, La-Ta; Tang, Chao-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Irisin is a newly identified myokine that can promote energy expenditure. Previous studies showed that circulating urotensin II (UII) levels were increased in diabetes, and UII could inhibit the glucose transport in skeletal muscle in diabetic mice and aggravated insulin resistance. We presumed that irisin levels are associated with UII in diabetic patients. A total of 71 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. Blood and urinary irisin concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and UII concentrations were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Every participant's body composition was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance. The serum irisin levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients than that of controls, whereas serum UII levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in that of controls. Serum irisin levels were negatively associated with circulating UII, hemoglobin A1c and the natural logarithm transformation of urinary albumin excretion, whereas serum irisin was positively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and urinary irisin were positively associated with urinary UII. Furthermore, circulating irisin is positively associated with muscle mass, whereas circulating UII is negatively associated with muscle mass in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c and circulating UII are independent determinants of circulating irisin by multiple regression analysis. The present results provide the clinical evidence of an association between irisin and UII in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c and circulating UII are independent determinants of circulating irisin. Our results hint that UII and high glucose might inhibit the release of irisin from skeletal muscle in diabetic patients.

  13. The toxicity of molybdate to freshwater and marine organisms. II. Effects assessment of molybdate in the aquatic environment under REACH.

    PubMed

    Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Carey, S

    2012-10-01

    The REACH Molybdenum Consortium initiated an extensive research program in order to generate robust PNECs, based on the SSD approach, for both the freshwater and marine environments. This activity was part of the REACH dossier preparation and to form the basis for scientific dialogues with other national and international regulatory authorities. Chronic ecotoxicity data sets for the freshwater and marine environments served as starting point for the derivation of PNECs for both compartments, in accordance with the recommended derivation procedures established by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The HC(5,50%)s that were derived from the generated Species Sensitivity Distributions were 38.2 mg Mo/L and 5.75 mg Mo/L for the freshwater and marine water compartment, respectively. Uncertainty analysis on both data sets and available data on bioaccumulation at high exposure levels justified an assessment factor of 3 on both HC(5,50%) leading to a PNEC(freshwater) of 12.7 mg Mo/L and a PNEC(marine) of 1.92 mg Mo/L. As there are currently insufficient ecotoxicological data available for the derivation of PNECs in the sediment compartment, the equilibrium partitioning method was applied; typical K(D)-values for both the freshwater and marine compartments were identified and combined with the respective PNEC, leading to a PNEC(sediment) of 22,600 mg/kg dry weight and 1980 mg/kg dry weight for freshwater and marine sediments, respectively. The chronic data sets were also used for the derivation of final chronic values using the procedures that are outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency for deriving such water benchmarks. Comparing PNECs with FCVs showed that both methodologies result in comparable protective concentration levels for molybdenum in the environment.

  14. Field level evaluation and risk assessment of the toxicity of dichloroacetic acid to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark L; Sibley, Paul K; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

    2003-05-01

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a haloacetic acid, is a common contaminant of aquatic ecosystems. A study to investigate potential phytotoxic effects on rooted and floating macrophytes (Myriophyllum spicatum, M. sibiricum, and Lemna gibba) was conducted. Replicate 12,000 L outdoor microcosms (n = 3) were treated with 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg/L of DCA that had been neutralized to the sodium salt, plus controls. Plants were sampled regularly over 21 days and assessed for a variety of endpoints including plant growth, root growth, number of nodes, wet and dry mass, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoids, and citrate levels. EC10, EC25, and EC50 values were calculated for each endpoint that exhibited a concentration-response. Overall, M. sibiricum was slightly more sensitive than M. spicatum to DCA exposure. The most sensitive plant endpoints were wet mass and plant length. Pigments showed no response with exposure to DCA. The probability of current concentrations of DCA in Canadian lake water and Swiss river waters exceeding thresholds of toxicity derived from single species effect measure distributions (EC10s) is < 0.01%. The use of effect measure distributions holds promise as a new risk assessment technique for aquatic plants. Currently, environmental levels of DCA do not pose a risk to these plants.

  15. Expert system determination of power level for EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, T.L.; Makowitz, H. )

    1992-01-01

    The Tightly Coupled Transient Analysis System (TCTAS) is under development for use at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The premise is that during plant operation, it would be useful to compare plant conditions to values generated by a simulation. This capability could reveal inconsistent plant behavior such as temperatures or pressures that are different than expected. By using much faster than real-time simulation, it could help predict possible problems and allow running relevant operational scenarios. The system currently includes a data acquisition system (DAS) that reports plant parameters each second. Graphic displays for major plant subsystems are available for displaying DAS data, simulation data, and DAS data as interpreted by the expert system. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) is operational and has been tested. An expert system is currently used for interpreting DAS data before comparing it to DSNP data. Instrumentation difficulties have made some EBR-II data either suspect or unavailable. Other sensors are not connected to the DAS. These problems force either humans or the expert system to make assumptions in order to compute certain plant parameters. The expert system, like the experts, assumes steady-state conditions.

  16. Regional differences in mercury levels in aquatic ecosystems: A discussion of possible causal factors with implications for the Tennessee river system and the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslin, J. Devereux

    1994-07-01

    Concern about mercury pollution from atmospheric deposition has risen markedly in the last decade because of high levels of mercury in freshwater fish from relatively pristine waters. Whereas high concentrations have been found principally in Canada, the northern United States, and Scandinavia, they have also recently been observed throughout much of Florida. Recent surveys of the Tennessee River system, however, have found no locations where fish levels exceed EPA guidelines for fish consumption. This paper evaluates a number of factors that may cause certain regions in the northern hemisphere to experience unacceptable fish mercury levels while other regions do not. Relevant regional differences include: (1) Waters of the Tennessee River system are generally nonacidic (pH>6) and well buffered, whereas 16%, 22%, and 40% of the lakes in upper Midwest, Northeast, and Florida, respectively, have acid-neutralizing capacities below 50 µeq/liter. Acidity correlates highly with fish mercury levels in a number of lake surveys, and experimental manipulations of acidity have significantly raised fish mercury levels. (2) The ratio of land area to water surface area in the Tennessee Valley averages about 30, whereas it is 15 in the upper Midwest and 6 in Florida. Low ratios allow mercury in precipitation to be directly deposited to aquatic bodies, without an opportunity for the mercury to be sequestered by terrestrial ecosystems. (3) Stream organic matter concentrations in Florida, the upper Midwest, and Sweden are 2 10 times those in the Tennessee Valley. Mercury binds strongly to organic matter, and organic matter transport in runoff is a major pathway by which mercury enters aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Field observations of the effects of protracted low levels of ionizing radiation on natural aquatic population by using a cytogenetic tool.

    PubMed

    Florou, H; Tsytsugina, V; Polikarpov, G G; Trabidou, G; Gorbenko, V; Chaloulou, C H

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, an effort is attempted to record the impact of chronic radiation on natural aquatic populations exposed to protracted doses (lower if compared to intervention levels but higher if compared to typical background) and to chemical pollution. The methodology is based on the analyses of chromosome aberrations observed in cells. Therefore, some preliminary research results on the cytogenetic effects on aquatic organisms of various taxa, in coastal ecosystems are presented, considering some selective regions of elevated natural gamma radiation and conventional pollution. These areas are the geothermal spring areas in the island of Ikaria-Eastern Aegean Sea and the port of Pireus, in Greece. The data are compared to the findings recorded in some organisms collected from the North Aegean Sea the early period after the Chernobyl accident. With regard to the different species examined, a first evaluation of the results is made using the reported field findings for the wide area of Chernobyl. The environmental assessment of the studied areas in terms of radiation impact is based on the cytogenetic injuries observed, and evidence of ecosystem disturbance is also pointed out. The final environmental assessment based on the quantified effects observed in the organisms from the studied areas takes into account a published conceptual model of zones of radiation dose rates and the resulting organism responses in a step function scale.

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Tributyltin (TBT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. These documents include the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  19. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect the majority of species.

  1. [Blood lactic acid level and APACHE II score on prognosis of critically ill elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Li, Zhi-gang; Sun, Xiao-lin

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the relevance between blood lactic acid level and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score in order to provide guideline for clinical treatment. Retrospective analyses on 537 critically ill elderly patients who were hospitalized in the ICU with their blood lactic acid level tested and APACHE II scores calculated. The overall death rate was 35.75% (192/537) with the APACHE II score as (22.6±12.8), and blood lactic acid level as (6.84±2.01) mmol/L. The blood lactic acid level among deaths was obviously higher than in the control group, with significant differences (P<0.05). The level of blood lactic acid was positively related to APACHE II score (r=0.572, P<0.05) while the death rate was both positively related to APACHE II score (r=0.475, P<0.05) and the level of blood lactic acid (r=0.506, P<0.05). There seemed a positive correlation between blood lactic acid level and the APACHE II score. Both of them showed good relevance with the prognosis of the disease.

  2. Urotensin II levels in patients with chronic kidney disease and kidney transplants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Urotensin II is a potent vasoactive peptide that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. There is no study reporting the role and level of this peptide in recipients of kidney transplant. So we aimed to study the plasma levels of urotensin II in this group of patients. Methods. Plasma urotensin II levels were analyzed in 110 subjects, who were divided into three groups: group 1 (35 kidney transplant recipients), group 2 (36 patients with chronic kidney disease), and group 3 (39 healthy controls). Results. Analysis of logarithmic transformation of urotensin II, i.e. log (urotensin II × 1000) levels, with a one-way analysis of variance yielded a P value of 0.001. Post-hoc analysis showed significantly higher log (urotensin II × 1000) levels in group 1 than groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). One of the important features of the subjects of this group was that they were taking immunosuppressive drugs because of renal transplantation. Conclusions. High urotensin II levels in recipients of kidney transplants could be drug-related (immunosuppressive drugs) and may be of practical importance that may be used to improve the long-term outcome of the patients. PMID:22098077

  3. Specification for Qualification and Certification for Level II - Advanced Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This document defines the requirements and program for the American Welding Society (AWS) to certify advanced-level welders through an evaluation process entailing performance qualification and practical knowledge tests requiring the use of advanced reading, computational, and manual skills. The following items are included: statement of the…

  4. No Evidence of Significant Levels of Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the Haitian Aquatic Environment During the 2012 Rainy Season

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sandrine; Lesne, Jean; Moore, Sandra; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Rebaudet, Stanislas; Gazin, Pierre; Barrais, Robert; Magloire, Roc; Boncy, Jacques; Piarroux, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Background: On October 21, 2010, Haiti was struck by a cholera epidemic for the first time in over a century. Epidemiological and molecular genetic data have clearly demonstrated that the bacterium was imported. Nevertheless, the persistence of the epidemic for more than two years, the high incidence rates in some coastal areas and the seasonal exacerbations of the epidemic during the rainy seasons have prompted us to examine the levels of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in the Haitian aquatic environment. Methods: In July 2012, during the warm and rainy season, 36 aquatic stations were sampled to search for toxigenic V. cholerae. These stations included fresh, brackish and saline surface waters as well as waste water; the sampling sites were located in both rural and urban areas (around Port-au-Prince and Gonaïves) located in the West and Artibonite Departments. V. cholerae bacteria were detected in enrichment cultures of water samples (sample volumes included 1 L, 100 mL, 10 mL, 1 mL, 0.1 mL, 0.01 mL and 0.001 mL depending on the context). Detection methods included both culture on selective agar (for strain isolation) and PCR assays targeting the genes ompW (V. cholerae species), O1-rfb and O139-rfb (O1 and O139 V. cholerae serogroups, respectively), and the cholera toxin gene ctxA, which is present exclusively in toxigenic cholera strains. Results: A total of 411 culturable V. cholerae isolates from 29 stations were obtained via selective culture; however, only one of these isolates displayed a late positive reaction with polyvalent anti-O1 serum. Positive V. cholerae PCR results were obtained from each of the 32 tested stations (a total of 77 enrichments out of 107 yielded a positive result); only one sample yielded a positive V. cholerae O1 PCR result. The cholera toxin gene ctxA was never detected via PCR with either primer pair, which includes samples derived from the two stations yielding positive O1 culture or positive O1 PCR results. Therefore, we could not

  5. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: II. Probabilistic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    A screening-level aquatic probabilistic risk assessment was completed to determine the potential risks of organic pesticides found in surface waters of the C-111 freshwater basin (11 sites at the east boundary of the Everglades National Park) and adjacent estuarine tidal zones (two sites in northeast Florida Bay, one site in south Biscayne Bay) in south Florida. It followed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecological risk framework and focused only on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos individually and jointly with atrazine, metolachlor, and malathion by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations with the distributions of species toxicity data. The highest risk of acute effects was associated with endosulfan exposure to freshwater arthropods at S-178/site C on the C-111 system, followed by endosulfan effects to estuarine arthropods at Joe Bay in northeast Florida Bay. The highest risk of acute effects from joint toxicity of pesticides was to estuarine arthropods in Joe Bay followed by freshwater arthropods in S-178/site C. For fish, the highest acute risk was for endosulfan at S-178/site C. There was low potential for acute risk of endosulfan to fish at estuarine sites. Joint probability curves indicated that the majority of potential risks to arthropods and fish were due to endosulfan concentrations and not to chlorpyrifos, at S-178/site C. In addition, the highest risk of acute effects for saltwater organisms was in Joe Bay, which receives water from the C-111. The potential risk of chronic effects from pesticide exposures was minimal at fresh- and saltwater sites except at S-178/site C, where endosulfan concentrations showed the highest exceedence of species toxicity values. In general, potential risks were higher in February than June.

  6. Why do cervids feed on aquatic vegetation?

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Miranda, María; García, Andrés J; Martínez, Alberto; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of aquatic plants is rare among cervids, despite the common occurrence of this form of vegetation. However, the paucity of literature reporting on this feeding behaviour suggests that Na (but also other minerals), protein, and the ubiquitous availability of aquatic vegetation may play a role in its consumption. We present results quantifying those factors that regulate the consumption of aquatic plants in the Iberian red deer. We focussed our study primarily on two questions: (i) what nutritional values are red deer seeking in the aquatic plants?; and (ii) why do red deer primarily use aquatic plants during the summer? A comparison of the seasonal variations in Na content between terrestrial vs. aquatic vegetation did not fully support the hypothesis that aquatic plants are being consumed more in summer because of any seasonal variation in Na availability. The Na content in the aquatic vegetation was adequate all the year-round; whereas, the Na content in the terrestrial vegetation was consistently deficient. However, a greater summer content of essential minerals and protein in the aquatic vegetation may be the cause for their consumption exclusively during the summer. We suggest that seasonal variations in the consumption of aquatic vegetation by cervids is primarily driven by temporal variations in the nutrient content, combined with seasonal variations in the physiological demands for these nutrients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

  8. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinthuprasith, Tutanon

    2017-01-01

    The phase-1 upgrades of the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger have been completed. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and it will be used by CMS to collect data starting from the 2016 data run. The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Design, which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the uTCA standard. The architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Intelligent, more complex, and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: the upgraded trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger processors for pT assignment, pile up subtraction, and isolation requirements for electrons, and taus. The performance of the TMT design and the latency measurements and the algorithm performance which has been measured using data is also presented here.

  9. Factorial validity and measurement invariance across intelligence levels and gender of the overexcitabilities questionnaire-II (OEQ-II).

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Hofmans, Joeri; Cooremans, Sven; Staels, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The concept of overexcitability, derived from Dabrowski's theory of personality development, offers a promising approach for the study of the developmental dynamics of giftedness. The present study aimed at (a) examining the factorial structure of the Overexcitabilities Questionnaire-II scores (OEQ-II) and (b) testing measurement invariance of these scores across intelligence and gender. A sample of 641 Dutch-speaking adolescents from 11 to 15 years old, 363 girls and 278 boys, participated in this study. Results showed that a model without cross-loadings did not fit the data well (using confirmatory factor analysis), whereas a factor model in which all cross-loadings were included yielded fit statistics that were in support of the factorial structure of the OEQ-II scores (using exploratory structural equation modeling). Furthermore, our findings supported the assumption of (partial) strict measurement invariance of the OEQ-II scores across intelligence levels and across gender. Such levels of measurement invariance allow valid comparisons between factor means and factor relationships across groups. In particular, the gifted group scored significantly higher on intellectual and sensual overexcitability (OE) than the nongifted group, girls scored higher on emotional and sensual OE than boys, and boys scored higher on intellectual and psychomotor OE than girls. 2014 APA

  10. Effectiveness of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Milares, Luiz Paulo; Assis, Lívia; Siqueira, Amanda; Claudino, Vitoria; Domingos, Heloisa; Almeida, Thais; Tim, Carla; Renno, Ana Claudia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators on the articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: knee OA - without treatment (OA); OA plus exercise program group (OAE); OA plus LLLT (OAL); OA plus exercise program associated with LLLT (OAEL). Trained rats performed a water-jumping program carrying a load equivalent to 50-80 % of their body mass strapped to their chest. The laser irradiation was used either as the only method or after the exercise training had been performed, at 2 points contact mode (medial and lateral side of the left joint). The treatments started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results revealed that all treated groups (irradiated or not) exhibited a better pattern of tissue organization, with less fibrillation and irregularities along the articular surface and improved chondrocytes organization. Also, a lower cellular density and structural damage (OARSI score) and higher thickness values were observed in all treated groups. Additionally, OAE and OAEL showed a reduced expression in IL-1β and caspase-3 as compared with OA. Furthermore, a statistically lower MMP-13 expression was only observed in OAEL as compared with OA. These results suggest that aquatic exercise program and LLLT were effective in preventing cartilage degeneration. Also, physical exercise program presented anti-inflammatory effects in the knees in OA rats.

  11. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  12. Energy levels of neutral and singly ionized berkelium, /sup 249/Bk I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, E.F.; Conway, J.G.; Blaise, J.

    1987-09-01

    Energy-level analyses of the observed emission spectrum of berkelium have yielded 179 odd and 186 even levels of neutral berkelium Bk I, and 42 odd and 117 even levels of singly ionized berkelium Bk II. The levels are tabulated with the J value, the g value, the configuration and hyperfine constants A and B, and the width given for many of the levels. The ground states of Bk I and Bk II are (Rn)5f/sup 9/7s/sup 2/ /sup 6/H/sup 0//sub 15/2/ and (Rn)5f/sup 9/7s /sup 7/H/sup 0//sub 8/, respectively. A table lists the lowest level of each identified electronic configuration of Bk I and Bk II.

  13. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  14. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Riegger, Ulrike; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, Jürgen; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, Bryan; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light-acclimated PSII activity ΦPSII , and total Chl). Trimers of the PSII light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs) decreased more than LHC monomers and detection of Cd in the monomers suggested replacement of magnesium (Mg) by Cd in the Chl molecules. As a consequence of dysfunctional photosynthesis and energy dissipation, reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) appeared. Cadmium had negative effects on macrophytes at much lower concentrations than reported previously, emphasizing the importance of studies applying environmentally relevant conditions. A chain of inhibition events could be established. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Behavior of mercury in bio-systems. II. Depuration of /sup 203/Hg/sup 2 +/ in various trophic levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdy, M.K.; Prabhu, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiotracer techniques, the depuration rates for methylmercury at three trophic levels in an aquatic ecosystem are examined. Bacteria (decomposers), mosquito larvae (primary consumers), and fish (secondary consumers) were studied. Results indicated that depuration rates for mercury were temperature dependent - the rate of depuration increased with increase in temperature (up to 45/sup 0/C)

  16. The toxicity of cadmium to three aquatic organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus) under different pH levels.

    PubMed

    Qu, R-J; Wang, X-H; Feng, M-B; Li, Y; Liu, H-X; Wang, L-S; Wang, Z-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of pH on cadmium toxicity to three aquatic organisms: Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus. The acute toxicity of Cd(2+) to P. phosphoreum and D. magna at five pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0) was assessed by calculating EC50 values. We determined that Cd(2+) was least toxic under acidic conditions, and D. magna was more sensitive to the toxicity of Cd than P. phosphoreum. To evaluate Cd(2+)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in C. auratus at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, 9.0), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the level of glutathione and the malondialdehyde content in the liver were measured. Oxidative damage was observed after 7d Cd exposure at pH 9.0. An important finding of the current research was that Cd(2+) was generally more toxic to the three test organisms in alkaline environments than in acidic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert II. Dark-septate fungi in the aquatic angiosperm Eorhiza arnoldii indicate a diverse assemblage of root-colonizing fungi during the Eocene.

    PubMed

    Klymiuk, Ashley A; Taylor, Thomas N; Taylor, Edith L; Krings, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tissues of the extinct aquatic or emergent angiosperm, Eorhiza arnoldii incertae sedis, were extensively colonized by microfungi, and in this study we report the presence of several types of sterile mycelia. In addition to inter- and intracellular proliferation of regular septate hyphae, the tissues contain monilioid hyphae with intercalary branching. These filamentous mycelia are spatially associated with two distinct morphotypes of intracellular microsclerotia. These quiescent structures are morphologically similar to loose and cerebriform microsclerotia found within the living tissues of some plants, which have been attributed to an informal assemblage of dematiaceous ascomycetes, the dark-septate endophytes. While there are significant challenges to interpreting the ecology of fossilized fungi, these specimens provide evidence for asymptomatic endophytic colonization of the rooting structures of a 48.7 million year old aquatic angiosperm.

  18. Acute to chronic ratios in aquatic toxicity--variation across trophic levels and relationship with chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Jan; Riedhammer, Caroline; Vogliano, Michaela; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2006-11-01

    For fish, daphnids, and algae, acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) have been determined from experimental data regarding new and existing chemicals. Only test results in accord with the European Union Technical Guidance Document (TGD) and validated by authorities were considered. Whereas the median ACRs of 10.5 (fish), 7.0 (daphnids), and 5.4 (algae) are well below the ACR safety factor of 100 as implied by the TGD, individual ACRs vary considerably and go up to 4400. The results suggest that a safety factor of 100 is not protective for all chemicals and trophic levels. Neither a correlation between ACR and baseline toxicity as modeled through the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient nor an ACR correlation across trophic levels exists. Narcosis is associated with a preference for a low ACR; nevertheless, low ACRs are frequently obtained for nonnarcotics. Analysis of chemical structures led to the derivation of structural alerts to identify compounds with a significantly increased potential for a high ACR, which may prove to be useful in setting test priorities. At present, however, life-cycle tests are the only way to conservatively predict long-term toxicity.

  19. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis.

  20. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:25346835

  1. P-gp expression levels in the erythrocytes of brown trout: a new tool for aquatic sentinel biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Amblard, Christian; Combourieu, Bruno; Bayle, Marie-Laure; Desmolles, François; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2017-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a ubiquitous membrane detoxification pump involved in cellular defence against xenobiotics. Blood is a hub for the trade and transport of physiological molecules and xenobiotics. Our recent studies have highlighted the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in brown trout erythrocytes in primary cell culture and its dose-dependent response to Benzo[a]pyrene pollutant. The purpose of this study was focused on using P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes as a biomarker for detecting the degree of river pollution. abcb1 gene and P-gp expression level were analysed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot, in the erythrocytes of brown trouts. The latter were collected in upstream and downstream of four rivers in which 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 348 varieties of pesticides micro-residues were analysed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The abcb1 gene and the 140-kDa P-gp were not expressed in trout erythrocytes from uncontaminated river. In contrast, they are clearly expressed in contaminated rivers, in correlation with the river pollution degree and the nature of the pollutants. This biological tool may offer considerable advantages since it provides an effective response to the increasing need for an early biomarker.

  2. Effect of Cyclosporin A and Angiotensin II on cytosolic calcium levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Supraja, Ajitkumar; Dinesh, Murugan Girija; Rajasekaran, Subbarayan; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA) and angiotensin II (Ang II) on cytosolic calcium levels in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Healthy gingival samples from six volunteers were obtained, and primary HGFs were cultured. Cell viability and proliferation assay were performed to identify the ideal concentrations of CsA and Ang II. Cytosolic calcium levels in cultured gingival fibroblasts treated with CsA and Ang II were studied using colorimetric assay, confocal and fluorescence imaging. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software and GraphPad Prism. Results: Higher levels of cytosolic levels were evident in cells treated with CsA and Ang II when compared to control group and was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in both colorimetric assay and confocal imaging. Fluorescent images of the cultured HGFs revealed the same. Conclusion: Thus calcium being a key player in major cellular functions, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:27857765

  3. Splicing inhibition decreases phosphorylation level of Ser2 in Pol II CTD

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Megumi; Kaida, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), especially Ser2 and Ser5 residues, plays important roles in transcription and mRNA processing, including 5′ end capping, splicing and 3′ end processing. These phosphorylation events stimulate mRNA processing, however, it is not clear whether splicing activity affects the phosphorylation status of Pol II. In this study, we found that splicing inhibition by potent splicing inhibitors spliceostatin A (SSA) and pladienolide B or by antisense oligos against snRNAs decreased phospho-Ser2 level, but had little or no effects on phospho-Ser5 level. In contrast, transcription and translation inhibitors did not decrease phospho-Ser2 level, therefore inhibition of not all the gene expression processes cause the decrease of phospho-Ser2. SSA treatment caused early dissociation of Pol II and decrease in phospho-Ser2 level of chromatin-bound Pol II, suggesting that splicing inhibition causes downregulation of phospho-Ser2 through at least these two mechanisms. PMID:26202968

  4. New electron levels and classified lines in Pr II from hyperfine structure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Furmann, B. . E-mail: furman@phys.put.poznan.pl; Stefanska, D.; Dembczynski, J.; Stachowska, E.

    2007-01-15

    Classification of 75 spectral lines (hitherto not classified) in singly ionized praseodymium (Pr II) with the use of 31 new electron levels belonging to odd configurations 4f{sup 3}5d and 4f{sup 3}6s and 14 new levels belonging to even configurations is presd. Hyperfine structure constant A and B for each new level were determined by using the method of laser-induced fluorescence in a hollow cathode discharge.

  5. Reduced angiotensin II levels cause generalized vascular dysfunction via oxidant stress in hamster cheek pouch arterioles.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Jessica R C; Buelow, Matthew W; McEwen, Scott T; Weinberg, Brian D; Delaney, Melanie; Balus, Sarah F; Hoeppner, Carlyn; Dondlinger, Lynn; Lombard, Julian H

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of suppressing plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels on arteriolar relaxation in the hamster cheek pouch. Arteriolar diameters were measured via television microscopy during short-term (3-6days) high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril (100mg/kg/day). ACE inhibition and/or HS diet eliminated endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation to acetylcholine, endothelium-independent dilation to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside, the prostacyclin analogs carbacyclin and iloprost, and the KATP channel opener cromakalim; and eliminated arteriolar constriction during KATP channel blockade with glibenclamide. Scavenging of superoxide radicals and low dose ANG II infusion (25ng/kg/min, subcutaneous) reduced oxidant stress and restored arteriolar dilation in arterioles of HS-fed hamsters. Vasoconstriction to topically-applied ANG II was unaffected by HS diet while arteriolar responses to elevation of superfusion solution PO2 were unaffected (5% O2, 10% O2) or reduced (21% O2) by HS diet. These findings indicate that sustained exposure to low levels of circulating ANG II leads to widespread dysfunction in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular relaxation mechanisms in cheek pouch arterioles by increasing vascular oxidant stress, but does not potentiate O2- or ANG II-induced constriction of arterioles in the distal microcirculation of normotensive hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Microcystin dynamics in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Martins, José C; Vasconcelos, Vítor M

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface water has increased significantly during the past decade, resulting in increased occurrences of toxic blooms. Cyanotoxins have become a global health threat to humans, wild animals, or domestic livestock. Hepatotoxic microcystins (MC) are the predominant cyanotoxins, which accumulate in aquatic organisms and are transferred to higher trophic levels. This is an issue of major concern in aquatic toxicology, as it involves the risk for human exposure through the consumption of contaminated fish and other aquatic organisms. The persistence and detoxification of MC in aquatic organisms are important issues for public health and fishery economics. Bioaccumulation of MC depends on the toxicity of the strains, mode of feeding, and detoxication mechanisms. Although mussels, as sessile filter feeders, seem to be organisms that ingest more MC, other molluscs like gastropods, as well as zooplankton and fish, may also retain average similar levels of toxins. Edible animals such as some species of molluscs, crustaceans, and fish present different risk because toxins accumulate in muscle at low levels. Carnivorous fish seem to accumulate high MC concentrations compared to phytophagous or omnivorous fish. This review summarizes the existing data on the distribution and dynamics of MC in contaminated aquatic organisms.

