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Sample records for aqueous humor level

  1. MYOCILIN LEVELS IN PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA AND PSEUDOEXFOLIATION GLAUCOMA HUMAN AQUEOUS HUMOR

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Kyle G.; Vrabel, Anne M.; Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Stamer, W. Daniel; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the concentration of myocilin in primary open-angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor was collected during surgery from patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG), and elective cataract removal (control). Volume-equivalent aqueous samples were separated on SDS-PAGE gradient gels. Quantification of myocilin levels was performed using Western blots probed with two independent N-terminal polyclonal anti-myocilin antibodies (AB1 and AB2) followed by densitometry. Myocilin levels in aqueous humor were quantified by plotting the densitometry readings of the aqueous samples against a recombinant myocilin standard curve. Total protein concentration was determined by Bradford protein assay. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels were assessed by ELISA. Results Myocilin levels are significantly elevated in human POAG aqueous humor when compared to control aqueous humor (AB1: 0.66 ± 0.53 ng/μl vs. 0.23 ± 0.20 ng/μl, p<0.001; AB2: 0.98 ± 0.59 ng/μl vs. 0.65 ± 0.5 ng/μl, p<0.03; mean ± SD). Myocilin makes up a larger percent of the total protein in POAG aqueous humor compared to control aqueous (AB1: 0.26 ± 0.20% vs. 0.10 ± 0.20%, p<0.001; AB2: 0.43 ± 0.32% vs. 0.28 ± 0.18%, p<0.05). In contrast to POAG, myocilin levels were not elevated in PEXG aqueous humor when compared to control aqueous humor. No correlation between myocilin and TGFβ2 levels was observed. Conclusions Myocilin is elevated in POAG, but not PEXG aqueous humor. PMID:20179615

  2. Increased levels of pigment epithelium‐derived factor in aqueous humor of patients with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamagishi, Sho‐ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate whether aqueous humor levels of pigment epithelium‐derived factor (PEDF) are increased in patients with uveitis Methods Aqueous humor levels of PEDF and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were determined by ELISA in 34 uveitis samples and 9 cataract control samples. Results Aqueous humor PEDF and TNFα levels were significantly higher in patients with uveitis than in controls (mean (SD) 6.4 (0.8) v 1.3 (0.2) μg/ml and 14.7 (3.8) v 4.2 (0.4) pg/ml, respectively; p<0.01). A positive correlation between PEDF and TNFα was found in patients with uveitis (r = 0.40, p<0.01). Furthermore, PEDF levels in aqueous humor were increased in proportion to the disease activity of uveitis. Conclusion The results show that aqueous humor levels of PEDF are increased in patients with uveitis. Our observations suggest that aqueous humor levels of PEDF may be increased as a countersystem against inflammation in uveitis. PMID:16973658

  3. Ascorbic acid levels of aqueous humor of dogs after experimental phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    De Biaggi, Christianni P; Barros, Paulo S M; Silva, Vanessa V; Brooks, Dennis E; Barros, Silvia B M

    2006-01-01

    Phacoemulsification has been successfully employed in humans and animals for lens extraction. This ultrasonic extracapsular surgical technique induces hydroxyl radical formation in the anterior chamber, which accumulates despite irrigation and aspiration. In this paper we determined the total antioxidant status of aqueous humor after phacoemulsification by measuring aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 11; weighing about 10 kg) with normal eyes as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and indirect ophthalmoscopy had phacoemulsification performed in one eye with the other eye used as a control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before surgery and at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 after surgery. Total aqueous humor antioxidant status was inferred from the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis (2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by anova followed by the paired t-test. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 48 to 27 min during the first 24 h with a gradual increase thereafter, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 7 days postoperatively. Reduced levels of ascorbic acid followed this reduction in antioxidant capacity (from 211 to 99 microm after 24 h), remaining lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Protein concentration in aqueous humor increased from 0.62 mg/mL to 30.8 mg/mL 24 h after surgery, remaining statistically lower than the control eye until 15 days postoperatively. Paracentesis alone did not significantly alter the parameters measured. These results indicate that after phacoemulsification, the aqueous humor ascorbic acid levels and antioxidant defenses in aqueous humor are reduced, indirectly corroborating free radical

  4. Levels of thrombopoietin in aqueous humor of patients with noninfectious acute anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Mondejar, José-Juan; Salom, David; Garcia-Delpech, Salvador; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure thrombopoietin (TPO) levels in the serum and aqueous humors of patients with noninfectious acute anterior uveitis. Methods A prospective, comparative, controlled study. Serum and aqueous humors were obtained from the eyes of 16 patients with noninfectious acute anterior uveitis. TPO levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results obtained were compared with those of a control group. Results Serum concentrations of TPO were not significantly different between control individuals and patients with active anterior uveitis. Aqueous humor TPO levels were 54.46±16.24 pg/mL in the eyes of patients with uveitis, and 34.32±11.63 pg/mL in the eyes of controls. The difference between the two groups was significant (Mann–Whitney U-test for independent data, P=0.0008), with uveitis patients exhibiting significantly higher levels of TPO. Conclusion The high levels of TPO in the aqueous humors of uveitis patients points toward a cytoprotective role of this factor in inflammatory repair processes and the recovery of tissue homeostasis. PMID:26203218

  5. Measurement of Physiologic Glucose Levels Using Raman Spectroscopy in a Rabbit Aqueous Humor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Borchert, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have elecited a reliable glucose signature in mammalian physiological ranges using near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm and multivariate analysis. In a recent series of experiments we measured glucose levels in an artificial aqueous humor in the range from 0.5 to 13X normal values.

  6. Measurement of Physiologic Glucose Levels Using Raman Spectroscopy in a Rabbit Aqueous Humor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, J.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Borchert, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have elecited a reliable glucose signature in mammalian physiological ranges using near infrared Raman laser excitation at 785 nm and multivariate analysis. In a recent series of experiments we measured glucose levels in an artificial aqueous humor in the range from 0.5 to 13X normal values.

  7. Serum and Aqueous Humor Levels of Fetuin-A in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Nilay; Takmaz, Tamer; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Ergin, Merve; Altinkaynak, Hasan; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2017-06-16

    To evaluate serum and aqueous humor levels of fetuin-A in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEXS) in comparison with those of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. This prospective study included 25 patients with PEXS and 25 control subjects who were undergoing cataract surgery without any systemic or ocular disease. Aqueous humor and serum fetuin-A levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean age of the PEXS group (14 males, 11 females, n = 25) was 57.7 ± 6.9 years, and the control group (13 males, 12 females, n = 25) was 58.1 ± 5.7 years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of age (p = 0.77) and sex (p = 0.83). The mean serum fetuin-A level of the PEXS group did not differ from that of the control group (p = 0.53). The mean aqueous humor level of the PEXS group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p = 0.032). There were no significant correlations between aqueous humor and serum fetuin-A levels among patients with PEXS and control group (p > 0.05). Increased levels of fetuin-A in aqueous humor of patients with PEXS may show the local effect of fetuin-A on the anterior segment. With considering the wide range of possible biological functions of fetuin-A in the pathogenesis of PEXS, further studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings.

  8. Aqueous Humor Dynamics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Manik; Picciani, Renata G; Lee, Richard K; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is a family of optic neuropathies which cause irreversible but potentially preventable vision loss. Vision loss in most forms of glaucoma is related to elevated IOP with subsequent injury to the optic nerve. Secretion of aqueous humor and regulation of its outflow are physiologically important processes for maintaining IOP in the normal range. Thus, understanding the complex mechanisms that regulate aqueous humor circulation is essential for management of glaucoma. The two main structures related to aqueous humor dynamics are the ciliary body and the trabecular meshwork (TM). Three mechanisms are involved in aqueous humor formation: diffusion, ultrafiltration and active secretion. Active secretion is the major contributor to aqueous humor formation. The aqueous humor flow in humans follows a circadian rhythm, being higher in the morning than at night. The aqueous humor leaves the eye by passive flow via two pathways - the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral pathway. In humans, 75% of the resistance to aqueous humor outflow is localized within the TM with the juxtacanalicular portion of the TM being the main site of outflow resistance. Glycosaminoglycan deposition in the TM extracellular matrix (ECM) has been suggested to be responsible for increased outflow resistance at this specific site whereas others have suggested deposition of proteins, such as cochlin, obstruct the aqueous humor outflow through the TM. The uveoscleral outflow pathway is relatively independent of the intraocular pressure and the proportion of aqueous humor exiting the eye via the uveoscleral pathway decreases with age. PMID:21293732

  9. Increased melatonin levels in aqueous humor of patients with proliferative retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Erdinc; Sahin, Semsettin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the association between melatonin levels in aqueous humor and serum, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS Aqueous humor and plasma samples from 26 patients with DR (in nonproliferative and proliferative stages) and 14 control subjects were collected during cataract surgery after 6 p.m. Melatonin concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS Melatonin levels were significantly higher in the aqueous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) [18.57±2.67 pg/mL (range 15.20-23.06) vs 13.63±2.71 pg/mL (range 10.20-20.20), P=0.0001], but not in those with nonproliferative retinopathy (NPDR) [13.79±2.56 pg/mL (range 9.80-20.10) vs 13.63±2.71 pg/mL (range 10.20-20.20), P=0.961] compared to controls. There was decrement in the plasma melatonin level of patients with PDR, but no significant differences between the plasma melatonin levels of the study groups [5.37±1.74 pg/mL (range 2.85-8.65) vs 6.11±1.90 pg/mL (range 3.13-9.41), P=0.293], or between control and DR groups [NPDR 6.11±1.90 pg/mL (range 3.13-9.41) vs control 6.15±1.91 pg/mL (range 2.18-9.86); PDR (5.37±1.74 pg/mL (range 2.85-8.65) vs control 6.15±1.91 pg/mL (range 2.18-9.86), P=0.808, P=0.264]. CONCLUSION Elevated melatonin levels in aqueous humor in PDR may indicate the level to be associated with DR severity. PMID:27275429

  10. Association of NT-proANP Level in Plasma and Humor Aqueous with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Baumane, Kristine; Ranka, Renate; Laganovska, Guna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine differences in the levels of NT-proANP in the plasma and aqueous humor of glaucoma and cataract patients and to evaluate whether any relationships are present. The study group consisted of 58 patients with primary-open glaucoma (POAG) undergoing trabeculectomy surgery. The control group was comprised of 32 age-matched cataract patients. The concentration of the N-terminal fragment of the proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP, 1-98) in the aqueous humor and blood plasma samples was measured using an immunochemical method (ELISA). The plasma NT-proANP concentration was significantly increased in patients with POAG compared to that in the control group (7.00 vs. 4.65 nmol/L, P = 0.0054). Similarly, the NT-proANP concentration in the aqueous humor was significantly higher in the POAG patients (0.47 vs. 0.09 nmol/L, P = 0.0112). However, there was no correlation between the NT-proANP values in the aqueous humor and the plasma of the POAG patients, as well as between the NT-proANP values in the aqueous humor and the intraocular pressure. We identified an association between the levels of NT-proANP in the plasma and the aqueous humor with POAG. Our data support the idea of the involvement of NP system in the development of POAG and highlight ANP as a possible biomarker of glaucoma.

  11. Aqueous humor erythropoietin levels in open-angle glaucoma patients with and without TTR V30M familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beirão, João M; Moreira, Luciana M; Oliveira, João C; Menéres, Maria J; Pessoa, Bernardete B; Matos, Maria E; Costa, Paulo P; Torres, Paulo A; Beirão, Idalina B

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that has been shown to play a role in neuroprotection and is endogenously produced in the eye. EPO levels in the aqueous humor are increased in eyes with glaucoma. In this study, we evaluated the EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of FAP and non-FAP patients, with and without glaucoma. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 42 eyes that underwent glaucoma surgery, phacoemulsification, or vitrectomy. EPO concentration in the aqueous humor and blood were measured using the Immulite 2000 Xpi using an automatic analyzer (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The mean EPO concentration in the aqueous humor of non-FAP glaucoma eyes group 2 (75.73±13.25 mU/ml) was significantly higher than non-FAP cataract eyes (17.22±5.33 mU/ml; p<0.001), FAP glaucoma eyes (18.82±10.16 mU/ml; p<0.001), and FAP nonglaucoma eyes (20.62±6.22 mU/ml; p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between FAP nonglaucoma eyes versus non-FAP cataract eyes (p = 0.23) and FAP glaucoma eyes versus FAP nonglaucoma eyes (p = 0.29). In the glaucoma groups, there was no correlation between the aqueous humor EPO concentration and the ocular pressure (p = 0.95) and mean deviation (p = 0.41). There was no correlation between the EPO serum concentration and EPO aqueous humor concentration in our patients (p = 0.77). Unlike other glaucomatous patients, FAP patients with glaucoma do not show increased and potentially neuroprotective endocular EPO production in the aqueous humor and may need more aggressive glaucoma management.

  12. Aqueous humor changes after experimental filtering surgery.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J; Claflin, A; Fiorentino, G

    1980-02-01

    We studied aqueous humor of rhesus and owl monkeys for its effect on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture. Aqueous humor samples obtained before glaucoma surgery inhibited the initiation of growth of fibroblasts. However, postoperative aqueous humor samples supported growth of fibroblasts. The change in aqueous humor physiology lasted for up to two months after glaucoma surgery. Our study indicated that possibly material added to the postoperative aqueous humor inactivates an inhibitor normally present in primary aqueous humor. An alternative explanation would be that primary aqueous humor, in contrast to secondary aqueous humor, lacks sufficient nutrient material to support fibroblast growth in tissue culture.

  13. Correlation of Aqueous Humor Lysyl Oxidase Activity with TGF-ß Levels and LOXL1 Genotype in Pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Ramakrishnan; Coral, Karunakaran; Sharmila, Ferdinamarie; Sripriya, Sarangapani; Sripriya, Krishnamoorthy; Manish, Panday; Shantha, B; Ronnie, George; Vijaya, Lingam; Narayanasamy, Angayarkanni

    2016-10-01

    Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) is a microfibrillopathy involving disordered elastogenesis. Abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) production underlies the pathophysiology of PXF. The enzyme Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and its isoforms are known to cross-link the elastin and collagen. Though the etiopathogensis of PXF is not well understood, studies report on the genetic risk involving LOXL1 gene. This study aims to screen LOXL1 coding variants rs1048661 and rs3825942 in the South Indian population and the implication of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with LOX activity. The levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in aqueous humor and its correlation with the LOX activity were also examined. Blood, plasma, and aqueous aspirates were prospectively collected from PXF cases with and without glaucoma and cataract cases as controls. DNA was extracted from 48 PXF cases without glaucoma, 12 PXF cases with glaucoma, and 40 age-matched cataract-alone controls without PXF/glaucoma for analyzing LOX SNPs. LOX activity was measured in aqueous humor and plasma of 30 PXF cases without glaucoma, 24 age-matched cataract-alone controls without PXF/glaucoma, and 14 PXF cases with glaucoma. Protein levels of LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, and total TGF-β were estimated in plasma and aqueous humor by ELISA. The specific activity of LOX in aqueous humor was found to be significantly lowered in PXF cases compared with cataract-alone controls (p = 0.014). This decrease in LOX activity in PXF cases was associated with high-risk GG haplotype. However, this was not statistically significant and a larger sample size is warranted. TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 negatively correlated with LOX activity in aqueous humor (p = 0.028; p = 0.046, respectively). The LOXL1 SNPs, rs1048661 and rs3825942, are associated with PXF in the South Indian population correlating with lowered LOX activity in the aqueous humor. The increased level of total TGF-β in the aqueous humor of PXF cases is possibly associated with LOX

  14. [A study on cytokine levels and nitric oxide content in rabbit aqueous humor after lens extraction and intraocular lens implantation].

    PubMed

    Qi, Ming-xin; Huang, Xiu-rong; Shen, Shi-ren; Zheng, Liang-pu; Lin, Jiu-mao; Wei, Lin

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among inflammatory reaction and cytokine levels, nitric oxide (NO) content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into 3 groups (each 6 rabbits): (1) control group, (2) extracapsular cataract extraction group (ECCE) and (3) ECCE and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation group (ECCE + IOL). The inflammation of all experimental rabbit eyes were observed by a zoom-photo slit-lamp microscope 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 days postoperatively, including corneal edema and anterior chamber exudation. Meanwhile, aqueous humor was drawn for white blood cell (WBC) count and classification, as well as for NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and cytokine assays, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Statistics were taken by SPSS software. (1) The anterior chamber exudation was the most serious and monocyte/macrophage in aqueous humor were the highest in ECCE + IOL group in postoperative 7 - 14 days. (2) The levels of IL-2, TNF-alpha and the content of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) in aqueous humor of ECCE + IOL group were higher than that in ECCE group and control group in the postoperative 1 - 14 days respectively, and they increased to their peak values at the postoperative 3 - 7 days and decreased gradually after postoperative two weeks. (3) The change regularity of IL-2, TNF-alpha, NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and inflammatory reaction in each group were basically similar, i.e. the more serious the reaction, the higher the levels of the contents. The intraocular inflammation after intraocular lens implantation is closely related to the changes of cytokine levels and NO content in aqueous humor.

  15. Ciliary Blood Flow and Aqueous Humor Production

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, J.W.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rao, R.; Chen, M.; Reitsamer, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous humor production is a metabolically active process sustained by the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of metabolic waste by the ciliary circulation. This article describes our investigations into the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production. The results presented indicate that there is a dynamic relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous humor production, with production being blood flow independent above a critical level of perfusion, and blood flow dependent below it. The results also show that the plateau portion of the relationship shifts up or down depending on the level of secretory stimulation or inhibition, and that oxygen is one critical factor provided by ciliary blood flow. Also presented is a theoretical model of ocular hydrodynamics incorporating these new findings. PMID:20801226

  16. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  17. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Method Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Results Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Conclusion Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense. PMID:27788204

  18. Prostaglandin E2 Levels of Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Ketorolac 0.4% and Nepafenac 0.1% Administered Healthy Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ugur; Acar, Damla Erginturk; Tanriverdi, Cafer; Acar, Mutlu; Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Erikci, Acelya; Ornek, Firdevs

    2017-06-01

    To compare the lowering effects of ketorolac 0.4% and nepafenac 0.1% on aqueous and vitreous humor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in rabbits. Ketorolac and nepafenac ophthalmic solutions were administered to the right eyes of 24 healthy rabbits after randomized division into two groups. The left eyes of these rabbits were considered as controls for the two groups. On the 4th day of the experiment, the samples were taken from the aqueous and vitreous humors of the rabbits bilaterally, and PGE2 levels were measured by an enzyme immune assay kit. Ketorolac and nepafenac achieved a statistically significant decrease (p<0.001, for each) in PGE2 levels in the aqueous (11.75 ± 6.15 and 14.75 ± 7.60 pg/mL, respectively) and the vitreous humor (6.58 ± 4.62 and 9.83 ± 4.55 pg/mL, respectively). Both ketorolac and nepafenac inhibited PGE2 levels in both the aqueous and vitreous humors of rabbits. Although PGE2-lowering effects were similar in the aqueous humor, nepafenac seemed to be more potent than ketorolac in the vitreous humor.