  7. Aquatic toxicology: past, present, and prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, J B

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic organisms have played important roles as early warning and monitoring systems for pollutant burdens in our environment. However, they have significant potential to do even more, just as they have in basic biology where preparations like the squid axon have been essential tools in establishing physiological and biochemical mechanisms. This review provides a brief summary of the history of aquatic toxicology, focusing on the nature of aquatic contaminants, the levels of contamination in our waters, and the origins of these agents. It considers the features of the aquatic environment that determine the availability of xenobiotics to aquatic life and the fate of foreign chemicals within the organism. Finally, toxic effects are considered with primary emphasis on the potential of aquatic models to facilitate identification of the underlying mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:8354173

  8. Cervical spine clearance protocols in Level I, II, and III trauma centers in California.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Murat; Theologis, Alexander A; Dionisio, Robert; Mackersie, Robert; McClellan, R Trigg

    2015-03-01

    Cervical spine clearance protocols were developed to standardize the clearance of the cervical spine after blunt trauma and prevent secondary neurologic injuries. The degree of incorporation of evidence-based guidelines into protocols at trauma centers in California is unknown. To evaluate the cervical spine clearance protocols in all trauma centers of California. An observational cross-sectional study. Included from Level I, II, III trauma centers in California. The self-reported outcomes of each trauma center's cervical spine clearance protocols were assessed. Level I (n=15), II (n=30), and III (n=11) trauma centers in California were contacted. Each available protocol was reviewed for four scenarios: clearing the asymptomatic patient, the initial imaging modality used in patients not amenable to clinical clearance, and the management strategies for patients with persistent neck pain with a negative computed tomography (CT) scan and those who are obtunded. Results were compared with the 2009 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) cervical spine clearance guidelines. The response rate was 96%. Sixty-three percent of California's trauma centers (Level I, 93%; Level II, 60%; Level III, 27%) had written cervical spine clearance protocols. For asymptomatic patients, 83% of Level I and 61% of Level II centers used National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study criteria with/without painless range of motion. For those requiring imaging, 67% of Level I and 56% of Level II centers stated a CT scan should be the first line of imaging. For obtunded patients and patients with persistent neck pain and a negative CT scan, more than 90% of Level I and more than 70% of Level II trauma centers incorporated the 2009 EAST recommendations. No institution recommended passive flexion-extension radiographs for the obtunded patient. Written cervical spine clearance protocols exist in 63% of California's trauma centers and only 51% of the centers have protocols that

  9. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) ‐ New functionality for predicting changes in distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation in response to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee II, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie R; McCoy, Lee M; Clinton, Patrick J.; Clough, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The “Sea‐Level Affecting Marshes Model” (SLAMM) is a moderate resolution model used to predict the effects of sea level rise on marsh habitats (Craft et al. 2009). SLAMM has been used extensively on both the west coast (e.g., Glick et al., 2007) and east coast (e.g., Geselbracht et al., 2011) of the United States to evaluate potential changes in the distribution and extent of tidal marsh habitats. However, a limitation of the current version of SLAMM, (Version 6.2) is that it lacks the ability to model distribution changes in seagrass habitat resulting from sea level rise. Because of the ecological importance of SAV habitats, U.S. EPA, USGS, and USDA partnered with Warren Pinnacle Consulting to enhance the SLAMM modeling software to include new functionality in order to predict changes in Zostera marina distribution within Pacific Northwest estuaries in response to sea level rise. Specifically, the objective was to develop a SAV model that used generally available GIS data and parameters that were predictive and that could be customized for other estuaries that have GIS layers of existing SAV distribution. This report describes the procedure used to develop the SAV model for the Yaquina Bay Estuary, Oregon, appends a statistical script based on the open source R software to generate a similar SAV model for other estuaries that have data layers of existing SAV, and describes how to incorporate the model coefficients from the site‐specific SAV model into SLAMM to predict the effects of sea level rise on Zostera marina distributions. To demonstrate the applicability of the R tools, we utilize them to develop model coefficients for Willapa Bay, Washington using site‐specific SAV data.

  10. Human adipose tissue cells keep tight control on the angiotensin II levels in their vicinity.

    PubMed

    Schling, Petra; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2002-12-13

    Human adipose tissue expresses all components necessary for the local production of angiotensin II, which has multiple functions in adipose tissue, ranging from regulation of local blood flow to complex influences on tissue homeostasis. Still the mechanisms controlling human adipose tissue angiotensin II concentrations are not yet known. We investigated whether angiotensin II is degraded by human primary cultured preadipocytes and adipocytes and which enzymes are responsible for its metabolism. Distinct but transient angiotensin II production was limited by degradation due to consecutive proteolytic cleavage by endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities. The endopeptidase could be identified as neprilysin expressed on the surface of both preadipocytes and adipocytes. Degradation of angiotensin II was preceded by a lag phase that was considerably longer in preadipocytes. This time span could not be explained by an induction of neprilysin nor by an increase in its surface localization. Following the lag phase, adipocytes showed a higher degradation activity than preadipocytes as mirrored by increased neprilysin levels and activity measured in their membrane fractions. Our findings demonstrate that human preadipocytes and adipocytes differentially express functional neprilysin and aminopeptidase activity involved in the regulation of angiotensin II concentrations in human adipose tissue.

  11. Mathematics Program Analysis of Grade 6, Stanford Achievement Test, Intermediate Level II. Fall 1984 Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    The Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), Intermediate Level II, was administered to 11,077 sixth grade students during fall 1984. This two-section report presents findings of the SAT's three mathematics subtests. These subtests measured competency related to: (1) mathematics concepts (number, notation, operations, and geometry/measurement), (2)…

  12. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2: Locating clouds tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.

  13. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2: Locating clouds tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.

  14. Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel. Level II - Advanced Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This guide is designed to help education and training facilities develop and administer competency-based training programs to qualify and certify trainees in accordance with the American Welding Society (AWS) requirements for level II (advanced) welders. Presented first are the scope, objectives, and requirements of the AWS…

  15. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  16. Interactive Journaling as a Brief Intervention for Level-II DUI and DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…

  17. Aquatic plants for removal of mevinphos from the aquatic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Fragrant waterlily (Nymphaea odorata, Ait.), joint-grass (Paspalum distichum L.), and rush (Juncus repens, Michx.) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of vascular aquatic plants in removing the insecticide mevinphos (dimethyl-1-carbomethoxy-1propen-2-yl phosphate) from waters contaminated with this chemical. The emersed aquatic plants fragrant waterlily and joint-grass removed 87 and 93 ppm of mevinphos from water test systems in less than 2 weeks without apparent damage to the plants; whereas rush, a submersed plant, removed less insecticide than the water-soil controls. Water-soil control still contained toxic levels of this insecticide, as demonstrated by fish bioassay studies, after 35 days.

  18. Continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) samplers for pesticide contaminant screening in urban runoff: Analytical approach and a field test case.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, Michael P; Vasquez, Martice; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Mohammed, Sarah; Van Scoy, A; Goodell, Korena; Cho, Gail; Goh, Kean S

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring of surface waters for organic contaminants is costly. Grab water sampling often results in non-detects for organic contaminants due to missing a pulse event or analytical instrumentation limitations with a small sample size. Continuous Low-Level Aquatic Monitoring (CLAM) samplers (C.I.Agent(®) Solutions) continually extract and concentrate organic contaminants in surface water onto a solid phase extraction disk. Utilizing CLAM samplers, we developed a broad spectrum analytical screen for monitoring organic contaminants in urban runoff. An intermediate polarity solid phase, hydrophobic/lipophilic balance (HLB), was chosen as the sorbent for the CLAM to target a broad range of compounds. Eighteen urban-use pesticides and pesticide degradates were targeted for analysis by LC/MS/MS, with recoveries between 59 and 135% in laboratory studies. In field studies, CLAM samplers were deployed at discrete time points from February 2015 to March 2016. Half of the targeted chemicals were detected with reporting limits up to 90 times lower than routine 1-L grab samples with good precision between field replicates. In a final deployment, CLAM samplers were compared to 1-L water samples. In this side-by-side comparison, imidacloprid, fipronil, and three fipronil degradates were detected by the CLAM sampler but only imidacloprid and fipronil sulfone were detected in the water samples. However, concentrations of fipronil sulfone and imidacloprid were significantly lower with the CLAM and a transient spike of diuron was not detected. Although the CLAM sampler has limitations, it can be a powerful tool for development of more focused and informed monitoring efforts based on pre-identified targets in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of nanomolar levels of reactive oxygen species in microorganisms and aquatic environments using a single nanoparticle-based optical sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yura; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Jinhee; Kang, Taewook; Choi, Inhee

    2017-05-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are strong oxidants, and have attracted considerable attention in both biological and environmental fields. Although various methods for ROS detection, including optical and electrochemical techniques, have been developed, they still face challenging issues in terms of poor sensitivity, reproducibility, stability, and in vivo applicability. Here, we present a sensitive and selective optical sensor for ROS detection, based on single plasmonic nanoprobes and redox-active cytochrome c (Cyt c)-mediated plasmon resonance energy transfer. By measuring the spectral changes of plasmonic nanoprobes, derived from the unique molecular absorption of Cyt c in accordance with the redox state, calibration curves for H2O2, a representative ROS, in various media were obtained over a wide concentration range from 100 mM to 1 nM. Limit of detection and limit of quantification in accordance with the used medium were determined from 8.3 to 12.8 nM and from 27.6 to 42.7 nM, respectively. Selectivity coefficients for major interfering solutes were much lower than 0.1 indicating a good selectivity for ROS. From the dynamic spectral changes, we sensitively monitored ROS generated in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) exposed to graphene oxide. Based on the calibration curves, we also determined ROS levels in various aquatic environments, such as river streams and a small pond, as a way of environmental monitoring. We believe that our approach could provide an avenue for achieving dynamic and sensitive monitoring of ROS in toxicological, biological, and environmental fields in the future.

  20. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  1. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  2. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)‐New Functionality for Predicting Changes in Distribution of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Response to Sea Level Rise.Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is an ecologically important habitat world-wide. In Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, SAV in the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats are dominated by the native seagrass, Zostera marina also referred to as submerged aquatic vegetati...

  3. Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)‐New Functionality for Predicting Changes in Distribution of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Response to Sea Level Rise.Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) is an ecologically important habitat world-wide. In Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries, SAV in the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats are dominated by the native seagrass, Zostera marina also referred to as submerged aquatic vegetati...

  4. [Urinary levels of angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II in patients with severe aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    López-de la Vega, César; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Lomelí-Estrada, Catalina; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Strengthen knowledge about the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis. Urinary levels of angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II were compared between two samples: A) forty five patients with severe aortic stenosis, without systemic arterial hypertension and with normal kidney and normal left ventricular systolic function; B) control group: twenty one persons without cardiovascular disease. there would be no difference between urinary levels. The average of angiotensin-(1-7) urinary concentration in severe aortic stenosis patients was 2.102 pmol/mL and 5.591 pmol/mL for the control group. The average of Ang II was 0.704 pmol/mL and 0.185 pmol/mL respectively. Using t-Student test, we determine that the difference in urinary concentration of angiotensin-(1-7) [p=0.633] and the difference of angiotensin II (p=0.631), were statistically significant. documented a statistically significant difference in urinary levels angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7) within the group of patients with severe aortic stenosis.

  5. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  6. Algebra II: Gatekeeper Course--An Examination of CST Proficiency Levels in California and the Bay Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailer-O'Keefe, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Algebra II course and California Star Test (CST) proficiency levels in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the State of California. CST proficiency levels are examined by grade level for the State and nine counties of the San Francisco Bay Area region. Algebra II is shown to be one of the more complicated courses in the CSU…

  7. [SERUM LEVEL OF ENDOTHELIAL MONOCYTE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE-II IN CHILDHOOD-ONSET TYPE 1 DIABETIC PATIENTS AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS].

    PubMed

    Mogylnytska, L A

    2015-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins in adolescence, and its progression is determined by the same risk factors as in adults. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is a multifunctional cytokine with proinflammatory and antiangiogenetic activity that may play a pathogenic role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to determine the serum level of EMAP-II in childhood-onset type 1 diabetic patients and obese adolescents. We found increased of serum level of EMAP-II in childhood-onset type 1 diabetic patients and in patients with obesity that do not suffer from diabetes. Also, the level of EMAP-II correlated with the serum level of glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose, and key markers of lipid metabolism, body mass index. Increased serum level of EMAP-II may be one of the pathway of endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.

  8. Professional Preparation in Aquatics Education--Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This document contains course outlines for a professional curriculum in aquatics at the college and university level, endorsed by the National Symposium on Professional Preparation in Aquatics Education. The proposed curriculum is divided into four areas of professional standards: (a) the physical educator, (b) the aquatics instructor, (c) the…

  9. Level II scour analysis for bridge 2 (WODFTH00010002) on Town Highway 1, crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Degnan, James R.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WODFTH00010002 on Town Highway 1 crossing Hell Hollow Brook, Woodford, Vermont (figures 1-8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  10. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  11. Mechanistic information from volume profiles for water exchange and complex-formation reactions of aquated Ni(II). pH, buffer and medium effects.

    PubMed

    Gazzaz, Hanaa Asaad; Ember, Erika; Zahl, Achim; van Eldik, Rudi

    2009-11-21

    Rate and activation parameters for the complex-formation reaction of Ni(2+) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethyl aniline (PADA) were studied as a function of pH in different buffers in both aqueous and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle solutions. In aqueous Tris buffer solution, the forward and backward rate constants increased with increasing pH, while the complex-formation constant decreased due to a larger increase in the backward rate constant. The activation entropy, DeltaS(#), and activation volume, DeltaV(#), changed with increasing pH from positive to negative values, suggesting an apparent changeover from a dissociative to a more associative mechanism. Complex-formation reactions with 2,2'-bipyridine in Tris buffer showed almost no increase in the forward and backward rate constants on increasing the pH, but the DeltaS(#) and DeltaV(#) values became more negative. N-ethylmorpholine buffer showed no pH effect on the rate constants and activation parameters. Water exchange reactions of aquated Ni(2+) were also studied as a function of pH under the same conditions. The reported rate and activation parameters for water exchange in Tris and N-ethylmorpholine buffers are consistent with those found for the complex-formation reactions of Ni(2+) with PADA. The observed pH and buffer effects for both the complex-formation and water exchange reactions of aquated Ni(2+) can be accounted for in terms of the formation of a Ni(2+)-Tris complex in Tris buffer and general base catalysis by the buffer components. In SDS micelle solution, the complex-formation reaction with PADA was much faster than in aqueous solution, but the increase in rate constant with increasing pH was less significant, while DeltaS(#) and DeltaV(#) became more positive, pointing to a more dissociative mechanism. For SDS micelle solutions there was no effect on the water exchange rate constant or activation volume. Mechanistic interpretations are offered for all observed pH, buffer and medium

  12. A comparison of the rates of methylation of mercury(II) species in aquatic media by various organotin and organosilicon moieties.

    PubMed

    Bellama, J M; Jewett, K L; Manders, W F; Nies, J D

    1988-07-01

    Metals can be methylated in environmental aqueous media by a variety of organotin and organosilicon compounds. Main group metals and metalloids were surveyed for the identification of species that can either donate or accept methyl groups. The methylation of mercury(II) by trimethyltin cation was found to be a bimolecular reaction, the reaction rate of which decreased with increasing chloride concentration. Kinetic investigations using NMR techniques showed that the most important pairs of reactants were (CH3)3Sn+ + HgCl2, (CH3)3SnCl + HgCl2, and (CH3)3SnCl + HgCl-3. Sodium 2,2,3,3-tetradeutero-3-(trimethylsilyl)propionate (TSP) and sodium 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate (DSS) were found to methylate mercury(II). Organylsilatranes were found to transfer their organic groups readily to mercury(II) to produce organomercury compounds.

  13. Supervision of Occupational Therapy Level II Fieldwork Students: Impact on and Predictors of Clinician Productivity.

    PubMed

    Ozelie, Rebecca; Janow, Janet; Kreutz, Corinne; Mulry, Mary Kate; Penkala, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a difference in productivity exists between clinicians supervising and not supervising a Level II occupational therapy student and whether factors including clinician years of experience, practice setting, and clinician productivity without a student could predict clinician productivity while supervising a student. We used paired-sample t tests to examine clinician productivity with and without a student in 109 clinician-student encounters and regression analysis to determine factors predictive of clinician productivity with a student. Results indicated no difference in clinician productivity with or without a student. Clinician years of experience, practice area, and productivity without a student were significant predictors of clinician productivity while supervising a student. Study results contradict the belief that supervising Level II fieldwork students lowers clinicians' productivity. Findings suggest that practice area and productivity without a student are important factors influencing the productivity of clinicians supervising a fieldwork student. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Cetacean brains: how aquatic are they?

    PubMed

    Marino, Lori

    2007-06-01

    The adaptation of cetaceans to a fully aquatic lifestyle represents one of the most dramatic transformations in mammalian evolutionary history. Two of the most salient features of modern cetaceans are their fully aquatic lifestyle and their large brains. This review article will offer an overview of comparative neuroanatomical research on aquatic mammals, including analyses of odontocete cetacean, sirenian, pinniped, and fossil archaeocete brains. In particular, the question of whether a relationship exists between being fully aquatic and having a large brain is addressed. It has been hypothesized that the large, well-developed cetacean brain is a direct product of adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. The current consensus is that the paleontological evidence on brain size evolution in cetaceans is not consistent with this hypothesis. Cetacean brain enlargement took place millions of years after adaptation to a fully aquatic existence. Neuroanatomical comparisons with sirenians and pinnipeds provide no evidence for the idea that the odontocete's large brain, high encephalization level, and extreme neocortical gyrification is an adaptation to a fully aquatic lifestyle. Although echolocation has been suggested as a reason for the high encephalization level in odontocetes, it should be noted that not all aquatic mammals echolocate and echolocating terrestrial mammals (e.g., bats) are not particularly highly encephalized. Echolocation is not a requirement of a fully aquatic lifestyle and, thus, cannot be considered a sole effect of aquaticism on brain enlargement. These results indicate that the high encephalization level of odontocetes is likely related to their socially complex lifestyle patterns that transcend the influence of an aquatic environment.

  15. The effect of sublingual captopril versus intravenous enalaprilat on angiotensin II plasma levels.

    PubMed

    van Onzenoort, Hein A; Bussink, Michiel; Menheere, Paul P; van Mook, Walther N; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M

    2006-06-01

    A 44-year-old woman, with a history of familial adenomatous polyposis, complicated by carcinoma of the colon, for which a proctocolectomy had been performed, now presented with metastasis located in the pancreas. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy followed by a partial pancreaticoduodenectomy. Due to ischemia, resection of the small intestines was performed the same day. After admission, a transesophageal echocardiography showed an ejection fraction of 40%. Because enteral administration of drugs was impossible, intravenous enalaprilat 2 mg once a day for 1 day followed by sublingual captopril 25 mg twice a day were started. Blood samples were taken before and after administration. After 1 day of sublingual captopril treatment the angiotensin II level decreased with more than 50%, comparable to the decrease seen after intravenous administration of enalaprilat. Sublingual captopril has been used in the treatment of hypertensive crisis and heart failure. Although frequently reported, no study has investigated the effect on angiotensin II levels after sublingual administration in heart failure patients. This case-report demonstrated that sublingual administration of 25 mg captopril twice a day yielded a considerable decrease in angiotensin II plasma levels which was comparable to the effect seen after an intravenous administration of 2 mg enalaprilat.

  16. Excessive Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Levels in Drinkable Water Sources in Areas Along the Lake Victoria Shorelines in Siaya County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wambu, Enos W; Omwoyo, Wesley N; Akenga, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27% of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38%), piped water (33%) and spring water (25%). It was estimated that 18.2% of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water.

  17. COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED ENERGY LEVELS FOR SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II)

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Kerber, Florian

    2012-10-15

    We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 A. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.

  18. Comprehensive Observations of the Ultraviolet Spectrum and Improved Energy Levels for Singly Ionized Chromium (Cr II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph; Kerber, Florian

    2012-10-01

    We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 Å. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 10 (NORWTH00120010) Town Highway 012 Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NORWTH00120010 on town highway 12 crossing Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting the Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 8.98-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left bank upstream and the left and right banks downstream are forested. The immediate right bank upstream is covered by shrub and brush with pasture on the overbank. Town Highway 12 runs along the valley of Bloody Brook; however, at structure NORWTH00120010 the road crosses Bloody Brook at a 90-degree angle. In the study area, Bloody Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.014 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 41 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 51.0 mm or 0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on October 31, 1994, indicated that the reach was unstable. The town highway 12 crossing of Bloody Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot clear span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., July 29, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The right abutment is protected by sparse type-2 stone fill (less than 24 inches diameter). The channel is skewed 0 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees

  20. Arc Detection and Interlock Module for the PEP II Low Level RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Tighe, R.; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    A new arc detection and interlock generating module for the SLAC PEP-II low-level RF VXI-based system has been developed. The system is required to turn off the RF drive and high voltage power supply in the event of arcing in the cavity windows, klystron window, or circulator. Infrared photodiodes receive arc signals through radiation resistant optical fibers. Gain and bandwidth are selectable for each channel to allow tailoring response. The module also responds to interlock requests from other modules in the VXI system and communicates with the programmable logic controller (PLC) responsible for much of the low-level RF system's interlock functionality.

  1. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  2. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  3. Critical Review of Experimental Studies of the Be II Core-Excited Level System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    All published experimental data on the spectrum of the core-excited term system of the Be+ ion are critically compiled and analysed on the basis of Hartree-Fock calculations and computer-aided spectrum-identification and level-optimization programs. As a result, 49 core-excited terms in Be II are firmly established. Another 44 terms need further confirmation. More than 100 spectral lines belonging to transitions in the Be II core-excited term system are compiled. Spectral regions 80-105Å and 580-5200Å are covered. 13 new assignments are made, and 33 old assignments are changed. 44 previously unobserved spectral lines are predicted, including 10 intersystem lines. Several experimental and theoretical problems are outlined.

  4. Tumor LINE-1 Methylation Level in Association with Survival of Patients with Stage II Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swets, Marloes; Zaalberg, Anniek; Boot, Arnoud; van Wezel, Tom; Frouws, Martine A.; Bastiaannet, Esther; Gelderblom, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Kuppen, Peter J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is associated with a worse prognosis in early-stage colorectal cancer. To measure genome-wide DNA methylation levels, long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE-1) repeats are used as a surrogate marker. Cohort studies on the clinical impact of genome-wide DNA methylation level in patients with only early-stage colon cancer, are currently lacking. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of LINE-1 methylation in a stage II colon cancer cohort (n = 164). Manual needle microdissection of tumor areas was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections followed by DNA extraction. Bisulfite converted DNA was used to assess tumor LINE-1 methylation level by qPCR. Patients with LINE-1 hypomethylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival compared to patients with a higher level of LINE-1 tumor DNA methylation (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.03–2.75; p = 0.04). This effect was more prominent in patients aged over 65 years (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.13–3.52; p = 0.02), although the test for age interaction was not significant. No significant effect on recurrence-free survival was observed. Based on these results, tumor LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with a worse overall survival in stage II colon cancer. Whether the origin of this causation is cancer-specific or age-related can be debated. PMID:28035987

  5. Tumor LINE-1 Methylation Level in Association with Survival of Patients with Stage II Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Swets, Marloes; Zaalberg, Anniek; Boot, Arnoud; van Wezel, Tom; Frouws, Martine A; Bastiaannet, Esther; Gelderblom, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Kuppen, Peter J K

    2016-12-27

    Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation is associated with a worse prognosis in early-stage colorectal cancer. To measure genome-wide DNA methylation levels, long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE-1) repeats are used as a surrogate marker. Cohort studies on the clinical impact of genome-wide DNA methylation level in patients with only early-stage colon cancer, are currently lacking. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of LINE-1 methylation in a stage II colon cancer cohort (n = 164). Manual needle microdissection of tumor areas was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections followed by DNA extraction. Bisulfite converted DNA was used to assess tumor LINE-1 methylation level by qPCR. Patients with LINE-1 hypomethylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival compared to patients with a higher level of LINE-1 tumor DNA methylation (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.03-2.75; p = 0.04). This effect was more prominent in patients aged over 65 years (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.13-3.52; p = 0.02), although the test for age interaction was not significant. No significant effect on recurrence-free survival was observed. Based on these results, tumor LINE-1 hypomethylation is associated with a worse overall survival in stage II colon cancer. Whether the origin of this causation is cancer-specific or age-related can be debated.

  6. Effect of dietary fiber on the level of free angiotensin II receptor blocker in vitro.

    PubMed

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Tamezane, Yui; Tanaka, Kenta; Nakagawa, Minami; Imai, Kimie; Nakanishi, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan potassium (LO), candesartan (CA), and telmisartan (TE), and dietary fiber was studied as to the level of free ARB in vitro. When ARB was incubated with soluble (sodium alginate, pectin, and glucomannan) or insoluble (cellulose and chitosan) dietary fiber, the levels of free LO, TE, and CA decreased. This resulted only from mixing the dietary fiber with the ARBs and differed among the types of dietary fiber, and the pH and electrolytes in the mixture. The levels of free LO and TE tended to decrease with a higher concentration of sodium chloride in pH 1.2 fluid. These results suggest that it is important to pay attention to the possible interactions between ARBs and dietary fiber.

  7. A 100-Year Retrospective Landscape-Level Carbon Budget for the Sooke Lake Watershed, British Columbia: Constraining Estimates of Terrestrial to Aquatic DOC Transfers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smiley, B. P. K.

    2014-12-01

    To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke watershed from 1911 - 2012 was developed using historic spatial inventory and disturbance data. Data was input to a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), an inventory-based C budget model used to simulate forest C dynamics at multiple scales. In 1911 the watershed was dominated by mature/old Douglas-fir forests with aboveground biomass C (ABC) of 262 Mg C/ha and net ecosystem production (NEP) of 0.63 Mg C/ha/yr. Land was cleared around Sooke Lake, a dam built and lake expanded from 370 to 450 ha in 1915, 610 ha in 1970, 670 ha in 1980 and 810 ha in 2002. Along with deforestation, fires and localized harvest occurred from 1920 - 1940, reducing ABC to 189 Mg C/ha, with NEP varying from -1.63 to 0.13 Mg C/ha/yr. Distributed harvest occurred 1954 - 1998, with a minimum ABC of 148 Mg C/ha in 1991. By 2012 ABC (177 Mg C/ha) and NEP (2.29 Mg C/ha/yr) had increased. Over 100 years, 2430 ha forest was cut and replanted and 640 ha deforested. CBM-CFS3 includes transfers of dissolved organic C (DOC) to aquatic systems, however data has not been available to parameterize DOC flux. DOC fluxes are modelled as a fraction of decay loss from humified soil C with a default of 100% of losses to CO2 and 0% to DOC. Stream flow and [DOC] data from 1996 - 2012 for 3 watershed catchments, Rithet, Judge and Council were used to estimate annual DOC fluxes. Rithet, Judge and Council differed both in area % disturbed (logging or fire) over 100 years (39%, 93%, 91%) and in area % mature/old forest (>80yrs in 2012) (67%, 56%, 21%). DOC flux for Rithet and Judge ranged from 0.037 - 0.057 Mg C/ha/yr, Council averaged 0.017 Mg C/ha/yr. Low DOC fluxes were likely due to influences of a small lake in the catchment. Constraining CBM-CFS3 to observed DOC fluxes, required

  8. High levels of MHC class II allelic diversity in lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorschner, M.O.; Duris, T.; Bronte, C.R.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Phillips, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Sequence variation in a 216 bp portion of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II B1 domain was examined in 74 individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from different locations in Lake Superior. Forty-three alleles were obtained which encoded 71-72 amino acids of the mature protein. These sequences were compared with previous data obtained from five Pacific salmon species and Atlantic salmon using the same primers. Although all of the lake trout alleles clustered together in the neighbor-joining analysis of amino acid sequences, one amino acid allelic lineage was shared with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a species in another genus which probably diverged from Salvelinus more than 10-20 million years ago. As shown previously in other salmonids, the level of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution (d(N)) exceeded the level of synonymous substitution (d(S)). The level of nucleotide diversity at the MHC class II B1 locus was considerably higher in lake trout than in the Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lake trout colonized Lake Superior from more than one refuge following the Wisconsin glaciation. Recent population bottlenecks may have reduced nucleotide diversity in Pacific salmon populations.