  19. Association between aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Sakurai, Yutaka; Taguchi, Manzo; Harimoto, Kozo; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is known to be involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We have recently reported that vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα are higher than the respective serum levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients, and that vitreous levels of these cytokines are higher in PDR than in other non-inflammatory vitreoretinal diseases or uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. In the present study, we investigated inflammatory cytokines including Th17 cell-related cytokines in aqueous humor samples obtained from eyes with PDR, and analyzed the association between the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of individual cytokines. The study group consisted of 31 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with PDR who underwent cataract surgery and vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage and/or tractional retinal detachment. Undiluted aqueous humor was collected during cataract surgery, and then vitreous fluid was obtained using a 25G vitreous cutter inserted into the mid-vitreous cavity at the beginning of vitrectomy. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNFα levels in the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid were measured using a beads-array system. Although IL-17A was detected in the aqueous humor of eyes with PDR and the level correlated with IL-17A level in the vitreous fluid, both percent detectable and level of IL-17A in the aqueous humor were significantly lower than those in the vitreous fluid. Vitreous IL-17A level was related significantly to IL-10, IL-22, and TNFα levels in aqueous humor as well as in vitreous fluid, On the other hand, aqueous IL-17A level was not related significantly to aqueous or vitreous levels of IL-10, IL-22 or TNFα level. The present study demonstrated that IL-17A level and detectable rate in the aqueous humor of patients with PDR are markedly lower than those in the vitreous fluid and aqueous IL-17A does not

  20. Association between aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Sakurai, Yutaka; Taguchi, Manzo; Harimoto, Kozo; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is known to be involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We have recently reported that vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα are higher than the respective serum levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients, and that vitreous levels of these cytokines are higher in PDR than in other non-inflammatory vitreoretinal diseases or uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. In the present study, we investigated inflammatory cytokines including Th17 cell-related cytokines in aqueous humor samples obtained from eyes with PDR, and analyzed the association between the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid levels of individual cytokines. The study group consisted of 31 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with PDR who underwent cataract surgery and vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage and/or tractional retinal detachment. Undiluted aqueous humor was collected during cataract surgery, and then vitreous fluid was obtained using a 25G vitreous cutter inserted into the mid-vitreous cavity at the beginning of vitrectomy. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNFα levels in the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid were measured using a beads-array system. Although IL-17A was detected in the aqueous humor of eyes with PDR and the level correlated with IL-17A level in the vitreous fluid, both percent detectable and level of IL-17A in the aqueous humor were significantly lower than those in the vitreous fluid. Vitreous IL-17A level was related significantly to IL-10, IL-22, and TNFα levels in aqueous humor as well as in vitreous fluid, On the other hand, aqueous IL-17A level was not related significantly to aqueous or vitreous levels of IL-10, IL-22 or TNFα level. The present study demonstrated that IL-17A level and detectable rate in the aqueous humor of patients with PDR are markedly lower than those in the vitreous fluid and aqueous IL-17A does not

  1. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P < 0.0001). The aqueous humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. The effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and peroxidation reactions in the aqueous humor

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor in the aqueous humor, by measuring vascular endothelial growth factor levels and oxidation-related parameters, including O2•− scavenging activity, H2O2 level, and total hydroperoxide level in the aqueous humor, obtained from 35 patients before and after astaxanthin administration. We evaluated the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor and the oxidation-related parameters as well as the patient’s diabetic status, age, and sex. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels did not change significantly but O2•− scavenging activity and total hydroperoxide level significantly (p<0.05) increased and decreased, respectively. Both pre- and post- astaxanthin intake, vascular endothelial growth factor and total hydroperoxide levels were positively correlated (Pearson: r = 0.42, p<0.05; r = 0.55, p<0.01, respectively). Analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor levels and O2•− scavenging activities gave a negative correlation but only pre-astaxanthin intake (r = −0.37, p<0.05). Differences in levels pre- and post-astaxanthin only showed association between vascular endothelial growth factor and total hydroperoxide (r = 0.49, p<0.01) analyzed by multiple linear regression. Using multivariate analysis, pre-astaxanthin vascular endothelial growth factor level was associated with two factors of total hydroperoxide and O2•− scavenging activity (r = 0.49, p<0.05), and post-astaxanthin vascular endothelial growth factor level with two factors of total hydroperoxide and sex (r = 0.60, p<0.01). Astaxanthin intake may have affected vascular endothelial growth factor level through its antioxidant effects by increasing O2•− scavenging activity and suppressing peroxide production. PMID:27499573

  3. Aqueous Humor Levels of Different Interleukins 1-β, 2, 6 and 10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Uveitis Treated with Adalimumab

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Garfella, María Luisa; Palomares Fort, Paula; Román Ivorra, José Andrés; Cervera Taulet, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess changes in aqueous humor levels of different interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with uveitis treated with adalimumab. Methods: In this study, 24 aqueous humor samples including 12 pre- and post-treatment samples from 6 patients with uveitis treated with subcutaneous adalimumab and 12 samples from patients with cataracts (serving as controls) were evaluated. The levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and VEGF were measured using a Luminex® 200™ flow cytometer (Merckmillipore, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Alemania) and a highly sensitive ELISA system. Results: The levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in the aqueous humor before and after treatment with adalimumab did not show significant differences. Aqueous VEGF levels significantly reduced after treatment with adalimumab (P = 0.028). Aqueous TNF-α levels did not significantly change after treatment with adalimumab, however the post-treatment level was significantly higher in patients as compared to control subjects (P = 0.032). IL-2 showed significantly higher levels in uveitis patients before treatment as compared to controls (P = 0.024), while its post-treatment levels were almost normalized. Conclusion: Decrease in the aqueous humor levels of VEGF and IL-2 after treatment with systemic adalimumab indicates that anti-TNF-α therapy induces modifications of some inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of uveitis. Aqueous humor samples may be useful to assess the effect of adalimumab on intraocular inflammation through measurement of cytokines. PMID:26005553

  4. Aqueous Humor Levels of Different Interleukins 1-β, 2, 6 and 10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Uveitis Treated with Adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Hernández Garfella, María Luisa; Palomares Fort, Paula; Román Ivorra, José Andrés; Cervera Taulet, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    To assess changes in aqueous humor levels of different interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with uveitis treated with adalimumab. In this study, 24 aqueous humor samples including 12 pre- and post-treatment samples from 6 patients with uveitis treated with subcutaneous adalimumab and 12 samples from patients with cataracts (serving as controls) were evaluated. The levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and VEGF were measured using a Luminex(®) 200™ flow cytometer (Merckmillipore, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Alemania) and a highly sensitive ELISA system. The levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in the aqueous humor before and after treatment with adalimumab did not show significant differences. Aqueous VEGF levels significantly reduced after treatment with adalimumab (P = 0.028). Aqueous TNF-α levels did not significantly change after treatment with adalimumab, however the post-treatment level was significantly higher in patients as compared to control subjects (P = 0.032). IL-2 showed significantly higher levels in uveitis patients before treatment as compared to controls (P = 0.024), while its post-treatment levels were almost normalized. Decrease in the aqueous humor levels of VEGF and IL-2 after treatment with systemic adalimumab indicates that anti-TNF-α therapy induces modifications of some inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of uveitis. Aqueous humor samples may be useful to assess the effect of adalimumab on intraocular inflammation through measurement of cytokines.

  5. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  6. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  7. Levels of Aqueous Humor Trace Elements in Patients with Non-Exsudative Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jünemann, Anselm G. M.; Stopa, Piotr; Michalke, Bernhard; Chaudhri, Anwar; Reulbach, Udo; Huchzermeyer, Cord; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Kruse, Friedrich E.; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rejdak, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to measure alterations of trace elements levels in aqueous humor of patients with non-exsudative (dry) AMD. For this pilot study, aqueous humor samples were collected from patients undergoing cataract surgery. 12 patients with dry AMD (age 77.9±6.62, female 8, male 4) and 11 patients without AMD (age 66.6±16.7, female 7, male 4) were included. Aqueous levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc were measured by use of Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), quality controlled with certified standards. Patients with AMD had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of cadmium (median: 0.70 µmol/L, IQR: 0.40–0.84 vs. 0.06 µmol/L; IQR: 0.01–.018; p = 0.002), cobalt (median: 3.1 µmol/L, IQR: 2.62–3.15 vs. 1.17 µmol/L; IQR: 0.95–1.27; p<0.001), iron (median: 311 µmol/L, IQR: 289–329 vs. 129 µmol/L; IQR: 111–145; p<0.001) and zinc (median: 23.1 µmol/L, IQR: 12.9–32.6 vs. 5.1 µmol/L; IQR: 4.4–9.4; p = 0.020) when compared with patients without AMD. Copper levels were significantly reduced in patients with AMD (median: 16.2 µmol/L, IQR: 11.4–31.3 vs. 49.9 µmol/L; IQR: 32.0–.142.0; p = 0.022) when compared to those without. No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese and selenium between patients with and without AMD. After an adjustment for multiple testing, cadmium, cobalt, copper and iron remained a significant factor in GLM models (adjusted for age and gender of the patients) for AMD. Alterations of trace element levels support the hypothesis that cadmium, cobalt, iron, and copper are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:23457607

  8. Morphine-Stimulated Nitric Oxide Release in Rabbit Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Dortch-Carnes, Juanita; Russell, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated a role of nitric oxide (NO) in morphine-induced reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit. The present study was designed to determine the effect of morphine on NO release in the aqueous humor of NZW rabbits, as this effect could be associated with morphine-mediated changes in aqueous humor dynamics and iris function. Dark adapted NZW rabbits were treated as follows: 1) treatment with morphine (10, 33 or 100 μg, 5 min); 2) treatment with morphine or endomorphin-1 for 5, 15 or 30 min; 3) pretreatment with naloxone (100 μg), L-NAME (125 μg) or reduced glutathione (GSH, 100 μg) for 30 minutes, followed by treatment with morphine (100 μg, 5 min). After the various treatment regimens, aqueous humor samples were obtained by paracenthesis and immediately assayed for nitrates and nitrites (an index of NO production), using a microplate assay kit. Morphine caused a dose-dependent increase in the levels of NO in aqueous humor after 5 min of treatment with each dose. Rabbits treated with endomorphin-1 (100 μg) had no significant change in NO levels in aqueous at any point in the time course. Aqueous samples from rabbits treated with morphine (100 μg) for 5 minutes increased from 29.84 ± 2.39 μM (control) to 183.94 ± 23.48 μM (treated). The increase in NO levels by morphine (100 μg, 5 min) was completely inhibited in the presence of naloxone (100 μg), L-NAME (125 μg) or GSH (100 μg). These results indicate that morphine-induced increase in NO production in aqueous humor is a transient response that is linked to activation of mu opioid receptors. Data obtained suggest that morphine-stimulated changes in ocular hydrodynamics and iris function are due, in part, to increased release of NO in aqueous humor. In addition, the sensitivity of the response to L-NAME and GSH suggests that morphine-induced release of nitric oxide into aqueous humor is mediated by

  9. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    , immunoblotting analysis of the aqueous humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI. Overall, our results suggest that topical antibiotics cause different levels of iris melanocyte toxicity, releasing dispersed pigments into the aqueous humor, which can be measured through TYR enzyme activity. Hence, we conclude that topical FQLs may cause subclinical toxicity to the iris melanocytes but may not be the sole cause of the development of BAIT or BADI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  12. Effects of astaxanthin on antioxidation in human aqueous humor

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto; Obara, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative effects of astaxanthin through the changes in superoxide scavenging activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide and total hydroperoxides in human aqueous humor. The study subjects were 35 patients who underwent bilateral cataract surgery on one side before and the other side after intake of astaxanthin (6 mg/day for 2 weeks). Their aqueous humor was taken during the surgery and subjected to measurements of the three parameters. After astaxanthin intake, the superoxide scavenging activity was significantly (p<0.05) elevated, while the level of total hydroperoxides was significantly (p<0.05) lowered. There was a significant negative correlation between the superoxide scavenging activity and the level of total hydroperoxides (r = −0.485, p<0.01), but no correlations between the hydrogen peroxide level and the other two parameters. Astaxanthin intake clearly enhanced the superoxide scavenging activity and suppressed the total hydroperoxides production in human aqueous humor, indicating the possibility that astaxanthin has suppressive effects on various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:23874063

  13. Aqueous humor cytokine profiling in patients with wet AMD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Li, Jiaqing; Tang, Miao; Yuan, Miner; Hu, Andina; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the chemokine expression profiles in the aqueous humor of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) patients and to correlate their levels with clinical findings. Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples (100–200 μl) were obtained from 16 wet AMD eyes and 12 control eyes. Forty chemokines were measured using a multiplex method. A 6×6 mm area of the macular region centered on the fovea was examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results The detection rates were 50% or more for 15 chemokines. Compared with the control group, the aqueous humor in wet AMD patients showed a significantly higher expression of CXCL10 (p=0.004), CCL14 (p=0.002), CXCL16 (p=0.013), CXCL7 (p=0.033), and CCL22 (p=0.037), while growth-related oncogene (GRO) was significantly decreased in the wet AMD patients (p=0.001). When compared with treatment-naïve patients, the recurrent group had significant upregulation of CXCL10 (p=0.012) and CCL22 (p=0.002). CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size, and CCL22 was higher in patients whose OCT images showed intraretinal fluid (IRF) or hyperreflective foci (HF). Conclusions Elevated levels of inflammation-related chemokines, including CXCL10, CCL14, CXCL16, CXCL7, and CCL22, in the aqueous humor of AMD patients may suggest a pathogenic role for inflammation. CXCL10 and CCL22 were more elevated in eyes with recurrent wet AMD than in treatment-naïve eyes. CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size. The increase in CCL22 was correlated with the presence of IRF or HF. These data may be of interest in the search for biomarkers associated with wet AMD and may potentially indicate different treatment strategies. PMID:27122966

  14. Clinical significance of high levels of survivin and transforming growth factor beta-1 proteins in aqueous humor and serum of retinoblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Hanan Hussein; Abou Ghalia, Azza Hassan; Elsayed, Eman Khairy; Ahmed Said, Azza Mohamed; Mahmoud, Safaa Saleh

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of survivin and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1) expression in aqueous humor and serum of retinoblastoma (RB) in comparison to the conventional RB marker lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to elucidate a possible correlation between them and the clinicopathological features of the disease. This prospective, comparative study included 88 newly diagnosed children with RB and 80 age-matched controls with ophthalmic conditions other than tumors prepared for intraocular surgeries. Concentrations of survivin, TGF-B1, and LDH were measured in serum and aqueous humor before and 6 months after completion of therapy. High serum and aqueous humor concentrations of the three proteins were detected in RB patients before treatment compared to the control group (P < 0.01), with a significant reduction of serum concentrations after treatment (P < 0.01). For the highest sensitivity and specificity, the optimal cutoff values of serum and aqueous survivin were 12.9 pg/ml and 25.2 pg/mg, with a significant positive correlation between aqueous survivin and RB staging and presence of optic nerve infiltration (r = 0.43, P = 0.04); the best cutoff values of serum and aqueous TGF-B1, 370.7 pg/ml and 39.8 pg/mg, with a significant positive correlation between aqueous TGF-B1 and poor differentiation of the tumor (r = 0.69, P = 0.001). The high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of serum and aqueous humor survivin and TGF-B1 proteins make them promising markers for early detection and follow-up of RB patients. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling passive mechanical interaction between aqueous humor and iris.

    PubMed

    Heys, J J; Barocas, V H; Taravella, M J

    2001-12-01

    Certain forms of glaucoma are associated with displacement of the iris from its normal contour. We present here a mathematical model of the coupled aqueous humor-iris system that accountsfor the contribution of aqueous humor flow and passive iris deformability to the iris contour. The aqueous humor is modeled as a Newtonian fluid, and the iris is modeled as a linear elastic solid. The resulting coupled equation set is solved by the finite element method with mesh motion in response to iris displacement accomplished by tracking a pseudo-solid overlying the aqueous humor. The model is used to predict the iris contour in healthy and diseased eyes. The results compare favorably with clinical observations, supporting the hypothesis that passive iris deformation can produce the iris contours observed using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

  16. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  17. Study of 27 Aqueous Humor Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with or without Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Xu, Bing; Chu, Liqun; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in the levels of 27 aqueous humor cytokines between diabetic patients with macular edema (ME) and diabetic patients without ME. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 68 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without ME and 56 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with ME. The concentrations of 27 cytokines in the aqueous humor samples were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay. Compared with diabetic patients without ME, diabetic patients with ME had significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and VEGF in the aqueous humor. However, the concentrations of IL-10 and IL-12 were significantly lower in the diabetic patients with ME. The aqueous humor levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, IP-10, and VEGF were closely correlated with retinal macular thickness, retinal macular volume and the severity of ME. In addition, the aqueous humor levels of IL-10 and IL-12 decreased with increasing the severity of ME. A variety of cytokines associated with inflammation and angiogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema, and both anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic agents should be included in the treatment of ME simultaneously.

  18. Effect of desmopressin on aqueous humor flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, S R; Abboud, C F; Brubaker, R F

    1993-04-15

    The rate of aqueous humor flow was studied in 17 human subjects with neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Flow was measured by fluorophotometry on two consecutive afternoons. The first day, subjects used desmopressin to control their diuresis; on the second day, subjects did not use desmopressin and had uncontrolled diuresis. On both days, one eye was treated with the beta-adrenergic antagonist, timolol. With desmopressin, the rate of aqueous humor flow in the untreated eye was 2.53 +/- 0.79 microliters/min (mean +/- standard deviation) and in the timolol-treated eye was 1.69 +/- 0.40 microliters/min. Without desmopressin, the rate of aqueous humor flow in the untreated eye was 2.34 +/- 0.69 microliters/min and in the timolol-treated eye was 1.53 +/- 0.43 microliters/min. Thus, the use of desmopressin was associated with a slightly higher rate of aqueous humor flow in both the normal and the beta-adrenergically inhibited eye (P = .05), and the suppression of aqueous humor flow associated with beta-adrenergic inhibition occurred with and without antidiuretic hormone (P < .001). The observed differences in aqueous humor flow on the two days could have been caused by a direct effect on the eye or to indirect effects, such as the change in plasma osmolality, which changed from 291 +/- 6 mOsm on the desmopressin day to 299 +/- 8 mOsm on the desmopressin-abstention day (P < .001).

  19. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is associated with a low level of the natural ocular anti-angiogenic agent pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor. a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boehm, B O; Lang, G; Feldmann, B; Kurkhaus, A; Rosinger, S; Volpert, O; Lang, G K; Bouck, N

    2003-06-01

    Retinopathy is the most common microvascular diabetes complication and represents a major threat to the eyesight. The aim of this study was to address the role of pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules in diabetic retinopathy in the aqueous humor of the eye. Aqueous humor was collected at cataract surgery from 19 diabetic patients and from 13 age- and sex-matched normoglycemic controls. Levels of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenic inhibitor pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined. Angiogenic activity of the aqueous humor was quantified by measuring its effect on the migration of capillary endothelial cells. In the aqueous fluid, VEGF levels were increased in diabetics (mean values: 501 vs. 367 pg/ml; p = 0.05), compared to controls. PEDF was found to be decreased in diabetics (mean values: 2080 vs. 5780 ng/ml; p = 0.04) compared to controls. In seven diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy, the most profound finding was a significant decrease of the PEDF level (mean value: 237 ng/ml), whereas VEGF levels were comparable to diabetic patients without proliferation (mean value: 3153; p = 0.003). Angiogenic activity in samples of patients from the control group was generally inhibitory due to PEDF, and inhibition was blocked by neutralizing antibodies to PEDF. Likewise, in diabetics without proliferation, angiogenic activity was also blocked by antibodies to PEDF. We will demonstrate here that the level of the natural ocular anti-angiogenic agent PEDF is inversely associated with proliferative retinopathy. PEDF is an important negative regulator of angiogenic activity of aqueous humor. Our data may have implications for the development of novel regimens for diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Cytokine analysis of aqueous humor in HIV patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jayant Venkatramani; Connolly, John; Agrawal, Rupesh; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Lee, Bernett; Au, Bijin; Teoh, Stephen C

    2013-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is the most common opportunistic ocular infection in patients with AIDS. Comprehensive analysis of aqueous humor for immunologic factors has yet to be performed in patients with CMVR. This study aims to perform comprehensive immune factor analysis of aqueous humor in CMVR patients to determine the presence of any characteristic immunological profile in the aqueous humor. Comparative prospective analysis of aqueous humor was performed across three groups: (1) AIDS patients with CMVR (CMVR group) (n=20), (2) HIV-positive patients without CMVR (HIV group) (n=6) and (3) patients undergoing cataract surgery with no underlying ocular infection or inflammation (control group) (n=11). At least 100μl of aqueous humor was drawn from all subjects and fractionated prior to analysis for 41 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors with the FlexMAP 3D (Luminex®) platform using the Milliplex Human Cytokine® kit. Three distinct immunologic signatures were observed in the aqueous humor of the three groups. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed across the three groups with the HIV group having lower levels and CMVR group having raised levels for the following factors: IP-10, fractalkine, PDGF-AA, G-CSF, Flt-3L and MCP-1. Aqueous humor though clinically quiescent in CMVR revealed a unique immunologic signature consistent with a combined Th-1 and monocyte-macrophage mediated response. Subsequent longitudinal analysis of aqueous cytokine levels of CMVR through the course of treatment would allow better understanding of the immunopathogenetic mechanisms of CMVR. This may also be used to better prognosticate the disease, predict complications and allow better assessment of treatment response and individualization of treatment in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is Increased in Aqueous Humor of Acute Primary Angle-Closure Eyes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Gao, Xinbo; Chen, Shida; Li, Xingyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-07-01

    To measure and compare the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the aqueous humor of patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and normal cataract (controls). Aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from 38 APAC eyes, 36 PACG eyes, and 25 nonglaucomatous cataract control eyes. The levels of aqueous humor VEGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The clinical characteristics of participants were also collected for correlation analysis. VEGF was detected in aqueous humor samples of 35 of 38 APAC patients (mean±SE of the mean, 935±258 pg/mL), 30 of 36 PACG patients (165±37.5 pg/mL), and 16 of 25 cataract controls (69.5±13.5 pg/mL). The mean concentration of VEGF in APAC eyes was 13.5 and 5.7 times higher than that in controls and PACG eyes, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant (both P<0.0167). In the correlation analysis that included all participants, the aqueous humor VEGF level was found to correlate negatively with axial length (ρ=-0.342, P=0.001), and positively with intraocular pressure (ρ=0.434, P<0.001). VEGF was significantly increased in aqueous humor of APAC eyes. An increase in aqueous humor VEGF may be the result of the characteristic ocular ischemia and hypoxia observed in APAC eyes as a consequence of sudden excessive increases in intraocular pressure during the acute episode.

  2. Constructal law analysis of Cl(-) transport in eyes aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Astori, Maria Rosa

    2017-07-31

    Progressive loss-of-vision related to any intraocular disorder is known as glaucoma. Secretion of aqueous humor is physiologically important to provide nutrients and oxygen to the avascular anterior segment and ensuring normal visual function, even if, nowadays reducing the secretory rate to lower intraocular pressure is a major strategy in treating glaucomatous patients. Understanding the mechanisms and regulation of aqueous humor formation is very important to develop possible new approaches to lower intraocular pressure,but today there isn't any comprehensive model of the regulation of these component in forming aqueous humor. In this paper Construcal law is used to suggest how the Cl(-) fluxes can determine the water inflow and outflow, and, consequently, how the intraocular pressure is controlled by these fluxes.

  3. Analysis of Aqueous Humor Calcium and Phosphate from Cataract Eyes with and without Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan Joong

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the aqueous humor and serum of diabetics and non-diabetics. Methods We divided patients into two groups: seventy-six non-diabetic cataract patients and fifty-two diabetic cataract patients. The diabetic group was divided again into three subgroups: twenty-six patients with no diabetic retinopathy, thirteen patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and thirteen patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The authors compared the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the serum and aqueous humor of cataract patients. Statistic analysis was performed to form two comparisons: 1) a comparison between non-diabetics and diabetics and 2) a comparison among non-diabetics and the three subgroups of diabetics. Results In serum, calcium levels did not statistically differ between non-diabetics and diabetics. The phosphorus level was also not significantly different. In the aqueous humor, however, while calcium levels did not differ significantly, the phosphorus levels in diabetics were considerably higher than those in non-diabetics. When non-diabetics were compared to the three diabetic subgroups, calcium levels did not differ in serum or aqueous humor, but the phosphorus levels in diabetics with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were significantly higher than those in non-diabetics, diabetics without diabetic retinopathy, and diabetics with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions The level of phosphorus in the aqueous humor and serum of diabetics was significantly increased, especially in diabetics with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. This result may be related to hydrophilic acrylic IOL opacification. Future studies regarding the pathogenic role of a high concentration of aqueous humor and serum phosphorus are required. PMID:17592239

  4. Role of tissue growth factors in aqueous humor homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Welge-Lüssen, U; May, C A; Neubauer, A S; Priglinger, S

    2001-04-01

    The aqueous humor supplies nutrients to the nonvascularized cornea, lens, and trabecular meshwork. A number of tissue growth factors have been detected in this fluid. The composition of these proteins changes dramatically with different ocular conditions, such as inflammation and glaucoma. In this review, an overview of new findings regarding effects of aqueous humor growth factors is given. Our main emphasis is on the regulation of the avascular anterior eye compartment, the possible role of growth factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, and the importance of growth factors for the special immunosuppressive status of the anterior chamber.

  5. The effect of melatonin on aqueous humor flow in humans during the day.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, S R; Koskela, T K; Klee, G G; Samples, J R; Arnce, R; Brubaker, R F

    1994-02-01

    Aqueous humor flow through the anterior chamber of the eye undergoes a circadian cycle. The rate of flow during the day is twice as high as the rate of flow at night. The pineal hormone, melatonin, also undergoes a circadian cycle. Melatonin levels are high at night, whereas aqueous humor flow is low. The authors studied the effect of oral melatonin on aqueous humor flow in humans. The effect of melatonin on aqueous humor flow was evaluated in 19 healthy human volunteers in a randomized, masked crossover study with a placebo control. The hormone or placebo was administered orally during the day when endogenous levels of melatonin are low. Aqueous flow was measured by fluorophotometry for 8 hours. The mean rate of flow during melatonin treatment was 2.71 +/- 0.64 microliters/minute (+/- standard deviation). The rate of flow during placebo treatment was 2.80 +/- 0.66 microliters/minute. There is no statistically significant difference between these two rates (P = 0.4). With a sample size of 19, the study has a power of 92% to detect at least a 15% difference in the rate of flow under the two conditions. Measurement of plasma concentration of melatonin in five subjects confirmed that concentrations after oral dosage reached peaks comparable with the normal endogenous nocturnal peaks. The authors conclude that melatonin concentrations during the day, comparable with plasma concentrations that occur spontaneously during sleep, do not suppress aqueous humor formation. The authors find no support for the idea that plasma melatonin, per se, can suppress aqueous formation or that the circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin is primarily responsible for the circadian rhythm of aqueous humor flow.

  6. Dataset of aqueous humor cytokine profile in HIV patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Jayant Venkatramani; Agrawal, Rupesh; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Gunasekeran, Dinesh V; Balne, Praveen Kumar; Lee, Bernett; Au, Veonice Bijin; Connolly, John; Teoh, Stephen C B

    2016-09-01

    The data shows the aqueous humor cytokine profiling results acquired in a small cohort of 17 HIV patients clinically diagnosed with Cytomegalovirus retinitis using the FlexMAP 3D (Luminex®) platform using the Milliplex Human Cytokine® kit. Aqueous humor samples were collected from these patients at different time points (pre-treatment and at 4-weekly intervals through the 12-week course of intravitreal ganciclovir treatment) and 41 cytokine levels were analyzed at each time point. CMV DNA viral load was assessed in 8 patients at different time points throughout the course of ganciclovir treatment. The data described herein is related to the research article entitled "Aqueous humor immune factors and cytomegalovirus (CMV) levels in CMV retinitis through treatment - The CRIGSS study" (Iyer et al., 2016) [1]. Cytokine levels against the different time points which indicate the response to the given treatment and against the CMV viral load were analyzed.

  7. Metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors

    PubMed Central

    Kunikata, Hiroshi; Ida, Tomoaki; Sato, Kota; Aizawa, Naoko; Sawa, Tomohiro; Tawarayama, Hiroshi; Murayama, Namie; Fujii, Shigemoto; Akaike, Takaaki; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the metabolomic profile of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Eighteen eyes of 18 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy underwent microincision vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery. Samples of the aqueous and vitreous humors were collected and underwent mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides (polysulfidomics). The effect of reactive polysulfide species on the viability of immortalized retinal cells (the RGC-5 cell line) under oxidative stress (induced with H2O2) was also evaluated with an Alamar Blue assay. The experiments showed that cysteine persulfides (CysSSH), oxidized glutathione trisulfide (GSSSG) and cystine were elevated in the aqueous humor, and CysSSH, Cys, and cystine were elevated in the vitreous. Furthermore, GSSSG, cystine, and CysSSH levels were correlated in the aqueous and vitreous humors. A comparison, in DM and control subjects, of plasma levels of reactive persulfides and polysulfides showed that they did not differ. In vitro findings revealed that reactive polysulfide species increased cell viability under oxidative stress. Thus, various reactive persulfides and polysulfides appear to be present in the eye, and some reactive sulfide species, which have a protective effect against oxidative stress, are upregulated in the aqueous and vitreous humors of DM eyes. PMID:28169324

  8. Study of 27 aqueous humor cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ning; Xu, Bing; Wang, Bingsong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the changes in the levels of 27 aqueous humor cytokines between nondiabetic controls and patients with type 2 diabetes and to ascertain the association of these cytokines with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 102 nondiabetic patients (102 eyes) and 136 consecutive diabetic patients (136 eyes) who were divided into nine groups according to the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The concentrations of 27 cytokines in the aqueous humor samples were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay. Results Compared with the nondiabetic controls, the diabetic patients had significantly higher concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β; p<0.001), IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-8 (p<0.001), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p<0.001), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (p<0.001), and vascular endothelial growth factor (p<0.001) in the aqueous humor. However, the IL-10 (p=0.002) and IL-12 (p=0.013) concentrations were significantly lower for the diabetic patients. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other cytokines between the diabetic patients and the controls. The IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 levels in the aqueous humor increased as the severity of DR increased. The correlation was significant. However, the vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was not correlated with the severity of DR. In addition, the IL-10 and IL-12 levels in the aqueous humor decreased as the severity of DR increased, and this negative correlation was significant. Conclusions Various cytokines associated with inflammation and angiogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of DR, and chemokines may be more closely related to the development of this disease. PMID:23922491

  9. Parasite-specific antibody profile in the aqueous humor of rabbits with ocular toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuo

    2010-06-01

    Human ocular toxocariasis is diagnosed using ophthalmologic and immunologic examinations. Many researchers have suggested that intraocular parasite-specific antibody levels are indicative of ocular toxocariasis, but little is known about the time course of the changes in these levels. We therefore investigated the anti-Toxocara canis antibody profile in the aqueous humor in an animal model of ocular toxocariasis. We intravitreally injected T. canis larvae into the right eye of 4 rabbits; 2 rabbits were orally administered T. canis eggs. We collected serum, aqueous humor, and tear samples weekly and determined the serum and aqueous humor levels of anti-T. canis immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, and IgE antibodies and the tear IgG antibody level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The severity of vitreous opacity and the aqueous humor IgG levels (measured using optical density [OD]) changed concordantly in the larvae-injected eyes; the OD exceeded 0.1 from 2-4 weeks after infection and remained elevated during active intraocular inflammation. However, the aqueous humor IgG levels were also elevated in 6 out of 8 eyes without intraocular larvae in both groups, and were low in 1 eye with live intravitreal larvae. In contrast, the serum IgG and IgM levels and the tear IgG levels increased in all rabbits, regardless of the presence of intraocular inflammation. Vitreous opacity occurred in all intravitreally infected eyes, but significant histopathological evidence of retinal damage was not detected. Thus, besides the presence of intraocular larvae, some other factors in the host may be required for the development of retinal lesions.

  10. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  11. Cytokine Expression Profile in Aqueous Humor and Sera of Patients with Acute Anterior Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhao, B; Jiang, R; Zhang, R; Wang, Y; Wu, H; Gordon, L; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate cytokine expression profile in aqueous humor and sera in patients with HLAB27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. Twenty patients with AAU and 17 controls were recruited from August 2012 to March 2013. Study subjects with uveitis were divided into two groups: 9 patients with idiopathic AAU and 11 patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU. Complete ophthalmological examinations were performed and clinical features of each group were clearly documented. Aqueous humor and sera were collected and the concentration of 15 immune mediators (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, TNF-α, IFN-γ, sCD40L) were measured in both aqueous humor and sera simultaneously by multiplex immunoassay. There were significantly higher levels of multiple cytokines in aqueous humor in patients with uveitis compared to controls, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-17f, IL-21, IL-25, IL-31, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sCD40L. The levels of IL-17a in aqueous humor correlated significantly with disease activity in patients with idiopathic AAU, while the level of IFN-γ in aqueous humor correlated significantly with disease activity in patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU. There was no significant difference in serum cytokine expression between uveitis patients and controls except IL-6, elevated in patients with both idiopathic and HLA-B27 associated AAU. Cytokine expression pattern in the aqueous humor, in contrast to that in serum, may reflect intraocular immune reactions during active inflammation in patients with AAU. Both Th1 and Th17 are involved in immunopathogenesis of HLA-B27 associated and idiopathic AAU, but a different cytokine pattern was identified in these two clinical entities. A predominant Th17-driven immune response may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic AAU, while Th1 dominant immune response may be responsible for the inflammation in HLA-B27 associated AAU.

  12. Application of anodic stripping voltammetry for zinc, copper, and cadmium quantification in the aqueous humor: implications of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Vassiliki S; Kanellopoulou, Dimitra G; Gartaganis, Sotirios P; Koutsoukos, Petros G

    2009-12-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) procedure, using mercury film electrode, was optimized and applied to determine the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and copper in the aqueous humor. Concentration levels as low as 1 ppb of the test metals was possible to be detected using short electrolysis times (120 s) and microquantities of aqueous humor (up to 35 μL). As a first application of the voltammetric analysis of trace metals in the aqueous humor, the role of the three selected trace elements in the pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome was examined. Samples from aqueous humor were collected during cataract extraction from patients with and without PEX. The zinc and copper concentration levels in the aqueous humor did not show statistically significant difference in the study and control group. Cadmium was detected in a small number of samples, without however statistical differences between the two groups. ASV proved to be a highly precise and sensitive tool for the quantification of heavy metal ions in aqueous humor. Further studies may lead to useful conclusions for the role of zinc, copper, or cadmium in PEX syndrome.

  13. [Direct measurement of nitric oxide levels in aqueous humor with selective iso-NO electrode under physiologic conditions and after extracapsular cataract extraction and artificial lens implantation with PMMA in experiments with rabbits].

    PubMed

    Jurowski, P; Goś, R

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the level of the nitric oxide (NO) within the aqueous humor of the rabbit eye after ECCE and PMMA artificial lens implantation using selective, nitric oxide sensitive electrode Iso-NO. We analysed the NO level during early postoperative period between the 1st and the 5th day. We examined 30 gray rabbits (weighing 3.0-3.5 kg). Just before surgery, samples of aqueous humor were aspirated to control the NO level in physiological condition. Lens was extracted with ECCE (envelope) technique. In 15 eyes PMMA IOL were implanted and 15 eyes were left aphacic. The aqueous samples were also collected 1, 3, 5 days after surgery. Nitric oxide in each sample was estimated directly with selective, nitric oxide sensitive electrode Iso-NO. Changing values of the NO concentration during the examination were expressed using evaluation of field under curve in the absolute values. Such results were compared with control group. During physiological conditions the mean value of the field under curve of the NO concentration was estimated as 4987.29 +/- 895.89. After ECCE with or without PMMA artificial lens implantation the levels of the NO were higher as compared to the control group. After ECCE and PMMA artificial lens implantation the highest level of NO was estimated on the 3rd postoperative day (7978.98 +/- 949.77). During the examinations the fields under curve of NO concentration were estimated as 6626.30 +/- 1176.53 and 6288.19 +/- 604.90 (on the 1st and the 5th days, respectively). On all postoperative days, values of the field under curve of NO were significantly higher as compared to the control group. In contrast, after ECCE without lens implantation the highest value of NO field under curve, was estimated on the 1st postoperative day as 11727.83 +/- 1032.44. During the examinations, the fields under curve of NO concentration were estimated as 9841.52 +/- 698.06 and 5446.96 +/- 568.47 (on the 3rd and the 5th postoperative days, respectively). Moreover, on all days

  14. Aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction in uveitis - utility and safety.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulos, Argyrios; Roquelaure, Daniel; Souteyrand, Georges; Seebach, Jörg Dieter; Schutz, James Scott; Thumann, Gabriele

    2016-10-28

    To study the value and safety of aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with uveitis. Records of 45 consecutive patients with anterior and posterior uveitis who underwent AC paracentesis with PCR were reviewed. The main outcome measure was frequency of PCR positivity. Secondary outcomes were alteration of treatment, safety of paracentesis, and correlation of keratitic precipitates with PCR positivity, RESULTS: The overall PCR positivity was 48.9 % (22/45). Therapy was changed because of the PCR results in 14/45 patients (37.7 %). One patient experienced a paracentesis related complication (1/45, 2.2 %) without long-term sequelae. Aqueous PCR altered the diagnosis and treatment in over a third of our patients and was relatively safe. Aqueous PCR should be considered for uveitis of atypical clinical appearance, recurrent severe uveitis of uncertain etiology, and therapy refractory cases.