  9. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    waterfowl and wading birds , and aquatic mammal populations on Lake Conway were surveyed for 1 year after the introduction of the herbivorous fish, white...of a series of reports documenting a large-scale operations management test of use of the white amur for control of problem aquatic plants in Lake... Manager of the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, EL. The study was under the general supervision of Mr. B. 0. Benn, Chief, Environmental Systems

  10. Protocol for aquatic hazard assessment of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.

    1995-05-24

    A procedure is described for conducting an aquatic hazard assessment of selenium. Hazard is characterized in terms of the potential for food-chain bioaccumulation and reproductive impairment in fish and aquatic birds, which are the most sensitive biological responses for estimating ecosystem-level impacts of selenium contamination. Five degrees of hazard are possible depemding on the expected environmental concentrations of selenium, exposure of fish and aquatic birds to toxic concentrations, and resultant potential for reproductive impairment. An example is given to illustrate how the protocol is applied to selenium data from a typical contaminant monitoring program.

  11. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Physiological Free Cu(II) Levels in Live Cells with a Cu(II)-Selective Carbonic Anhydrase-Based Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    McCranor, Bryan J.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Zeng, Hui Hui; Stoddard, A.K.; Hurst, Tamiika; Fierke, Carol A.; Lakowicz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a required trace element that plays key roles in a number of human enzymes, such that copper deficiency or genetic defects in copper transport lead to serious or fatal disease. Rae, et al., had famously predicted that free copper ion levels in the cell cytoplasm were extremely low, typically too low to be observable. We recently developed a variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase II for sensing metal ions that exhibits 25-fold better selectivity for Cu(II) over Zn(II) than the wild type protein, enabling us to accurately measure Cu(II) in the presence of ordinary cellular (picomolar) concentrations of free zinc. We inserted a fluorescent labeled Cu(II)-specific variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase into PC-12 cells and found that the levels are indeed extremely low (in the femtomolar range). We imaged the free Cu(II) levels in living cells by means of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime microscopy. Implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:24671220

  12. Aquatic species and habitats

    Treesearch

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  13. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  14. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  15. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloman, Edward B.; Kramida, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3d 4, 3d 3 ns (n = 4, 5, 6), 3d 3 np, and 3d 3 nd (n = 4, 5), 3d 34f, 3d 24s 2, and 3d 24s4p. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g-factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm-1, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm-1 higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  16. Survival of Phytophthora alni, Phytophthora kernoviae, and Phytophthora ramorum in a simulated aquatic environment at different levels of pH.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ping; Lea-Cox, John D; Moorman, Gary W; Hong, Chuanxue

    2012-07-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, Phytophthora alni, and Phytophthora kernoviae present significant threats to biosecurity. As zoosporic oomycetes, these plant pathogens may spread through natural waterways and irrigation systems. However, survival of these pathogens in aquatic systems in response to water quality is not well understood. In this study, we investigated their zoospore survival at pH 3-11 in a 10% Hoagland's solution over a 14-day period. The results showed that all three pathogens were most stable at pH 7, although the populations declined overnight irrespective of pH. Extended survival of these species depended on the tolerance of pH of their germinants. Germinants of P. alni ssp. alni and P. ramorum were more basic tolerant (pH 5-11), while those of P. kernoviae were more acidic tolerant (pH 3-9). These tolerant germinants formed compact hyphae or secondary sporangia to allow longer survival of these pathogens. Long-term survival at a broad pH range suggests that these pathogens, especially P. ramorum, are adapted to an aquatic environment and pose a threat to new production areas through water dispersal. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Language Assessment Scales, Level 2, LAS II, for Grades 6 and Up, English/Spanish. Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sharon E.; De Avila, Edward A.

    Language Assessment Scales, Level 2 (LAS II) are used to assess the linguistic proficiency of limited-English-speaking or non-English-speaking adolescents. LAS II, like its predecessor, LAS I, provides a picture of oral linguistic proficiency based on a student's performance across four linguistic subsystems: phonemic, lexical, syntactic and…

  18. Complications of Level I and II Axillary Dissection in the Treatment of Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Roses, Daniel F.; Brooks, Ari D.; Harris, Matthew N.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Mitnick, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To assess the complications of level I and II axillary lymph node dissection in the treatment of stage I and II breast cancer, with breast-conservation surgery and mastectomy. Summary Background Data The role of axillary dissection for staging, and as an effective means of controlling regional nodal disease, has long been recognized. As small and low-grade lesions have been detected more frequently, and as its therapeutic impact has been questioned, axillary dissection has increasingly been perceived as associated with significant complications. Methods Two hundred patients, 112 of whom had breast-conservation surgery with axillary dissection and 88 of whom had total mastectomy with axillary dissection, were evaluated 1 year or more after surgery for arm swelling as well as nonedema complications. All patients had arm circumference measurements at the same four sites on both the operated and nonoperated sides. Results No patient had an axillary recurrence. The mean difference in circumference on the nonoperated versus operated side was 0.425 cm ± 1.39 at the midbiceps (p < 0.001), 0.315 cm ± 1.27 at the antecubital fossa (p < 0.001), 0.355 cm ± 1.53 at the midforearm (p < 0.005), and 0.055 cm ± 0.75 at the wrist (n.s.). Seven patients (3.5%) had mild swelling of the hand. Heavy and obese body habitus were the only significant predictors of edema on multivariate analysis. One hundred fifty-three (76.5%) patients had numbness or paresthesias of the medial arm and/or axilla after surgery; in 125 (82%) of these, the problem had lessened or had resolved on follow-up assessment. Conclusions The characterization of a level I and II axillary dissection as a procedure with significant complications does not appear justified based on this experience. PMID:10450733

  19. Architecture and Performance of the PEP-II Low-Level RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Corredoura, Paul L.

    1999-04-14

    Heavy beam loading in the PEP-II B Factory along with large ring circumferences places unique requirements upon the low-level rf (LLRF) system. RF feedback loops must reduce the impedance observed by the beam while ignoring the cavity transients caused by the ion clearing gap. Special attention must be placed on the cavity tuner loops to allow matching the ion clearing gap transients in the high energy ring and the low energy ring. A wideband fiber optic connection to the longitudinal feedback system allows a rf station to operate as a powerful ''sub-woofer'' to damp residual low order coupled bunch motion. This paper describes the design and performance of the VXI based, EPICS controlled, PEP-II low-level rf system(s). Baseband in-phase and quadrature (IQ) signal processing using both analog and modern digital techniques are used throughout the system. A family of digital down converters provide extremely accurate measurements of many rf signals throughout the system. Each system incorporates a built-in network analyzer and arbitrary rf function generator which interface with Matlab to provide a wide range of functions ranging from automated configuration of each feedback loop to cavity FM processing. EPICS based sequences make the entire system a turn-key operation requiring minimal operator intervention. In the event of a fault, fast history buffers throughout the system write selected rf signals to disk files which can be viewed later to help diagnose problems. Actual data from commissioning runs of PEP-II is presented.

  20. Alterative LEU designs for the FRM-II with power levels of 20-22 MW.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanan, N. A.; Smith, R. S.; Matos, J. E.

    1999-09-27

    Alternative LEU Designs for the FRM-II have been developed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the request of an FRM-II Expert Group established by the German Federal Government in January 1999 to evaluate the options for using LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in cores with power levels of 20 MW. The ANL designs would use the same building structure and maintain as many of the HEU design features as practical. The range of potential LEU fuels was expanded from previous studies to include already-tested silicide fuels with uranium densities up to 6.7 g/cm{sup 3} and the new U-Mo fuels that show excellent prospects for achieving uranium densities in the 8-9 g/cm{sup 3} range. For each of the LEU cores; the design parameters were chosen to match the 50 day cycle length of the HEU core and to maximize the thermal neutron flux in the Cold Neutron Source and beam tubes. The studies concluded that an LEU core with a diameter of about 29 cm instead of 24 cm in HEU design and operating at a power level of 20 MW would have thermal neutron fluxes that are 0.85 times that of the HEU design at the center of the Cold Neutron Source. With a potential future upgrade to a power of 22 MW, this ratio would increase to 0.93.

  1. Level II Milestone Review of LLNL Program on Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, M F; Benson, D J; Yip, S

    2003-01-14

    This document describes an evaluation of the Level II Milestone achievements of the LLNL program on Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives on January 14, 2003. ''The Grain-Scale Dynamics in Explosives Program'' is a mixture of advanced computational methodology and physico-chemical theory applied to understanding deflagration and detonation of plastic-bonded explosives from the nano to the macro scales. At many points, the modeling is tied directly to experiments within the precisions of both. Advances are needed in the experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of detonations. Work reported in this review represents significant, cross-pollinating advances in each area. The team successfully carried out ALE-3D simulations of deflagration in PBX with grain scale effects. (Milestone requirements 1 and 2), interpreted experimental data on flame speed vs. pressure and sensitivity to global kinetics in terms of ALE-3D simulations (Milestone requirement 3), and used the results of these simulations to develop a continuum reactive flow model that captures some of these effects (Milestone requirement 4). By comparing experiments and detonation velocities in small diameter, unconfined explosives, they found non-idealities that remain at intermediate diameters (ca. 1.5 mm) that require further analysis. In all of these areas, the project team has met, indeed exceeded, their Level II Milestone goals.

  2. Development of High Level Trigger Software for Belle II at SuperKEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Itoh, R.; Katayama, N.; Mineo, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Belle collaboration has been trying for 10 years to reveal the mystery of the current matter-dominated universe. However, much more statistics is required to search for New Physics through quantum loops in decays of B mesons. In order to increase the experimental sensitivity, the next generation B-factory, SuperKEKB, is planned. The design luminosity of SuperKEKB is 8 x 1035cm-2s-1 a factor 40 above KEKB's peak luminosity. At this high luminosity, the level 1 trigger of the Belle II experiment will stream events of 300 kB size at a 30 kHz rate. To reduce the data flow to a manageable level, a high-level trigger (HLT) is needed, which will be implemented using the full offline reconstruction on a large scale PC farm. There, physics level event selection is performed, reducing the event rate by ~ 10 to a few kHz. To execute the reconstruction the HLT uses the offline event processing framework basf2, which has parallel processing capabilities used for multi-core processing and PC clusters. The event data handling in the HLT is totally object oriented utilizing ROOT I/O with a new method of object passing over the UNIX socket connection. Also under consideration is the use of the HLT output as well to reduce the pixel detector event size by only saving hits associated with a track, resulting in an additional data reduction of ~ 100 for the pixel detector. In this contribution, the design and implementation of the Belle II HLT are presented together with a report of preliminary testing results.

  3. Electrons and photons at High Level Trigger in CMS for Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Afiq A.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. New approaches have been studied to keep the HLT output rate manageable while maintaining thresholds low enough to cover physics analyses. The strategy mainly relies on porting online the ingredients that have been successfully applied in the offline reconstruction, thus allowing to move HLT selection closer to offline cuts. Improvements in HLT electron and photon definitions will be presented, focusing in particular on: updated clustering algorithm and the energy calibration procedure, new Particle-Flow-based isolation approach and pileup mitigation techniques, and the electron-dedicated track fitting algorithm based on Gaussian Sum Filter.

  4. Direct determination of the timing of sea level change during termination II.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Christina D; Cheng, H; Taylor, F W; Edwards, R L

    2002-01-11

    An outcrop within the last interglacial terrace on Barbados contains corals that grew during the penultimate deglaciation, or Termination II. We used combined 230Th and 231Pa dating to determine that they grew 135.8 +/- 0.8 thousand years ago, indicating that sea level was 18 +/- 3 meters below present sea level at the time. This suggests that sea level had risen to within 20% of its peak last-interglacial value by 136 thousand years ago, in conflict with Milankovitch theory predictions. Orbital forcing may have played a role in the deglaciation, as may have isostatic adjustments due to large ice sheets. Other corals in the same outcrop grew during oxygen isotope (delta18O) substage 6e, indicating that sea level was 38 +/- 5 meters below present sea level, about 168.0 thousand years ago. When compared to the delta18O signal in the benthic V19-30/V19-28 record at that time, the coral data extend to the previous glacial cycle the conclusion that deep-water temperatures were colder during glacial periods.

  5. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  6. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selego, S.M.; Rose, C.L.; Merovich, G.T.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions. Copyright ?? 2012 Stephen M. Selego et al.

  7. Comprehensive method for determination of aquatic butyltin and butylmethyltin species at ultratrace levels using simultaneous hydridization/extraction with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, C.L.; Bellama, J.M.; Olson, G.J.; Brinckman, F.E.

    1986-06-01

    An ultratrace method for the analysis of aquatic anthropogenic butyltin and mixed methylbutyltin species using simultaneous hydridization with sodium borohydride and extraction into dichloromethane is described. The detection limits for a 100-mL sample are 7 ng of Sn/L for tetrabutyltin, 7 ng of Sn/L for tributyltin, 3 ng of Sn/L for dibutyltin, and 22 ng of Sn/L for monobutyltin. Detection limits of approximately 1-2 ng of Sn/L for tri- and tetrabutyltin and less than 1 ng of Sn/L for dibutyltin species were achieved with 800-mL samples. The presence of tetrabutyltin in harbor waters is reported. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  8. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Knopf, Burkhard; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfers, Christoph; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Schlekat, Chris; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic risk assessment for nickel (Ni) in the European Union is based on chronic species sensitivity distributions and the use of bioavailability models. To test whether a bioavailability-based safe threshold of Ni (the hazardous concentration for 5% of species [HC5]) is protective for aquatic communities, microcosms were exposed to 5 stable Ni treatments (6-96 μg/L) and a control for 4 mo to assess bioaccumulation and effects on phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, and snails. Concentrations of Ni in the periphyton, macrophytes, and snails measured at the end of the exposure period increased in a dose-dependent manner but did not indicate biomagnification. Abundance of phytoplankton and snails decreased in 48 μg Ni/L and 96 μg Ni/L treatments, which may have indirectly affected the abundance of zooplankton and periphyton. Exposure up to 24 μg Ni/L had no adverse effects on algae and zooplankton, whereas the rate of population decline of the snails at 24 μg Ni/L was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore, the study-specific overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) is 12 μg Ni/L. This NOAEC is approximately twice the HC5 derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution considering the specific water chemistry of the microcosm by means of bioavailability models. Thus, the present study provides support to the protectiveness of the bioavailability-normalized HC5 for freshwater communities. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Water level fluctuations in a tropical reservoir: the impact of sediment drying, aquatic macrophyte dieback, and oxygen availability on phosphorus mobilization.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Jonas; Zak, Dominik; Hupfer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reservoirs in semi-arid areas are subject to water level fluctuations (WLF) that alter biogeochemical processes in the sediment. We hypothesized that wet-dry cycles may cause internal eutrophication in such systems when they affect densely vegetated shallow areas. To assess the impact of WLF on phosphorus (P) mobilization and benthic P cycling of iron-rich sediments, we tested the effects of (i) sediment drying and rewetting, (ii) the impact of organic matter availability in the form of dried Brazilian Waterweed (Egeria densa), and (iii) alternating redox conditions in the surface water. In principle, drying led to increased P release after rewetting both in plant-free and in plant-amended sediments. Highest P mobilization was recorded in plant amendments under oxygen-free conditions. After re-establishment of aerobic conditions, P concentrations in surface water decreased substantially owing to P retention by sediments. In desiccated and re-inundated sediments, P retention decreased by up to 30% compared to constantly inundated sediments. We showed that WLF may trigger biochemical interactions conducive to anaerobic P release. Thereby, E. densa showed high P release and even P uptake that was redox-controlled and superimposed sedimentary P cycling. Macrophytes play an important role in the uptake of P from the water but may be also a significant source of P in wet-dry cycles. We estimated a potential for the abrupt release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) by E. densa of 0.09-0.13 g SRP per m(2) after each wet-dry cycle. Released SRP may exceed critical P limits for eutrophication, provoking usage restrictions. Our results have implications for management of reservoirs in semi-arid regions affected by WLF.

  10. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  11. Oxidative Modification in Human Hair: The Effect of the Levels of Cu (II) Ions, UV Exposure and Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Marsh, Jennifer; Thomas, Ancy; Vernon, James A; Harland, Duane P; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2016-01-01

    Protein oxidative degradation is implicated in a wide range of deleterious effects. For human hair, this oxidative damage can lead to significant observable changes in fiber physical and visual properties. A redox proteomic approach was applied to map molecular modification in human hair proteins and correlate this modification with the abundance of copper (II) ions, the levels of UV exposure and the general level of hair pigmentation. An increase in oxidative modification was observed with increasing copper (II) ion levels, regardless of the pigmentation level. Significantly, increased protein oxidative modification was also observed to occur in both lightly and darkly pigmented hair tresses even in the absence of irradiation, albeit at lower relative levels. Modification levels increased with increased copper (II) ion concentration. This new finding indicates that the level of copper (II) ions in human hair plays a key role in mediating protein oxidation, with or without exposure to UV light. Overall, these results strongly suggest that minimization of the level of copper (II) ions in human hair will mitigate and/or slow protein oxidative modification and therefore lower overall hair damage. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Ecological impact of cadmium on aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, L.

    1981-10-01

    A synopsis of the potential impacts of Cd on the aquatic environment is presented. Its purpose is not to review trace metals in general or Cd in particular but rather to examine possible routes and mechanisms for transformation, bioaccumulation, and sedimentation of toxic elements derived from anthropogenic sources. A description is given of the ways in which Cd is introduced into aquatic systems, its subsequent chemical transformation, complexes, and deposition, and its biological transformation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. From this evaluation the potential impact appears to lie not with the amount of Cd emitted to the environment but rather with its cumulative concentration. Cadmium appears to be at a critical concentration in aquatic systems. The findings of chronic effects on biota at nanogram levels indicate the serious consequences of future increases in Cd loading to the environment. Also, large amounts of Cd and numerous other pollutants associated with sedimentary material represent a conceivable hazard to aquatic ecosystems through resuspension and subsequent desorption.

  13. Influence of the Steady Background Turbulence Level on Second Sound Dynamics in He II

    SciTech Connect

    Dalban-Canassy, M.; Van Sciver, S. W.; Hilton, D. K.

    2006-04-27

    We report measurements on the dependence of the second sound breakpoint energy on the steady background turbulence in He II at 1.7 K. We have determined the breakpoint energy for two pulsed heat flux values (100 and 200 kW/m2) at different steady background levels (up to 2.6 kW/m2). The experiment consists of a 175 mm long channel having a cross section of 242 mm2, which is equipped with a thin film Ni-Cr heater at its bottom end and two superconducting filament thermometers in the path of the heat pulses, respectively 25.4 and 127 mm above the heater. The heater both generates a steady heat flux producing background turbulence in the liquid column and transmits finite amplitude heat pulses by superposing them on the background heat flux. The second sound pulse travels through the He II in the channel and is detected by the thermometers. The breakpoint energy is determined by analyzing the raw pulse signals recorded. We can subsequently obtain the dependence of the breakpoint energy on the background heat flux. This determines the energy limit that second sound pulses can carry under different background turbulence conditions.

  14. Evaluation of Phase II glass formulations for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    A vendor glass formulation study was carried out at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), supporting the Phase I and Phase II melter vendor testing activities for Westinghouse Hanford Company. This study is built upon the LLW glass optimization effort that will be described in a separate report. For Phase I vendor melter testing, six glass formulations were developed at PNL and additional were developed by Phase I vendors. All the doses were characterized in terms of viscosity and chemical durability by the 7-day Product Consistency Test. Twelve Phase II glass formulations (see Tables 3.5 and 3.6) were developed to accommodate 2.5 wt% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 1.0 wt% S0{sub 3} without significant processing problems. These levels of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SO{sub 3} are expected to be the highest possible concentrations from Hanford Site LLW streams at 25 wt% waste loading in glass. The Phase H compositions formulated were 6 to 23 times more durable than the environmental assessment (EA) glass. They melt within the temperature range of 1160{degrees} to 1410{degrees}C to suit different melting technologies. The composition types include boron-free for volatilization sensitive melters; boron-containing glasses for coId-cap melters; Zr-containing, glasses for enhanced Iong-term durability; and Fe-containing glasses for reducing melting temperature and melt volatility while maintaining chemical durability.

  15. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  16. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  17. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  18. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  19. Developing a Collegiate Aquatics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for departments of health, physical education, and recreation that are planning to develop their own aquatics programs, focusing on: the prevalence of collegiate aquatics programs; course offerings in an aquatics minor; practicums and internships; graduate programs in aquatics; cross-disciplinary appeal; marketing the aquatics…

  20. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, K.J.

    1980-02-01

    The science of aquatic toxicology is a relatively new science. The development of the field of aquatic toxicology since 1930 is traced. The state of the art of aquatic toxicology compared with that of classical toxicology is evaluated. The science of aquatic toxicology is expected to undergo a significant period of rapid growth and development, leading ultimately to the formation of a mature science.

  1. Developing a Collegiate Aquatics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for departments of health, physical education, and recreation that are planning to develop their own aquatics programs, focusing on: the prevalence of collegiate aquatics programs; course offerings in an aquatics minor; practicums and internships; graduate programs in aquatics; cross-disciplinary appeal; marketing the aquatics…

  2. Prelabour rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity in level II nursery in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Malik, A S

    1994-03-01

    In view of controversial reports about the role of prelabour rupture of foetal membranes (PROM) in neonatal morbidity and to study the association of PROM with infections and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), a prospective case control study was conducted in a level II nursery of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Of the 111 neonates with PROM studied, 18 developed clinical problems (septicaemia and other specific problems such as pneumonia, omphalitis, skin infection and MAS) while 5/56 of the control group developed similar problems. The difference between the two groups was not significant (p < 0.30). There was no neonatal death. It is concluded that PROM is not associated with neonatal morbidity. Neonates with this problem alone do not need to be admitted to the neonatal nursery.

  3. Creating an occupational therapy Level II fieldwork experience in a county jail setting.

    PubMed

    Provident, Ingrid M; Joyce-Gaguzis, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Although occupational therapy services have been rendered in prisons historically, only one occupational therapy program currently exists in a county jail: the Allegheny County Jail Project (ACJ Project). The offenders who populate county jails experience occupational deprivation. The participants of the ACJ Project have benefited from occupational therapy intervention that was initiated during incarceration and continued following their release from jail in order to help them resume productive life roles and to reduce the reoccurrence of engagement in criminal behaviors (recidivism rate). As of June 2003, the ACJ Project has successfully affected the lifestyle patterns of its participants and overall public safety by helping 63% of participants secure gainful employment and by helping 91.8% of participants maintain their freedom after prison. The purpose of this report is to describe the process and benefits of implementing fieldwork opportunities for Level II occupational therapy students in a best practice occupational therapy program in a nontraditional environment: a county jail.

  4. On the determination of radiative lifetimes of excited Mn I and Mn II levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, R.; Bard, A.; Kock, M.

    1995-12-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to measure the lifetimes of 46 Mn I and 7 Mn II levels. A high-current hollow cathode produces an effusive beam of manganese atoms and ions in the ground states and in metastable states. Selected states are populated with tunable dye laser pulses. The following fluorescence is measured by means of a Tektronix 1 GHz transient digitizer. Including the separately measured response function of the system in the evaluation procedure the full decay curve can be applied for a determination of the lifetimes. All measurements are performed with linearly polarized laser beams adjusted to the magic angle in order to exclude systematic error sources. A comparison with literature data is given.

  5. Commissioning Experience with the PEP-II Low Level RF System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredoura, P.; Allison, S.; Claus, R.; Ross, W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Schwarz, H.; Tighe, R.; Yee, C.; Ziomek, C.

    1997-05-01

    The low-level RF system for PEP-II is a modular design housed in a VXI environment. Remotely configurable feedback loops are used to control coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the accelerating mode of the RF cavities. A programmable DSP based feedback loop is implemented to control phase variations across the klystron due to required adjustment of the cathode voltage to limit cathode power dissipation. The DSP loop also adaptively cancels modulations caused by klystron power supply ripple at selected power line harmonics between 60 Hz and 10 kHz. An adaptive technique is used to generate the station RF reference which tracks the ion clearing gap induced cavity transients. All RF signal processing and measurements are done using inphase and quadrature (IQ) techniques. This paper presents observations and measured data from the system.

  6. Epidemiology of Aquatic and Recreational Water Sport Injuries: A Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ian; Ong, Alvin; Radcliff, Kris E; Austin, Luke S; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Tjoumakaris, Fotios

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of the current investigation are to evaluate the epidemiology of water sport injuries at a coastal tertiary trauma center and to determine the association of these activities with spinal column injury and to determine whether aquatic trauma injuries differ significantly from those that occur terrestrially. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 105 patients with aquatic-based mechanisms of injury admitted to a Level II trauma center over a 3-year period, as well as a matched control cohort with terrestrial-based mechanisms of injury, was conducted. Patients were treated at a Level II trauma center from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. All patients received a full trauma work-up on arrival. Patients were identified retrospectively from a prospectively collected database (N=5298). Eligible patients were identified from billing/coding data as having mechanisms of injury related to an aquatic setting. Patients were evaluated using standard trauma protocols. Spinal column and cord injury occurrence and differences between groups were reviewed. Personal watercrafts accounted for the majority of injuries (n=39). Cervical (33.3%), closed-head (25.7%), and thoracolumbar (21.9%) injuries accounted for the majority of injury types. The cervical spinal column and the spinal cord were at an increased risk of injury in the aquatic injury cohort (P<.0001). The current data show the high incidence of spinal column and cord injuries in this patient population relative to controls. Practitioners who care for trauma patients near an aquatic environment should be aware of the high prevalence of these injuries, with proper spinal cord preservation protocols in place to optimize outcome. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. The Relationship between Serum Carbonic Anhydrase I-II Autoantibody Levels and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Türk, Adem; Mollamehmetoğlu, Süleyman; Alver, Ahmet; Menteşe, Ahmet; Nuhoğlu, İrfan; Erem, Cihangir; İmamoğlu, Halil İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between serum carbonic anhydrase I-II (CA-I and II) autoantibody levels and diabetic retinopathy (DRP) in cases with type 1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 type-1 diabetic patients, 17 with DRP (group 1) and 20 without (group 2), and 38 healthy control subjects (group 3) were included. CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels were measured in serum samples obtained from each of the three groups and compared statistically. Additionally, the correlation between CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels and the presence of diabetic macular edema was examined. Results: Mean measured CA-I autoantibody levels were 0.145±0.072, 0.117±0.047, and 0.138±0.061 ABSU in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p=0.327). The average CA-II autoantibody levels achieved in the same groups were 0.253±0.174, 0.155±0.137, and 0.131±0.085 ABSU, respectively (p=0.005). No significant difference was obtained between the subgroups of group 1, with macular edema (n=8) and without (n=9), in terms of both CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels (p=0.501, p=0.178, respectively). Conclusion: A significant correlation was observed between the development of DRP and serum CA-II autoantibody levels in type 1 diabetic cases. However, there was no correlation between the autoantibody levels and the presence of diabetic macular edema in cases with DRP. PMID:28405482

  8. The Relationship between Serum Carbonic Anhydrase I-II Autoantibody Levels and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Türk, Adem; Mollamehmetoğlu, Süleyman; Alver, Ahmet; Menteşe, Ahmet; Nuhoğlu, İrfan; Erem, Cihangir; İmamoğlu, Halil İbrahim

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum carbonic anhydrase I-II (CA-I and II) autoantibody levels and diabetic retinopathy (DRP) in cases with type 1 diabetes. A total of 37 type-1 diabetic patients, 17 with DRP (group 1) and 20 without (group 2), and 38 healthy control subjects (group 3) were included. CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels were measured in serum samples obtained from each of the three groups and compared statistically. Additionally, the correlation between CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels and the presence of diabetic macular edema was examined. Mean measured CA-I autoantibody levels were 0.145±0.072, 0.117±0.047, and 0.138±0.061 ABSU in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively (p=0.327). The average CA-II autoantibody levels achieved in the same groups were 0.253±0.174, 0.155±0.137, and 0.131±0.085 ABSU, respectively (p=0.005). No significant difference was obtained between the subgroups of group 1, with macular edema (n=8) and without (n=9), in terms of both CA-I and CA-II autoantibody levels (p=0.501, p=0.178, respectively). A significant correlation was observed between the development of DRP and serum CA-II autoantibody levels in type 1 diabetic cases. However, there was no correlation between the autoantibody levels and the presence of diabetic macular edema in cases with DRP.