  15. Penetration of topically administered prednisolone acetate into the human aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, H M; Berrospi, A R; Kupferman, A; Restropo, G V; Galvis, V; Alvarez, J A

    1977-03-01

    A single standardized drop of 1.0% prednisolone acetate labeled with tritiated thymidine was administered topically to one eye of 58 patients shortly before elective cataract extraction. An aqueous humor sample was aspirated at varying intervals and its corticosteroid content was determined. Peak drug concentration in aqueous humor was 1.13 mug/ml, which occurred 30 to 45 minutes after instillation of the medication. Substantial quantitites of corticosteroid were found in the aqueous humor five minutes after drug administration. The area under the drug concentration in aqueous humor-vs-time curve (a measure of the drug's bioavailability in aqueous humor) was 88 mug min/ml, and its half-life in human aqueous humor was 28 minutes. None of these values were significantly different from the comparable values in rabbit eyes.

  16. Circadian Variation of Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Older Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Cherie B.; Malihi, Mehrdad; McLaren, Jay W.; Hodge, David O.; Sit, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Intraocular pressure in the sitting position changes minimally during sleep, although aqueous humor flow decreases by 50% or more at night. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy has been unclear. This study investigated the roles of outflow facility, episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow in maintaining IOP at night. Methods. Forty-two eyes of 21 healthy subjects (age 47–76 years, mean 59 years) were studied. Aqueous humor flow rate, IOP in the sitting position, outflow facility, and EVP were measured in each eye during the middiurnal period (2:00–4:00 PM). Uveoscleral flow was calculated from the other variables by using the modified Goldmann equation. These variables were remeasured during the midnocturnal period (2:00–4:00 AM) and compared with those measured during the diurnal period by using generalized estimating equation models. Results. Intraocular pressure did not change from the middiurnal period (13.9 ± 3.0 mm Hg) to the midnocturnal period (13.0 ± 1.8 mm Hg, mean ± SD, P = 0.07), although aqueous humor flow rate decreased from 2.48 ± 0.96 μL/min to 1.27 ± 0.63 μL/min (P < 0.001). Outflow facility decreased from 0.23 ± 0.06 μL/min/mm Hg to 0.20 ± 0.06 μL/min/mm Hg (P = 0.004), and EVP was unchanged from the middiurnal period (7.4 ± 1.8 mm Hg) to the midnocturnal period (7.4 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.95). Uveoscleral outflow decreased 93%, from 0.94 ± 1.26 μL/min during the middiurnal period to 0.07 ± 0.78 μL/min (P = 0.008) during the midnocturnal period. Conclusions. The nocturnal decrease in aqueous humor flow rate in older, healthy subjects is compensated by a small decrease in outflow facility and a large decrease in uveoscleral outflow to maintain a stable IOP. PMID:24243986

  17. Pharmacokinetics of amikacin and chloramphenicol in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Mayers, M; Rush, D; Madu, A; Motyl, M; Miller, M H

    1991-01-01

    Composite data describing ocular pharmacokinetics are unreliable because of intersubject variation. To address this problem, an animal model was developed in which multiple aqueous samples from single subjects were obtained. Following direct anterior chamber or intravenous administration of amikacin or chloramphenicol, pharmacokinetic analysis of drug concentrations in the serum and anterior chamber was performed by using a nonlinear least-squares regression program. The number of anterior chamber paracenteses performed did not alter the beta elimination rates or percent penetration into the anterior chamber. The aqueous humor and peripheral-compartment terminal slopes were identical. These data indicate that complete ocular concentration-time curves can be obtained without altering antibiotic pharmacokinetics. Following direct injection into the anterior chamber, the elimination rates for both antibiotics followed a one-compartment model, whereas those following intravenous administration best fit an open, first-order, two-compartment model. Following intravenous administration, the anterior chamber elimination rate constants for both drugs were equal to that of the serum and significantly longer than that following direct injection. The elimination rates of both drugs following direct injection were similar. Systemic administration resulted in drug levels in aqueous humor that persisted longer than those following direct injection. Chloramphenicol, a lipophilic compound, gave higher mean concentrations in aqueous humor than did amikacin. Our model provides a new approach which rigorously examines ocular pharmacokinetics and provides data which suggest that for selected compounds the parenteral route of administration is preferable. PMID:1952850

  18. Aqueous Humor Antimicrobial Activity: In Vitro Analysis after Topical 0.5% Chloramphenicol Application.

    PubMed

    Cagini, Carlo; Dragoni, Annalisa; Orsolini, Giampaolo; Fiore, Tito; Beccasio, Alfredo; Spadea, Leopoldo; Moretti, Amedeo; Mencacci, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    To assess aqueous humor antimicrobial activity in vitro after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application. This investigation included 63 eyes from 65 cataract surgery patients. The study group of 48 eyes received preoperatively four topical applications of 0.5% chloramphenicol. The control group of 15 eyes was given no topical applications. Aqueous humor samples were collected for in vitro antimicrobial analysis using Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pasteurella multocida organisms by means of disk diffusion test. No inhibition halo was observed around all aqueous humor samples from all chloramphenicol-treated patients, irrespective of the sample quantity added to the paper disks, with no significant difference from aqueous humor from untreated control patients. Aqueous humor displayed no bactericidal effect against any of the microorganisms evaluated after topical 0.5% chloramphenicol application.

  19. Aqueous humor dynamics in beagle dogs with caffeine-induced ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kurata, K; Fujimoto, H; Tsukuda, R; Suzuki, T; Ando, T; Tokuriki, M

    1998-06-01

    In order to investigate the possible mechanisms for caffeine-induced ocular hypertension, the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the outflow through the trabecular meshwork were measured in beagle dog eyes after dosing with intravenous caffeine (30 mg/kg) alone or in combination with the topical beta-blocker befunolol [applied as 100 microliters of a 1% (w/v) solution] which inhibits aqueous humor formation in the ciliary body. Intravenous injections of caffeine significantly increased the IOP at 0.25 and 1 hr after a single dose. The ocular hypertension recovered within 2 hr following dosing. Over time, there were no differences in the outflow between the caffeine and control groups. The instillation of befunolol lowered outflow and produced ocular hypotension. The levels of the IOP and outflow in dogs treated with caffeine and befunolol in combination were almost the same as those in dogs treated with befunolol alone. Single-dose and combination-dose studies demonstrate that intravenous caffeine increases the IOP in normal beagle dogs possibly by increasing aqueous humor formation and not by the inhibition of aqueous humor drainage through the trabecular meshwork.

  20. Aqueous Angiography in Living Nonhuman Primates Shows Segmental, Pulsatile, and Dynamic Angiographic Aqueous Humor Outflow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Alex S; Li, Meng; Yang, Diya; Wang, Huaizhou; Wang, Ningli; Weinreb, Robert N

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of safely performing aqueous angiography in intact eyes of living nonhuman primates (NHPs) for evaluating aqueous humor outflow and segmental patterns. Cross-sectional, observational study. Six nonhuman primates. Aqueous angiography was performed in 6 nonhuman primates. After anesthesia, an anterior chamber (AC) maintainer was placed through a temporal 1-mm side-port wound. Indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or 2.5% fluorescein was introduced (individually or in sequence) into the eye with a gravity-driven constant-pressure system. Aqueous angiography images were obtained with a Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) suspended over the NHP eye using a custom-designed surgical boom arm. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on distally angiographically positive and negative regions. Angiographic patterns described by location, time-course, choice of tracer, and anterior-segment OCT. Aqueous angiography in the living NHP eye demonstrated mostly stable angiographic patterns. With multimodal imaging, angiographically positive signal co-localized with episcleral veins as identified by infrared imaging and intrascleral lumens, as demonstrated by anterior segment OCT. Sequential aqueous angiography in individual eyes with ICG followed by fluorescein showed similar angiographic patterns. A pulsatile nature of aqueous angiographic outflow was sometimes observed. Aqueous angiographic patterns could also dynamically change. In some instances, positive angiographic flow suddenly arose in regions previously without an angiographic signal. Alternatively, an angiographic signal could suddenly disappear from regions in which an angiographic signal was initially documented. Aqueous angiography in living NHPs demonstrated segmental and pulsatile patterns with a newly described ability to dynamically shift. These characteristics further the understanding of live aqueous humor outflow biology

  1. Albumin-binding of diclofenac and the effect of a site II inhibitor in the aqueous humor of cataract patients with the instillation of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Tokunaga, Jin; Setoguchi, Nao; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac instillation has been used widely in cataract surgery to prevent postoperative inflammation. Since diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the circulation, it does not have a sufficient effect on patients in whom diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the aqueous humor. A decrease in diclofenac binding and an increase in free diclofenac levels are necessary in these patients. The binding of diclofenac to albumin was investigated in the aqueous humor. In a diclofenac binding assay with albumin in the aqueous humor of individual patients, diclofenac was extracted from aliquots of the aqueous humor, and its total levels were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Free diclofenac levels were measured using ultrafiltration and UHPLC. The albumin-binding fraction of diclofenac was 0.8 or higher in the aqueous humor of some patients. Ibuprofen significantly inhibited diclofenac binding to site II of albumin in mimic aqueous humor, but not in pooled aqueous humor. This difference may have been due to the weak binding of diclofenac to site II in the pooled aqueous humor. Flurbiprofen was used instead of diclofenac. Flurbiprofen has been shown to bind more strongly than diclofenac to the same site of albumin. Thus, the inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on the binding of flurbiprofen to albumin was investigated in pooled aqueous humor. The results indicated that ibuprofen significantly inhibited the flurbiprofen binding. An effective diclofenac administration method may be established for clinical application by the instillation of an appropriate inhibitor of binding to the albumin site II. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Assessment of biomarkers using multiplex assays in aqueous humor of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xiongze; Liao, Nanying; Wen, Feng

    2017-10-02

    With the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a leading health problem worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and several vascular, inflammatory, and neuronal mechanisms are involved. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of immune and inflammatory biomarkers in the aqueous humor of patients with different severities of DR and to analyze the correlations between Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and these biomarkers, and between IL-6 and the severity of the disease. Aqueous humor samples were obtained from 51 non-diabetic patients and 151 diabetic patients. Levels of 45 different cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured using a multiplex bead immunoassay. IL-6, IL-8, Inducible Protein-10 (IP-10), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the aqueous humor of the DR patients compared to the non-diabetic patients, while the concentrations of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-9, IL-21, IL-23, IL-27, IL-31, RANTES, interferon-α, growth regulated oncogene (GRO), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the DR patients. The IL-6 levels increased as the severity of DR increased. In addition, the IL-6 level positively correlated with the IL-8, HGF and LIF levels, while negatively with the IL-31and GRO levels. These findings suggest that inflammation and immune response may contribute to the pathogenesis of DR, and these biomarkers may potentially be new therapeutic targets for DR.

  3. Dynamics of Inflammatory Factors in Aqueous Humor during Ranibizumab or Aflibercept Treatment for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Ryosuke; Noma, Hidetaka; Yasuda, Kanako; Kotake, Osamu; Goto, Hiroshi; Shimura, Masahiko

    2017-08-11

    To evaluate the dynamic changes of the aqueous humor levels of inflammatory factors between patients receiving intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IRI) and aflibercept injection (IAI) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The study was performed on 30 eyes with AMD that were scheduled to receive 3 doses of IRI (15 eyes) or IAI (15 eyes) at monthly intervals. Aqueous humor samples were collected when injection was done. The concentrations of VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 were measured in aqueous humor samples from the 30 AMD patients and 10 cataract patients (as controls) by the suspension array method. Aqueous levels of the inflammatory factors (MCP-1, PDGF-AA, IL-6, and IL-8) were significantly correlated with each other. In both the IRI-treated eyes and the IAI-treated eyes, visual acuity and central macular thickness improved significantly, and the aqueous level of VEGF showed a significant decrease. In IAI-treated eyes, the aqueous levels of MCP-1 and PDGF-AA were significantly decreased at 2 months. These findings suggest that the inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD and also the possibility that the interaction between these inflammatory factors and IRI or IAI is different. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Association of aqueous humor cytokines with the development of retinal ischemia and recurrent macular edema in retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyung-A; Sohn, Sea Woon; Yang, Sung Jae

    2014-04-09

    We evaluated the association of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokine levels in the aqueous humor with development of retinal ischemia and recurrent macular edema in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) patients. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study, and patients with RVO (n = 41) and age-matched control subjects (n = 25) were included. The concentrations of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines, including VEGF, PDGF-AA, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IP-10, in the aqueous humor were measured before intravitreal injection of bevacizumab using suspension array technology. After retinal hemorrhage disappeared, fluorescein angiography (FA) images were obtained. Based on FA data, RVO patients were divided into a nonischemic group and an ischemic group. We investigated the presence of recurrent macular edema using optical coherent tomography (OCT) during the follow-up period. We compared the levels of cytokines between RVO patients and control subjects, between nonischemic and ischemic groups, and between patients with and without recurrent macular edema. The levels of VEGF, PDGF-AA, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IP-10 in the aqueous humor were higher in the RVO group than in the control group. The levels of IL-8, PDFGF-AA, TNF-α, and VEGF in the aqueous humor were significantly higher in the ischemic RVO group than in the nonischemic RVO group. We did not observe any association between cytokine levels and recurrent macular edema. Angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines were overexpressed in RVO patients. Additionally, increased levels of IL-8, PDFGF-AA, TNF-α, and VEGF in the aqueous humor at the onset of RVO were associated with the development of future retinal ischemia in RVO patients.

  5. LC-MS-Based Metabolic Fingerprinting of Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Dmuchowska, Diana Anna; Krasnicki, Pawel; Wojnar, Malgorzata; Skowronska, Aleksandra; Mariak, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) is a transparent fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It supplies nutrients and removes metabolic waste from avascular tissues in the eye. Proper homeostasis of AH is required to maintain adequate intraocular pressure as well as optical and refractive properties of the eye. Application of metabolomics to study human AH may improve knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of eye diseases. Until now, global analysis of metabolites in AH has been mainly performed using NMR. Among the analytical platforms used in metabolomics, LC-MS allows for the highest metabolome coverage. The aim of this study was to develop a method for extraction and analysis of AH metabolites by LC-QTOF-MS. Different protocols for AH preparation were tested. The best results were obtained when one volume of AH was mixed with one volume of methanol : ethanol (1 : 1). In the final method, 2 µL of extracted sample was analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS. The method allowed for reproducible measurement of over 1000 metabolic features. Almost 250 metabolites were identified in AH and assigned to 47 metabolic pathways. This method is suitable to study the potential role of amino acids, lipids, oxidative stress, or microbial metabolites in development of ocular diseases. PMID:28154769

  6. HPLC determination of pirenzepine dihydrochloride in rabbit aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiasheng; Li, Pengmei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pang, Hui

    2005-08-05

    Pirenzepine was considered as a pharmacologic agent of preventing form-deprivation myopia. To assess the ocular bioavailability of pirenzepine, a HPLC method for determination of pirenzepine in rabbit aqueous humor was developed. An HPLC system was used in the reverse phase mode for the determination of pirenzepine. A Luna RP18 5 microm 4.6 mm x 150 mm column was employed at 35 degrees C. The mobile phase was methanol/0.02 M KH2PO4/sodium 1-pentanesulfonate (350/650/1, v/v/m, pH was adjusted to 8.0 by dropping 1M NaOH). The flow rate was 1 ml/min. Pirenzepine was monitored at 280 nm. Sample treatment procedure consists of deproteinisation with methanol. Calibration curves fitted by plotting the peak area versus concentration were linear in the range 20-400 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of present method was 20 ng/ml. Within-day and inter-day coefficient of variation was lower than 10%. Analytical recoveries were determined as 92.4, 95.4 and 101.4% at concentrations of 40, 200 and 400 ng/ml. In conclusion, this HPLC method using a simple sample treatment procedure appears suitable for monitoring ocular concentration of pirenzepine.

  7. Genetic Deletion of the NOS3 Gene in CAV1-/- Mice Restores Aqueous Humor Outflow Function.

    PubMed

    Song, Maomao; Wu, Jihong; Lei, Yuan; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of genetic deletion of NOS3 in CAV1-/- mice on aqueous humor outflow function using a mouse genetic double knockout model (DKO, NOS3-/- CAV1-/-). IOP was measured in DKO, NOS3 KO, CAV1 KO, and wild-type (WT) mice by rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured by perfusing enucleated mouse eyes at multiple pressure steps. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was administered topically, whereas the contralateral eyes served as vehicle controls. IOP was measured in both eyes before drug treatment and 1 hour after the last drug treatment. Mock aqueous humor ± the nitric oxide (NO) donor SNP or NOS inhibitor L-NAME was perfused into enucleated eyes. IOP was 11 ± 0.23 mm Hg in DKO mice, which was similar to WT mice and significantly lower than CAV1 KO mice (n = 18, P > 0.05). NOS3 deletion in CAV1-/- mice resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in conventional outflow facility (Ccon) compared with CAV1 KO mice (n = 7, P < 0.05). Topical application of NO donor SNP did not significantly change IOP (n = 18, P > 0.05) or Ccon in DKO mice (SNP, n = 20; vehicle, n = 11, P > 0.05). Topical application of L-NAME significantly increased IOP in WT, DKO, and CAV1 mice by reducing Ccon. Nitrotyrosine and PKG levels of DKO mice were similar to, whereas sGC was lower than, WT mice (P < 0.05). Genetic deletion of NOS3 in CAV1-deficient mice restored IOP and conventional aqueous humor drainage to WT level. NOS3 and CAV1 interaction is important to IOP regulation.

  8. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  9. Humor.

    PubMed

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given.

  10. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  11. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  12. Distribution of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into aqueous humor of horses.

    PubMed

    Hilton, H G; Magdesian, K G; Groth, A D; Knych, H; Stanley, S D; Hollingsworth, S R

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used systemically for the treatment of inflammatory ocular disease in horses. However, little information exists regarding the ocular penetration of this class of drugs in the horse. To determine the distribution of orally administered flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into the aqueous humor of horses. Fifteen healthy adult horses with no evidence of ophthalmic disease. Horses were randomly assigned to a control group and 2 treatment groups of equal sizes (n = 5). Horses assigned to the treatment groups received an NSAID (flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg PO q24h or firocoxib, 0.1 mg/kg PO q24h for 7 days). Horses in the control group received no medications. Concentrations of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib in serum and aqueous humor and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in aqueous humor were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 and aqueous : serum ratios were calculated. Firocoxib penetrated the aqueous humor to a significantly greater extent than did flunixin meglumine at days 3 and 5. Aqueous : serum ratios were 3.59 ± 3.32 and 11.99 ± 4.62% for flunixin meglumine and firocoxib, respectively. Ocular PGE(2) concentrations showed no differences at any time point among study groups. Both flunixin meglumine and firocoxib penetrated into the aqueous humor of horses. This study suggests that orally administered firocoxib penetrates the aqueous humor better than orally administered flunixin meglumine at label dosages in the absence of ocular inflammation. Firocoxib should be considered for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic lesions in horses at risk for the development of adverse effects associated with nonselective NSAID administration. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration in the aqueous humor of healthy and diseased dogs: a preliminary pilot study.

    PubMed

    Durieux, P; Etchepareborde, S; Fritz, D; Rosolen, S G

    2015-04-01

    To determine reference values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentrations in the aqueous humor of control dogs. To show whether these values are significantly different from those obtained in dogs affected with intraocular pathology: acute anterior uveitis (AAU) or chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Forty-four dogs were included in the study and were divided into two groups: a control group and a group with intraocular disease. Twenty-seven dogs (9 males and 18 females) were examined and found to be normal after a complete ophthalmological examination (control group), 7 (6 females and 1 male) presented with PACG, and 10 (7 females and 3 males) presented with AAU secondary to corneal perforation. One aqueous humor sample (volume ≥ 0.2 mL) was collected from one eye of all dogs. The aqueous TNF-α concentration was determined with an Elisa kit. TNF-α levels were detectable in all dogs. TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the group with intraocular disease compared to the normal control group (P=0.001). In the group with intraocular disease, TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the aqueous humor of the AAU group compared with the PACG group (P=0.001). In the dog, it is possible to measure the concentration of TNF-α in the aqueous humor. The level of TNF-α was significantly higher in the case of AAU. TNF-α is an interesting biomarker for longitudinal follow-up studies of comparative ophthalmology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of melatonin instillations on the clinical course of experimental uveitis and biochemical processes in tears and aqueous humor].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, N B; Beznos, O V; Lozinskaya, N A; Beyshenova, G A; Nesterova, T V

    2016-01-01

    Acute immunogenic uveitis was modeled in rabbits via the subcutaneous and intravitreal injections of normal horse serum. We studied the effect of instillations of 0.1% melatonin solution on the clinical course of uveitis and biochemical parameters of tear fluid and aqueous humor: antioxi-dant activity, protein concentration and α(2)-macroglobulin level. Melatonin instillations decreased clinical manifestations of uveitis. We found that the antioxidant activity in tears of the rabbits treated with melatonin was substantially higher and the α(2)-macroglobulin level lower than in untreated animals. Antioxidant activity in aqueous humor taken on day 10 of uveitis was also twice higher while protein and α(2)-macroglobulin levels were 1.5-2 times lower than in untreated animals. These data indicate that instillations of melatonin increase the local antioxidant activity and decrease the acuity of inflammation and permeability of hematoophthalmic barrier in uveitis.

  15. Aqueous Humor Outflow Physiology in NOS3 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuan; Zhang, Xuejin; Song, Maomao; Wu, Jihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on conventional outflow function using NOS3 knockout (KO) mice. Intraocular pressure was measured in both NOS3 KO and wild type (WT) by rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured by perfusing enucleated mouse eyes at multiple pressure steps. A subset of eyes was sectioned and stained for histology. Mock aqueous humor ± the nitric oxide (NO) donors nitroprusside dihydrate (SNP) or S-Nitroso-N-Acetyl-D,L-Penicillamine (SNAP) was perfused into enucleated eyes. SNP and SNAP was administered topically at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours while the contralateral eyes served as vehicle controls. Intraocular pressure was measured in both eyes before and after the last drug treatment. Intraocular pressure was higher in KO mice (18.2 ± 0.7 mm Hg vs. 13.9 ± 0.5 mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 30, P < 0.05), and pressure-dependent conventional drainage was significantly lower (0.0058 ± 0.0005 μL/min/mm Hg, mean ± SEM, n = 21) compared with WT mice (0.0082 ± 0.0013 μL/min/mm Hg, n = 23, P < 0.05). No obvious morphological differences in iridiocorneal angle tissues were observed in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections. SNP and SNAP significantly increased pressure-dependent drainage in KO animals (n = 12, P < 0.05). In WT mice, SNP and SNAP caused a significant increase in pressure dependent drainage (n = 12, P < 0.05) to a similar degree as in KO mice. Topical application of SNP significantly reduced IOP in WT and KO mice (n = 12, P < 0.05), but SNAP did not change IOP significantly (n = 19). NOS3 KO mice have elevated IOP, which is likely the result of reduced pressure-dependent drainage. These findings are consistent with human data showing polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene associate with ocular hypertension and the development of glaucoma.

  16. Multiplex Cytokine Analysis of Aqueous Humor from the Patients with Chronic Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Duvesh, Roopam; Puthuran, George; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Rengaraj, Venkatesh; Krishnadas, S R; Rajendrababu, Sharmila; Balakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Ramulu, Pradeep; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2017-09-22

    To compare the levels of cytokines and growth factor in aqueous humor of the patients with chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and cataract. Aqueous humor samples were collected from 19 chronic PACG patients and compared with 14 nonglaucomatous controls presenting for cataract surgery. The levels of 27 cytokines and growth factors were measured in the aqueous samples using multiplex bead immunoassay and compared across groups. Significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-8 (p < 0.001), eotaxin (p < 0.001), interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10 (p < 0.001) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta (MIP-1β; p < 0.001) were observed in aqueous of chronic PACG patients compared to controls. In comparison to controls, significantly lower levels of IL-9 (p = 0.001), IL-17 (p < 0.001), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; p < 0.001), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; p < 0.001), and IL-5 (p = 0.001) were observed in chronic PACG eyes. All other assayed cytokines-IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1rα), IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-basic), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -showed no significant difference between the groups. These results suggest that the aqueous cytokine levels of chronic PACG eyes differ significantly from nonglaucomatous eyes. This is the first study reporting significantly increased levels of eotaxin, MIP-1β, and IP-10 and lower levels of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, and GM-CSF in chronic PACG patients, suggesting a plausible role of these inflammatory cytokines in its pathogenesis.

  17. Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time and Physiologic Aqueous Humor Outflow Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, Sindhu; Tan, James C. H.; Yu, Fei; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Huang, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Trabecular meshwork (TM) bypass surgeries attempt to enhance aqueous humor outflow (AHO) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). While TM bypass results are promising, inconsistent success is seen. One hypothesis for this variability rests upon segmental (non-360 degrees uniform) AHO. We describe aqueous angiography as a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes as a way to simulate live AHO imaging. Methods Pig (n = 46) and human (n = 6) enucleated eyes were obtained, orientated based upon inferior oblique insertion, and pre-perfused with balanced salt solution via a Lewicky AC maintainer through a 1mm side-port. Fluorescein (2.5%) was introduced intracamerally at 10 or 30 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent (486 nm) images were acquired. Image processing allowed for collection of pixel information based on intensity or location for statistical analyses. Concurrent OCT was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histological analysis of angiographically active areas. Results Aqueous angiography yielded high quality images with segmental patterns (p<0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis test). No single quadrant was consistently identified as the primary quadrant of angiographic signal (p = 0.06–0.86; Kruskal-Wallis test). Regions of high proximal signal did not necessarily correlate with regions of high distal signal. Angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Conclusions Aqueous angiography is a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes. PMID:26807586

  18. AQUEOUS HUMOR DYNAMICS IN MONKEYS IN RESPONSE TO THE KAPPA OPIOID AGONIST BREMAZOCINE

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Gabelt, B’Ann True; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of the kappa opioid agonist, bremazocine (BRE), on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor dynamics in normotensive cynomolgus monkeys. Methods IOP, pupil diameter, refraction, aqueous humor flow, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured following unilateral topical application of 1 to 100 μg BRE. IOP and MAP responses to 100 μg BRE were repeated during intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ATII). IOP and MAP responses to BRE were also measured following pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonists norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or naloxone. Outflow facility was measured following unilateral intracameral exchange with 0.01 to 100 μg/mL BRE. IOP, aqueous humor flow, pupil, and MAP were measured after unilateral intracameral bolus injection of 1 μg of BRE. Results Unilateral topical BRE caused a dose-related reduction in IOP and aqueous humor flow in both eyes and in MAP. Pupil miosis occurred at the 100-μg dose. There was no effect on refraction. IOP and MAP decreases after 100 μg of BRE were eliminated by ATII infusion. Differential IOP effects after 10-μg topical BRE doses were not eliminated by nor-BNI or naloxone. Unilateral intracameral bolus injection of BRE decreased IOP in both eyes but had no effect on MAP or aqueous humor flow. Outflow facility was unchanged after intracameral exchange with BRE. Conclusions The IOP response to high doses of BRE in monkeys can be attributed to peripheral or central effects on MAP. The IOP-lowering response to topical BRE is due to aqueous humor flow suppression via non-opioid receptor stimulation. Some components of the IOP response are mediated by unknown mechanisms. PMID:18427613

  19. Fluorophotometric determination of aqueous humor flow rates in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Ward, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    To determine aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) in an avian species by use of anterior segment fluorophotometry. 9 healthy red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis; 4 males and 5 females) that ranged from 8 months to 8 years of age. A protocol was developed for fluorophotometric determination of AHFR. Topical administration of 10% fluorescein was used to load the corneas, and corneal and aqueous humor fluorescein concentrations were measured approximately 5, 6.5, and 8 hours later. Concentration-versus-time plots were generated, and slopes and cornea-to-aqueous humor concentration ratios from these plots were used to manually calculate flow rates. Mean ± SD AHFRs for the right eye, left eye, and both eyes were 3.17 ± 1.36 μL/min (range, 1.67 to 6.21 μL/min), 2.86 ± 0.88 μL/min (range, 2.04 to 4.30 μL/min), and 2.90 ± 0.90 μL/min (range, 1.67 to 4.42 μL/min), respectively. The AHFRs were similar for right and left eyes. These flow rates represented a mean aqueous humor transfer coefficient of 0.0082/min, which is similar to that of mammalian species. The AHFR in red-tailed hawks was similar to that of most mammalian species, and the fractional egress was almost identical to that of other species. This information will allow a greater understanding of aqueous humor flow in avian eyes, which is crucial when evaluating diseases that affect avian eyes as well as medications that alter aqueous humor flow.

  20. MicroRNA Profiling in Aqueous Humor of Individual Human Eyes by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wecker, Thomas; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Plötner, Anne; Grüning, Björn Andreas; Horres, Ralf; Backofen, Rolf; Reinhard, Thomas; Schlunck, Günther

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in aqueous humor were suggested to have a role in transcellular signaling and may serve as disease biomarkers. The authors adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques to further characterize the miRNA profile in single samples of 60 to 80 μL human aqueous humor. Samples were obtained at the outset of cataract surgery in nine independent, otherwise healthy eyes. Four samples were used to extract RNA and generate sequencing libraries, followed by an adapter-driven amplification step, electrophoretic size selection, sequencing, and data analysis. Five samples were used for quantitative PCR (qPCR) validation of NGS results. Published NGS data on circulating miRNAs in blood were analyzed in comparison. One hundred fifty-eight miRNAs were consistently detected by NGS in all four samples; an additional 59 miRNAs were present in at least three samples. The aqueous humor miRNA profile shows some overlap with published NGS-derived inventories of circulating miRNAs in blood plasma with high prevalence of human miR-451a, -21, and -16. In contrast to blood, miR-184, -4448, -30a, -29a, -29c, -19a, -30d, -205, -24, -22, and -3074 were detected among the 20 most prevalent miRNAs in aqueous humor. Relative expression patterns of miR-451a, -202, and -144 suggested by NGS were confirmed by qPCR. Our data illustrate the feasibility of miRNA analysis by NGS in small individual aqueous humor samples. Intraocular cells as well as blood plasma contribute to the extracellular aqueous humor miRNome. The data suggest possible roles of miRNA in intraocular cell adhesion and signaling by TGF-β and Wnt, which are important in intraocular pressure regulation and glaucoma.

  1. Drug Transport by the Blood-Aqueous Humor Barrier of the Eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghwa; Pelis, Ryan M

    2016-10-01

    The ocular barriers (cornea, blood-retinal barrier, and blood-aqueous humor barrier) make treating eye diseases with therapeutic drugs challenging. The tight capillary endothelium of the iris and the ciliary body epithelium form the blood-aqueous humor barrier. The iris and ciliary body (iris-ciliary body) express a variety of drug transporters in the ATP-binding cassette and solute carrier (SLC) families. ATP-binding cassette family drug transporters that are present in the iris-ciliary body include P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, and several multidrug resistance-associated proteins. SLC family drug transporters that are present in the iris-ciliary body include organic anion transporters, organic anion transporting polypeptides, bile acid transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter and sodium taurocholate cotransporter), organic cation transporters (novel organic cation transporter and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter) and peptide transporters. Freshly dissected iris-ciliary body preparations actively accumulate a variety of substrates of SLC drug transporters that are expressed in the tissue. The ciliary body in vitro supports active transport in the aqueous humor-to-blood direction of several substrates of organic anion transporters and multidrug resistance-associated proteins, consistent with the subcellular localization of these transporters in the ciliary body epithelium. In vivo data suggest that drug transporters in the iris-ciliary body reduce the permeation of drugs in the direction of blood-to-aqueous humor, thereby reducing ocular drug bioavailability, and are also involved in active drug elimination from the aqueous humor. An understanding of the influence on pharmacokinetics of drug transporters in the blood-aqueous humor barrier should help improve drug delivery and efficacy in the eye. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Review Of Applied Mathematical Models For Describing The Behaviour Of Aqueous Humor In Eye Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierka, M.; Jurczak, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the paper, currently used methods for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through eye structures are presented. Then a computational model based on rheological models of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is proposed. The proposed model may be used for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular meshwork is modeled as an array of rectilinear parallel capillary tubes. The flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is considered. As a results of discussion mathematical equations of permeability of porous media and velocity of fluid flow through porous media have been received.

  3. Cl- concentrations of bovine, porcine and ovine aqueous humor are higher than in plasma.

    PubMed

    Gerometta, Rosana M; Malgor, Luis A; Vilalta, Enrique; Leiva, Jorge; Candia, Oscar A

    2005-03-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) Cl- levels were measured from live cows and pigs to confirm the Cl(-)-secretory activities found across the ciliary bodies of these species in in vitro experiments. The values obtained were compared to those of the electrolyte in plasma (PL). In addition, Na+ and K+ concentrations were also measured in AH and PL. For analogy, the same measurements were made in sheep and rabbit. The results indicate that the Cl- AH-to-PL ratios of the bovine, porcine and ovine species, but not that of rabbit, are comparable to published values for humans. Thus, the transport activities of the ciliary epithelia of the former animals may be more adequate as a representative model for human than the commonly used rabbit, which exhibits strikingly different transport properties with a ciliary epithelium that is primarily a bicarbonate-transporting tissue.

  4. Distinctive and pervasive alterations in aqueous humor protein composition following different types of glaucoma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cyril; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A.; Price, Francis W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether specific glaucoma surgeries are associated with differences in aqueous humor protein concentrations compared to eyes without filters. Methods In this cross-sectional study, aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from control subjects who underwent routine cataract surgery (n=14) and from patients who had different glaucoma filters: Baerveldt aqueous shunt (n=6), Ahmed aqueous shunt (n=6), trabeculectomy (n=5), and Ex-Press trabeculectomy (n=3). Total protein concentrations were determined with Bradford assay. Tryptic digests were analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins were identified with high confidence using stringent criteria and were quantitatively compared with a label-free platform. Relative protein quantities were compared across groups with ANOVA. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results Compared to the control eyes, the aqueous humor protein concentration was increased approximately tenfold in the Ahmed and Baerveldt eyes and fivefold in the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press eyes. Overall, 718 unique proteins, splice variants, or isoforms were identified. No differences in the protein concentrations were detected between the Baerveldt and Ahmed groups. Likewise, the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press groups were remarkably similar. Therefore, the aqueous shunt groups were pooled, and the trabeculectomy groups were pooled for a three-way comparison with the controls. More than 500 proteins differed significantly in relative abundance (ANOVA p<0.01) among the control, aqueous shunt, and trabeculectomy groups. Functional analyses suggested these alterations in relative protein abundance affected dozens of signaling pathways. Conclusions Different glaucoma surgical procedures were associated with marked increases in the aqueous humor protein concentration and distinctive changes in the relative abundance of numerous proteins involved in multiple

  5. Distinctive and pervasive alterations in aqueous humor protein composition following different types of glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Cyril; Price, Marianne O; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A; Price, Francis W

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether specific glaucoma surgeries are associated with differences in aqueous humor protein concentrations compared to eyes without filters. In this cross-sectional study, aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from control subjects who underwent routine cataract surgery (n=14) and from patients who had different glaucoma filters: Baerveldt aqueous shunt (n=6), Ahmed aqueous shunt (n=6), trabeculectomy (n=5), and Ex-Press trabeculectomy (n=3). Total protein concentrations were determined with Bradford assay. Tryptic digests were analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins were identified with high confidence using stringent criteria and were quantitatively compared with a label-free platform. Relative protein quantities were compared across groups with ANOVA. Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Compared to the control eyes, the aqueous humor protein concentration was increased approximately tenfold in the Ahmed and Baerveldt eyes and fivefold in the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press eyes. Overall, 718 unique proteins, splice variants, or isoforms were identified. No differences in the protein concentrations were detected between the Baerveldt and Ahmed groups. Likewise, the trabeculectomy and Ex-Press groups were remarkably similar. Therefore, the aqueous shunt groups were pooled, and the trabeculectomy groups were pooled for a three-way comparison with the controls. More than 500 proteins differed significantly in relative abundance (ANOVA p<0.01) among the control, aqueous shunt, and trabeculectomy groups. Functional analyses suggested these alterations in relative protein abundance affected dozens of signaling pathways. Different glaucoma surgical procedures were associated with marked increases in the aqueous humor protein concentration and distinctive changes in the relative abundance of numerous proteins involved in multiple signaling pathways.