  9. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for the LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabi, A.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Davignon, O.; Romanteau, T.; Strebler, T.; Cepeda, M.; Sauvan, J. B.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J.; Foudas, C.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Breeze, S.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Shtipliyski, A.; Tapper, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2017-01-01

    Results from the completed Phase 1 Upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger are presented. The upgrade was performed in two stages, with the first running in 2015 for proton and heavy ion collisions and the final stage for 2016 data taking. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and has been used by CMS to collect over 43 fb‑1 of data since the start of the Run II of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT), which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the μTCA standard. The trigger processors are instrumented with Xilinx Virtex-7 690 FPGAs and 10 Gbps optical links. The TMT architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Sophisticated and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of the experiment. The system has been able to adapt to the outstanding performance of the LHC, which ran with an instantaneous luminosity well above design. The performance of the system for single physics objects are presented along with the optimizations foreseen to maintain the thresholds for the harsher conditions expected during the LHC Run II and Run III periods.

  10. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  11. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  12. Plant-substrate interactions and below substrate biomass dynamics: a continuation of studies concerning potential restriction of the introduced aquatic weed 'Myriophyllum spicatum' l. (Eurasian water milfoil) II

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, A.L.; Amundsen, C.C.

    1982-04-01

    From the study's data analysis, it was concluded that the prediction of nuisance growth of Eurasian watermilfoil depends not only on sediment phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen, but potassium levels as well. Higher water temperatures, together with non-exposure to wave action and water stream flow, likely accounts for the development of the larger standing crop of Eurasian water milfoil within the study of the Melton Hill Reservoir. Myriophyllum spicatum was collected monthly from five study sites. Whole plant samples were collected from similar bottom contour plots via SCUBA. Sediment samples were collected using a Ponar Grab, and water column measurements were taken with a YSI temperature and conductivity meter. Sediment samples were air dried and sieved. Organic matter, available phosphorus, potassium and sediment pH, and sediment nitrate were determined. Sediment texture was determined gravimetrically.

  13. Mercury contamination in the vicinity of a derelict chlor-alkali plant Part II: contamination of the aquatic and terrestrial food chain and potential risks to the local population.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Susanne M; Ilyushchenko, Mikhail A; Tanton, Trevor W; Uskov, Grigory A

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the environmental impact and level of risk associated with mercury (Hg) contamination near a derelict chlor-alkali plant in Pavlodar, Northern Kazakhstan. Several species of fish were sampled from the highly polluted Lake Balkyldak and the nearby river Irtysh, to assess the extent of Hg bioaccumulation in the aquatic food chain and potential human health risks. A small number of bovine tissue samples, water samples, soil and plant samples from a nearby village were also investigated in order to make a preliminary assessment of potential impacts on the terrestrial food chain. Mercury levels in fish caught from Lake Balkyldak ranged from 0.16 to 2.2 mg kg(-1) and the majority of fish exceeded current human health criteria for Hg. Interspecies comparisons indicated that Hg is accumulated in the order dace>carp>tench. Site-specific bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated for THg, and were estimated for MeHg. Fish from the river Irtysh and floodplain oxbow lakes contained between 0.075 and 0.159 mg kg(-1) of Hg and can be regarded as uncontaminated. Soils were found to be impacted by past atmospheric emissions of Hg. Cattle grazing in the surroundings of the factory are exposed to Hg from contaminated soils, plants and surface water, but the consumption of contaminated fish from the lake appears to be the main route of exposure for humans.

  14. Operating Room Efficiency: Benefits of an Orthopaedic Traumatologist at a Level II Trauma Center.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Kauk, Justin R; Shannon, Steven; Lu, Minggen; O'Mara, Timothy J; Bray, Timothy J

    2016-12-01

    Fellowship-trained orthopaedic traumatologists are presumably taught skill sets leading to "best practice" outcomes and more efficient use of hospital resources. This should result in more favorable economic opportunities when compared with general orthopaedic surgeons (GOSs) providing similar clinical services. The purpose of our study was to compare the operating room utilization and financial data of traumatologists versus GOSs at a level II trauma center. Retrospective review. Level II community-based trauma hospital. Patients who presented to the emergency room at our institution with fractures and orthopaedic conditions requiring surgical intervention from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011. Operative fracture fixation by members of our orthopaedic trauma panel, including fellowship and nontrauma fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons. Our institutional database was queried to determine operative times, surgical supply and implant costs, and surgery labor expenses. Patients were stratified according to those treated by our trauma panel's 3 traumatologists and those treated by the 15 GOSs on our trauma panel. These 2 groups were then compared using standard statistical methods. A total of 6449 orthopedic cases were identified and 2076 of these involved fracture care. One thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients were treated by traumatologists and 877 by GOSs. There was no statistical difference detected in American Society of Anesthesiologists score between trauma and nontrauma groups. Overall, the traumatologist group demonstrated significantly decreased procedure times when compared with the GOS group (55.6 vs. 75.8 minutes, P , 0.0001). In 16 of 18 most common procedure types, traumatologists were more efficient. This led to significantly decreased surgical labor costs ($381.4 vs. $484.8; P < 0.0001) and surgical supply and implant costs ($2567 vs. $3003; P < 0.0001). This study demonstrates that in our communitybased trauma system, fracture care

  15. NSLS-II HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND CLIENT API DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, G.; Yang; L.; Shroff; K.

    2011-03-28

    The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the

  16. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  17. Using field data to assess the effects of pesticides on crustacea in freshwater aquatic ecosystems and verifying the level of protection provided by water quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Guy, Martha; Singh, Lucina; Mineau, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how well single-species laboratory data predict real-world pesticide toxicity effects on Crustacea. Data from field pesticide exposures from experimental mesocosm and small pond studies were converted into toxicity units (TUs) by dividing measured pesticide concentrations by the L(E)C50 for Daphnia or acute 5% hazard concentration for Crustacea (HC5-C). The proportion of crustacean taxa significantly affected by the pesticide treatment, called the count ratio of effect, was used in logistic regression models. Of 200 possible logistic model combinations of the TUs, fate, physicochemical variables, and structural variables versus the count ratio of effect for the mesocosm data, the best model was found to incorporate log(TU HC5-C). This model was used to convert pesticide water quality guidelines from around the world into estimates of the proportion of crustacean taxa predicted to be impacted by exposure to a pesticide at the water quality guideline concentration. This analysis suggests 64% of long-term water quality guidelines and 88% of short-term pesticide water quality guidelines are not protective of the aquatic life they are designed to protect. We conclude that empirically derived data from mesocosm studies should be incorporated into water quality guideline derivation for pesticides where available. Also, interspecific differences in susceptibility should be accounted for more accurately to ensure water quality guidelines are adequately protective against the adverse effects of pesticide exposure.

  18. Trends of superoxide dismutase and soluble protein of aquatic plants in lakes of different trophic levels in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Te; Wu, Shi-Kai; Ni, Le-Yi; Xie, Ping

    2009-04-01

    A limnological study was carried out to determine the responses of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and soluble protein (SP) contents of 11 common aquatic plants to eutrophication stress. Field investigation in 12 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was carried out from March to September 2004. Our results indicated that non-submersed (emergent and floating-leafed) plants and submersed plants showed different responses to eutrophication stress. Both SOD activities of the non-submersed and submersed plants were negatively correlated with their SP contents (P < 0.000 1). SP contents of non-submersed plants were significantly correlated with all nitrogen variables in the water (P < 0.05), whereas SP contents of submersed plants were only significantly correlated with carbon variables as well as ammonium and Secchi depth (SD) in water (P < 0.05). Only SOD activities of submersed plants were decreased with decline of SD in water (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the decline of SOD activities of submersed plants were mainly caused by light limitation, this showed a coincidence with the decline of macrophytes in eutrophic lakes, which might imply that the antioxidant system of the submersed plants were impaired under eutrophication stress.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic environments: a comparative study of regions in China with different urbanization levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Saichang

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed and compared the distributions of 13 target pharmaceuticals in different water samples from the Hangzhou metropolitan area and Linan County, Southeast China. Sampling was conducted in five hospitals, two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and Qiantang River. Samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and PPCP concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. Trimethoprim, erythromycin A dihydrate, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, diclofenac sodium, and atenolol were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Most of the pharmaceutical concentrations in hospital effluents were higher than those in the WWTP influents. Although both WWTPs adopt the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic treatment process, the removal rates for pharmaceuticals, such as trimethoprim and diclofenac sodium, were completely different. Meanwhile, erythromycin A dihydrate, ofloxacin, penicillin-G, cephalexin, cefazolin, ibuprofen, and diclofenac sodium were detected in Qiantang River. These results indicate that hospitals are more concentrated sources of pharmaceuticals than WWTPs, and the WWTPs are not the only route of entry of pharmaceuticals into aquatic environments in these two regions.

  20. Influence of luminosity leveling on the CDF-II B-Physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Matthew; Lewis, Jonathan; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The effective bandwidth of the CDF-II level 1 trigger is approximately 25 kHz. Some of this bandwidth is used to record events that form the data sets used by the high p{sub T} physics analyses. The remaining bandwidth is used by triggers that are sensitive to hadronic B decays and provide one of the most important samples used for the study of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing. At high luminosities, the hadronic B triggers have rates that greatly exceed the available bandwidth. Rather than incur large dead-times associated with these excessive rates, these B triggers are prescaled to limit the total trigger rate to the effective level 1 trigger bandwidth. The prescales are dynamically adjusted as the store progresses so that all of the bandwidth that is not used for the high p{sub T} physics program is used to record hadronic B triggers. In principle, the luminosity could be held at a more constant level throughout the store in such a way that the integrated luminosity would be the same as that obtained from a normal store. It has been suggested that this would allow B triggers to be recorded with lower prescales and consequently with higher B{sub s}{sup 0} signal efficiencies. This note describes a parametric model of the high p{sub T} and hadronic B triggers used by CDF and compares the yields of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} decays that would result with and without luminosity leveling.

  1. Visualization on supercomputing platform level II ASC milestone (3537-1B) results from Sandia.

    SciTech Connect

    Geveci, Berk; Fabian, Nathan; Marion, Patrick; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2010-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia portion of the ASC Level II Visualization on the platform milestone. This ASC Level II milestone is a joint milestone between Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratories. This milestone contains functionality required for performing visualization directly on a supercomputing platform, which is necessary for peta-scale visualization. Sandia's contribution concerns in-situ visualization, running a visualization in tandem with a solver. Visualization and analysis of petascale data is limited by several factors which must be addressed as ACES delivers the Cielo platform. Two primary difficulties are: (1) Performance of interactive rendering, which is most computationally intensive portion of the visualization process. For terascale platforms, commodity clusters with graphics processors(GPUs) have been used for interactive rendering. For petascale platforms, visualization and rendering may be able to run efficiently on the supercomputer platform itself. (2) I/O bandwidth, which limits how much information can be written to disk. If we simply analyze the sparse information that is saved to disk we miss the opportunity to analyze the rich information produced every timestep by the simulation. For the first issue, we are pursuing in-situ analysis, in which simulations are coupled directly with analysis libraries at runtime. This milestone will evaluate the visualization and rendering performance of current and next generation supercomputers in contrast to GPU-based visualization clusters, and evaluate the performance of common analysis libraries coupled with the simulation that analyze and write data to disk during a running simulation. This milestone will explore, evaluate and advance the maturity level of these technologies and their applicability to problems of interest to the ASC program. Scientific simulation on parallel supercomputers is traditionally performed in four

  2. Add-on angiotensin II receptor blockade lowers urinary transforming growth factor-beta levels.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Siva, Senthuran; Dunn, Stephen R; Sharma, Kumar

    2002-03-01

    Progression of renal failure, despite renoprotection with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with proteinuric nephropathies, may be caused by persistent renal production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) through the angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors. We tested the hypothesis that AT1-receptor blocker therapy added to a background of chronic maximal ACE inhibitor therapy will result in a reduction in urinary TGF-beta1 levels in such patients. Sixteen patients completed a two-period, crossover, randomized, controlled trial, details of which have been previously reported. All patients were administered lisinopril, 40 mg/d, with either losartan, 50 mg/d, or placebo. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor. Overnight specimens of urine were analyzed for urine TGF-beta1, protein, and creatinine concentrations. Mean age of the study population was 53 +/- 9 (SD) years; body mass index, 38 +/- 5.7 kg/m2; seated BP, 156 +/- 18/88 +/- 12 mm Hg; and urine protein excretion, 3.6 +/- 0.71 g/g of creatinine. Twelve patients had diabetic nephropathy, and the remainder had chronic glomerulonephritis. At baseline, urinary TGF-beta1 levels were significantly increased in the study population compared with healthy controls (13.2 +/- 1.2 versus 1.7 +/- 1.1 ng/g creatinine; P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between baseline urine protein excretion and urinary TGF-beta1 level (r2 = 0.53; P = 0.001), as well as systolic BP and urinary TGF-beta1 level (r2 = 0.57; P < 0.001). After 4 weeks of add-on losartan therapy, there was a 38% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 55%) decline in urinary TGF-beta1 levels (13.3 [95% CI, 11.4 to 15.5] to 8.2 pg/mg creatinine [95% CI, 6.2 to 10.7]). The reduction in urinary TGF-beta1 levels occurred independent of changes in mean urinary protein excretion or BP. Thus, proteinuric patients with renal failure, despite maximal ACE inhibition, had increased urinary levels of

  3. The CMS Level-1 electron and photon trigger: for Run II of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, N.; Jessop, C.; Meng, F.; Marinelli, N.; Taroni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Davignon, O.; Romanteau, T.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Sauvan, J. B.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Shtipliyski, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Xia, F.

    2017-02-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) employs a sophisticated two-level online triggering system that has a rejection factor of up to 105. Since the beginning of Run II of LHC, the conditions that CMS operates in have become increasingly challenging. The centre-of-mass energy is now 13 TeV and the instantaneous luminosity currently peaks at 1.5 ×1034 cm‑2s‑1. In order to keep low physics thresholds and to trigger efficiently in such conditions, the CMS trigger system has been upgraded. A new trigger architecture, the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT) has been introduced which allows the full granularity of the calorimeters to be exploited at the first level of the online trigger. The new trigger has also benefited immensely from technological improvements in hardware. Sophisticated algorithms, developed to fully exploit the advantages provided by the new hardware architecture, have been implemented. The new trigger system started taking physics data in 2016 following a commissioning period in 2015, and since then has performed extremely well. The hardware and firmware developments, electron and photon algorithms together with their performance in challenging 2016 conditions is presented.

  4. Human mast cells decrease SLPI levels in type II – like alveolar cell model, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Camilla; Nyström, Max; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Westin, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Background Mast cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation and upon activation to release their granule content, e.g. histamine, cytokines and proteases. The secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is produced in the respiratory mucous and plays a role in regulating the activity of the proteases. Result We have used the HMC-1 cell line as a model for human mast cells to investigate their effect on SLPI expression and its levels in cell co-culture experiments, in vitro. In comparison with controls, we found a significant reduction in SLPI levels (by 2.35-fold, p < 0.01) in a SLPI-producing, type II-like alveolar cell line, (A549) when co-cultured with HMC-1 cells, but not in an HMC-1-conditioned medium, for 96 hours. By contrast, increased SLPI mRNA expression (by 1.58-fold, p < 0.05) was found under the same experimental conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed mast cell transmigration in co-culture with SLPI-producing A549 cells for 72 and 96 hours. Conclusion These results indicate that SLPI-producing cells may assist mast cell migration and that the regulation of SLPI release and/or consumption by mast cells requires interaction between these cell types. Therefore, a "local relationship" between mast cells and airway epithelial cells might be an important step in the inflammatory response. PMID:12952550

  5. Role of redox metabolism for adaptation of aquatic animals to drastic changes in oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Welker, Alexis F; Moreira, Daniel C; Campos, Élida G; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2013-08-01

    Large changes in oxygen availability in aquatic environments, ranging from anoxia through to hyperoxia, can lead to corresponding wide variation in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by animals with aquatic respiration. Therefore, animals living in marine, estuarine and freshwater environments have developed efficient antioxidant defenses to minimize oxidative stress and to regulate the cellular actions of ROS. Changes in oxygen levels may lead to bursts of ROS generation that can be particularly harmful. This situation is commonly experienced by aquatic animals during abrupt transitions from periods of hypoxia/anoxia back to oxygenated conditions (e.g. intertidal cycles). The strategies developed differ significantly among aquatic species and are (i) improvement of their endogenous antioxidant system under hyperoxia (that leads to increased ROS formation) or other similar ROS-related stresses, (ii) increase in antioxidant levels when displaying higher metabolic rates, (iii) presence of constitutively high levels of antioxidants, that attenuates oxidative stress derived from fluctuations in oxygen availability, or (iv) increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (and/or the levels of their mRNAs) during hypometabolic states associated with anoxia/hypoxia. This enhancement of the antioxidant system - coined over a decade ago as "preparation for oxidative stress" - controls the possible harmful effects of increased ROS formation during hypoxia/reoxygenation. The present article proposes a novel explanation for the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon that could be triggered by hypoxia-induced ROS formation. We also discuss the connections among oxygen sensing, oxidative damage and regulation of the endogenous antioxidant defense apparatus in animals adapted to many natural or man-made challenges of the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A risk-based, product-level approach for assuring aquatic environmental safety of cleaning products in the context of sustainability: The Environmental Safety Check (ESC) scheme of the A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Pickup, John Alexander; Dewaele, Joost; Furmanski, Nicola L; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Luijkx, Gerard Ca; Mathieu, Sophie; Stelter, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning products have long been a focus of efforts to improve sustainability and assure safety for the aquatic environment when disposed of after use. The latter is addressed at ingredient level through environmental risk assessment, including in formal frameworks such as REACH. Nevertheless, in the context of programs to improve overall sustainability, stakeholders demand both environmental safety assurance and progress at product level. Current product-level approaches for aquatic toxicity (e.g., USEtox™, Critical Dilution Volume) can be seen as predominantly hazard-based. The more logical approach would be risk-based, because ecotoxicity is generally threshold-dependent and hazard-based assessment produces conflicts with risk-based learnings. The development of a risk-based approach to assess formulated products is described: the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (A.I.S.E.) Charter Environmental Safety Check (ESC), which is consistent with the scientific principles underlying REACH. This is implemented through a simple spreadsheet tool and internal database of ingredient parameters including predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and removal rate. A novel feature is applying market volume information for both product types and ingredients to permit a risk-based calculation. To pass the ESC check, the projected environmental safety ratio (PESR) for each ingredient as formulated and dosed (unless cleared by a published risk assessment or exempted as inherently low risk) must be less than 1. The advantages of a risk-based approach are discussed. The strengths and limitations of various possible approaches to standard-setting, product-ranking and driving continuous improvement in respect of potential ecotoxic impacts on the aquatic environment are considered. It is proposed that as ecotoxicity is generally accepted to be threshold-dependent, with no effect below the threshold, the most constructive approach to continuous

  7. The work of the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission.

    PubMed

    Hill, B

    2007-01-01

    Founded in 1960 as the Fish Diseases Commission, the Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission is currently composed of five members elected by the OIE International Committee on a three-year basis. Its remit covers diseases of fish, molluscs and crustaceans. OIE stipulates that Commission members should be internationally recognised specialists in the fields of methods for surveillance, diagnosis and prevention of infectious aquatic animal diseases and have extensive international experience, at the regional or global level. The Commission is responsible for developing the international standards of the Aquatic Code and the Aquatic Manual, very ably supported by various OIE Ad hoc Groups and the designated experts at the OIE Reference Laboratories for aquatic animal diseases. The latest editions of the Aquatic Code and the Aquatic Manual published in 2006 incorporate several important modifications including several changes to the list of diseases. Work has commenced in new areas such as aquatic animal welfare and an assessment of whether amphibian diseases should be included in the work of the Commission. Continuing efforts are being made to encourage enhanced involvement of veterinary authorities in aquatic animal health and to improve cooperation between veterinary and other authorities with competence for aquatic animal health.

  8. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  9. Effect of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on Nd-TiO2/graphene oxide nanocomposite for removal of lead(II) and copper(II) from aquatic media.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Susan; Mirseyfifard, Sayed Mohammad Hosain; Assari, Mina; Hassannejad, Marzieh

    2017-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on adsorbing capacity of nanosorbent Nd-TiO2/GO, Nd-TiO2/HPC/GO, Nd-TiO2/PVP/GO and Nd-TiO2/PEG/GO nanocomposites were synthesized. Studies by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the expected structure and X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of crystalline phase of anatase titania and also graphene oxide (GO). Scanning electron microscopy pictures and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed the formation of Nd-TiO2 nanoparticles. These nanocomposites were used for removal of lead(II) and copper(II) from water and the effective factors on removal were optimized. The results showed that the maximum removal for all three nanocomposites was at pH = 7. The amount of adsorbent and contact time for Nd-TiO2/HPC/GO and Nd-TiO2/PVP/GO nanocomposites was equal to 0.02 g and 20 minutes respectively, but they were equal to 0.01 g and 15 minutes for Nd-TiO2/PEG/GO nanocomposite. Investigating the effect of interfering ions showed they had no considerable effect on removal efficiency. In order to investigate the effect of photocatalytic activity in optimal conditions and in the presence of visible-ultraviolet light, the removal process was performed. The results showed an increase in removal efficiency. Furthermore, the ability of synthesized nanosorbents to decompose organic compounds available in water was confirmed and their energy band gaps were calculated.

  10. Population approaches to aquatic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, M.B.

    1981-10-01

    Field studies in which age-specific survivorship and fecundity are measured can provide data for the validation of laboratory studies conducted to assess the effects of toxic materials on aquatic species. Comparison of the variability of age-specific survivorship and fecundity in polluted versus nonpolluted areas would provide insight into the consequences of pollution at the population level. Techniques which permit prediction of population structure and growth from age-specific survivorship and fecundity schedules are described. These techniques include the life table and the Leslie matrix. Examples of population studies in which these techniques may be applied are given.

  11. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Mediates Levels of Nuclear Phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2*

    PubMed Central

    Wiemhoefer, Anne; Stargardt, Anita; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Renner, Maria C.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Stap, Jan; Raspe, Marcel A.; Tomkinson, Birgitta; Kessels, Helmut W.; Ovaa, Huib; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Florea, Bogdan; Reits, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) is a serine peptidase involved in various biological processes, including antigen processing, cell growth, DNA repair, and neuropeptide mediated signaling. The underlying mechanisms of how a peptidase can influence this multitude of processes still remain unknown. We identified rapid proteomic changes in neuroblastoma cells following selective TPP2 inhibition using the known reversible inhibitor butabindide, as well as a new, more potent, and irreversible peptide phosphonate inhibitor. Our data show that TPP2 inhibition indirectly but rapidly decreases the levels of active, di-phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in the nucleus, thereby down-regulating signal transduction downstream of growth factors and mitogenic stimuli. We conclude that TPP2 mediates many important cellular functions by controlling ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation. For instance, we show that TPP2 inhibition of neurons in the hippocampus leads to an excessive strengthening of synapses, indicating that TPP2 activity is crucial for normal brain function. PMID:26041847

  12. Aquatic ecotoxicology: Fundamental concepts and methodologies. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Boudou, A.; Ribeyre, F.

    1989-01-01

    As the bases of ecotoxicology lie in the analysis of the structure and the functioning of natural systems, the first two chapters of this Volume I, Part I, are devoted to a synthesis of the current state of knowledge in relation to two main types of freshwater ecosystems: running water (rivers) and still water (lakes). The main concepts of ecotoxicology are developed giving particular emphasis to the mechanisms which bring the transfer of contaminants between the different compartments, and also the effects this produces at each biological integration level. The problems of contaminant quantification, from the collecting of samples to the different dosing methods, are described using trace metals and metalloids as examples. The other three chapters in Part II deal with the evolution of pollutants in aquatic biotopes: chemical speciation of trace metals adsorption of trace inorganic and organic contaminants by solid particulate matter and geochemistry and bioavailability of trace metals in sediments. The most significant research methodologies currently being developed in aquatic ecotoxicology are presented in Part III. After describing the essential mechanisms of contamination of the hydrosphere and its effects on ecosystems, three case studies were selected to illustrate particular features of field research, the methodologies used and the type of results produced. In an intermediate position between the ecosystems level and laboratory models are enclosures and artificial streams. Separate abstracts are included for 13 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  13. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Generic Locking Plate Utilization at a Level II Trauma Center.

    PubMed

    Mcphillamy, Austin; Gurnea, Taylor P; Moody, Alastair E; Kurnik, Christopher G; Lu, Minggen

    2016-12-01

    In today's climate of cost containment and fiscal responsibility, generic implant alternatives represent an interesting area of untapped resources. As patents have expired on many commonly used trauma implants, generic alternatives have recently become available from a variety of sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and economic impact of a cost containment program using high quality, generic orthopaedic locking plates. The implants available for study were anatomically precontoured plates for the clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and distal fibula. Retrospective review. Level II Trauma center. 828 adult patients with operatively managed clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, tibial pilon, and ankle fractures. Operative treatment with conventional or generic implants. The 414 patients treated with generic implants were compared with 414 patients treated with conventional implants. There were no significant differences in age, sex, presence of diabetes, smoking history or fracture type between the generic and conventional groups. No difference in operative time, estimated blood loss or intraoperative complication rate was observed. No increase in postoperative infection rate, hardware failure, hardware loosening, malunion, nonunion or need for hardware removal was noted. Overall, our hospital realized a 56% reduction in implant costs, an average savings of $1197 per case, and a total savings of $458,080 for the study period. Use of generic orthopaedic implants has been successful at our institution, providing equivalent clinical outcomes while significantly reducing implant expenditures. Based on our data, the use of generic implants has the potential to markedly reduce operative costs as long as quality products are used. Therapeutic Level III.

  14. Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Luterbacher, J.

    Monthly mean fields of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from 700 to 100 hPa were statistically reconstructed for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere for the World War II period. The reconstruction was based on several hundred predictor variables, comprising temperature series from meteorological stations and gridded sea level pressure data (1939-1947) as well as a large amount of historical upper-air data (1939-1944). Statistical models were fitted in a calibration period (1948-1994) using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data set as predictand. The procedure consists of a weighting scheme, principal component analyses on both the predictor variables and the predictand fields and multiple regression models relating the two sets of principal component time series to each other. According to validation experiments, the reconstruction skill in the 1939-1944 period is excellent for GPH at all levels and good for temperature up to 500 hPa, but somewhat worse for 300 hPa temperature and clearly worse for 100 hPa temperature. Regionally, high predictive skill is found over the midlatitudes of Europe and North America, but a lower quality over Asia, the subtropics, and the Arctic. Moreover, the quality is considerably better in winter than in summer. In the 1945-1947 period, reconstructions are useful up to 300 hPa for GPH and, in winter, up to 500 hPa for temperature. The reconstructed fields are presented for selected months and analysed from a dynamical perspective. It is demonstrated that the reconstructions provide a useful tool for the analysis of large-scale circulation features as well as stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the late 1930s and early 1940s.

  15. Mitotic chromatin condensation in vitro using somatic cell extracts and nuclei with variable levels of endogenous topoisomerase II

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We report the development of a new method for producing mitotic extracts from tissue culture cells. These extracts reproducibly promote the condensation of chromatin in vitro when incubated with purified interphase nuclei. This condensation reaction is not species specific, since nuclei from chicken, human, and hamster cell lines all undergo chromatin condensation upon incubation with the extract. We have used this extract to investigate the role of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) in the chromosome condensation process. Chromatin condensation does not require the presence of soluble topo II in the mitotic extract. However, the extent of formation of discrete chromosome-like structures correlates with the level of endogenous topo II present in the interphase nuclei. Our results further suggest that chromatin condensation in this extract may involve two processes: chromatin compaction and resolution into discrete chromosomes. PMID:2176652

  16. ESCRT-II controls retinal axon growth by regulating DCC receptor levels and local protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Konopacki, Filip A; Wong, Hovy Ho-Wai; Dwivedy, Asha; Bellon, Anaïs; Blower, Michael D; Holt, Christine E

    2016-04-01

    Endocytosis and local protein synthesis (LPS) act coordinately to mediate the chemotropic responses of axons, but the link between these two processes is poorly understood. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is a key regulator of cargo sorting in the endocytic pathway, and here we have investigated the role of ESCRT-II, a critical ESCRT component, in Xenopus retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. We show that ESCRT-II is present in RGC axonal growth cones (GCs) where it co-localizes with endocytic vesicle GTPases and, unexpectedly, with the Netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC). ESCRT-II knockdown (KD) decreases endocytosis and, strikingly, reduces DCC in GCs and leads to axon growth and guidance defects. ESCRT-II-depleted axons fail to turn in response to a Netrin-1 gradient in vitro and many axons fail to exit the eye in vivo These defects, similar to Netrin-1/DCC loss-of-function phenotypes, can be rescued in whole (in vitro) or in part (in vivo) by expressing DCC. In addition, ESCRT-II KD impairs LPS in GCs and live imaging reveals that ESCRT-II transports mRNAs in axons. Collectively, our results show that the ESCRT-II-mediated endocytic pathway regulates both DCC and LPS in the axonal compartment and suggest that ESCRT-II aids gradient sensing in GCs by coupling endocytosis to LPS.