  6. Connexin43 is required for production of the aqueous humor in the murine eye.

    PubMed

    Calera, Mónica R; Topley, Heather L; Liao, Yongbo; Duling, Brian R; Paul, David L; Goodenough, Daniel A

    2006-11-01

    Connexin43 is a major component of the gap junctions between pigmented and non-pigmented cells of the double-layered epithelium in the ciliary body of the eye. We directly tested the hypothesis that gap junctions play a crucial role in the production of the aqueous humor by inactivating the GJA1 (connexin43) gene in the pigmented epithelium with cre-loxP technology. To accomplish this, we crossed a line expressing cre recombinase driven by the nestin promoter and a line with floxed connexin43 alleles. Resultant lines exhibited loss of connexin43 from the pigmented epithelium, iris, retinal pigment epithelium and the lens. We observed plasma proteins in the aqueous humor and pathological changes consistent with a loss of intraocular pressure. As the ciliary body is responsible for aqueous humor production, these data support the hypothesis that the gap junctions between pigmented and non-pigmented epithelium are necessary for production of the aqueous humor that is in turn required for the generation of normal intraocular pressure and nourishment of the postnatal lens. The loss of connexin43 expression in the iris correlated with a separation of the posterior pigmented epithelium from the anterior myoepithelium and with meiosis, possibly resulting from a loss of function of the dilator pupillae.

  7. Modelling with a meshfree approach the cornea-aqueous humor interaction during the air puff test.

    PubMed

    Montanino, Andrea; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna

    2017-09-14

    The air puff test is an in-vivo investigative procedure commonly utilized in ophthalmology to estimate the intraocular pressure. Potentially the test, quick and painless, could be combined with inverse analysis methods to characterize the patient-specific mechanical properties of the human cornea. A rapid localized air jet applied on the anterior surface induces the inward motion of the cornea, that interacts with aqueous humor-the fluid filling the narrow space between cornea and iris-with a strong influence on the dynamics of the cornea. While models of human cornea reproduce accurately patient-specific geometries and have reached a considerable level of complexity in the description of the material, yet scant attention has been paid to the aqueous humor, and no eye models accounting for the physically correct fluid-solid interaction are currently available. The present study addresses this gap by proposing a fluid-structure interaction approach based on a simplified two-dimensional axis-symmetric geometry to simulate the anterior chamber of the eye undergoing the air puff test. We regard the cornea as a membrane described through an analytical model and discretize the fluid with a mesh-free particle approach. The membrane is assumed to be nonlinear elastic and isotropic, and the fluid weakly compressible Newtonian. Numerical analyses reveal a marked influence of the fluid on the dynamics of the cornea. We perform a parametric analysis to assess the quantitative influence of geometrical and material parameters on the mechanical response of the model. Additionally, we investigate the possibility to use the dynamics of the test to estimate the intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic analysis of varicella-zoster virus in the aqueous humor in uveitis with severe hyphema.

    PubMed

    Hosogai, Mayumi; Nakatani, Yoko; Mimura, Kensuke; Kishi, Shoji; Akiyama, Hideo

    2017-06-15

    Genetic variations have been identified in the genome of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains using vesicle fluid, varicella scabs and throat swab samples. We report a rare case of VZV-associated uveitis with severe hyphema, which was immediately diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the aqueous humor, in which we were able to analyze the VZV genotype for the first time. A 16-year-old Japanese boy was referred to our hospital with a 20-day history of unilateral anterior uveitis and 11-day history of hyphema. At presentation, details of the iris, the iridocorneal angle, and the fundus were not visible due to the severe hyphema. Serum anti-VZV IgG and anti-VZV IgM were elevated, and 1.61 × 10(9) copies/mL of VZV-DNA were detected by real-time PCR using the aqueous humor. As there were no eruptions on his face or body, we diagnosed zoster sine herpete and started intravenous administration of prednisolone and acyclovir. The hyphema completely disappeared 2 weeks after presentation, while sectorial iris atrophy and mild periphlebitis of the fundus became gradually apparent. Anterior inflammation and periphlebitis gradually improved and VZV-DNA in the aqueous humor was reduced to 1.02 × 10(6) copies/mL at 4 weeks after presentation. Examination by slit lamp microscope revealed no inflammation after 5 months, and VZV-DNA could no longer be detected in the aqueous humor. Serum anti-VZV IgG and anti-VZV IgM also showed a gradual decrease along with improvement in ocular inflammation. The genetic analysis of multiple open reading frames and the R5 variable repeat region in the VZV genes, using DNA extracted from the aqueous humor at presentation, showed that the isolate was a wild-type clade 2 VZV strain (prevalent in Japan and surrounding countries) with R5A allele and one SNP unique to clade 1 (both are major types in Europe and North America). VZV-associated uveitis may develop hyphema that obscures ocular inflammation, thus PCR analysis using the

  9. Concentration change of TGF -β 1 in aqueous humor of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Wei; Lu, Xiao-He

    2014-03-01

    To observe the influence of the the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) eye drops on rabbit aqueous humor TGF-β1 concentration, and to analyze the best drug concentration. A total of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 in each. Rabits in control group had PBS eye drops, group A, B, C, D adopted TGF-β1 eye drops at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 mg/L, respectively, 4 times a day. Aqueous humor of right eye was extracted 1 week after administration to detect concentration changes of TGF-β1 by ELISA; rabbits in fpur hroups adopted 2.0 mg/L eye drops to left eyes 4 times a day, 0.2 mL aqueous humor was extracted left eye at the scheduled time point 0, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 24 h for testing, the slit lamp was used to observe the cornea, chamber and lens. No obvious pathological changes in conjunctiva, cornea, rabbit conjunctival, anterior chamber, and the lens was found. Concentration of TGF-β1 in rabbit aqueous humor in C, D group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). TGF-β1 eye drops at 2.0 mg/L, 4.0 mg/L can significantly increase concentration of TGF-β1 in rabbit aqueous humor, withe good ocular surfac permeability. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Determination of cytomegalovirus IgG synthesis by the albumin correction in the aqueous humor of posner-schlossmann syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Wang, Z J; Tang, L; Cao, W W; Sun, X H

    2017-02-11

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of albumin correction in determination of cytomegalovirus IgG in the aqueous humor of Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) patients. Methods: Cases series studies. Forty-two patients (26 men and 16 women) who were diagnosed as PSS were enrolled from Oct. 2009 to Oct. 2015 at the Eye and ENT Hospital. During the same period, 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 30 patients with bacterial endophthalmitis or retinal necrosis were enrolled as negative control group and inflammatory disease control group, respectively. Aqueous humor and serum samples were assayed to detect CMV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and albumin by scattering immunonephelometry. CMV DNA in aqueous humor was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ratio which was calculated as the (aqueous humor CMV IgG/serum CMV IgG)/(aqueous humor concentration of albumin/serum albumin concentration) over 0.6 was considered as intraocular antibody formation. Performance of differentiating control eyes from eyes with CMV-positive PSS was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The ANOVA test, Mann-Whitney test and Chi-square test were performed to compare the differences among groups. Results: The detectable rate of CMV IgG antibody in the aqueous humor was 76.2%, 100.0% and 10.0% in PSS, inflammatory disease control and POAG groups, respectively. The levels of CMV IgG antibody in the PSS groups were significantly higher than that of POAG groups (Z=4.23, P<0.001).The positive rate corrected by the albumin was 71.4%, 3.3% and 0.0%.The corrected positive rate in PSS groups was significantly higher than that of the inflammatory disease control and POAG groups (χ(2)=30.38, P<0.01; χ(2)= 24.89, P<0.01), with a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 98.0%. The area under the curve for calibrated ratio was 0.942 (95%CI: 0.859 to 0.984) which was higher than that of CMV IgG (Z=6.19, P<0.001).The corrected positive rate

  11. Quantitation of specific antibodies in the aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Michiels, J; Dernouchamps, J P

    1976-01-01

    Six normal rabbits were injected intravitreally with bovine gamma-globulin (BGG). Quantitation of immunoglobulins A, M and G, in the aqueous and in the serum, was performed by the single radial immunodiffusion following the method described by MANCINI et. al. Concentration of anti-BGG antibodies was determined by the reversed Mancini method. The antibody quotient was calculated; it reached to 8 and 5.96 in the aqueous of the injected eyes 10 days after intravitreal injection, 22.69 and 24 days, 22.52 after 28 days and 14.93 after 31 days.

  12. Influence of aqueous humor convection current on IOL opacification.

    PubMed

    Agresta, A; Giudiceandrea, A; Salgarello, T; Manganelli, C; Fasciani, R; Caporossi, A

    2016-12-10

    The opacification of Akreos Adapt (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester; NY) intraocular lens (IOL) has been previously reported in Literature. A metabolic change in aqueous humour was considered as the main trigger factor to IOL opacification. We report our case and discuss the association with Ex-PRESS, highlighting the particular pattern of IOL opacification and its possible relation with the intraocular convective motions of the aqueous. We analyzed our case using both digital slit lamp acquisition and OCT Visante (Zeiss, Germany) images. A literature review was conducted to evaluate our results with that previously reported. The role of a relative stationary flow was reported as suggested concurrent mechanism in IOL opacification phenomenon.

  13. Fluid and structure coupling analysis of the interaction between aqueous humor and iris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjia; Qian, Xiuqing; Song, Hongfang; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng

    2016-12-28

    Glaucoma is the primary cause of irreversible blindness worldwide associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated intraocular pressure will affect the normal aqueous humor outflow, resulting in deformation of iris. However, the deformation ability of iris is closely related to its material properties. Meanwhile, the passive deformation of the iris aggravates the pupillary block and angle closure. The nature of the interaction mechanism of iris deformation and aqueous humor fluid flow has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. The purpose here was to study the effect of IOP, localization, and temperature on the flow of the aqueous humor and the deformation of iris interacted by aqueous humor fluid flow. Based on mechanisms of aqueous physiology and fluid dynamics, 3D model of anterior chamber (AC) was constructed with the human anatomical parameters as a reference. A 3D idealized standard geometry of anterior segment of human eye was performed. Enlarge the size of the idealization geometry model 5 times to create a simulation device by using 3D printing technology. In this paper, particle image velocimetry technology is applied to measure the characteristic of fluid outflow in different inlet velocity based on the device. Numerically calculations were made by using ANSYS 14.0 Finite Element Analysis. Compare of the velocity distributions to confirm the validity of the model. The fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis was carried out in the valid geometry model to study the aqueous flow and iris change. In this paper, the validity of the model is verified through computation and comparison. The results indicated that changes of gravity direction of model significantly affected the fluid dynamics parameters and the temperature distribution in anterior chamber. Increased pressure and the vertical position increase the velocity of the aqueous humor fluid flow, with the value increased of 0.015 and 0.035 mm/s. The results

  14. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ergan, Esra; Ozturk, Faruk; Beyazyildiz, Emrullah; Elgin, Ufuk; Sen, Emine; Cankaya, Ali Bulent; Celik, Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) of the aqueous humor (AH) in patients with glaucoma. METHODS The prospective study was composed of a study group (n=31) and a control group (n=31). Fifteen patients in the study group were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and 16 patients were diagnosed with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG). The control group was composed of non-glaucomatous patients with cataracts. AH samples were collected and analyzed for TAS, TOS, and OSI levels. RESULTS Mean AH TAS level was significantly higher in patients with glaucoma than that in the control group (P<0.01). Mean TOS and OSI levels tended to increase in patients with glaucoma. No significant differences in TAS, TOS, or OSI levels were observed between patients with POAG and PEG. CONCLUSION High levels of TAS were observed in patients with glaucoma, which was likely a response to the increased oxidative stress observed in these patients. PMID:26949644

  15. [Diffusion of fluoroquinolones in the aqueous humor and crystalline lens].

    PubMed

    Lafaix, C; Salvanet, A; Fisch, A; Forestier, F; Montay, G; Meulemans, A

    1987-06-01

    In 53 patients undergoing cataract extraction, the authors measured pefloxacin and ofloxacin penetration in aqueous humour and lens. Cataract removal was performed at varying times after either the end of one-hour infusion of pefloxacin, ofloxacin per os in one time, or pefloxacin per os during 3 days. In the two first schemes, acme concentrations in aqueous humour are 1.45 mg/l for pefloxacin, 1.14 mg/l for ofloxacin. These concentrations reach the MIC90 of most bacteria usually involved in endophthalmia. The steady state concentrations of pefloxacin are between 6 and 7 mg/l during the first 12 h: they reach the MIC of 80% of Streptococci. There is no evidence of accumulation of pefloxacin in lens; lenticular concentrations of ofloxacin are very low and rapidly decrease.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Aqueous Humor of Diabetic Macular Edema Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Jee, Donghyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humor of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients. Method The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humors of 15 cataract patients and 25 DME patients were compared. DME patients were analyzed according to the diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment, recurrence within 3 months, HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) level, and axial length. Results The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 of the DME groups were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). There was a significant difference in MMP-1 concentration between the mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group and the proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (p = 0.012). MMP-1 concentrations were elevated in PRP-treated patients (p = 0.005). There was a significant difference in MMP-9 concentrations between the mild NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001), and between the moderate and severe NPDR group and the PDR group (p < 0.001). The MMP-9 concentrations in PRP treated patients, DM patients with diabetes ≥ 10 years and recurrent DME within 3months were elevated (p = 0.023, p = 0.011, and p = 0.027, respectively). In correlation analyses, the MMP-1 level showed a significant correlation with age (r = -0.48, p = 0.01,), and the MMP-9 level showed significant correlations with axial length (r = -0.59, p < 0.01) and DM duration (r = 049, p = 0.01). Conclusions Concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were higher in the DME groups than in the control group. MMP-9 concentrations also differed depending on DR staging, DM duration, PRP treatment, and degree of axial myopia. MMP-9 may be more important than MMP-1 in the induction of DM complications in eyes. PMID:27467659

  17. The Investigation of HCV RNA in Tear Fluid and Aqueous Humor in Patients with Anti-HCV Antibody Positive Who Underwent Cataract Surgery.

    PubMed

    Atas, Mustafa; Karatepe Hashas, Arzu Seyhan; Demircan, Süleyman; Sarıguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Baskan, Burhan; Yuvacı, Isa; Pangal, Emine; Celik, Ilhami; Zararsiz, Gokmen

    2016-06-01

    To obtain aqueous humor and tear fluid samples during cataract surgery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV)-antibody-positive patients in order to analyze them for HCV RNA and compare these measurements with serum HCV RNA levels. Twenty-nine anti-HCV-positive patients were included this study. HCV RNA viral load levels were determined by commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction system. Antibodies to HCV were screened with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-HCV test kit. Log10 HCV RNA levels were found to be 6.00 ± 1.06 IU/mL in serum, 2.76 ± 0.36 IU/mL in the aqueous humor, and 1.91 ± 0.93 IU/mL in tear fluid. No correlation was detected between samples for HCV RNA positivity (p = .390, κ = .102). We have observed that, viral RNA was detected in the aqueous humor, while not in serum in one case, whereas viral RNA was detected in tear fluid but not in serum in another case. Although viral load detected in aqueous humor and tear fluid samples was considerably lower compared to the serum samples, it can still be important in terms of infectivity.

  18. The exit strategy: Pharmacological modulation of extracellular matrix production and deposition for better aqueous humor drainage.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan P; Toris, Carol B

    2016-09-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is an optic neuropathy and an irreversible blinding disease. The etiology of glaucoma is not known but numerous risk factors are associated with this disease including aging, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), race, myopia, family history and use of steroids. In POAG, the resistance to the aqueous humor drainage is increased leading to elevated IOP. Lowering the resistance and ultimately the IOP has been the only way to slow disease progression and prevent vision loss. The primary drainage pathway comprising of the trabecular meshwork (TM) is made up of relatively large porous beams surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM). Its juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) or the cribriform meshwork is made up of cells embedded in dense ECM. The JCT is considered to offer the major resistance to the aqueous humor outflow. This layer is adjacent to the endothelial cells forming Schlemm's canal, which provides approximately 10% of the outflow resistance. The ECM in the TM and the JCT undergoes continual remodeling to maintain normal resistance to aqueous humor outflow. It is believed that the TM is a major contributor of ECM proteins and evidence points towards increased ECM deposition in the outflow pathway in POAG. It is not clear how and from where the ECM components emerge to hinder the normal aqueous humor drainage. This review focuses on the involvement of the ECM in ocular hypertension and glaucoma and the mechanisms by which various ocular hypotensive drugs, both current and emerging, target ECM production, remodeling, and deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Looking into aqueous humor through metabolomics spectacles - exploring its metabolic characteristics in relation to myopia.

    PubMed

    Barbas-Bernardos, Cecilia; Armitage, Emily G; García, Antonia; Mérida, Salvador; Navea, Amparo; Bosch-Morell, Francisco; Barbas, Coral

    2016-08-05

    Aqueous humor is the transparent fluid found in the anterior chamber of the eye that provides the metabolic requirements to the avascular tissues surrounding it. Despite the fact that metabolomics could be a powerful tool in the characterization of this biofluid and in revealing metabolic signatures of common ocular diseases such as myopia, it has never to our knowledge previously been applied in humans. In this research a novel method for the analysis of aqueous humor is presented to show its application in the characterization of this biofluid using CE-MS. The method was extended to a dual platform method (CE-MS and LC-MS) in order to compare samples from patients with different severities of myopia in order to explore the disease from the metabolic phenotype point of view. With this method, a profound knowledge of the metabolites present in human aqueous humor has been obtained: over 40 metabolites were reproducibly and simultaneously identified from a low volume of sample by CE-MS, including among others, a vast number of amino acids and derivatives. When this method was extended to study groups of patients with high or low myopia in both CE-MS and LC-MS, it has been possible to identify over 20 significantly different metabolite and lipid signatures that distinguish patients based on the severity of myopia. Among these, the most notable higher abundant metabolites in high myopia were aminooctanoic acid, arginine, citrulline and sphinganine while features of low myopia were aminoundecanoic acid, dihydro-retinoic acid and cysteinylglycine disulfide. This dual platform approach offered complementarity such that different metabolites were detected in each technique. Together the experiments presented provide a whelm of valuable information about human aqueous humor and myopia, proving the utility of non-targeted metabolomics for the first time in analyzing this type of sample and the metabolic phenotype of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Determination of mitomycin C in human aqueous humor and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, W Y; Seah, S K; Koda, R T

    1993-09-08

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is used in the treatment of disseminated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and pancreas and is used in ophthalmology as adjunctive therapy in trabeculectomy. Since only small volumes of aqueous humor are available for analysis, a sensitive method requiring limited sample preparation was developed. An internal standard, 4-aminoacetophenone, was added to aqueous humor specimens, and the solution was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) column. The use of a short 50-mm C18 reversed-phase column gave adequate resolution of peaks with improved sensitivity. The method was applicable for determination of MMC in serum, although solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up was required prior to injection into the HPLC column, and analytical columns of 150-250 mm were necessary for adequate resolution of peaks. The method has been validated and is linear from 6.25 to 50 ng/ml in aqueous humor and from 10 to 500 ng/ml in serum.

  1. Penetration of topically applied tacrolimus into the aqueous humor in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yalçindağ, F Nilüfer; Batioğlu, Figen; Ozdemir, Ozden

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the concentration of tacrolimus in aqueous humor, and serum of patients with ocular Behçet's disease after topical application in 11 patients. All received 1 drop of isotonic tacrolimus solution 0.3% every 6 hours for 3 days. The mean tacrolimus concentration in the aqueous and serum, as measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay, were 12.49 and 0.76 ng/mL, respectively. Tacrolimus may be a promising treatment modality in anterior uveitis in Behçet's disease by topical application.

  2. An artificial aqueous humor as a standard matrix to assess drug concentration in the anterior chamber by high performance liquid chromatography methods.

    PubMed

    Macri, Angelo; Marini, Valeria; Sangalli, Giorgio; Fucile, Carmen; Iester, Michele; Mattioli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to recreate in-vitro artificial aqueous humor with the same physico-chemical properties of human aqueous humor to be used as a standard matrix in chromatography to assess drug concentration in the anterior and posterior chamber of the human eye. The artificial aqueous humor was prepared according to the human aqueous humor chemical compositions reported in the literature. The artificial matrix was then analysed via the HPLC-UV method and compared with aqueous humor from 15 patients who underwent cataract surgery. Known concentrations of widely-used ophthalmological drugs were added to the artificial aqueous humor in order to assess whether it can be used to explore ocular disposition towards topically or systemically administered drugs. No significant differences were found between the two examined aqueous humor types. There were no significant qualitative differences between examined fluids in terms of presence of ophthalmological drugs. The composition of artificial, in-vitro recreated aqueous humor was similar to that of the human kind. The absence of significant differences in the analysis of tested drugs both in the artificial and in human aqueous humor indicates that artificial aqueous humor may be used to generate a matrix-based standard curve for analytical method validation.

  3. The gender-differentiated antioxidant effects of a lutein-containing supplement in the aqueous humor of patients with senile cataracts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Sakai, Miki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant supplements are expected to decrease oxidative damage and prevent ocular diseases. In this study, changes in the anti-oxidative ability and oxidative status in the aqueous humor before and after intake of a lutein-containing supplement were measured. Forty patients who all had identical grades of cataracts in both eyes were included. The aqueous humor was collected as pre-intake samples during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(Ⓡ), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, the aqueous humor was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. To determine the anti-oxidative ability, the levels of superoxide (O2(*-)) scavenging activity were measured. To determine the oxidative status, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and total amount of hydroperoxides (TH, including H2O2 and peroxides of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) were measured. In post-intake samples, the O2(*-) scavenging activities were significantly higher in both genders (p < 0.05). The levels of H2O2 were significantly higher (p < 0.01) while the levels of TH were significantly lower (p < 0.01) only in females. The level of H2O2 was significantly negatively correlated to the TH in the post-intake samples of both genders (r = -0.50 and p < 0.05 for males; r = -0.59 and p < 0.01 for females) while the level of H2O2 was significantly positively correlated to the O2(*-) scavenging activity in both pre- and post-intake aqueous humor in females only (r = 0.66 and p < 0.01 for pre-intake samples, r = 0.71 and p < 0.01 for post-intake samples). After the introduction of the antioxidant supplement, O2(*-) scavenging activity increased while H2O2 levels remained the same in males, suggesting that scavenging rates are proportional. In postmenopausal females, the superoxide scavenging activity also increased, however unlike in males, the H2O2 levels also increased meaning H2O2 was not completely

  4. The aqueous humor outflow pathways in glaucoma: A unifying concept of disease mechanisms and causative treatment.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the critical risk factor for glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease and frequent cause of blindness worldwide. As of today, all effective strategies to treat glaucoma aim at lowering IOP. IOP is generated and maintained via the aqueous humor circulation system in the anterior eye. Aqueous humor is secreted by the ciliary processes and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork (TM) or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. The TM outflow pathways provide resistance to aqueous humor outflow and IOP builds up in response to it. In the normal eye, the resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in the inner wall region is lowered through the contraction of the ciliary muscle or the relaxation of contractile myofibroblasts in the posterior part of the TM and the adjacent scleral spur. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most frequent form of glaucoma, typically suffer from an abnormally high outflow resistance of the inner wall region. There is increasing evidence that the increase in TM outflow resistance in POAG is the result of a characteristic change in the biological properties of the resident cells in the JCT, which increasingly acquire the phenotype of contractile myofibroblasts. This scenario strengthens simultaneously both their actin cytoskeleton and their directly associated extracellular matrix fibrils, leads to overall stiffening of the tissue, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells in glaucoma. Causative therapy concepts targeting the aqueous outflow pathways in glaucoma should aim at interfering with this process either by attenuating TM or SC stiffness, and/or by modulating TGF-β/CTGF signaling.

  5. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration in aqueous humor with intraocular pressure in primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Choritz, Lars; Machert, Maren; Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been found in elevated concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. Indirect evidence from animal studies suggests that ET-1 might directly influence intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 concentrations in aqueous humor of cataract and glaucoma patients correlate with IOP. Aqueous humor and blood samples from patients with either cataract (control, n = 38), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 35), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG, n = 21), without other ocular or systemic disease, were collected during routine cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. ET-1 concentration was determined by an ET-1 ELISA kit. IOP was measured preoperatively by standard Goldmann applanation tonometry. All statistical analysis was performed using commercial predictive analytics software. Both IOP and ET-1 concentration in aqueous humor were significantly increased in POAG (23.4 ± 6.8 mm Hg, 5.9 ± 2.9 pg/mL) and PEXG (24.3 ± 8.8 mm Hg, 7.7 ± 2.1 pg/mL) compared with control (15.0 ± 2.9 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 2.4 pg/mL). No difference was detected for plasma ET-1 concentrations. IOP and ET-1 in the aqueous humor were significantly correlated (R = 0.394, R² = 0.155, P < 0.001), although no correlation was found between IOP and ET-1 in blood plasma or between ET-1 in aqueous humor and ET-1 in plasma. In this study, a small but highly significant correlation between IOP and the ET-1 concentration in the aqueous humor was found. Although no causative relationship can be deduced from this, ocular ET-1 effects on IOP control may merit further investigation.

  6. Altered Antioxidant-Oxidant Status in the Aqueous Humor and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Salom, David; Sequedo, Ma Dolores; Hervás, David; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Díaz-LLopis, Manuel; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, heme oxygenase-I and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in aqueous humor or/and peripheral blood from fifty-six patients with retinitis pigmentosa and sixty subjects without systemic or ocular oxidative stress-related disease. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that retinitis pigmentosa alters ocular antioxidant defence machinery and the redox status in blood. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa present low total antioxidant capacity including reduced SOD3 activity and protein concentration in aqueous humor. Patients also show reduced SOD3 activity, increased TBARS formation and upregulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in peripheral blood. Together these findings confirmed the hypothesis that patients with retinitis pigmentosa present reduced ocular antioxidant status. Moreover, these patients show changes in some oxidative-nitrosative markers in the peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these peripheral markers and retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:24069283

  7. Altered antioxidant-oxidant status in the aqueous humor and peripheral blood of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Salom, David; Sequedo, Ma Dolores; Hervás, David; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, heme oxygenase-I and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in aqueous humor or/and peripheral blood from fifty-six patients with retinitis pigmentosa and sixty subjects without systemic or ocular oxidative stress-related disease. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that retinitis pigmentosa alters ocular antioxidant defence machinery and the redox status in blood. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa present low total antioxidant capacity including reduced SOD3 activity and protein concentration in aqueous humor. Patients also show reduced SOD3 activity, increased TBARS formation and upregulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in peripheral blood. Together these findings confirmed the hypothesis that patients with retinitis pigmentosa present reduced ocular antioxidant status. Moreover, these patients show changes in some oxidative-nitrosative markers in the peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these peripheral markers and retinitis pigmentosa.

  8. Influence of Endothelin-1 in Aqueous Humor on Intermediate-Term Trabeculectomy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Choritz, Lars; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Thieme, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether increased concentrations of ET-1 in aqueous humor of glaucoma patients influences surgical outcome of standard trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C. Methods. Retrospective chart review of 36 glaucoma patients with known ET-1 concentrations who had undergone trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C. Patients were divided into two groups based on their aqueous ET-1 concentration, a below-median (low ET-1) and an above-median (high ET-1) group. Postoperative IOP development, necessity of glaucoma medication, surgical success and complications, postoperative use of antifibrotics (5-FU), and number of additional glaucoma surgeries were compared between the groups. Results. Overall surgical success of trabeculectomy was comparable to published literature (90%, 81%, 76%, and 68% absolute success at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after surgery). There was no difference between high and low ET-1 group in the postsurgical development of IOP, surgical success rate, or complication rate. There was no difference in postoperative scarring or indirect indicators thereof (e.g., number of 5-FU injections, needlings, suture lyses, or IOP lowering medications). Conclusion. In this set of patients, ET-1 in aqueous humor does not appear to have influenced surgical outcome of trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C. There is no indication of an increased likelihood of bleb fibrosis in patients with increased ET-1 concentrations. PMID:26904271

  9. Influence of Endothelin-1 in Aqueous Humor on Intermediate-Term Trabeculectomy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Choritz, Lars; Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Thieme, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether increased concentrations of ET-1 in aqueous humor of glaucoma patients influences surgical outcome of standard trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C. Methods. Retrospective chart review of 36 glaucoma patients with known ET-1 concentrations who had undergone trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C. Patients were divided into two groups based on their aqueous ET-1 concentration, a below-median (low ET-1) and an above-median (high ET-1) group. Postoperative IOP development, necessity of glaucoma medication, surgical success and complications, postoperative use of antifibrotics (5-FU), and number of additional glaucoma surgeries were compared between the groups. Results. Overall surgical success of trabeculectomy was comparable to published literature (90%, 81%, 76%, and 68% absolute success at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after surgery). There was no difference between high and low ET-1 group in the postsurgical development of IOP, surgical success rate, or complication rate. There was no difference in postoperative scarring or indirect indicators thereof (e.g., number of 5-FU injections, needlings, suture lyses, or IOP lowering medications). Conclusion. In this set of patients, ET-1 in aqueous humor does not appear to have influenced surgical outcome of trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C. There is no indication of an increased likelihood of bleb fibrosis in patients with increased ET-1 concentrations.

  10. Determination of triamcinolone acetonide in silicone oil and aqueous humor of vitrectomized rabbits' eyes: Application for a pharmacokinetic study with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injections (Kenalog® 40).

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Cunha, Gabriella M; Saliba, Juliana B; Siqueira, Rubens C; Jorge, Rodrigo; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2014-02-01

    A simple and accurate method including liquid-liquid extraction and protein precipitation procedures from silicone oil and aqueous humor samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) was developed and validated to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of triamcinolone acetonide in silicone oil and aqueous humor of rabbits' eyes submitted to the pars plana vitrectomy surgery. The method was successfully applied to quantify the drug remaining in silicone oil and aqueous humor (LOQ range of 1μg/mL). The triamcinolone acetonide remained in silicone oil and aqueous humor of vitrectomized rabbits' eyes for four weeks after the intravitreal injections.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial analysis of aqueous humor after topical application of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5%.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Aline P; Silva, Cely B; Mimica, Lycia M J; Moscovici, Bernardo K; Malavazzi, Gustavo R; Hida, Richard Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous humor in patients who had preoperative topical application of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5%. Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, Brazil. Comparative case series. Twenty-nine eyes from 29 cataract surgery patients were included in this study. In the study group (n = 15 eyes), 3 topical applications of moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% were administered preoperatively; in the control group (n = 14 eyes), no topical applications were administered. Aqueous humor samples were collected and stored in sterile microtubes at -80°C until analysis. Antimicrobial analysis was performed using standard strains with standard sterile filter paper disks. Inhibition halos were measured in millimeters, and both bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects were analyzed. Inhibition halos were observed on most of the study group plates except those with Streptococcus pneumoniae: Escherichia coli (13.93 mm ± 0.64 [SD]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.63 ± 0.61 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (7.47 ± 0.68 mm), and S epidermidis (4.20 ± 3.33 mm) The differences between the mean inhibition halo diameters were statistically significant (P < .0001) in all samples. No bactericidal effect was observed against any of the microorganisms studied. After topical application of moxifloxacin 0.5%, aqueous humor showed bacteriostatic effect against E coli, K pneumoniae, S aureus, and S epidermidis. No bactericidal effect was observed against any of the microorganisms evaluated. No antimicrobial effect against S pneumoniae was observed. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Heterochromia complicata Fuchs, crystalline iridopathy and increased immunoglobulin G in aqueous humor. A case report].

    PubMed

    Bialasiewicz, A; Gierth, K; Naumann, G O

    1991-03-01

    We report on a 35 year old patient suffering from heterochromia complicata Fuchs with a mature cataract. Multiple small whitish-yellowish crystal-lines on the iris at the 7 and 12 o'clock position were interpreted as Russell bodies and correlated with an elevated concentration of 7.2 mg/dl IgG in the aqueous humor analysis. IgA und IgM could not be detected (less than 1.1 mg/dl). Three months after an unremarkable extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber lens implantation a positive Tyndall phenomenon and Russell bodies were found at just the same locations on the iris.

  13. Recent Developments in Understanding the Role of Aqueous Humor Outflow in Normal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Cheryl R.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the second leading cause of blindness in the world's rapidly aging population. POAG is characterized by progressive degeneration of neural structures in the posterior segment, often associated with a concomitant elevation of intraocular pressure. Changes in IOP are believed to be caused by a disruption in the normal outflow of aqueous humor. This article reviews recent research associated with normal and POAG aqueous humor outflow. Novel findings elucidating biochemical and pathological changes in the ocular tissues affected in POAG are presented. Stem cell research, identification of lymphatic markers, and increased use of mouse models give researchers exciting new tools to understand aqueous humor outflow, changes associated with POAG and identify underlying causes of the disease. PMID:26236568

  14. Design of a novel system for spectroscopy measurements of the aqueous humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joe; Uttamchandani, Deepak G.

    2001-06-01

    The authors report on the design of a system which will enable real time measurements of (therapeutic) drug concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. Currently the concentration of therapeutic drugs in the anterior chamber is determined by analyzing samples which have been removed from the aqueous humor of laboratory animal eyes. This sampling via paracentesis can be painful and does not provide a continuous measurement. Our system will be far less invasive, removing the need for sampling via paracentesis, and also providing a continuous measurement, enabling a more complete understanding of the kinetics of ophthalmic drugs. A key component in our novel system is a specially constructed contact lens. We report on the design, optimization and manufacture of such a contact lens system capable of directing UV/VIS light in, across and out of the anterior chamber of the eye, thereby enabling absorption spectroscopy measurements of the aqueous humor to be undertaken. Design of the one piece contact lens/mirror system was achieved using the Zemax optical design software package and the lens was fabricated from synthetic fused silica. Results from modeling of the lens and experimental measurements on light propagation across the anterior chamber of animal eyes assisted by the lens will be reported.

  15. PENETRATION OF RADIOACTIVE SODIUM AND CHLORIDE INTO CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND AQUEOUS HUMOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Ch'uan

    1948-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on six dogs to determine the rate of penetration of Cl33 and Na24 across the blood-aqueous humor and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers after intravenous injection of the radioactive ions. The radioactivity measurements were made with an immersion type of Geiger-Müller counter. 2. The concentrations of the labelled ions in the anterior chamber and the cisterna magna increase slowly to approach that of plasma. The rate of penetration k is calculated from a simple exponential equation with the half-value interval t0.5 or the time required for the labelled-ion concentration in the fluid to reach 50 per cent of that of plasma. The average t0.5 for Cl38 and Na24 in aqueous humor are 34.3 ± 9 and 27.3 ± 9 minutes, respectively, while those for cerebrospinal fluid are 90 ± 6 and 95 ± 6 minutes, respectively. 3. A study of the radioactivity in plasma was made to determine the per cent remaining after a steady state was reached. By means of this determination the sodium and chloride space was calculated to be 33 ± 5 per cent. PMID:18920614

  16. Pharmacokinetics and aqueous humor penetration of levofloxacin 1.5% and moxifloxacin 0.5% in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Frank A; Nguimfack, Ines Teuma; Fluet, Angel T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin 1.5% and moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% ophthalmic solutions in aqueous humor after multiple doses prior to cataract surgery. Ninety-eight eyes underwent cataract surgery and met the requirements of PK analysis. Eligible eyes were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive levofloxacin or moxifloxacin prior to cataract surgery and were randomized into one of four sampling time points (ie, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hour post-last dose). Randomization was investigator and laboratory-masked. Three days prior to cataract surgery, each patient instilled one drop of the assigned study medication into the operative eye four times daily. One aqueous humor specimen was collected from the eye at the randomized time point. Aqueous humor specimens were assayed for drug concentration using a validated liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometer. Concentrations of the drug in the aqueous humor, as described by mean Cmax and pooled AUC0-6 values, were greater for levofloxacin than moxifloxacin (Cmax: 1.43, 0.87 μg/ml, respectively, P=0.008; AUC0-6 6.1, 3.8 μg·min/ml, P<0.001 respectively). No treatment-emergent adverse events were reported. Significantly greater drug exposures were attained in aqueous humor following the administration of levofloxacin 1.5% than moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution. Achieving considerable higher drug concentration in the aqueous humor with levofloxacin 1.5% may demonstrate a greater potential for bacterial eradication.

  17. Penetration of betaxolol HCL ionic suspension 0.25% and betaxolol HCL solution 0.50% into the aqueous humor.

    PubMed

    Yalvac, I Sagdic; Basci, N E; Dulger, B; Duman, S

    2007-01-01

    To determine the intraocular penetration of topical drops of betaxolol HCl 0.25% suspension and betaxolol HCl 0.50% solution into the aqueous humor. Fifteen patients were randomly assigned to receive topical betaxolol HCl 0.25% suspension (n=7) or topical betaxolol HCl 0.50% solution (n=8) the day before cataract surgery. Aqueous samples were collected 2 hours after the administration of the morning dose during cataract surgery. Drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The mean aqueous humor concentration of topical betaxolol HCl 0.25% suspension was 275.1+/-168.8 micro g/mL (range 570-70 micro g/mL) and the mean aqueous humor concentration of topical betaxolol HCl 0.50% solution was 195.4+/-102.4 micro g/mL (range 334-50 micro g/mL) (p=0.281). The mean aqueous humor concentration of betaxolol 0.25% suspension was higher than betaxolol 0.50% solution; however, the difference was not statistically significant. With twofold reduced concentration and similar anterior chamber penetration, betaxolol 0.25% suspension could be first choice for Beta 1 selective blocker therapy when considered for patients with glaucoma.