  17. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    PubMed

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  18. Needs Assessment of CBVE Application and Articulation with Industrial Education Levels II and III. Final Report. July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, A. R.; Courtney, Paul D.

    The major goal of a project was to articulate the progress of Kentucky Industrial Education Continuum level III competency-based curriculum with level II curriculum development. Its first objective was to identify and develop a model to articulate competencies that should be taught at level II with competencies currently being taught at level III.…

  19. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  20. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  1. The Role of Aquatic Ecosystems in the Elimination of Pollutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems is always of concern to environmental scientists; however, these systems also possess unique capabilities allowing them to eliminate or mitigate certain levels of pollutants. Primarily through the presence of vegetation, aquatic ecosystems are known to be capable...

  2. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the Agency's risk assessments developed as part of the decision-making process for pesticide registration.

  3. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  4. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  5. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  6. Aquatics [Chapter 6

    Treesearch

    F. A. Vertucci; M. A. Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Within the GLEES boundary there are three alpine lakes and several streams and ponds. The selection of GLEES as a research site for investigating of the effects of chemical and physical climate change was in part based on the accessibility of these low alkalinity "sensitive" aquatic ecosystems. This chapter provides a brief description of the physical,...

  7. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  8. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  9. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  10. Human cytomegalovirus decreases constitutive transcription of MHC class II genes in mature Langerhans cells by reducing CIITA transcript levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew W; Wang, Nan; Hornell, Tara M C; Harding, James J; Deshpande, Chetan; Hertel, Laura; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Macaubas, Claudia; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2011-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) productively infects CD34(+) progenitor-derived, mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (matLC) and reduces surface expression of MHC class II complexes (MHC II) by increasing intracellular retention of these molecules. To determine whether HCMV also inhibits MHC II expression by other mechanisms, we assessed mRNA levels of the class II transcriptional regulator, CIITA, and several of its target genes in infected matLC. Levels of CIITA, HLA-DRA (DRA) and DRB transcripts, and new DR protein synthesis were compared in mock-infected and HCMV-infected cells by quantitative PCR and pulse-chase immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. CIITA mRNA levels were significantly lower in HCMV-infected matLC as compared to mock-infected cells. When assessed in the presence of Actinomycin D, the stability of CIITA transcripts was not diminished by HCMV. Analysis of promoter-specific CIITA isoforms revealed that types I, III and IV all were decreased by HCMV, a result that differs from changes after incubation of these cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure to UV-inactivated virus failed to reduce CIITA mRNA levels, implicating de novo viral gene expression in this effect. HCMV-infected matLC also expressed lower levels of DR transcripts and reduced DR protein synthesis rates compared to mock-infected matLC. In summary, we demonstrate that HCMV infection of a human dendritic cell subset inhibits constitutive CIITA expression, most likely at the transcriptional level, resulting in reduced MHC II biosynthesis. We suggest this represents a new mechanism of modulation of mature LC by HCMV.

  11. Human cytomegalovirus decreases constitutive transcription of MHC class II genes in mature Langerhans cells by reducing CIITA transcript levels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew W.; Wang, Nan; Hornell, Tara M.C.; Harding, James J.; Deshpande, Chetan; Hertel, Laura; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Macaubas, Claudia; Mocarski, Edward S.; Mellins, Elizabeth D.

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) productively infects CD34+ progenitor-derived, mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (matLC) and reduces surface expression of MHC class II complexes (MHC II) by increasing intracellular retention of these molecules. To determine whether HCMV also inhibits MHC II expression by other mechanisms, we assessed mRNA levels of the class II transcriptional regulator, CIITA, and several of its target genes in infected matLC. Levels of CIITA, HLA-DRA (DRA) and DRB transcripts, and new DR protein synthesis were compared in mock-infected and HCMV-infected cells by quantitative PCR and pulse-chase immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. CIITA mRNA levels were significantly lower in HCMV-infected matLC as compared to mock-infected cells. When assessed in the presence of Actinomycin D, the stability of CIITA transcripts was not diminished by HCMV. Analysis of promoter-specific CIITA isoforms revealed that types I, III and IV all were decreased by HCMV, a result that differs from changes after incubation of these cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure to UV-inactivated virus failed to reduce CIITA mRNA levels, implicating de novo viral gene expression in this effect. HCMV-infected matLC also expressed lower levels of DR transcripts and reduced DR protein synthesis rates compared to mock-infected matLC. In summary, we demonstrate that HCMV infection of a human dendritic cell subset inhibits constitutive CIITA expression, most likely at the transcriptional level, resulting in reduced MHC II biosynthesis. We suggest this represents a new mechanism of modulation of mature LC by HCMV. PMID:21458073

  12. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  13. Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment (MARA) project consists of three main activities in support of assessing the conditions of the nation’s aquatic resources: 1) scientific support for EPA Office of Water’s national aquatic resource surveys; 2) spatial predications of riv...

  14. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  15. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  16. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  17. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  18. The GLAS editing procedures for the FGGE level II-B data collected during SOP-1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W.; Edelmann, D.; Carus, H.

    1981-01-01

    The modifications made to the FGGE Level II-b data are discussed and the FORTRAN program developed to perform the modifications is described. It is suggested that the edited database is the most accurate one available for FGGE SOP-1 and 2.

  19. Comprehensive Study of Educational Technology Programs Authorized from 1989-1992. Volume III: Level II Model Technology School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report, the third in a series of six, evaluates the 10 school districts that received grants from the California Department of Education to develop Level II Model Technology School (MTS) Projects intended to enhance instruction and student learning through a combination of curriculum improvement and integration of technology within a single…

  20. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  1. Comprehensive Study of Educational Technology Programs Authorized from 1989-1992. Volume II: Model Technology Schools, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report, the second in a series of six, presents the findings of evaluative studies of six Level I Model Technology School sites which were conducted as part of Phase II of the California Educational Technology Assessment Program. The project sites are: Alhambra City School District (two schools); Cupertino Union Elementary District and…

  2. Increased levels of circulating progenitor cells after 1-week sojourn at moderate altitude (Austrian Moderate Altitude Study II, AMAS II).

    PubMed

    Theiss, Hans D; Adam, Michaela; Greie, Sven; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Humpeler, Egon; Franz, Wolfgang-M

    2008-02-01

    We wanted to test if a sojourn at moderate altitude can activate circulation of adult progenitor cells in healthy individuals. Thus, we investigated 11 healthy volunteers, who spent 1-week at 1700 m (Oberlech, Austria,) simulating an active holiday. We measured circulating CD34(+) progenitor cell populations by flow cytometry and cytokines (using ELISA) in peripheral blood at baseline (500 m) and at the end of the sojourn. Extent of physical activity was documented via armband. CD34(+)CXCR-4(+) cells significantly increased in peripheral blood after the sojourn. CD34(+)CD31(+) and CD34(+)CD133(+) cells were upregulated in trend. Levels of SDF-1, G-CSF and VEGF decreased in trend whereas erythropoietin and SCF remained equal. Progenitor cells and degree of daily physical exercise did not correlate. We present the first study showing that exposure to moderate altitude with physical activity leads to increased levels of circulating progenitor cells. This effect may be due to hypoxia and/or physical activity.

  3. Morton lentil extract attenuated angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Sun, Cheng-Wen; Chang, Sam K C

    2010-10-13

    The objective was to investigate whether a lentil (Morton) extract had any protective effect on cardiac hypertrophy, which is one of the most significant sequelae of cardiovascular diseases. High phenolic compounds (43.4 mg of GAE/g), including thirteen phenolic acid and two flavonoids, were detected in the acetone/water/acetic acid lentil extract. The extract showed strong antioxidant ability (105 μmol of TE/g). The effect of lentil extract on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiac hypertrophy was examined. Results showed that pretreatment with lentil extract (25, 50, 100 μg/mL) significantly attenuated Ang II (0.1 μM)-induced hypertrophy by 18, 28, and 36% in rat cardiomycytes, respectively; lentil extract (12.5, 25, 50 μg/mL) attenuated Ang II (0.1 μM)-induced hypertrophy by 9, 17, and 25% in human cardiomycytes, respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were enhanced by Ang II treatment, and this stimulatory action was significantly attenuated (33% inhibition) by lentil extract (100 μg/mL) in rat cardiomyocytes and attenuated by 22% by 50 μg/mL lentil extract in human cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, Morton lentil extracts attenuated Ang II-induced rat and human cardiomyocytes hypertrophy via decreasing intracellular ROS levels.

  4. Activation of Local Chorionic Villi Angiotensin II Levels But Not Angiotensin (1–7) in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Lauren; Merrill, David C.; Neves, Liomar A.A.; Stovall, Kathryn; Gallagher, Patricia E.; Diz, Debra I.; Moorefield, Cheryl; Gruver, Courtney; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget

    2009-01-01

    The chorionic villi in the placenta are responsible for the regulation of fetal oxygen and nutrient transport. Although the peripheral renin-angiotensin system is activated during normal pregnancy, the regulation of the local chorionic villi renin-angiotensin system remains unknown. Therefore, placental chorionic villous tissue was collected from nulliparous third-trimester normotensive or preeclamptic subjects and was analyzed for angiotensin peptide content, angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, neprilysin, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1), angiotensin II type 2, Mas receptor mRNAs, and angiotensin receptor density and subtype. Angiotensin II in chorionic villi was significantly higher in preeclamptic subjects, whereas angiotensin (1–7) was not different. Angiotensinogen and AT1 receptor gene expression was significantly higher in preeclamptic subjects. No differences were observed in renin, ACE, ACE2, or neprilysin gene expression. Mas receptor mRNA in preeclamptic subjects was decreased. The AT1 receptor was the predominant receptor subtype in normal and preeclamptic chorionic villi. There was no difference in the density of the AT1, angiotensin II type 2, and angiotensin (1–7) receptors. These results indicate that enhanced chorionic villous expression of angiotensin II may result from increased angiotensinogen. Elevated angiotensin II, acting through the AT1 receptor, may favor vasoconstriction in placental chorionic villi and contribute to impaired fetal blood flow and decreased fetal nutrition observed during preeclampsia. PMID:18259034

  5. Functional trade-offs in the aquatic feeding performance of salamanders.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Charlotte M; Deban, Stephen M

    2017-08-19

    During aquatic feeding salamanders use the hyobranchial apparatus to capture prey. The hyobranchial apparatus depresses the floor of the mouth, effectively expanding the oropharyngeal cavity and generating suction. Within the family Salamandridae, there is a wide range of ecological diversity, with salamanders being terrestrial, semi-aquatic, or aquatic as adults. The purpose of this research was to quantify the diverse morphology and suction feeding performance of aquatically feeding salamandrids. We hypothesized that a more robust hyobranchial apparatus morphology would yield increased aquatic feeding performance. When compared to semi-aquatic newts, the fully aquatic species Paramesotriton labiatus had greater mineralization of the hyobranchial apparatus, as well as relatively more narrow basibranchial and wider ceratobranchial I+II complexes. These morphological differences coincide with greater aquatic feeding performance. Kinematics from high-speed videography revealed that maximum mouth opening velocity and acceleration were approximately two and five times greater, respectively, in Paramesotriton, and hyobranchial depression acceleration was found to be approximately three times greater than in the semi-aquatic species Pleurodeles waltl, Notophthalmus viridescens, Triturus dobrogicus, and Cynops cyanurus. Using digital particle image velocimetry, peak and average fluid velocity generated in Paramesotriton during suction feeding events were found to be 0.5ms(-1) and 0.2ms(-1), respectively, doubling that of all semi-aquatic species. These findings reveal that specialized morphology increases aquatic feeding performance in a fully aquatic newt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of biliverdin reductase increases ANG II-dependent superoxide levels in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Young, Shelby C.; Storm, Megan V.; Speed, Joshua S.; Kelsen, Silvia; Tiller, Chelsea V.; Vera, Trinity; Drummond, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the renal medulla increases carbon monoxide and bilirubin production and decreases ANG II-mediated superoxide production. The goal of this study was to determine the importance of increases in bilirubin to the antioxidant effects of HO-1 induction in cultured mouse thick ascending loop of Henle (TALH) and inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Bilirubin levels were decreased by using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted to biliverdin reductase (BVR), which is the cellular enzyme responsible for the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin. Treatment of cultured TALH or IMCD-3 cells with BVR siRNA (50 or 100 nM) resulted in an 80% decrease in the level of BVR protein and decreased cellular bilirubin levels from 46 ± 5 to 23 ± 4 nM (n = 4). We then determined the effects of inhibition of BVR on ANG II-mediated superoxide production. Superoxide production induced by ANG II (10−9 M) significantly increased in both TALH and IMCD-3 cells. Treatment of TALH cells with BVR siRNA resulted in a significant increase in ouabain-sensitive rubidium uptake from 95 ± 6 to 122 ± 5% control (n = 4, P < 0.05). Lastly, inhibition of BVR with siRNA did not prevent the decrease in superoxide levels observed in cells pretreated with the HO-1 inducer, hemin. We conclude that decreased levels of cellular bilirubin increase ANG II-mediated superoxide production and sodium transport; however, increases in bilirubin are not necessary for HO-1 induction to attenuate ANG II-mediated superoxide production. PMID:19759334

  7. The movement of aquatic mercury through terrestrial food webs.

    PubMed

    Cristol, Daniel A; Brasso, Rebecka L; Condon, Anne M; Fovargue, Rachel E; Friedman, Scott L; Hallinger, Kelly K; Monroe, Adrian P; White, Ariel E

    2008-04-18

    Mercury has contaminated rivers worldwide, with health consequences for aquatic organisms and humans who consume them. Researchers have focused on aquatic birds as sentinels for mercury. However, trophic transfer between adjacent ecosystems could lead to the export of aquatic mercury to terrestrial habitats. Along a mercury-contaminated river in Virginia, United States, terrestrial birds had significantly elevated levels of mercury in their blood, similar to their aquatic-feeding counterparts. Diet analysis revealed that spiders delivered much of the dietary mercury. We conclude that aquatic mercury pollution can move into terrestrial habitats, where it biomagnifies to levels in songbirds that may cause adverse effects. Rivers contaminated with mercury may pose a threat to the many bird species that feed on predatory invertebrates in adjacent riparian habitats.

  8. Strontium ranelate reduces the urinary level of cartilage degradation biomarker CTX-II in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, Peter; Karsdal, M A; Qvist, Per; Reginster, J-Y; Christiansen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Strontium ranelate significantly decreases the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether strontium ranelate (2 g/day) also affects cartilage brakedown as measured by urinary marker of cartilage degradation, designated CTX-II. A subgroup of 2617 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (aged 75.7+/-4.4 years) were selected from the TROPOS phase III study on the basis of a urinary sampling reported at each visit during the first three years of the study. When included in TROPOS, they were randomized to strontium ranelate or placebo in a double-blind fashion for 3 years. A calcium and vitamin D supplement was also provided to the subjects during the study. A marker of collagen type II degradation (CTX-II) corrected for urinary creatinine (CTX-II/cr.) was assessed at regular intervals throughout the study in 1310 patients in strontium ranelate group and 1307 patients in placebo group. The response in CTX-II depended on time (p<0.0001), and this time dependency differed statistically significantly between groups (time x treatment) (p<0.0003). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between treatments (p<0.0001). The difference in the response of CTX-II/cr. appeared already after three months, with the strontium ranelate-treated subjects having approximately 15-20% lower values than the placebo-treated subjects for the remaining study period (p<0.0001). Treatment with strontium ranelate significantly decreases urinary excretion of CTX-II, a marker of cartilage destruction. Further studies are warranted to investigate an effect on cartilage formation and symptoms of osteoarthritis.

  9. Atomic-level insights into metabolite recognition and specificity of the SAM-II riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Urmi; Kelley, Jennifer M; Hamelberg, Donald

    2012-02-01

    Although S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a metabolic by-product of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), differs from SAM only by a single methyl group and an overall positive charge, SAH binds the SAM-II riboswitch with more than 1000-fold less affinity than SAM. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the molecular basis of such high selectivity in ligand recognition by SAM-II riboswitch. The biosynthesis of SAM exclusively generates the (S,S) stereoisomer, and (S,S)-SAM can spontaneously convert to the (R,S) form. We, therefore, also examined the effects of (R,S)-SAM binding to SAM-II and its potential biological function. We find that the unfavorable loss in entropy in SAM-II binding is greater for (S,S)- and (R,S)-SAM than SAH, which is compensated by stabilizing electrostatic interactions with the riboswitch. The positively charged sulfonium moiety on SAM acts as the crucial anchor point responsible for the formation of key ionic interactions as it fits favorably in the negatively charged binding pocket. In contrast, SAH, with its lone pair of electrons on the sulfur, experiences repulsion in the binding pocket of SAM-II and is enthalpically destabilized. In the presence of SAH, similar to the unbound riboswitch, the pseudoknot structure of SAM-II is not completely formed, thus exposing the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Unlike SAM, this may further facilitate ribosomal assembly and translation initiation. Our analysis of the conformational ensemble sampled by SAM-II in the absence of ligands and when bound to SAM or SAH reveals that ligand binding follows a combination of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms.

  10. Atomic-level insights into metabolite recognition and specificity of the SAM-II riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Urmi; Kelley, Jennifer M.; Hamelberg, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Although S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a metabolic by-product of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), differs from SAM only by a single methyl group and an overall positive charge, SAH binds the SAM-II riboswitch with more than 1000-fold less affinity than SAM. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the molecular basis of such high selectivity in ligand recognition by SAM-II riboswitch. The biosynthesis of SAM exclusively generates the (S,S) stereoisomer, and (S,S)-SAM can spontaneously convert to the (R,S) form. We, therefore, also examined the effects of (R,S)-SAM binding to SAM-II and its potential biological function. We find that the unfavorable loss in entropy in SAM-II binding is greater for (S,S)- and (R,S)-SAM than SAH, which is compensated by stabilizing electrostatic interactions with the riboswitch. The positively charged sulfonium moiety on SAM acts as the crucial anchor point responsible for the formation of key ionic interactions as it fits favorably in the negatively charged binding pocket. In contrast, SAH, with its lone pair of electrons on the sulfur, experiences repulsion in the binding pocket of SAM-II and is enthalpically destabilized. In the presence of SAH, similar to the unbound riboswitch, the pseudoknot structure of SAM-II is not completely formed, thus exposing the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Unlike SAM, this may further facilitate ribosomal assembly and translation initiation. Our analysis of the conformational ensemble sampled by SAM-II in the absence of ligands and when bound to SAM or SAH reveals that ligand binding follows a combination of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms. PMID:22194311

  11. Dry creek long-term watershed study: assessment of immediate response of aquatic macroinvertebrates to watershed level harvesting and thinning of streamside management zones

    Treesearch

    M.W. Griswold; R.T. Winn; T.L. Crisman; W.R. White

    2006-01-01

    Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) are meant to protect riparian habitat and the stream ecosystem. Benthic macroinvertebrates are recognized bioindicators of water quality in streams, typically occupying multiple trophic levels in these systems and providing food for vertebrates. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of harvest within and adjacent to the SMZ...

  12. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an important gas exchange role in the C cycle between wetlands and the atmosphere.

  13. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an important gas exchange role in the C cycle between wetlands and the atmosphere.

  14. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  15. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  16. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  17. Cytochromes of Aquatic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Frank H.; Unestam, Torgny

    1968-01-01

    The cytochrome systems of two classes of aquatic fungi, the Oomycetes and Chytridiomycetes, were studied by means of reduced-minus-oxidized difference spectra at room and at low temperature. At room temperature, all of these fungi have a c-type cytochrome with an absorption maximum at 551 mμ and a b-type cytochrome at 564 mμ. The Oomycetes have a-type cytochromes at 605 mμ, and the Chytridiomycetes have a-type cytochromes at 606 mμ (Blastocladiales) or at 609 mμ (Monoblepharidales). Additional b-type cytochromes are found at 557 mμ in the Oomycetes and at approximately 560 mμ in the Chytridiomycetes. The data obtained from spectra at low temperature are consistent with these conclusions. Thus, the difference spectra reveal variation between the cytochrome systems of these two classes of aquatic fungi. PMID:5650068

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 20 (IRASTH00080020) on Town Highway 8, crossing the Black River, Irasburg, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure IRASTH00080020 on town highway 8 crossing the Black River, Irasburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland physiographic province of north-central Vermont in the town of Irasburg. The 110-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left bank surface cover is pasture and row crops and the right bank is covered by shrub and brush and is adjacent to woods. In the study area, the Black River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 90 ft and an average channel depth of 5 ft. The predominant channel bed material is gravel and cobbles (D50 is 49.7 mm or 0.163 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 4, 1994, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The town highway 8 crossing of the Black River is a 88-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of one 80-foot span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., August 2, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls on the upstream and downstream sides of the right abutment. The right abutment has stone fill protection. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour

  19. Curcumin induces high levels of topoisomerase I- and II-DNA complexes in K562 leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    López-Lázaro, Miguel; Willmore, Elaine; Jobson, Andrew; Gilroy, Kathryn L; Curtis, Hannah; Padget, Kay; Austin, Caroline A

    2007-12-01

    Recent data suggest that curcumin, a phytochemical with cancer chemopreventive potential, might be useful in the treatment of several solid and hematological malignancies. DNA topoisomerases (topos) are the target of several drugs commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. These drugs induce topo-DNA complexes with either topo I or topo II; then cellular processing converts these complexes into permanent DNA strand breaks that trigger cell death. Using the TARDIS in vivo assay, this study shows for the first time that curcumin induces topo I and topo II (alpha and beta)-DNA complexes in K562 leukemia cells. A comparative analysis revealed that the levels of these complexes were higher than those induced by several standard topo I and topo II inhibitors at equitoxic doses. Curcumin-induced topo I and topo II-DNA complexes were prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine; this suggests that, unlike the standard topo inhibitors, reactive oxygen species may mediate the formation of these complexes. Overall, this work shows that curcumin is capable of inducing topo-DNA complexes in cells with both topo I and topo II and increases the evidence suggesting that this dietary agent has potential to be tested in cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Aquatic sports massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Bell, G W

    1999-04-01

    Athletic trainers are continually bombarded with requests to assist aquatic athletes with the management of musculoskeletal concerns involved with training and overtraining. The trainer has options for initial training management through the administration of massage, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, and injury-preventative strengthening exercises. This article describes and illustrates athletic training techniques such as massage, cryotherapy or cold applications, thermotherapy or heat applications, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation or strengthening exercise.

  1. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  2. Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-02-06

    The contamination of marine and freshwater ecosystems with plastic, and especially with microplastic (MP), is a global ecological problem of increasing scientific concern. This has stimulated a great deal of research on the occurrence of MP, interaction of MP with chemical pollutants, the uptake of MP by aquatic organisms, and the resulting (negative) impact of MP. Herein, we review the major issues of MP in aquatic environments, with the principal aims 1) to characterize the methods applied for MP analysis (including sampling, processing, identification and quantification), indicate the most reliable techniques, and discuss the required further improvements; 2) to estimate the abundance of MP in marine/freshwater ecosystems and clarify the problems that hamper the comparability of such results; and 3) to summarize the existing literature on the uptake of MP by living organisms. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps, suggest possible strategies to assess environmental risks arising from MP, and discuss prospects to minimize MP abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Implementation of a Proficiency-Based Diploma System in Maine: Phase II--District Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Stump, Erika K.; McCafferty, Anita Stewart; Hawes, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the findings from Phase II of a study of Maine's implementation of a proficiency-based diploma system. At the request of the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs of the Maine Legislature, the Maine Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a two-phased study of the implementation of Maine law…

  4. COURSE OUTLINE FOR FIRST SIX WEEKS FOR SCIENCE-LEVEL II, TALENT PRESERVATION CLASSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX.

    THE FIRST 6-WEEK UNIT CONCERNS ANIMAL LIFE, AND TOPICS INCLUDE PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES, AND VERTEBRATES. UNIT II, "THE HUMAN BODY", INCLUDES BODY SYSTEMS, HEALTH, AND SAFETY. TEXTBOOK REFERENCES, CONTENT OUTLINE, TEACHING SUGGESTIONS, REFERENCE READINGS, AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS ARE GIVEN UNDER EACH TOPIC. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT FIRST…

  5. COURSE OUTLINE FOR FIRST SIX WEEKS FOR SCIENCE-LEVEL II, TALENT PRESERVATION CLASSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX.

    THE FIRST 6-WEEK UNIT CONCERNS ANIMAL LIFE, AND TOPICS INCLUDE PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES, AND VERTEBRATES. UNIT II, "THE HUMAN BODY", INCLUDES BODY SYSTEMS, HEALTH, AND SAFETY. TEXTBOOK REFERENCES, CONTENT OUTLINE, TEACHING SUGGESTIONS, REFERENCE READINGS, AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS ARE GIVEN UNDER EACH TOPIC. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT FIRST…

  6. The importance of synapsin I and II for neurotransmitter levels and vesicular storage in cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Inger Lise; Haug, Kristin Huse; Roberg, Bjørg; Fonnum, Frode; Walaas, S Ivar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the importance of the vesicle-associated synapsin I and II phosphoproteins for the accumulation of neurotransmitters in central cholinergic as compared to central glutamatergic and GABAergic nerve terminals. In brain homogenate samples from mice devoid of synapsin I and II, the levels of vesicular transporters for glutamate (VGLUT1-2) and GABA (VGAT) were decreased by 35-40% in striatum and cortex, while no change was apparent for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). The severe decrease in the levels of amino acid vesicular transporters caused only minor changes in the concentrations of the respective neurotransmitters in homogenates of the three selected brain areas from synapsin I- and II-deficient mice. However, when measured in a crude vesicular fraction, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA were decreased by 48-60% in synapsin-deficient mice, with a similar decrease in the levels of VGLUT1, VGLUT2 and VGAT. In comparison, the concentration of acetylcholine and the level of VAChT were not significantly different from wild-type in the vesicular fraction. No changes were seen in the activity of specific enzymes involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine, glutamate or GABA, however, immunoblotting indicated a decrease in the protein level of glutamic acid decarboxylase, isoform 65 (GAD(65)). In conclusion, the results indicate that neurotransmitter regulation in central cholinergic synapses may be less dependent on synapsin I and II compared to the marked alterations seen in the glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses.

  7. The major function of a metallothionein from the aquatic fungus Heliscus lugdunensis is cadmium detoxification.

    PubMed

    Loebus, Jens; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meissner, Diana; Braha, Bianca; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Freisinger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    A spring from a former copper shale mine in the area of Mansfelder Land, Germany, shows extremely high transition metal ion concentrations, i.e. 40mM Zn(II), 208μM Cu(II), 61μM As(V), and 25μM Cd(II). This makes it a challenging habitat for living organisms as they have to cope with metal ion concentrations that by far exceed the values usually observed in spring water. One of the surviving species found is the aquatic fungus Heliscus lugdunensis (teleomorph: Nectria lugdunensis). Investigation of its redox related heavy metal tolerance revealed the presence of small thiol containing compounds as well as a small metallothionein, Neclu_MT1 (MT1_NECLU: P84865). While Cd(II)-induction of metallothioneins is observed in many species, the fact that exclusively Cd(II), but not Zn(II), Cu(I), As(III) or oxidative stress can induce Neclu_MT1 protein synthesis is unparalleled. To complement the physiological studies performed in the fungus H. lugdunensis, the Cd(II) and Zn(II) binding characteristics of the recombinantly expressed protein were spectroscopically analysed in vitro aiming to demonstrate the observed Cd(II) specificity also on the protein level. Stoichiometric analyses of the recombinant protein in combination with photospectrometric metal ion titrations and (113)Cd-NMR experiments reveal that metal ion binding capacities and consequently the structures formed at physiological Neclu_MT1 concentrations differ from each other. Concluding, we describe the first solely Cd(II)-inducible metallothionein, Neclu_MT1, from H. lugdunensis, featuring a difference in the structure of the Cd(II)versus the Zn(II) metalated protein in a physiologically relevant concentration range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated soluble HLA II protein levels in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with or without COPD.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Kueppers, Friedrich; Hildebrand, William; Buchli, Rico; Gaughan, John

    2012-08-01

    Elevated levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins have been reported in several pathologic conditions that are associated with increased concentrations of white blood cells (e.g., infection, inflammation, and lymphoproliferative disorders). The mechanisms by which HLA proteins are solubilized from cell membranes are insufficiently understood. We hypothesized that HLA proteins may be cleaved from cell membranes by insufficiently inhibited leukocytic elastase, as expected in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD), resulting in elevated plasma levels of soluble HLA (sHLA) proteins. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured sHLA II levels in the peripheral blood of patients with A1ATD with or without co-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with COPD only, and in a control group. Mean (±SD) sHLA II plasma levels were 110 ± 200 pg/mL in patients with A1ATD and COPD (Group 1), 10 ± 30 pg/mL in patients with COPD without A1ATD (Group 2), 70 ± 90 pg/mL in patients with A1ATD without COPD (Group 3), and 10 ± 30 pg/mL in healthy donors (Group 4). Soluble HLA II plasma levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P = .001) and Group 3 (P = .002) versus Group 4. Our preliminary results suggest that leukocytic elastase and probably other proteinases solubilize HLA proteins from cell membranes. This mechanism would operate in inflammation with elevated leukocytic elastase levels but more so with inflammation and A1ATD, where elastase would be insufficiently inhibited. If this mechanism is verified, plasma sHLA levels could potentially be used to measure cell damage due to proteinases and, therefore, for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) augmentation therapy.

  9. PRESTO-II computer code for safety assessment on shallow land disposal of low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) computer code has been applied for the following sites; Koteyli, Balikesir and Kozakli, Nevsehir in Turkey. This site selection was based partially on the need to consider a variety of hydrologic and climatic situations, and partially on the availability of data. The results obtained for the operational low-level waste disposal site at Barnwell, South Carolina, are presented for comparison. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Aquatic Life Criteria - Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.

  11. Effective Best Management Practices for Nitrogen Removal in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater are detrimental to human and ecosystem health. The Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the USEPA investigates best management practices (BMP’s) that enhance nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems througho...

  12. Effective Best Management Practices for Nitrogen Removal in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater are detrimental to human and ecosystem health. The Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the USEPA investigates best management practices (BMP’s) that enhance nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems througho...

  13. Predicting variability of aquatic concentrations of human pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aquatic environment is a subject of ongoing concern. We recently estimated maximum likely potency-normalized exposure rates at the national level for several hundred commonly used human prescription pharmaceut...

  14. Predicting variability of aquatic concentrations of human pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aquatic environment is a subject of ongoing concern. We recently estimated maximum likely potency-normalized exposure rates at the national level for several hundred commonly used human prescription pharmaceut...

  15. Radiative data for highly excited 3d84d levels in Ni II from laboratory measurements and atomic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, H.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.; Malcheva, G.; Blagoev, K.

    2017-04-01

    Aims: This work reports new experimental radiative lifetimes and calculated oscillator strengths for transitions from 3d84d levels of astrophysical interest in singly ionized nickel. Methods: Radiative lifetimes of seven high-lying levels of even parity in Ni II (98 400-100 600 cm-1) have been measured using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence method. Two-step photon excitation of ions produced by laser ablation has been utilized to populate the levels. Theoretical calculations of the radiative lifetimes of the measured levels and transition probabilities from these levels are reported. The calculations have been performed using a pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock method, taking into account core polarization effects. Results: A new set of transition probabilities and oscillator strengths has been deduced for 477 Ni II transitions of astrophysical interest in the spectral range 194-520 nm depopulating even parity 3d84d levels. The new calculated gf-values are, on the average, about 20% higher than a previous calculation and yield lifetimes within 5% of the experimental values.

  16. Level II Documentation of Launch Complex 31/32, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    two stories tall and a specially designed folding erector gantry that raised the missile from horizontal to vertical for mounting on the launch...attached to an 80-ton crane and either placed on the pad launcher, or low- ered into the silo (Figure 31). 139 Once in place, the missile’s...flatbed, crane , and cable system for load- ing the missile into the silo (Figure 34). This new system continued in use for the Min- uteman II and III

  17. Low Level of Microsatellite Instability Correlates with Poor Clinical Prognosis in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Mirtalebi, Hanieh; Taleghani, Mohammad Yaghoob; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Savabkar, Sanaz; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) requires more investigation. We assessed the role of MSI status in survival of individuals diagnosed with primary colorectal cancer. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the MSI status was determined in 158 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors and their matched normal tissues from patients who underwent curative surgery. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to assess the clinical prognostic significance. In this study we found that MSI-H tumors were predominantly located in the colon versus rectum (p = 0.03), associated with poorer differentiation (p = 0.003) and TNM stage II/III of tumors (p = 0.02). In CRC patients with stage II, MSI-L cases showed significantly poorer survival compared with patients who had MSI-H or MSS tumors (p = 0.04). This study indicates that MSI-L tumors correlate with poorer clinical outcome in patients with stage II tumors (p = 0.04) or in tumors located in the colon (p = 0.02). MSI-L characterizes a distinct subgroup of CRC patients who have a poorer outcome. This study suggests that MSI status in CRC, as a clinical prognostic marker, is dependent on other factors, such as tumor stage and location. PMID:27429617

  18. The Development of a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem and Computer Operator Training Material for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    The design, development, and evaluation of an integrated Computer-Directed Training Subsystem (CDTS) for the Air Force Phase II Base Level System is described in this report. The development and evaluation of a course to train computer operators of the Air Force Phase II Base Level System under CDTS control is also described. Detailed test results…

  19. A long-term, multitrophic level study to assess pulp and paper mill effluent effects on aquatic communities in four US receiving waters: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Hall, Timothy J; Fisher, Robert P; Rodgers, John H; Minshall, G Wayne; Landis, Wayne G; Kovacs, Tibor; Firth, Barry K; Dubé, Monique G; Flinders, Camille A; Deardorff, Thomas L; Borton, Dennis L

    2009-04-01

    fish communities and consequently a better understanding of how potential effluent effects signals could be expressed within this variability. The study incorporated an adaptive management strategy that provided for study design and monitoring modifications over time as a way of benefiting from practical experience and knowledge gained through time and to optimize the use of study resources. Results from this initial 8 y of monitoring, to our knowledge, represent the longest-known population/community-level assessment of the in-stream effects of pulp and paper mill effluents. Beyond the lessons learned with respect to effluent effects are those related to the esign and conduct of long-term watershed-scale studies that may be of use to others in developing watershed assessment or management programs.

  20. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  1. [The present level of post-traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of child survivors of World War II].

    PubMed

    Lis-Turlejska, Maja; Szumiał, Szymon; Okuniewska, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of PTSD and level of symptoms more broadly considered as post-traumatic e.g. depression among Polish child survivors of World War II. Data were collected from 218 individuals aged 63-78. a list of questions regarding exposure to a range of war related traumas; PDS (Foa, 1995); IES (Horowitz et al., 1976) to measure PTSD symptoms and BDI (Beck et al., 1961) for depression symptoms. Exposure to potentially traumatic events related to the WWII varied from 1.83% to 47.25%. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms at a diagnostic level according to PDS was 29.4%. The mean values B, C and D-category symptoms were respectively: 2.08 (SD=1.74), 2.34 (SD=1.98) and 2.40 (SD=1.69). Greater age, parental loss and exposure to at least one traumatic war-related event (this variable was close to the level of statistical significance, however) were all predictors of a diagnostic level of PTSD symptoms. 60 years after WW II about one-third of respondents manifest a clinical level of PTSD symptoms. Taking into consideration the results of the research on the child survivors of the modern wars, psychosocial and cultural factors should also be examined as causes of this phenomenon.

  2. Changes in hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformation enzyme expression and glutathione levels following atrazine exposure in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Arthur D; Breckenridge, Charles B; Yi, Kun D; Sawhney Coder, Pragati; Wanders, Desiree; Judd, Robert L; Foradori, Chad D

    2017-10-05

    1. To determine the effects of repeated atrazine (ATR) treatment on hepatic phase I and II enzymes, adult female rats were treated with vehicle or 100 mg/kg of ATR for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days. Glutathione-s-transferases (GST) mRNA expression, protein levels (mu, pi, alpha, omega), and activity (cytosolic and microsomal), along with bioavailable glutathione (GSH) were assayed. 2. GST expression, concentrations and activity were increased, along with GSH levels, in animals treated with ATR for 3 and 4 days. 3. A subsequent study was performed with animals treated with vehicle, 6.5, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day for 4, 8 or 14 days. Expression of hepatic phase I CYP 450 enzymes was evaluated in conjugation with GST expression, protein and activity. Nineteen of the 45 CYP enzymes assayed displayed increased mRNA levels after eight days of treatment in animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. After 14 days of treatment, all CYP expression levels returned to control levels except for CYP2B2, CYP2B3, CYP2C7, CYP2C23, CYP2E1, CYP3A9, CYP4A3 and CYP27A1, which remained elevated. 4. Results indicate that there may be a habituation or adaptation of liver phase I and phase II expression following repeated ATR treatment.

  3. Prediction of metaphase II oocytes according to different serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in antagonist ICSI cycles

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Joyce B; Panaino, Tatiana R; Tamm, Maria A; Lira, Paloma; Arêas, Patricia C F; Mancebo, Ana C A; de Souza, Marcelo M; Antunes, Roberto A; de Souza, Maria do Carmo B

    2016-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to assess a qualitative aspect of ovarian response in terms of metaphase II oocytes according to different serum Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in antagonist ICSI cycles. A prediction index might contribute to the individualization of care. Methods This observational study looked into 287 antagonist ICSI cycles carried out with patients treated in a single center between January of 2012 and January of 2016. Serum AMH and subgroup analyses were performed based on five AMH ranges (≤ 0.3 ng/mL;> 0.3 and ≤ 0.7 ng/mL; > 0.7 and ≤ 1.0 ng/mL; > 1.0 and < 3.0 ng/mL; ≥ 3.0 ng/mL). The variables analyzed included patient age; serum FSH and antral follicle count at the start of the cycle; number of stimulation days and number follicles ≥ 15 mm on hCG day; number of oocytes retrieved and number of metaphase II oocytes. Results AMH is a better predictor of ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation than AFC or serum FSH, while age is an independent marker. AMH levels ≤0.70 (patients with poor prognosis) were observed in 140 patients (48.7%). Patients within this AMH level range accounted for 92% of the 24 failed cycles (cancelled cycles, no oocytes or immature oocytes retrieved). Conclusion AMH predicts the quality of ovarian response to stimulation, regardless of patient age. Women with AMH levels ≥1.0 and ≤3.0 ng/mL are probably normal responders with good prognosis. Clinical application relies on the examination of the data from each individual center and on the establishment of correlations between AMH levels and ovarian response in the form of metaphase II oocytes. PMID:28050957

  4. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  5. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hiroaki; Kutomi, Goro; Satomi, Fukino; Maeda, Hideki; Takamaru, Tomoko; Kameshima, Hidekazu; Omura, Tosei; Mori, Mitsuru; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-11-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes.

  6. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  7. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    PubMed

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquatic species program

    SciTech Connect

    Bollmeier, W.S.; Sprague, S.

    1989-09-01

    Researchers have learned that many species of aquatic microalgae produce lipids, or oils, when stimulated by environmental stress. These oils can then be processed into diesel fuel or gasoline. Scientists in the Department of Energy (DOE)/Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Aquatics Species Program have collected and screened more than 3,000 strains of microalgae from desert and saline environments. The most promising of these strains are maintained in a culture collection at SERI, and research is now focusing on applying genetic techniques to enhance lipid production of microalgae. Researchers are also studying ways to optimize microalgae lipid production by growing the microalgae in intensive cultures of large outdoor ponds. Because microalgae require large amounts of carbon dioxide as a nutrient, these microalgae facilities could be coupled with a power plant or other source of carbon dioxide. Thus, this technology offers not only the potential of producing renewable liquid fuels, but a possible way to improve the environment at the same time. 135 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rabalais, Nancy N

    2002-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems respond variably to nutrient enrichment and altered nutrient ratios, along a continuum from fresh water through estuarine, coastal, and marine systems. Although phosphorus is considered the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in freshwater systems, the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and its contribution to acidification of fresh waters can be detrimental. Within the estuarine to coastal continuum, multiple nutrient limitations occur among nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon along the salinity gradient and by season, but nitrogen is generally considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton biomass accumulation. There are well-established, but nonlinear, positive relationships among nitrogen and phosphorus flux, phytoplankton primary production, and fisheries yield. There are thresholds, however, where the load of nutrients to estuarine, coastal and marine systems exceeds the capacity for assimilation of nutrient-enhanced production, and water-quality degradation occurs. Impacts can include noxious and toxic algal blooms, increased turbidity with a subsequent loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, oxygen deficiency, disruption of ecosystem functioning, loss of habitat, loss of biodiversity, shifts in food webs, and loss of harvestable fisheries.

  10. An analysis of the job of strength and conditioning coach for football at the Division II level.

    PubMed

    Massey, C Dwayne; Schwind, Justin J; Andrews, Donnie C; Maneval, Mark W

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the working environment of the heretofore unexamined Division II football strength and conditioning coach (SCC). Data were collected on demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, major job duties and responsibilities, work environment, and professional and personal relationships. A total of 63 questionnaires were returned by the potential 155 institutions identified at the Division II level. Percentages were used in the reporting of data. The results indicate that this group is relatively young (34.1), new to the profession, have low job stability, a low rate of professional certification, make a salary less than their Division I-A counterparts, and assume more duties and responsibilities than their Division I-A colleagues. Despite these apparent drawbacks, by and large, these SCC appeared content with their career choice and circumstances.

  11. Family Integrated Care (FICare) in Level II Neonatal Intensive Care Units: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Benzies, Karen M; Shah, Vibhuti; Aziz, Khalid; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Palacio-Derflingher, Luz; Scotland, Jeanne; Larocque, Jill; Mrklas, Kelly; Suter, Esther; Naugler, Christopher; Stelfox, Henry T; Chari, Radha; Lodha, Abhay

    2017-10-10

    Every year, about 15 million of the world's infants are born preterm (before 37 weeks gestation). In Alberta, the preterm birth rate was 8.7% in 2015, the second highest among Canadian provinces. Approximately 20% of preterm infants are born before 32 weeks gestation (early preterm), and require care in a Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); 80% are born moderate (32 weeks and zero days [32(0/7)] to 33(6/7) weeks) and late preterm (34(0/7) to 36(6/7) weeks), and require care in a Level II NICU. Preterm birth and experiences in the NICU disrupt early parent-infant relationships and induce parental psychosocial distress. Family Integrated Care (FICare) shows promise as a model of care in Level III NICUs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate length of stay, infant and maternal clinical outcomes, and costs following adaptation and implementation of FICare in Level II NICUs. We will conduct a pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) in ten Alberta Level II NICUs allocated to one of two groups: FICare or standard care. The FICare Alberta model involves three theoretically-based, standardized components: information sharing, parenting education, and family support. Our sample size of 181 mother-infant dyads per group is based on the primary outcome of NICU length of stay, 80% participation, and 80% retention at follow-up. Secondary outcomes (e.g., infant clinical outcomes and maternal psychosocial distress) will be assessed shortly after admission to NICU, at discharge and 2 months corrected age. We will conduct economic analysis from two perspectives: the public healthcare payer and society. To understand the utility, acceptability, and impact of FICare, qualitative interviews will be conducted with a subset of mothers at the 2-month follow-up, and with hospital administrators and healthcare providers near the end of the study. Results of this pragmatic cRCT of FICare in Alberta Level II NICUs will inform policy decisions by

  12. The possible influence of upstream upper-level baroclinic processes on the development of the QE II storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the QE II storm of September 9-11, 1978 presents evidence for the existence of upper-level baroclinic processes upstream of the rapidly developing cyclone. The analysis shows that a deepening shortwave trough was located 400 to 500 km upstream of the site of the storm 12 h prior to rapid cyclogenesis. The trough was associated with: (1) a polar jet marked by 65 m/s winds in its core and significant vertical and horizontal wind shear, (2) positive vorticity advection and divergence at the 300 mb level, and (3) an intense frontal zone that extended from 300 mb down to the surface. It also appears that a tropopause fold likely extruded stratospheric air down to the 700-800 mb level, 400-500 km upstream of the surface low and 12 h prior to the explosive development phase of the cyclone. These findings raise questions about Gyakum's (1983) assertion that the QE II storm developed in an area in which the baroclinic support was confined to the lower troposphere and the related assertion by Anthes et al. (1983) that upper-level forcing upstream of the area of rapid cyclogenesis was weak and apparently not important in this case.

  13. The Indian Reading Series: Stories and Legends of the Northwest. Level II. Books 1-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Designed as supplementary reading materials for Indian and non-Indian children in the primary grades, this series of 10 booklets presents 13 legends and 7 stories of Northwest tribes. Stories in this second level of the six-level series were developed cooperatively by people of the Crow, Muckleshoot, Skokomish, Blackfeet, Northern Cheyenne,…

  14. Teaching Games Level Design Using the StarCraft II Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetser, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Level design is often characterised as "where the rubber hits the road" in game development. It is a core area of games design, alongside design of game rules and narrative. However, there is a lack of literature dedicated to documenting teaching games design, let alone the more specialised topic of level design. Furthermore, there…

  15. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-11-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The principles used to provide supplemental

  16. Aquatic facility design-designing for Atlantis?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Doreen H

    2005-01-01

    The requirements for aquatic facility design differ greatly from those of a rodent facility. The author discusses factors to consider when planning new construction of an aquatic facility or renovating space to house aquatic species.

  17. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  18. Tool use by aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  19. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 10 (HANCTH00010010) on Town Highway 1, crossing the White River, Hancock, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HANCTH00010010 on town highway 1 crossing the White River, Hancock, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province of central Vermont. The 59.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is primarily grass with trees and brush on the immediate channel banks. In the study area, the White River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 104 ft and an average channel depth of 6 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 98.9 mm (0.325 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on November 15, 1994, indicated that the reach was stable. The town highway 1 crossing of the White River is a 91-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 89-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 26, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed

  1. Robot-assisted selective neck dissection of levels II to V via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Holsinger, F Christopher; Kim, Won Shik; Park, Sang Chul; Lee, Eun Jung; Choi, Eun Chang; Koh, Yoon Woo

    2013-05-01

    We performed robot-assisted selective neck dissection via a modified facelift or retroauricular approach without creating an apparent scar around the neck to remove neck node of levels II to V after transoral robotic surgery of a primary lesion in patients with laryngopharyngeal carcinoma. Patient data were prospectively analyzed to verify the feasibility and efficacy of robot-assisted neck dissection in the treatment of cN0 laryngopharyngeal carcinoma. Prospective case series. University tertiary care facility. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 7 patients were enrolled in the study. Before study initiation, the Institutional Review Board of Yonsei University approved the protocol, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Robot-assisted neck dissection was successfully performed in all patients. Five patients underwent selective neck dissection including levels II to IV, and 2 patients underwent selective neck dissection including levels II to V. The average number of lymph nodes retrieved was 25.1. Occult nodal metastasis was found in 1 (14%) neck specimen. During the follow-up period (mean of 13.5 months), all patients were alive without locoregional recurrence. All patients were extremely satisfied with their cosmetic results. Robot-assisted selective neck dissection is a feasible and safe technique to manage the neck in cN0 laryngopharyngeal carcinoma patients. It may be especially helpful for patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery since no apparent scar around the neck remains. Long-term results with respect to oncologic safety and functional outcomes are required to establish the validity of robot-assisted neck dissection.

  2. The importance of the level of the lip line and resting lip pressure in Class II, Division 2 malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Lapatki, B G; Mager, A S; Schulte-Moenting, J; Jonas, I E

    2002-05-01

    Many clinicians hypothesize that retroclination of the maxillary central incisors in Class II, Division 2 malocclusion is caused by increased resting lip pressure against these teeth. The purpose of this study was (1) to verify this assumption by means of simultaneous lip-pressure measurements at two different levels on the maxillary central incisor crowns, and (2) to examine factors that could possibly contribute to the increased resting lip pressure. This is the first study to prove that individuals with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion (n = 21) have the upper central incisors exposed to significantly higher lip pressure than those with Class I malocclusion (n = 21). Our statistical evaluation revealed that this is primarily attributed to a high lip line and not to a hypertonic peri-oral musculature. We concluded that orthodontic treatment of Class II, Division 2 cases should include intrusion of the maxillary incisors, to eliminate the non-physiologically high pressure exerted by the lower lip on these teeth and, consequently, to reduce the high risk of a post-orthodontic relapse.

  3. Molecular structure of phthalocyaninatotin(II) studied by gas-phase electron diffraction and high-level quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Strenalyuk, Tatyana; Samdal, Svein; Volden, Hans Vidar

    2008-10-09

    The molecular structure of phthalocyaninatotin(II), Sn(II)Pc, is determined by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) calculations using various basis sets and gas-phase electron diffraction (GED). The quantum chemical calculations show that Sn(II)Pc has C4V symmetry, and this symmetry is consistent with the structure obtained by GED at 427 degrees C. GED locates the Sn atom at h(Sn) ) 112.8(48) pm above the plane defined by the four isoindole N atoms, and a N-Sn bond length of 226.0(10) pm is obtained. Calculation at the B3LYP/ccpVTZ/cc-pVTZ-PP(Sn) level of theory gives h(Sn) ) 114.2 pm and a N-Sn bond length of 229.4 pm. The phthalocyanine (Pc) macrocycle has a slightly nonplanar structure. Generally, the GED results are in good agreement with the X-ray structures and with the computed structure; however, the comparability between these three methods has been questioned. The N-Sn bond lengths determined by GED and X-ray are significantly shorter than those from the B3LYP predictions. Similar trends have been found for C-Sn bonds for conjugated organometallic tin compounds. Computed vibrational frequencies give five low frequencies in the range of 18-54 cm-1, which indicates a flexible molecule.

  4. Electronic Levels Of Cr2+ Ion Doped In II-VI Compounds Of ZnS - Crystal Field Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaşcu, Simona

    2012-12-01

    The aim of present paper is to report the results on the modeling of the crystal field and spin-Hamiltonian parameters of Cr2+ doped in II-VI host matrix ZnS and simulate the energy levels scheme of such system taken into account the fine interactions entered in the Hamiltonian of the system. All considered types of such interaction are expected to give information on the new peculiarities of the absorption and emission bands, as well as of non-radiative transitions between the electronic states of impurity ions. The obtained results were disscused, compared with similar obtained results in literature and with experimental data.

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (BRNATH00290034) on Town Highway 29, crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1996-01-01

    The Town Highway 29 crossing of Locust Creek is a 37-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 32-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 23, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 25 degrees. There was no observable scour protection measure at the site. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (BRNATH00660028) on Town Highway 66, crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severence, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Town Highway 66 crossing of the Locust Creek is a 41-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 39 ft steel stringer type bridge with a concrete deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 24, 1994). The clear span is 36.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The upstream right wingwall is protected by stone fill. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E.

  7. Waving of Aquatic Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Richards, K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the fluid-structure interaction between submerged flexible grass stems and unidirectional flow in a channel. The stems deform in response to the drag force imposed by the flow. The drag, however, varies non-linearly with the fluid velocity and it's angle of incidence with the stems' axis. An increase in fluid velocity increases drag that consequently decelerates the fluid, but also bends the stems further and reduces drag. Such a drag-induced feedback mechanism between the plant structures and water results in an instability that is responsible for the synchronous waving of aquatic grasses in a flow field that is initially uniform. We construct a model for this phenomenon to explore its dependence on parameters. Experiments are also in progress. We further propose to test the applicability of similar mechanisms to sediment transport over deformable beds.

  8. Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Minette; Ly, Judy; Saing, Tommy; Kaur Singh, Manpreet; Vera Tudela, Enrique; Morris, Devin; Chi, Po-Ting; Ochoa, Cesar; Sathananthan, Airani; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to M

  9. Investigating the Causes for Decreased Levels of Glutathione in Individuals with Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lagman, Minette; Ly, Judy; Saing, Tommy; Morris, Devin; Chi, Po-Ting; Ochoa, Cesar; Sathananthan, Airani; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world’s population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to

  10. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-08-10

    We present that third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. In conclusion, this made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The principles

  11. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    DOE PAGES

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    We present that third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and rampedmore » operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. In conclusion, this made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The

  12. Insar of Aquatic Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarikhi, P.

    2012-07-01

    Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR) single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM) from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  13. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Orvos, David R; Versteeg, Donald J; Inauen, Josef; Capdevielle, Marie; Rothenstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Virginia

    2002-07-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 microg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 microg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 microg/L and 71.3 microg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Oncorhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 microg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 microg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 microg/L and 2,532 at 30 microg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.

  14. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  15. A simple closed aquatic ecosystem (CAES) for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding; Li, Genbao; Hu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan

    A closed aquatic ecosystem (CAES) was developed to study the effects of microgravity on the function of closed ecosystems aboard the Chinese retrieved satellite and on the spacecraft SHENZHOU-II. These systems housed a small freshwater snail (Bulinus australianus) and an autotrophic green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa). The results of the test on the satellite were that the concentration of algae changed little, but that the snails died during the experiments. We then sought to optimize the function of the control system, the cultural conditions and the data acquisition system and carried out an experiment on the spacecraft SHENZHOU-II. Using various sensors to monitor the CAES, real-time data regarding the operation of the CAES in microgravity was acquired. In addition, an on-board 1g centrifuge was included to identify gravity-related factors. It was found that microgravity is the major factor affecting the operation of the CAES in space. The change in biomass of the primary producer during each day in microgravity was larger than that of the control groups. The mean biomass concentration per day in the microgravity group decreased, but that of the control groups increased for several days and then leveled off. Space effects on the biomass of a primary producer may be a result of microgravity effects leading to increasing metabolic rates of the consumer combined with decreases in photosynthesis.

  16. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  17. Continuous assimilation of simulated Geosat altimetric sea level into an eddy-resolving numerical ocean model. I - Sea level differences. II - Referenced sea level differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren B.; Tai, Chang-Kou; Holland, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The optimal interpolation method of Lorenc (1981) was used to conduct continuous assimilation of altimetric sea level differences from the simulated Geosat exact repeat mission (ERM) into a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving numerical ocean box model that simulates the statistics of mesoscale eddy activity in the western North Pacific. Assimilation was conducted continuously as the Geosat tracks appeared in simulated real time/space, with each track repeating every 17 days, but occurring at different times and locations within the 17-day period, as would have occurred in a realistic nowcast situation. This interpolation method was also used to conduct the assimilation of referenced altimetric sea level differences into the same model, performing the referencing of altimetric sea sevel differences by using the simulated sea level. The results of this dynamical interpolation procedure are compared with those of a statistical (i.e., optimum) interpolation procedure.

  18. Naringin Levels in Citrus Tissues : II. Quantitative Distribution of Naringin in Citrus paradisi MacFad.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, P S; McIntosh, C A; Mansell, R L

    1985-04-01

    The quantitative distribution of the flavanone-7-neohesperidoside, naringin, in seeds, seedlings, young plants, branches, flowers, and fruit of Citrus paradisi Macfad., cv ;Duncan' was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. High levels of naringin were associated with very young tissue and lower levels were found in older tissues. Seed coats of ungerminated seeds and young shoots had high naringin concentrations whereas cotyledons and roots had very low concentrations. Light-grown seedlings contained nearly twice as much naringin as etiolated seedlings and, in young plants and branches, the naringin content was highest in developing leaves and stem tissue. In flowers, the ovary had the highest levels of naringin, accounting for nearly 11% of the fresh weight. There was a net increase in the total naringin content of fruits during growth. However, due to the large increase in fruit size, there was a concomitant decrease in the naringin concentration as the fruit matured.

  19. Studies on the complexation of neodymium(III) ion with 1,2,4-1H-triazole and 1,2,3-benzotriazole in absence and presence of calcium(II) ion in aqueous and some selected different aquated organic solvents by an absorption spectroscopy involving 4f-4f transitions.

    PubMed

    Huidrom, Bimola; Ranjana Devi, N; Singh, Th David; Singh, N Rajmuhon

    2012-01-01

    The absorption spectra of trivalent neodymium ion with 1,2,4-1H-triazole and 1,2,3-benzotriazole in absence and presence of calcium(II) ion in aqueous and some selected different aquated organic solvents have been recorded in the visible and near infrared regions. From the data available in the absorption spectra, various spectroscopic parameters such as Slator-Condon (F(k)), Lande spin-orbit coupling constant (ξ(4f)), nephelauxetic ratio (β), bonding parameter (b(1/2)), percent covalency (δ), oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt intensity (T(λ)) parameters have been evaluated. The Judd-Ofelt intensity, T(λ) (λ=2, 4, 6) parameters are utilized in evaluating the P(cal) from various excited states of trivalent neodymium ions and ratifying as an inner sphere complexations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Homemade Equipment for the Teaching of Electrochemistry at Advanced Level. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a detailed description for the construction of equipment needed to investigate acid/base equilibria through the measurement of pH and potentiometric titrations. Suggested experiments and calibration techniques are explained. This information helps to solve the problems of inadequate, expensive equipment required for A-level chemistry…

  1. Homemade Equipment for the Teaching of Electrochemistry at Advanced Level. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a detailed description for the construction of equipment needed to investigate acid/base equilibria through the measurement of pH and potentiometric titrations. Suggested experiments and calibration techniques are explained. This information helps to solve the problems of inadequate, expensive equipment required for A-level chemistry…

  2. Cost Benefit Analysis of Providing Level II Trauma Care at William Beaumont Army Medical Center (WBAMC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Bronx Municipal Hospital, a 776 bed, Level I trauma center, lost $441,700 in only one month caring for 209 trauma victims ( Legorreta , 1993). Thomason...176165.shtml Legorreta , A., Mikos, J., Sullivan, A., & Delany, H. (1993). The high cost of hospital Trauma Cost Analysis 68 trauma care: An analysis

  3. Community-Based Career Guidance Practices. Vol. II--Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatee Junior Coll., Bradenton, FL.

    This collection of eighty-six secondary level career guidance practices contains the following nine types of activities: novel practices such as games and role enactments, volunteering, field trips, special career emphases, intern/extern practices, work experience and exploration practices, exchanges, mobile practices, and educator in-services. A…

  4. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  5. BICYCLE II: a computer code for calculating levelized life-cycle costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes the BICYCLE computer code. BICYCLE was specifically designed to calculate levelized life-cycle costs for plants that produce electricity, heat, gaseous fuels, or liquid fuels. Included are (1) derivations of the equations used by BICYCLE, (2) input instructions, (3) sample case input, and (4) sample case output.

  6. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  7. A Definition of Achievement Level II in the Control of Spanish Syntax. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Clay Benjamin; Shawl, James Robert

    A third volume of a highly articulated set of language materials defines achievement level 2 in the control of Spanish syntax while providing descriptions and interrelationships of vital syntactic structures and expected student performance. The noun phrase, predicate phrase, verbal aspects, adverbials, relativization, noun modification,…

  8. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    PubMed

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  9. Effect of protein hydration on receptor conformation: decreased levels of bound water promote metarhodopsin II formation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D C; Litman, B J

    1999-06-15

    Neutral solutes were used to investigate the effects of osmotic stress both on the ability of rhodopsin to undergo its activating conformation change and on acyl chain packing in the rod outer segment (ROS) disk membrane. The equilibrium concentration of metarhodopsin II (MII), the conformation of photoactivated rhodopsin, which binds and activates transducin, was increased by glycerol, sucrose, and stachyose in a manner which was linear with osmolality. Analysis of this shift in equilibrium in terms of the dependence of ln(Keq) on osmolality revealed that 20 +/- 1 water molecules are released during the MI-to-MII transition at 20 degrees C, and at 35 degrees C 13 +/- 1 waters are released. At 35 degrees C the average time constant for MII formation was increased from 1.20 +/- 0.09 ms to 1.63 +/- 0.09 ms by addition of 1 osmolal sucrose or glycerol. The effect of the neutral solutes on acyl chain packing in the ROS disk membrane was assessed via measurements of the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Analysis of the anisotropy decay of DPH in terms of the rotational diffusion model showed that the angular width of the equilibrium orientational distribution of DPH about the membrane normal was progressively narrowed by increased osmolality. The parameter fv, which is proportional to the overlap between the DPH orientational probability distribution and a random orientational distribution, was reduced by the osmolytes in a manner which was linear with osmolality. This study highlights the potentially opposing interplay between the effect of membrane surface hydration on both the lipid bilayer and integral membrane protein structure. Our results further demonstrate that the binding and release of water molecules play an important role in modulating functional conformational changes for integral membrane proteins, as well as for soluble globular proteins.

  10. Exciton level structure and dynamics in the CP47 antenna complex of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.C.; Jankowiak, R.; Small, G.J. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA ); Yocum, C.F. ); Picorel, R. National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO ); Alfonso, M. ); Seibert, M. )

    1994-08-04

    Persistent nonphotochemical and population bottleneck hole-burning results obtained as a function of burn wavelength are reported for the CP47 proximal antenna protein complex of photosystem II. Attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q[sub y] states. Results are presented for the CP47 complex from two preparations. The Chl a content per CP47 complex was determined, spectroscopically, to be 14 [+-] 2. On the basis of the analysis of the hole spectra and the 4.2 K static fluorescence spectrum, the lowest energy state of CP47 lies at 690 nm (fluorescence origin at 691 nm). The width of the weak 690-nm absorption band from inhomogeneous broadening is 100 cm[sup [minus]1]. The linear electron-phonon coupling of the 690-nm state is weak with a Huang-Rhys factor (S) of about 0.2 and a mean phonon frequency ([Omega][sub m]) of 120 cm[sup [minus]1], which explains why the Stokes shift (2S[Omega][sub m]) is so small. The 690-nm state is found to be excitonically correlated with a hitherto unobserved state at 687 nm. However, the combined absorption intensity of the 690- and 687-nm states was determined to be equivalent to only 1 Chl a molecule. Results are presented which illustrate that these two states are fragile (i.e., their associated chlorophyll a molecules are disrupted). Thus, it is possible that the correct number of Chl a molecules is 2, not 1. 53 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Increased Serum Pepsinogen II Level as a Marker of Pangastritis and Corpus-Predominant Gastritis in Gastric Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan

    2016-02-01

    Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.

  12. Revised Landé gJ-factors of some 141Pr II levels using collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbowy, S.; Windholz, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Zeeman effect of singly ionized praseodymium spectral lines was studied at small magnetic fields up to 334 G, using the high-resolution spectroscopic method of collinear laser-ion-beam spectroscopy (CLIBS), where a collimated fast ion beam is superimposed with a counter propagating laser beam tuned to the desired transition. This nearly Doppler-effect-free technique enables to observe linewidths as low as 100 MHz and thus to record the Zeeman patterns of the hyperfine structure of the investigated spectral lines. From the Zeeman patterns of 21 lines of Pr II lines in the range 570.45-609.038 nm we have re-determined the Landé gJ-factors of 14 levels of the f3 dodd and 16 levels of the f3 p and f2d2even configurations. The obtained experimental Landé factors are compared with available earlier measurements as well as with theoretical calculations.

  13. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.; Crawford, C. L.; Jackson, D. G.; Shah, H. B.; Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  14. Vitronectin and dermcidin serum levels predict the metastatic progression of AJCC I–II early‐stage melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ortega‐Martínez, Idoia; Gardeazabal, Jesús; Erramuzpe, Asier; Sanchez‐Diez, Ana; Cortés, Jesús; García‐Vázquez, María D.; Pérez‐Yarza, Gorka; Izu, Rosa; Luís Díaz‐Ramón, Jose; de la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Asumendi, Aintzane

    2016-01-01

    Like many cancers, an early diagnosis of melanoma is fundamental to ensure a good prognosis, although an important proportion of stage I–II patients may still develop metastasis during follow‐up. The aim of this work was to discover serum biomarkers in patients diagnosed with primary melanoma that identify those at a high risk of developing metastasis during the follow‐up period. Proteomic and mass spectrophotometry analysis was performed on serum obtained from patients who developed metastasis during the first years after surgery for primary tumors and compared with that from patients who remained disease‐free for more than 10 years after surgery. Five proteins were selected for validation as prognostic factors in 348 melanoma patients and 100 controls by ELISA: serum amyloid A and clusterin; immune system proteins; the cell adhesion molecules plakoglobin and vitronectin and the antimicrobial protein dermcidin. Compared to healthy controls, melanoma patients have high serum levels of these proteins at the moment of melanoma diagnosis, although the specific values were not related to the histopathological stage of the tumors. However, an analysis based on classification together with multivariate statistics showed that tumor stage, vitronectin and dermcidin levels were associated with the metastatic progression of patients with early‐stage melanoma. Although melanoma patients have increased serum dermcidin levels, the REPTree classifier showed that levels of dermcidin <2.98 μg/ml predict metastasis in AJCC stage II patients. These data suggest that vitronectin and dermcidin are potent biomarkers of prognosis, which may help to improve the personalized medical care of melanoma patients and their survival. PMID:27216146

  15. Frequency of level II and III axillary nodes metastases in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma: a multi-institutional study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumida, Arata; Takahashi, Akira; Namikawa, Kenjiro; Yamazaki, Naoya; Uhara, Hisashi; Teramoto, Yukiko; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Fukushima, Satoshi; Yokota, Kenji; Uehara, Jiro; Matsushita, Shigeto; Shibayama, Yoshitsugu; Hatta, Naohito; Masui, Yuri; Uchi, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Ogata, Dai

    2016-08-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been recommended to include levels I-III for melanoma patients who have evidence of metastasis in the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN). The extent of the subsequent axillary dissection is in debate. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of metastasis of level III nodes in addition to that of level II nodes in this setting. A multi-institutional retrospective study was undertaken in 14 melanoma treatment centers in Japan. Between 2007 and 2012, 69 patients with involved axillary SLNs underwent a subsequent ALND and 55 underwent level I and II dissections. Level III metastatic nodes, which is our primary endpoint, were seen in only 1 patient (1.5 %). The level II metastatic rate was 4.4 %. Our study sample size was small, but melanoma patients with positive SLN rarely had level III disease, suggesting that level III dissection may be unnecessary. We also found that level II metastasis was not so frequent. More evidence is needed to standardize the extent of ALND and to identify the patients who would have the most benefit with undergoing level II dissection for positive axillary SLNs.

  16. The molecular potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of methyl fluoride. Part II.

    PubMed

    Manson, Steven A; Law, Mark M; Atkinson, Ian A; Thomson, Grant A

    2006-06-28

    New analytical bending and stretching, ground electronic state, potential energy surfaces for CH(3)F are reported. The surfaces are expressed in bond-length, bond-angle internal coordinates. The four-dimensional stretching surface is an accurate, least squares fit to over 2000 symmetrically unique ab initio points calculated at the CCSD(T) level. Similarly, the five-dimensional bending surface is a fit to over 1200 symmetrically unique ab initio points. This is an important first stage towards a full nine-dimensional potential energy surface for the prototype CH(3)F molecule. Using these surfaces, highly excited stretching and (separately) bending vibrational energy levels of CH(3)F are calculated variationally using a finite basis representation method. The method uses the exact vibrational kinetic energy operator derived for XY(3)Z systems by Manson and Law (preceding paper, Part I, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2006, 8, DOI: 10.1039/b603106d). We use the full C(3v) symmetry and the computer codes are designed to use an arbitrary potential energy function. Ultimately, these results will be used to design a compact basis for fully coupled stretch-bend calculations of the vibrational energy levels of the CH(3)F system.

  17. Excitation with quantum light. II. Exciting a two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, J. C. López; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; del Valle, E.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    We study the excitation of a two-level system (2LS) by quantum light, thereby bringing our previous studies [see Paper I of this series, Phys. Rev. A 94, 063825 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.063825] to a target that is quantum itself. While there is no gain for the quantum state of the target as compared to driving it with classical light, its dynamical features, such as antibunching, can be improved. We propose a chain of two-level systems, i.e., setting the emission of each 2LS as the driving source of the following one, as an arrangement to provide better single-photon sources. At a fundamental level, we discuss the notion of strong coupling between quantum light from a source and its target, and the several versions of the Mollow triplet that follow from various types of driving light. We discuss the Heitler effect of antibunched photons from the scattered light off a laser.

  18. Aquatic Ecosystem Response to Timber Harvesting for the Purpose of Restoring Aspen

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bobette E.; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003–2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO3-N, NH4-N, and PO4-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO4-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, and SO4-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices, conifer removal to

  19. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  20. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  1. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased.

  2. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,

  3. Protecting aquatic resources: an ecologist's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1984-04-17

    Because natural populations are linked by a variety of ecological interactions (e.g., predation and competition), the response of any particular population to chemical exposure depends on how the rest of the ecosystem is affected. Mathematical models and field experiments demonstrate that such interactions can amplify or diminish the impacts of contaminants on populations. When direct toxic effects result in persistent, significant changes in some parts of an ecosystem, other populations in the ecosystem become vulnerable to indirect effects. Protection of aquatic populations, then, requires protection of aquatic ecosystems. The threshold of persistent, significant damage to an ecosystem is a distinct discontinuity in the gradient of ecosystem response to increasing chemical exposure. The safe level of exposure for an aquatic ecosystem can be determined experimentally using microcosms or field enclosures. It is hypothesized that safe exposure levels for ecosystems are usually near the lower end of the chronic toxicity range for single species. Data on chemical effects in ecosystem are needed in order to calibrate standard bioassays and to verify the accuracy of methods for extrapolating from bioassay results to nature. 16 references, 1 figure.

  4. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of dynamin II expression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Miao-Sui; Chen, Ying-Hsun; Liang, Fang-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2)). Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

  5. Post-processing V&V Level II ASC Milestone (2843) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Karelitz, David B.; Ice, Lisa G.; Wilke, Jason; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-10-01

    The 9/30/2008 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2843) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include fragment detection from CTH simulation data, fragment characterization and analysis, and fragment sorting and display operations. The capabilities were tested extensively both on sample and actual simulations. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including a comparison between simulated and test data, and the ability to output each fragment as an individual geometric file.

  6. Vacuum birefringence in strong magnetic fields: (II) Complex refractive index from the lowest Landau level

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori

    2013-07-15

    We compute the refractive indices of a photon propagating in strong magnetic fields on the basis of the analytic representation of the vacuum polarization tensor obtained in our previous paper. When the external magnetic field is strong enough for the fermion one-loop diagram of the polarization tensor to be approximated by the lowest Landau level, the propagating mode in parallel to the magnetic field is subject to modification: The refractive index deviates from unity and can be very large, and when the photon energy is large enough, the refractive index acquires an imaginary part indicating decay of a photon into a fermion–antifermion pair. We study dependences of the refractive index on the propagating angle and the magnetic-field strength. It is also emphasized that a self-consistent treatment of the equation which defines the refractive index is indispensable for accurate description of the refractive index. This self-consistent treatment physically corresponds to consistently including the effects of back reactions of the distorted Dirac sea in response to the incident photon. -- Highlights: •Vacuum birefringence and photon decay are described by the complex refractive index. •Resummed photon vacuum polarization tensor in the lowest Landau level is used. •Back reactions from the distorted Dirac sea are self-consistently taken into account. •Self-consistent treatment drastically changes structure in photon energy dependence. •Dependences on photon propagation angle and magnetic-field strength are presented.

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 47 (PLYMTH00540047) on Town Highway 54, crossing Pinney Hollow Brook, Plymouth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure PLYMTH00540047 on Town Highway 54 crossing Pinney Hollow Brook, Plymouth, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 7.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Pinney Hollow Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 57 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 45.7 mm (0.150 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on March 30, 1995 and Level II site visit on October 2, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 54 crossing of Pinney Hollow Brook is a 30-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 27-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 25.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is not skewed to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. Scour protection measures at the site included

  8. Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A. . Coll. of Engineering); Dean, E.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Modular data and Verlinde formulae for fractional level WZW models II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David

    2013-10-01

    This article gives a complete account of the modular properties and Verlinde formula for conformal field theories based on the affine Kac-Moody algebra slˆ(2) at an arbitrary admissible level k. Starting from spectral flow and the structure theory of relaxed highest weight modules, characters are computed and modular transformations are derived for every irreducible admissible module. The culmination is the application of a continuous version of the Verlinde formula to deduce non-negative integer structure coefficients which are identified with Grothendieck fusion coefficients. The Grothendieck fusion rules are determined explicitly. These rules reproduce the well-known "fusion rules" of Koh and Sorba, negative coefficients included, upon quotienting the Grothendieck fusion ring by a certain ideal.

  10. Post-processing V&V level II ASC milestone (2360) results.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Elmer; Karelitz, David B.; Brunner, Thomas A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Weirs, V. Gregory; Shead, Timothy M.

    2007-09-01

    The 9/30/2007 ASC Level 2 Post-Processing V&V Milestone (Milestone 2360) contains functionality required by the user community for certain verification and validation tasks. These capabilities include loading of edge and face data on an Exodus mesh, run-time computation of an exact solution to a verification problem, delivery of results data from the server to the client, computation of an integral-based error metric, simultaneous loading of simulation and test data, and comparison of that data using visual and quantitative methods. The capabilities were tested extensively by performing a typical ALEGRA HEDP verification task. In addition, a number of stretch criteria were met including completion of a verification task on a 13 million element mesh.

  11. Use of group 3-level memory telefacsimiles for enhanced interlibrary loan, part II: Network application.

    PubMed

    Bennett, V M; Dell, E Y

    1993-07-01

    The Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery, and Union List Task Force of the Health Sciences Libraries Consortium (HSLC) accepted the charge of maximizing use of the advanced features of group 3-level memory telefacsimiles. A pilot project was initiated to address the task force's recommendation to the HSLC Board that all nonrush interlibrary loan (ILL) documents be transmitted to participants within forty-eight hours of request receipt. This paper describes the project, which tests a network application for unattended, overnight transmission of documents. In determining whether this technology could be used as the primary medium for ILL of photocopies, the following criteria were used: the percentage of ILL requests filled by telefacsimile; the speed, quality, and reliability of service; and the impact of telefacsimile on document delivery costs. The article discusses the project history, optimal use of equipment features for library applications, full-scale implementation, and operational issues that affect ILL policy.

  12. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  13. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  14. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  15. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  16. Alcohol Intake and Serum Glucose Levels from the Perspective of a Mendelian Randomization Design: The KCPS-II Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Yon Ho; Lee, Sun Ju; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that alcohol intake is associated with increased fasting serum glucose (FSG), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to assess the causal effect of alcohol intake on FSG in a middle-aged Korean population. Methods Clinical data including FSG and alcohol intake were collected from 156,386 Koreans aged 20 years or older who took part in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Cohort. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 in ALDH2 was genotyped among 2,993 men and 1,374 women in 2016. This was a randomly selected subcohort of KCPS-II Biobank participants. Results Alcohol consumption was positively associated with FSG level in men, but not in women. The rs671 major G allele was associated with increased alcohol intake (F-statistic = 302.62) and an increase in FSG in men. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, alcohol intake increased FSG by 1.78 mg/dL per alcohol unit (10 g ethanol) per day (95% CI: 0.97–2.59) in men. The associations became stronger when we excluded heavy drinkers and the elderly. However, in women, no significant association between rs671 and alcohol or serum glucose was found. Conclusion Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we suggest a causal relationship between alcohol intake and FSG among Korean men. Moreover, we found that the ALDH2 variant rs671 was not associated with FSG among Korean women. PMID:27632197

  17. Level II scour analysis for bridge 35 (BURKTH00310035) on Town Highway 31, crossing the West Branch Passumpsic River, Burke, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Degnan, James R.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BURKTH00310035 on Town Highway 31 crossing the West Branch Passumpsic River, Burke, Vermont (figures 1-8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  18. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  19. Improving Limit Surface Search Algorithms in RAVEN Using Acceleration Schemes: Level II Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Mandelli, Diego; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Sen, Ramazan Sonat; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-07-01

    The RAVEN code is becoming a comprehensive tool to perform Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and Propagation; and Verification and Validation (V&V). The RAVEN code is being developed to support the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway by developing an advanced set of methodologies and algorithms for use in advanced risk analysis. The RISMC approach uses system simulator codes applied to stochastic analysis tools. The fundamental idea behind this coupling approach to perturb (by employing sampling strategies) timing and sequencing of events, internal parameters of the system codes (i.e., uncertain parameters of the physics model) and initial conditions to estimate values ranges and associated probabilities of figures of merit of interest for engineering and safety (e.g. core damage probability, etc.). This approach applied to complex systems such as nuclear power plants requires performing a series of computationally expensive simulation runs. The large computational burden is caused by the large set of (uncertain) parameters characterizing those systems. Consequently, exploring the uncertain/parametric domain, with a good level of confidence, is generally not affordable, considering the limited computational resources that are currently available. In addition, the recent tendency to develop newer tools, characterized by higher accuracy and larger computational resources (if compared with the presently used legacy codes, that have been developed decades ago), has made this issue even more compelling. In order to overcome to these limitations, the strategy for the exploration of the uncertain/parametric space needs to use at best the computational resources focusing the computational effort in those regions of the uncertain/parametric space that are “interesting” (e.g., risk-significant regions of the input space) with respect the targeted Figures Of Merit (FOM): for example, the failure of the system

  20. Elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels correlate with decreased apolipoprotein A-I and A-II fractional catabolic rate in women.

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, E A; Eisenberg, S; Breslow, J L

    1989-01-01

    High levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) protect against coronary heart disease susceptibility, but the metabolic mechanisms underlying elevated HDL-C levels are poorly understood. We now report the turnover of isologous radioiodinated HDL apolipoproteins, apo A-I and apo A-II, in 15 female subjects on a metabolic diet with HDL-C levels ranging from 51 to 122 mg/dl. The metabolic parameters, fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and absolute synthetic rate (SR), were determined for apo A-I and apo A-II in all subjects. There was an inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and the FCR of apo A-I and apo A-II (r = -0.75, P less than 0.001, and r = -0.54, P = 0.036, respectively), but no correlation with the SR of either apo A-I or apo A-II (r = 0.09, and r = -0.16, respectively, both P = NS). Apo A-I levels correlated inversely with apo A-I FCR (r = -0.64, P = 0.01) but not with apo A-I SR (r = 0.30, P = NS). In contrast, plasma levels of apo A-II did not correlate with apo A-II FCR (r = -0.38, P = 0.16), but did correlate with apo A-II SR (r = 0.65, P = 0.009). Further analysis showed that apo A-I and apo A-II FCR were inversely correlated with the HDL-C/apo A-I + A-II ratio (r = -0.69 and -0.61, P = 0.005 and 0.015, respectively). These data suggest that: (a) low HDL apolipoprotein FCR is the predominant metabolic mechanism of elevated HDL-C levels; (b) apo A-I FCR is the primary factor in controlling plasma apo A-I levels, but apo A-II SR is the primary factor controlling plasma apo A-II levels; (c) low HDL apolipoprotein FCR is associated with a lipid-rich HDL fraction. These findings elucidate aspects of HDL metabolism which contribute to high HDL-C levels and which may constitute mechanisms for protection against coronary heart disease. PMID:2500457

  1. Microporous Cd(II) metal-organic framework as fluorescent sensor for nitroaromatic explosives at the sub-ppm level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Po; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Zhi; Guo, Ling-Yu; Sun, Di

    2016-03-01

    A novel Cd(II) metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a rigid biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, [Cd4(bptc)2(DMA)4(H2O)2·4DMA] (1) was successfully synthesized under the solvothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and further consolidated by elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), infrared spectra (IR) and luminescent measurements. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 is 4-connected PtS (Point symbol: {42·84}) network based on [Cd2(COO)4] secondary building units (SBUs). Its inherent porous and emissive characteristics make them to be a suitable fluorescent probe to sense small solvents and nitroaromatic explosives. Compound 1 shows obviously solvent-dependent emissive behaviors, especially for acetone with very high fluorescence quenching effect. Moreover, compound 1 displays excellent sensing of nitroaromatic explosives at sub-ppm level, giving a detection limit of 0.43 ppm and 0.37 ppm for nitrobenzene (NB) and p-nitrotoluene (PNT), respectively. This shows this Cd(II) MOF can be used as fluorescence probe for the detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (HUNTTH00290029) on Town Highway 29, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00290029 on Town Highway 29 crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 4.16-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.024 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 53 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 112.0 mm (0.367 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 29 crossing of Cobb Brook is a 36-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995) and a wooden deck. The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway was measured to be 20 degrees. VTAOT records indicate an opening-skew-to-roadway of zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 23 (WALDTH00060023) on Town Highway 6, crossing Stannard Brook, Walden, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALDTH00060023 on Town Highway 6 crossing Stannard Brook, Walden, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in eastern Vermont. The 5.61-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the upstream surface cover is shrub and brushland with some trees. The downstream surface cover is forest. In the study area, Stannard Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 54 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 64.0 mm (0.210 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 8, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 6 crossing of Stannard Brook is a 59-ft-long (bottom width), two-lane pipe arch culvert consisting of one 22-foot corrugated plate pipe arch span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.9 ft.The pipe arch is supported by vertical, concrete kneewalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the mean

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (FAYSTH00010006) on Town Highway 1, crossing Shepard Brook, Fayston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FAYSTH00010006 on Town Highway 1 crossing Shepard Brook, Fayston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest. In the study area, Shepard Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 72.6 mm (0.238 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Shepard Brook is a 42-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 40-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 39.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the calculated opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees. Scour, 2.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth, was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The left abutment is

  5. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages.

  6. ["Analysis of fate" in psychiatry and psychotherapy. II. Correlations withe the level of general psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Grünner, O

    1976-07-01

    We demonstrated in a group of 166 psychiatric patients, with disorders of schizophrenic and cyclothymic circle and with neuroses too, significant relations between the results of the projection test of Szondi and between the greatness of total psychopathology, evaluated by means of the Minnesota Multiphasic Inquiry (M.M.P.I.). We could ascertain, that the patients with the higher level of total psychopathology (evaluated by means of M.M.P.I.) have also a greater number of abnormal results according to the projection test of Szondi. At these patients we saw significantly more "valve groups", which witness to the irresolution in the instinctive motivations of behaviour. At these patients we could ascertain further the greater number of those personalities, which according to the projection test of Szondi suffered from a lack of breaking and self-critical elements in their behaviour. Subjects with heightened values of M.M.P.I. have significantly more results with abnormal relations of masculinity and of feminity according to the sexual index of Szondi test. The choices and the selection from the set of 48 fixed photographies, which the patient realises at the Szondi test in teen repeated sessions, form so a significant relation not only to the psychiatric diagnoses, as was ascertained in the first part of this work, but also to the height of total psychopathology, evaluated by means of the M.M.P.I. The familial subconsciousness influences so significantly the consciousness of personality and can participate substantially in the development of psychopathologic symptoms.

  7. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?

    PubMed

    Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated.

  8. The Level and Nature of Autistic Intelligence II: What about Asperger Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated. PMID:21991394

  9. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  10. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as a potential sensing biomarker of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in aquatic mammal: molecular characterization, expression level, and ligand profiling in Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    To characterize the function of constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) in aquatic mammals, CAR complementary DNA (cDNA) was cloned from the liver of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica) from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in various tissues/organs of the wild population and the CAR ligand profiles were investigated. The seal CAR cDNA had an open reading frame of 1047 bp encoding 348 amino acids that revealed 74-84% amino acid identities with CARs from rodents and human. The mRNA expression profile of tissues/organs represented that Baikal seal CAR was predominantly expressed in the liver followed by heart and intestine. The expression analysis of hepatic CAR mRNA showed no correlation with expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, 1B, 2B, 2C, and 3A-like proteins, indicating that the CAR expression level may not be the sole determinant of the regulation of these CYP expressions in the seal liver. There was no significant correlation between CAR expression and any of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels. Furthermore, we performed an in vitro CAR transactivation assay using MCF-7 cells transfected with Baikal seal CAR expression plasmid and (NR1)(3)-luciferase reporter gene plasmid. In the transactivation analysis of Baikal seal CAR, neither repression by androstanol and androstenol, nor activation by estrone and estradiol, which are recognized as endogenous ligands for mouse and human CARs, was detected. On the other hand, bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid activated the seal CAR as well as mouse CAR. As for exogenous chemicals, the seal CAR was transactivated by a human CAR agonist, 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime), but not by a mouse CAR agonist, (1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene). In addition, the seal CAR was also activated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Kanechlor-500, International Union of Pure and

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 4 (MAIDTH00070004) on Town Highway 7, crossing Cutler Mill Brook, Maidstone, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MAIDTH00070004 on Town Highway 7 crossing the Cutler Mill Brook, Maidstone, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 18.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly shrub and brushland. In the study area, the Cutler Mill Brook has a non-incised, meandering channel with local braiding and a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 2 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 27.6 mm (0.091 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 19, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to large meanders in the channel. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Cutler Mill Brook is a 25-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 22-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 5, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. A scour hole 2.0 ft deeper than

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 9 (BLOOVT01020009) on State Route 102, crossing the Nulhegan River, Bloomfield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BLOOVT01020009 on State Route 102 crossing the Nulhegan River, Bloomfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 144-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except for the downstream right bank area which is shrub and brush land. The Nulhegan River flows into the Connecticut River 210 feet downstream of this bridge. In the study area, the Nulhegan River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 164 ft and an average channel depth of 5 ft. The predominant channel bed material is cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 152 mm (0.498 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 6, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. This was due to numerous point bars and side bars indicating an unstable thalweg. The State Route 102 crossing of the Nulhegan River is a 134-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 130-foot steel-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 4, 1994). The field measured clear span was 131.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with rip-rapped spill-through slopes. The

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (LINCTH00060046) on Town Highway 6, crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00060046 on Town Highway 6 crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 45.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly suburban and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. The downstream right overbank near the bridge is suburban with buildings, homes, lawns, and pavement (less than fifty percent). The downstream left overbank is brushland while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 95 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 120.7 mm (0.396 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 13, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of the New Haven River is a 85-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of an 80-foot steel arch truss (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 69 feet. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (ROCHTH00400025) on Town Highway 40, crossing Corporation Brook, Rochester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00400025 on Town Highway 40 crossing Corporation Brook, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, from Vermont Agency of Transportation files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.97-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream left and right overbanks, and the downstream left overbank. On the downstream right overbank, the surface cover is predominately brushland. In the study area, Corporation Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 37 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 101 mm (0.332 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 12, 1995 and Level I and II site visit on July 8, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 40 crossing of Corporation Brook is a 31-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (BRISTH00030031) on Town Highway 3, crossing the New Haven River, Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRISTH00030031 on Town Highway 3 crossing the New Haven River, Bristol, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central, western Vermont. The 69.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the downstream left overbank which has closely spaced houses with lawns. In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 136 ft and an average bank height of 13 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 233 mm (0.765 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 3 crossing of the New Haven River is a 105-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 101-ft-long pony truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 98 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 60 degrees to the opening, with no opening-skew-to-roadway. A local scour hole 3 ft deeper than the mean thalweg

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 44 (LINCTH00330044) on Town Highway 33, crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00330044 on Town Highway 33 crossing the New Haven River, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 6.3-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest.In the study area, the New Haven River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 101.9 mm (0.334 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 33 crossing of the New Haven River is a 33-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot timber-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.3 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, wood-beam crib abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees.A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment during the Level I assessment. The

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 27 (WSTOTH00070027) on Town Highway 7, crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WSTOTH00070027 on Town Highway 7 crossing Jenny Coolidge Brook, Weston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 2.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge while upstream of the bridge is forested. In the study area, the Jenny Coolidge Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 122 mm (0.339 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Jenny Coolidge Brook is a 52-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 7, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 49.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. The legs of the skeleton-type right abutment were exposed approximately 2 feet

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 67 (MTHOTH00120067) on Town Highway 12, crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Severance, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MTHOTH00120067 on Town Highway 12 crossing Freeman Brook, Mount Holly, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 11.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested. In the study area, Freeman Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 55.7 mm (0.183 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 5, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Freeman Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 30-foot prestressed concrete-slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 15, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. Along the upstream right wingwall, the right abutment and the downstream right wingwall, a scour hole approximately 1.0 to 2.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 20 (BRISTH00270020) on Town Highway 27, crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRISTH00270020 on Town Highway 27 crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 8.43-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of pasture with trees, shrubs, and brush along the road embankments and the stream banks, except for the downstream left overbank area. Surface cover on the downstream left overbank is forest with dense undergrowth consisting of vines, shrubs, and brush. In the study area, Little Notch Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 47 feet and an average bank height of 3 feet. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 66.0 mm (0.216 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 19, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 27 crossing of Little Notch Brook is a 48-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 45-foot steel pony-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 42.8 feet. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 26 (WSTOTH00070026) on Town Highway 7, crossing Greendale Brook, Weston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Hammond, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WSTOTH00070026 on Town Highway 7 crossing Greendale Brook, Weston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south central Vermont. The 3.13-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest. In the study area, the Greendale Brook has a sinuous, non-incised, non-alluvial channel with a slope of approximately 0.015 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 38 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 64.8 mm (0.213 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 19, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The channel has moved to the right, however, scour countermeasures are in place along the upstream right bank. The Town Highway 7 crossing of the Greendale Brook is a 52-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 50-foot steel-beam span with a concrete deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 07, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 48.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the opening

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 51 (JERITH00590051) on Town Highway 59, crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00590051 on Town Highway 59 crossing The Creek, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1– 8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 10.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the left and right overbanks, upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, The Creek has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 45 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 58.6 mm (0.192 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 3, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 59 crossing of The Creek is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the computed opening

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (FFIETH00470046) on Town Highway 47, crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Flynn, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00470046 on Town Highway 47 crossing Black Creek, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 37.8 mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Black Creek has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.0005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 0.189 mm (0.00062 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 12, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 47 crossing of Black Creek is a 35-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 31-ft steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 28.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately zero degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-toroadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 6.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed just downstream of the

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 29 (CRAFTH00550029) on Town Highway 55, crossing the Black River, Craftsbury, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Degnan, James R.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CRAFTH00550029 on town highway 55 crossing the Black River, Craftsbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province of north-central Vermont in the town of Craftsbury. The 24.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the banks have woody vegetation coverage except for the upstream left bank and the downstream right bank, which have more brush cover than trees. In the study area, the Black River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 41 ft and an average channel depth of 5.5 ft. The predominant channel bed material is sand and gravel (D50 is 44.7 mm or 0.147 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The town highway 55 crossing of the Black Riveris a 32-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 28-foot span steel stringer superstructure with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 4, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. A scour hole 2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5 (DUMMVT00300005) on State Route 30, crossing Stickney Brook, Dummerston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUMMVT00300005 on State Route 30 crossing Stickney Brook, Dummerston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 6.31-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest and brush. In the study area, Stickney Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 80 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material is predominantly cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 80.3 mm (0.264 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 12, 1996, indicated that the reach was aggrading. The State Route 30 crossing of Stickney Brook is a 84-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 82-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 79.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with spill-through embankments. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. A scour hole 0.5 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the toe of the right spill-through slope during

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 44 (CHESVT00110044) on State Route 11, crossing Andover Brook, Chester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESVT00110044 on State Route 11 crossing Andover Brook, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 12.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture with dense woody vegetation on the immediate banks except the downstream left bank of the bridge which is forested. In the study area, Andover Brook has an incised, meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 74 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 83.6 mm (0.274 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 11, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Route 11 crossing of Andover Brook is a 58-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 56-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 52.9 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 45 degrees. A scour hole 1.8 ft

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (TUNBTH00600032) on Town Highway 60, crossing First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TUNBTH00600032 on Town Highway 60 crossing the First Branch White River, Tunbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 92.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture upstream and downstream of the bridge, while woody vegetation sparsely covers the immediate banks. In the study area, the First Branch White River has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.001 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 82 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 24.4 mm (0.08 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 18, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, as a result of block failure of moderately eroded banks. The Town Highway 60 crossing of the First Branch White River is a 74-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 71-foot timber thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 24, 1994). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 64 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments with upstream wingwalls. The channel is not skewed to the opening

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (NEWFTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWFTH00010008 on Town Highway 1 crossing Wardsboro Brook, Newfane, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southestern Vermont. The 6.91-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the upstream right overbank and downstream left and right overbanks. The surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. In the study area, Wardsboro Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 63 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 95.4 mm (0.313 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Wardsboro Brook is a 32-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the computed opening while the openingskew-to-roadway is 45 degrees

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 42 (NEWFTH00350042) on Town Highway 35, crossing Stratton Hill Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWFTH00350042 on Town Highway 35 crossing Stratton Hill Brook, Newfane, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 1.16-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested. In the study area, Stratton Hill Brook has an incised, striaght channel with a slope of approximately 0.1 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 36 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 121 mm (0.396 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of Stratton Hill Brook is a 34-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 32-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with upstream wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. During the Level I assessment, it was observed that the right abutment footing was exposed 1.5 feet. The only scour protection measure at the

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 2 (RYEGTH00020002) on Town Highway 2, crossing the Wells River, Ryegate, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RYEGTH00020002 on Town Highway 2 crossing the Wells River, Ryegate, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 75.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of cut grass, trees, and brush on the flood plains while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Wells River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 110 ft and an average bank height of 12 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 82.3 mm (0.270 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 24, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable with moderate fluvial erosion and meandering downstream of the bridge. The Town Highway 2 crossing of the Wells River is a 79-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 75-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 27, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 75.1 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments, the left has a spill-through embankment, with wingwalls. The channel is not skewed

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 42 (HARDELMSTR0042) on Elm Street, crossing Cooper Brook, Hardwick, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HARDELMSTR0042 on Elm Street crossing Cooper Brook, Hardwick, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the overbanks are primarily grass covered with some brush along the immediate channel banks except the upstream right bank and overbank which is forested and the downstream left overbank which has a lumberyard. In the study area, Cooper Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average channel depth of 6 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are sand and gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 1.25 mm (0.00409 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 24, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Elm Street crossing of Cooper Brook is a 39-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 37-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 17, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 45 degrees. On August 17, 1995 the site was revisited to investigate

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (WWINTH00370034) on Town Highway 37, crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WWINTH00370034 on Town Highway 37 crossing Mill Brook, West Windsor, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 16.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture except for the upstream left bank where there is mostly shrubs and brush. In the study area, Mill Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ ft, an average channel top width of 52 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 43.4 mm (0.142 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. Point bars were observed upstream and downstream of this site. Furthermore, slip failure of the bank material was noted downstream at a cut-bank on the left side of the channel across from a point bar. The Town Highway 37 crossing of Mill Brook is a 37-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of one 32-foot wood thru-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutment walls with

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (MORRTH00030006) on Town Highway 3, crossing Ryder Brook, Morristown, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MORRTH00030006 on Town Highway 3 crossing Ryder Brook, Morristown, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 19.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover also is forested. In the study area, Ryder Brook has a straight channel with an average channel top width of 450 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The predominant channel bed material is silt and clay with a median grain size (D50) of 0.0719 mm (0.000236 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 18, 1996, indicated that the reach was aggraded, but the channel through the bridge was scoured. The Town Highway 3 crossing of Ryder Brook is a 72-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 70-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, January 31, 1996). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with spill-through embankments and wingwalls. The channel is not skewed to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. Channel scour under the bridge was evident at this site during the Level I assessment. The depth of the channel increases from 3 feet at the upstream bridge face to 10 feet at the downstream bridge face. The

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 41 (ROCKTH00390041) on Town Highway 39, crossing the Saxtons River, Rockingham, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCKTH00390041 on Town Highway 39 crossing the Saxtons River, Rockingham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 57.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of forest on the left bank and pasture with some trees on the right bank. In the study area, the Saxtons River has an sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.009 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 112 ft and an average bank height of 10 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 103 mm (0.339 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 15, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. There are wide point bars, cut-banks with fallen trees, and areas of localized channel scour along the left bank, where there is bedrock exposure at the surface. The Town Highway 39 crossing of the Saxtons River is an 85-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 82-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 31, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments without wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 30 degrees to the opening while the opening

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (SHEFTH00410018) on Town Highway 41, crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure SHEFTH00410018 on Town Highway 41 crossing Millers Run, Sheffield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 16.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass upstream and downstream of the bridge while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Millers Run has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 50 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 50.9 mm (0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 1, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable, which is evident in the moderate to severe fluvial erosion in the upstream reach. The Town Highway 41 crossing of the Millers Run is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening. The computed

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (ROCHTH00370028) on Town Highway 37, crossing Brandon Brook, Rochester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00370028 on Town Highway 37 crossing Brandon Brook, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 8.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the upstream left overbank although the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream right overbank and downstream left and right overbanks are forested. In the study area, the Brandon Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 84.2 mm (0.276 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 12, 1995 and Level II site visit on July 8, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 37 crossing of the Brandon Brook is a 33-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 31-foot timber-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 29.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, timber log cribbing abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is zero

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (ANDOTH00010008) on Town Highway 1, crossing Andover Branch, Andover, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOTH00010008 on Town Highway 1 crossing the Andover Branch, Andover , Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 5.30-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover along the immediate banks, both upstream and downstream of the bridge, is grass while farther upstream and downstream, the surface cover is primarily forest.In the study area, the Andover Branch has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 63.6 mm (0.209 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Andover Branch is a 54-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 51-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees.A scour hole 0.7 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 34 (ROCHTH00210034) on Town Highway 21, crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHTH00210034 on Town Highway 21 crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 74.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is suburban on the upstream and downstream left overbanks, though brush prevails along the immediate banks. On the upstream and downstream right overbanks, the surface cover is pasture with brush and trees along the immediate banks.In the study area, the White River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 102 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 74.4 mm (0.244 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 23, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 21 crossing of the White River is a 72-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of 70-foot steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 67.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (HUNTTH00220032) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220032 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 5.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the downstream right overbank which is pasture. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.05 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 58 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 127 mm (0.416 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 36-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 34-foot steel-beam span and a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 35.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls on the left. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 38 (JERITH0020038) on Town Highway 20, crossing the Lee River, Jericho, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00200038 on Town Highway 20 crossing the Lee River, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 12.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream and downstream right overbank is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The surface cover on the upstream and downstream left overbank is forested. In the study area, the Lee River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 89 ft and an average bank height of 14 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 45.9 mm (0.151 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 20 crossing of the Lee River is a 49-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a steel through truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 44 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 28 (CAMBTH00460028) on Town Highway 46, crossing the Seymour River, Cambridge, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CAMBTH00460028 on Town Highway 46 crossing the Seymour River, Cambridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 9.94-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Seymour River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 62.0 mm (0.204 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 46 crossing of the Seymour River is a 38-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 33-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30.6 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. A scour hole 0.2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (MORETH00010021) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cox Brook, Moretown, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MORETH00010021 on Town Highway 1 crossing Cox Brook, Moretown, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 2.85-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly forested. In the study area, Cox Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 23 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 47.5 mm (0.156 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 18, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Cox Brook is a 29-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 27-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 60 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 40 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left abutment downstream during the Level I assessment. The

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 40 (ROCKTH00140040) on Town Highway 14, crossing the Williams River, Rockingham, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCKTH00140040 on Town Highway 14 crossing the Williams River, Rockingham, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 99.2-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture downstream of the bridge. Upstream of the bridge, the left bank is forested and the right bank is suburban. In the study area, the Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 154 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 45.4 mm (0.149 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 4, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 14 crossing of the Williams River is a 106-ft-long, one-lane covered bridge consisting of two steel-beam spans with a maximum span length of 73 ft (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, April 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 94.5 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete abutment with wingwalls on the left, a vertical, laid-up stone abutment on the right and a concrete pier. The channel is skewed

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 4 (DANVTH00010004) on Town Highway 1, crossing Joes Brook, Danville, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DANVTH00010004 on Town Highway 1 crossing Joes Brook, Danville, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 42.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture along the upstream and downstream left banks with trees and brush along the immediate banks. The upstream and downstream right banks are forested. In the study area, Joes Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 68 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 80.1 mm (0.263 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 22, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Joes Brook is a 49-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 45-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 17, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 45 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. A scour

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (DUXBTH00120037) on Town Highway 12, crossing Ridley Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanhoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00120037 on Town Highway 12 crossing Ridley Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 10.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Ridley Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 67 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 123 mm (0.404 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 12 crossing of Ridley Brook is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of five 30-ft steel rolled beams (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 30 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 50 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 2 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the right abutment and downstream

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (LINCTH00010013) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cota Brook, Lincoln, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LINCTH00010013 on Town Highway 1 crossing Cota Brook, Lincoln, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 3.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest along the upstream right bank and brushland along the upstream left bank. Downstream of the bridge, the surface cover is pasture along the left and right banks. In the study area, Cota Brook has an sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ ft, an average channel top width of 30 ft and an average bank height of 2 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 34.7 mm (0.114 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to cut-banks and wide, vegetated point bars upstream and downstream of the bridge. The Town Highway 1 crossing of Cota Brook is a 38-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 36-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 14, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 34.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (LYNDTH00020017) on Town Highway 2, crossing Hawkins Brook, Lyndon, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure LYNDTH00020017 on Town Highway 2 crossing Hawkins Brook, Lyndon, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 7.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the left and right upstream overbanks. The downstream left and right overbanks are brushland.In the study area, Hawkins Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 78 ft and an average bank height of 7.3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 46.6 mm (0.153 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 4, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable with the presence of point bars and side bars.The Town Highway 2 crossing of Hawkins Brook is a 49-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 46-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 27, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 43 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 45 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is zero

  7. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (PLYMTH00080037) on Town Highway 8, crossing Broad Brook, Plymouth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Medalie, Laura

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure PLYMTH00080037 on Town Highway 8 crossing Broad Brook, Plymouth, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 5.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, Broad Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 46 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 87.5 mm (0.287 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 3, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to cut-banks present on the upstream left bank and the downstream left and right banks. The Town Highway 8 crossing of Broad Brook is a 31-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 28-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27.0 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 15 degrees. During the Level I assessment, it was

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (DUXBTH00040036) on Town Highway 4, crossing Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUXBTH00040036 on Town Highway 4 crossing the Crossett Brook, Duxbury, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north-central Vermont. The 4.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the upstream left overbank is pasture. The upstream and downstream right overbanks are forested. The downstream left overbank is brushland, while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the Crossett Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 55 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 51.6 mm (0.169 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 1, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The Town Highway 4 crossing of the Crossett Brook is a 29-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a 26-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (HUNTTH00220031) on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Degnan, James R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220031 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 5.01-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of trees and brush. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.06 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from boulder to gravel with a median grain size (D50) of 107.0 mm (0.352 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 34-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot steel I-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 31.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 10 degrees. The VTAOT computed opening-skewto-roadway is 2 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (BURKTH00070016) on Town Highway 7, crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BURKTH00070016 on Town Highway 7 crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 6.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the left bank upstream which is brushland. In the study area, Dish Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 40 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 94.1 mm (0.309 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of Dish Mill Brook is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left and right

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (BRADTH00270022) on Town Highway 27, crossing the Waits River, Bradford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRADTH00270022 on Town Highway 27 crossing the Waits River, Bradford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, obtained from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 153-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. However, in the vicinity of the study site, the upstream and downstream left banks are suburban and the upstream and downstream right banks are shrub and brushland. In the study area, the Waits River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.0002 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 125 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 0.393 mm (0.00129 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 27 crossing of the Waits River is a 109-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 104-ft steel-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 16, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 99.2 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, laid-up stone abutments. The channel is skewed approximately 30 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. No evidence of scour was observed during the Level I assessment

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 7H (HUNTTH0001007H) on Town Highway 1, crossing Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH001007H on Town Highway 1 crossing the Cobb Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–10). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.In August 1976, Hurricane Belle caused flooding at this site which resulted in road and bridge damage (figures 7-8). This was approximately a 25-year flood event (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1978). The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.20-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. Downstream of the bridge is brushland and pasture.In the study area, the Cobb Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 65.5 mm (0.215 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 24, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 1 crossing of the Cobb Brook is a 23-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 20-foot concrete slab span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, June 21, 1996). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 15 degrees

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 15 (BOLTTH00150015) on Town Highway 15, crossing Joiner Brook, Bolton, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BOLTTH00150015 on Town Highway 15 crossing Joiner Brook, Bolton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 9.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture (lawn) downstream of the bridge and on the upstream right bank. The surface cover on the upstream left bank is shrub and brushland. In the study area, Joiner Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 61 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 43.6 mm (0.143 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 27, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 15 crossing of Joiner Brook is a 39-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 36-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 3, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 34.6 ft. The bridge is supported by nearly vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is zero degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 31 (JERITH00350031) on Town Highway 35, crossing Mill Brook, Jericho, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure JERITH00350031 on Town Highway 35 crossing Mill Brook, Jericho, Vermont (figures 1– 8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gathered from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province and the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 15.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream of the bridge. The downstream left overbank is pasture. The downstream right overbank is brushland. In the study area, the Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 117 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 81.1 mm (0.266 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 3, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. The Town Highway 35 crossing of the Mill Brook is a 53-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 50-foot steel-beam span with a wooden deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, November 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 48 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete abutment with wingwalls on the left. On the right, the abutment and wingwalls

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 53 (CAMBTH00750053) on Town Highway 75, crossing the Brewster River, Cambridge, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CAMBTH00750053 on Town Highway 75 crossing the Brewster River, Cambridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 4.30-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest, except for the downstream right overbank area which has a barn surrounded by grass and shrubs. In the study area, the Brewster River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.05 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 62 ft and an average bank height of 12 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 84.4 mm (0.277 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 75 crossing of the Brewster River is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 22.4 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 40 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway as surveyed is 10 degrees. A scour hole 1 ft

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 36 (STOWTH00430036) on Town Highway 43, crossing Miller Brook, Stowe, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOWTH00430036 on Town Highway 43 crossing the Miller Brook, Stowe, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in north central Vermont. The 5.5-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is predominantly forested. In the study area, the Miller Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 43 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 70.4 mm (0.231 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 15, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 43 crossing of the Miller Brook is a 24-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 21-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 21.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening and the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is also 10 degrees. The footing on the left abutment was exposed 2.5 ft and the footing on the right abutment was exposed 3.0 ft during

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 18 (GROTTH00480018) on Town Highway 48, crossing the Wells River Groton, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure GROTTH00480018 on Town Highway 48 crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in eastern Vermont. The 53.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture on the right bank upstream and the left bank downstream while the surface cover is shrub and brushland along the left bank upstream and the right bank downstream. The immediate banks are vegetated with brush and scattered trees. In the study area, the Wells River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 69 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 66.7 mm (0.219 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 28, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 48 crossing of the Wells River is a 38-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 36-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 33.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 48 (FFIETH00300048) on Town Highway 30, crossing Wanzer Brook, Fairfield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FFIETH00300048 on Town Highway 30 crossing Wanzer Brook, Fairfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 6.78-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover upstream of the bridge and on the downstream right bank is primarily pasture. The downstream left bank is forested. In the study area, Wanzer Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 65 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material is cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 111 mm (0.364 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 11, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 30 crossing of Wanzer Brook is a 31-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 28-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 26 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical stone wall abutments with concrete caps and “kneewall” footings. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 49 (WALLVT01030049) on State Highway 103, crossing Freeman Brook, Wallingford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALLVT01030049 on State Highway 103 crossing Freeman Brook, Wallingford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 11.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture with trees and brush on the immediate banks except for the upstream left overbank which is tree covered. A levee composed of stone fill was constructed along the upstream left bank in order to keep flow from reaching the flood plain left (south) of the brook. In the study area, Freeman Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average channel depth of 6 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 62.9 mm (0.206 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 10, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Highway 103 crossing of the Freeman Brook is a 54-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 50-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 15, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 68 (NFIETH00960068) on Town Highway 96, crossing the Dog River, Northfield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NFIETH00960068 on Town Highway 96 crossing the Dog River, Northfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 30.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the left bank upstream and downstream is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The right bank upstream is forested and the downstream right bank is pasture. Vermont state route 12A runs parallel to the river on the right bank. In the study area, the Dog River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.004 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 70 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 47.9 mm (0.157 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 96 crossing of the Dog River is a 45-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 43-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, October 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 41.5 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 26 (ROYATH00540026) on Town Highway 54, crossing Broad Brook, Royalton, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROYATH00540026 on Town Highway 54 crossing Broad Brook, Royalton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 11.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the left bank upstream and downstream is pasture with trees and brush on the immediate banks. The right bank, upstream and downstream of the bridge, is forested. In the study area, Broad Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.01 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 37 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 66.3 mm (0.218 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on April 13, 1995 and the Level II site visit on July 11, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 54 crossing of Broad Brook is a 29-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot steel-beam span with a timber deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 23, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.3 ft. The bridge is supported by a vertical, concrete face laid-up stone abutment with concrete wingwalls on the left and a laid-up stone

  2. Biomarkers in aquatic plants: selection and utility.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Cedergreen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This review emphasizes the predictive ability, sensitivity and specificity of aquatic plant biomarkers as biomonitoring agents of exposure and effect. Biomarkers of exposure are those that provide functional measures of exposure that are characterized at a sub-organism level. Biomarkers of effect require causal linkages between the biomarker and effects, measured at higher levels of biological organization. With the exception of pathway specific metabolites, the biomarkers assessed in this review show variable sensitivity and predictive ability that is often confounded by variations in growth conditions, rendering them unsuitable as stand alone indicators of environmental stress. The use of gene expression for detecting pollution has been, and remains immature; this immaturity derives from inadequate knowledge on predictive ability, sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the ability to the detect mode of action of unknown toxicants using gene expression is not as clear-cut as initially hypothesized. The principal patterns in gene expression is not as clear-cut as initially hypothesized. The principal patterns in gene expression are generally derived from stress induced genes, rather than on ones that respond to substances with known modes of action (Baerson et al. 2005). Future developments in multivariate statistics and chemometric methods that enhance pattern analyses in ways that could produce a "fingerprint", may improve methods for discovering modes of action of unknown toxicants. Pathway specific metabolites are unambiguous, sensitive, correlate well to growth effects, and are relatively unaffected by growth conditions. These traits make them excellent biomarkers under both field and laboratory conditions. Changes in metabolites precede visible growth effects; therefore, measuring changes in metabolite concentrations (Harring et al. 1998; Shaner et al. 2005). The metabolic phase I enzymes (primarily associated with P-450 activity) are non-specific biomarkers

  3. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 21 (MONKTH00340021) on Town Highway 34, crossing Little Otter Creek, Monkton, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure MONKTH00340021 on Town Highway 34 crossing Little Otter Creek, Monkton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix D of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix C. The site is in the Champlain section of the Saint Lawrence Valley physiographic province in northwestern Vermont. The 34.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin with pasture in the valleys. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of pasture. The most significant tree cover is immediately adjacent to the channel on the right bank downstream. In the study area, Little Otter Creek has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.008 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 92 feet and an average bank height of 6 feet. The predominant channel bed materials are silt and clay. Sieve analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the sample is silt and clay and thus a median grain size by use of sieve analysis was indeterminate. Therefore, the median grain size was assumed to be medium silt with a size (D50) of 0.0310 mm (0.000102 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 19 and June 20, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 34 crossing of Little Otter Creek is a 50-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 26-foot concrete span and three “boiler tube” smooth metal pipe culverts through the left road approach (Vermont Agency of

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (PFRDTH00030013) on Town Highway 3, crossing Furnace Brook, Pittsford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure PFRDTH00030013 on Town Highway 3 crossing Furnace Brook, Pittsford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Taconic section of the New England physiographic province in western Vermont. The 17.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass along the downstream right bank while the remaining banks are primarily forested. In the study area, Furnace Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 49 ft and an average channel depth of 4 ft. The predominant channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 70.2 mm (0.230 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 20, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 3 crossing of Furnace Brook is a 75-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 72-ft-long steel stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 14, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with spill-through slopes. The channel is skewed approximately 20 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. The opening-skew-to-roadway was determined from surveyed data collected at the bridge although, information provided from the

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 40 (ANDOVT00110040) on State Route 11, crossing Lyman Brook, Andover, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110040 on State Route 11 crossing Lyman Brook, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 4.18-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Lyman Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 42 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 86.0 mm (0.282 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and