  18. Polymorphisms in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes and plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus ascorbate concentrations in an ascorbate depleted setting.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumari, Srinivasan; Talwar, Badri; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Jayanthi, Ramamurthy; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Saravanan, Charu; Young, Ian S; Dangour, Alan D; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2014-07-01

    We have previously reported low concentrations of plasma ascorbate and low dietary vitamin C intake in the older Indian population and a strong inverse association of these with cataract. Little is known about ascorbate levels in aqueous humor and lens in populations habitually depleted of ascorbate and no studies in any setting have investigated whether genetic polymorphisms influence ascorbate levels in ocular tissues. Our objectives were to investigate relationships between ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens and whether these relationships are influenced by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter genes (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2). We enrolled sixty patients (equal numbers of men and women, mean age 63 years) undergoing small incision cataract surgery in southern India. We measured ascorbate concentrations in plasma, aqueous humor and lens nucleus using high performance liquid chromatography. SLC23A1 SNPs (rs4257763, rs6596473) and SLC23A2 SNPs (rs1279683 and rs12479919) were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. Patients were interviewed for lifestyle factors which might influence ascorbate. Plasma vitamin C was normalized by a log10 transformation. Statistical analysis used linear regression with the slope of the within-subject associations estimated using beta (β) coefficients. The ascorbate concentrations (μmol/L) were: plasma ascorbate, median and inter-quartile range (IQR), 15.2 (7.8, 34.5), mean (SD) of aqueous humor ascorbate, 1074 (545) and lens nucleus ascorbate, 0.42 (0.16) (μmol/g lens nucleus wet weight). Minimum allele frequencies were: rs1279683 (0.28), rs12479919 (0.30), rs659647 (0.48). Decreasing concentrations of ocular ascorbate from the common to the rare genotype were observed for rs6596473 and rs12479919. The per allele difference in aqueous humor ascorbate for rs6596473 was -217 μmol/L, p < 0.04 and a per allele difference in lens nucleus ascorbate of -0.085 μmol/g, p < 0

  19. [The relationship between PMI and concentration of potassium ion and sodium ion in swine aqueous humor after death].

    PubMed

    Han, Ju; Yu, Guang-biao; Dong, Ye-qiang; Fang, Chao; Jing, Hua-lan; Luo, Si-min

    2010-04-01

    To explored the relationship between the concentration of potassium ion as well as sodium ion in the aqueous humor and post-mortem interval (PMI). The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in the aqueous humor of swine within 48 h after death at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C were detected using Z-500 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs within 48 h after death when the environmental temperature was 4 degrees C were significantly related to PMI. The relationship between PMI and the concentration of potassium ion was PMI = -0.178[K+]2 + 49.978 (R2 = 0.995). The relationship between PMI and the rate of sodium ion and potassium ion was PMI = 120.987/[Na+/K+]-28.834 (R2 = 0.905). The concentration of potassium in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs may be one of the reference indicators to estimate PMI of the corpses at lower temperatures.

  20. Metabolomics of the aqueous humor in the rat glaucoma model induced by a series of intracamerular sodium hyaluronate injection.

    PubMed

    Mayordomo-Febrer, A; López-Murcia, M; Morales-Tatay, J M; Monleón-Salvado, D; Pinazo-Durán, M D

    2015-02-01

    Glaucoma models are helpful to study disease characteristics and to design new therapeutic options. Metabolomic profiling approach have been used to elucidating the molecular characteristics of the aqueous humor. Juvenile male Wistar rats experimental (n = 15) and controls (n = 6) were used for these studies. Experimental rats received weekly intracamerular injection of 25 µl of sodium hyaluronate in the left eye and sterile saline solution in the right eye, consecutively for ten weeks. Rats were subjected to anterior/posterior eye segment examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and flash electroretinograms (ERG). The aqueous humor was collected at endpoints and analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Elevated IOP and significant reduction of a, b waves and amplitude of oscillatory potential was observed in the left eyes compared to control eyes. The aqueous humor metabolomic profile from control and the experimental eyes were compared. Concentrations of metabolites (amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates) significantly changed after the sodium hyaluronate injections series, compared to the sham-operated eyes. Metabolic changes in the hypertensive eyes correlated with the impaired retinal function. Observed metabolomic changes in aqueous humor in hypertensive state may play a significant role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Label-free LC–MS/MS quantitative analysis of aqueous humor from keratoconic and normal eyes

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Javier; Villarrubia, Alberto; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Elortza, Félix; Azkargorta, Mikel; Alvarez de Toledo, Juan; Rodriguez-Agirretxe, Iñaki; Suarez, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The etiology of keratoconus (KC) and the factors governing its progression are not well understood. It has been suggested that this disease might be caused by biochemical alterations in the cornea; changes in the expression profiles of human aqueous humor (hAH) proteins have been observed in some diseases. To gain a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of KC pathology, we examined the hAH proteomes of those in the advanced stages of this disease. We used a high-throughput mass spectrometry approach to compare hAH protein expression in patients with KC and in control subjects. Methods Aqueous humor samples were acquired from five keratoconus patients during keratoplasty surgery and from five myopic control subjects during phakic intraocular lens implantation. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis using spectral counting was performed to determine the relative amounts of hAH proteins in the samples from KC patients and control individuals. Results All KC patients included in the study presented severe keratoconus (K2 >52 D), and slit-lamp examination revealed microfolds in Descemet’s membrane, without clinical signs of hydrops. We found significant differences between the expression levels of 16 proteins in the two groups. In KC samples, seven proteins were overexpressed and nine were underexpressed in comparison with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these deregulated proteins are implicated in several biologic processes, such as the regulation of proteolysis, responses to hypoxia, and responses to hydrogen peroxide, among others. Conclusions The protein expression profiles in hAH from KC patients and myopic control subjects differ significantly. This result suggests that some components of the hAH proteome are involved in this disease. Further in-depth analysis of the hAH proteome should provide a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the pathophysiology of KC. PMID:25999673

  2. Physiology of aqueous humor dynamic in the anterior chamber due to rapid eye movement.

    PubMed

    Modarreszadeh, SeyedAmirreza; Abouali, Omid; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2014-08-01

    The nature of aqueous humor (AH) mixing in the anterior chamber (AC) of the human eye due to rapid eye movement (REM) has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. This study uses a computational modeling approach to shed light on this issue. For this purpose a numerical method was developed and used to solve the mathematical equations governing the flow and mixing of aqueous humor motion in the eye subjected to such movements. Based on the experimental measurements available in the literature for the average and maximum amplitudes of the eye movements, a harmonic model for the REM was developed. The corresponding instantaneous and time-averaged velocity fields were evaluated. The simulation results showed that, contrary to earlier reports, the REM led to complex flow structures and a 3-D mixing of AH in the anterior chamber. In addition, the mixing velocity increased in direct proportion to the REM amplitudes. Thus, the AC flow generated by REM could carry nutrients to the posterior surface of the cornea during the sleep. Furthermore, the shear stress acting on the corneal endothelial cells due to REM was computed and compared with that of buoyancy driven flow in the AC due to temperature gradient. It was found that the shear stress generated by REM is much higher than that introduced by the natural convection. A video file for providing a better understanding of the AH mixing process in the AC was also prepared. This video is available on the web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of the water-drinking test on aqueous humor dynamics in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Diestelhorst, M; Krieglstein, G K

    1994-03-01

    In 19 healthy volunteers (9 men, 10 women) we studied the effect of drinking 1000 ml of water within 10 min on aqueous humor dynamics. Fluorescein was applied topically five times, 6 h before measurements. All readings were taken during the afternoon. The Wilcox-on signed-rank test was used to evaluate the statistical relevance of the data. Aqueous humor flow was measured 60 min before (F1) and 10 min (F2), 30 min (F3), 60 min (F4) and 90 min (F5) after drinking 11 of water. Flow (mean +/- SD) changed as follows: F1, 2.25 +/- 1.2 microliters/min; F2, -3.29 +/- 3.4 microliters/min (P < 0.0000); F3, 1.69 +/- 1.0 microliters/min (P = 0.007); F4, 2.39 +/- 0.9 microliters/min (P = 0.25); F5, 2.64 +/- 0.9 microliters/min (P = 0.02). Three to four days later the identical procedure was performed in each individual: F1, 2.06 +/- 1.0 microliters/min; F2, -3.12 +/- 2.4 microliters/min (P < 0.0000); F3, 1.09 +/- 0.6 microliters/min (P < 0.0001); F4, 1.76 +/- 0.6 microliters/min (P = 0.15); F5, 2.54 +/- 0.8 microliters/min (P = 0.01). The correlation coefficient for the left and night eyes (F1-F5, both days) was r = 0.85. The mean flow in the 19 healthy volunteers during the afternoon hours was 2.25 +/- 1.0 microliters/min. Water load consistently led to a reflux of unbound fluorescein into the eye about 10 min later. This is documented as a negative flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm(3)) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P < 0.01) and intravenous (P < 0.001) vitamin C groups and was significantly higher in the intravenous than in the oral vitamin C group (P < 0.05). Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  5. Expression profile of IL-1 family cytokines in aqueous humor and sera of patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis and idiopathic anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binbin; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ling; Gordon, Lynn; Chen, Ling

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytokine expression profile of specific IL-1 family members in the aqueous humor and sera of patients with HLA-B27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. Following informed consent, a total of 13 patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU, 12 patients with idiopathic AAU and 9 controls were recruited to this study from May 2013 to July 2014. Each individual received a complete ophthalmologic examination. Aqueous humor and sera samples were collected and 11 inflammation-related cytokines of the IL-1 family (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1Ra], IL-18, IL-36 receptor antagonist [IL-36Ra], IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ, IL-37, IL-38) were quantitatively measured and analyzed for statistical significance between groups. The degree of inflammation, anterior chamber cell or flare, correlated with expression of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and IL-18. The highest levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-18, and IL-36Ra were seen in the aqueous of patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU and this was statically significant when compared to the controls, but not to idiopathic AAU. Expression of IL-18 was statistically higher in the aqueous of patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU in comparison to either idiopathic AAU or controls, but this may reflect greater inflammation in this patient group. In the sera only IL-1α was statistically higher in the HLA-B27 associated AAU in comparison to the control. Cytokine analysis reveals elevation of multiple IL-1 family members in the aqueous humor of patients with AAU as compared to controls. The specific signature of inflammation may potentially be useful in developing new future therapies for AAU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aqueous Humor Outflow Structure and Function Imaging At the Bench and Bedside: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior segment glaucoma clinical care and research has recently gained new focus because of novel imaging modalities and the advent of angle-based surgical treatments. Traditional investigation drawn to the trabecular meshwork now emphasizes the entire conventional aqueous humor outflow (AHO) pathway from the anterior chamber to the episcleral vein. AHO investigation can be divided into structural and functional assessments using different methods. The historical basis for studying the anterior segment of the eye and AHO in glaucoma is discussed. Structural studies of AHO are reviewed and include traditional pathological approaches to modern tools such as multi-model two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Functional assessment focuses on visualizing AHO itself through a variety of non-real-time and real-time techniques such as aqueous angiography. Implications of distal outflow resistance and segmental AHO are discussed with an emphasis on melding bench-side research to viable clinical applications. Through the development of an improved structure: function relationship for AHO in the anterior segment of the normal and diseased eye, a better understanding of the eye with improved therapeutics may be developed. PMID:27790380

  7. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers.Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups.In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups.The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C.

  8. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers. Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups. In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups. The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C. PMID:28207520

  9. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 %: human aqueous humor concentration detected by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Angelo; Vagge, Aldo; Salis, Annalisa; Fucile, Carmen; Marini, Valeria; Martelli, Antonietta; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Iester, Michele; Damonte, Gianluca; Mattioli, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration. 188 treated volunteers and 48 control, untreated, subjects were included in the study. The mean aqueous concentration of bromfenac in the treated group was 37.60 ± 68.86 and 0 nM (nmol/L) in the control group (p < 0.0001). Correlation coefficient in bromfenac group between time elapsed from instillation and drug concentration was -0.16 (p not significant). Bromfenac showed properties of good penetration and stable concentration in aqueous humor up to about 12 h after instillation.

  10. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of FGF-2 synthesis by IL-1beta in aqueous humor through P13-kinase and p38 in rabbit corneal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Song, Jong-Suk; Lee, Jeong Goo; Kay, EunDuck P

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether the elevated level of interleukin (IL)-1beta in aqueous humor after transcorneal freezing upregulates FGF-2 synthesis in rabbit corneal endothelium through PI3-kinase and p38 pathways. Transcorneal freezing was performed in New Zealand White rabbits to induce an injury-mediated inflammation. The concentration of IL-1beta was measured, and the expression of FGF-2, p38, and Akt underwent Western blot analysis. Intracellular location of FGF-2 and actin cytoskeleton was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the corneal endothelium was observed after freezing, and IL-1beta concentration in the aqueous humor was elevated in a time-dependent manner after freezing. Similarly, FGF-2 expression was increased in a time-dependent manner. When corneal endothelium was stained with anti-FGF-2 antibody, the nuclear location of FGF-2 was observed primarily in the cornea after cryotreatment, whereas FGF-2 in normal corneal endothelium was localized at the plasma membrane. Treatment of the ex vivo corneal tissue with IL-1beta upregulated FGF-2 and facilitated its nuclear location in corneal endothelium. Transcorneal freezing disrupted the actin cytoskeleton at the cortex, and cell shapes were altered from cobblestone morphology to irregular shape. Topical treatment with LY294002 and SB203580 on the cornea after cryotreatment blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and p38, respectively, in the corneal endothelium. These inhibitors also reduced FGF-2 levels and partially blocked morphologic changes after freezing. These data suggest that after transcorneal freezing, IL-1beta released by PMNs into the aqueous humor stimulates FGF-2 synthesis in corneal endothelium via PI3-kinase and p38.

  12. Point-of-service, quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor for evaluating anterior globe integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartia, Manas R.; Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T.; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-11-01

    Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries.

  13. Point-of-service, quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor for evaluating anterior globe integrity

    PubMed Central

    Gartia, Manas R.; Misra, Santosh K.; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T.; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-01-01

    Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries. PMID:26525715

  14. Point-of-service, quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor for evaluating anterior globe integrity.

    PubMed

    Gartia, Manas R; Misra, Santosh K; Ye, Mao; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron; Plucinski, Lisa; Zhou, Xiangfei; Kellner, David; Labriola, Leanne T; Pan, Dipanjan

    2015-11-03

    Limited training, high cost, and low equipment mobility leads to inaccuracies in decision making and is concerning with serious ocular injuries such as suspected ruptured globe or post-operative infections. Here, we present a novel point-of-service (POS) quantitative ascorbic acid (AA) assay with use of the OcuCheck Biosensor. The present work describes the development and clinical testing of the paper-based biosensor that measures the changes in electrical resistance of the enzyme-plated interdigitated electrodes to quantify the level of AA present in ocular fluid. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept of the biosensor testing 16 clinical samples collected from aqueous humor of patients undergoing therapeutic anterior chamber paracentesis. Comparing with gold standard colorimetric assay for AA concentration, OcuCheck showed accuracy of >80%, sensitivity of >88% and specificity of >71%. At present, there are no FDA-approved POS tests that can directly measures AA concentration levels in ocular fluid. We envisage that the device can be realized as a handheld, battery powered instrument that will have high impact on glaucoma care and point-of-care diagnostics of penetrating ocular globe injuries.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of betaxolol-brinzolamide and timolol-dorzolamide as suppressors of aqueous humor flow in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, R F; Ingram, C J; Schoff, E O; Nau, C B

    2000-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of combinations of betaxolol-brinzolamide and timolol-dorzolamide as suppressors of aqueous humor flow and ocular hypotensive agents. Placebo-controlled, masked comparison of the two drug combinations. Twenty-five normal human volunteers with the fellow eye serving as control. METHODS OR TESTING: Fluorophotometric measurement of aqueous humor flow and pneumatonometric measurement of intraocular pressure. Aqueous humor flow and intraocular pressure. The betaxolol-brinzolamide combination lowered aqueous flow 39% to 44%, and the timololdorzolamide combination lowered aqueous flow 51%. The betaxolol-brinzolamide combination lowered intraocular pressure 14% to 19%, and the timolol-dorzolamide combination lowered it 18% to 24%. Both drug combinations were effective; the timolol-dorzolamide combination appeared to be the more effective of the two after short-term exposure (24 hours).

  16. Taking levels of analysis in humor more seriously: comment on Romero and Arendt.

    PubMed

    Sosik, John J

    2012-04-01

    Humor is a phenomenon that can simultaneously coexist at the individual, dyadic, and group levels, making its measurement and conceptualization complex. In a recent field study, Romero and Arendt (2011) examined relationships between four humor styles (i.e., affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) and four outcomes (i.e., stress, satisfaction with co-workers, team cooperation, organizational commitment), however, the latter was apparently measured as a self-report at the individual level of analysis. Their interesting results indicated different humor styles can have either positive or negative effects on these outcome variables. However, if their operational definition--and hence their conceptualization--of humor is based on self-report by the initiator, it may be problematic to use it at the dyadic and group levels because it potentially mixes levels of analysis and may cause misalignment between data and theory. Cautions and implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Influence of cataract maturity on aqueous humor lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Miric, D J; Kisic, B M; Zoric, L D; Miric, B M; Mirkovic, M; Mitic, R

    2014-01-01

    The impact of cataract maturity on the aqueous humor (AH) oxidant/antioxidant balance is largely controversial. This study was aimed at assessing the relationships between cataract maturity and AH lipid peroxidation markers and enzymatic antioxidants. The concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipofuscin-like fluorescent end-products (LLF), soluble proteins, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in AH samples from nondiabetic patients with either immature (n=15) or mature (n=15) cataract. In the overall AH sample, the mean values of CD, LLF, SOD, and CAT were 0.160 ± 0.024 (OD234), 166 ± 27 RFU, 24.5 ± 7.1 U/ml, and 31.9 ± 3.9 pmol/ml, respectively. CD was positively correlated with SOD (r=0.647; P<0.001), CAT (r=-0.394; P=0.031), and LLF (r=-0.399; P=0.029). The LLF was negatively correlated with SOD (r=-0.461; P=0.010). In samples adjusted for confounding factors, differences between immature and mature cataract groups regarding SOD, CD, LLF, and total proteins were significant (P<0.05; for all variables). The multiple logistic regression analysis identified LLF (OR=4.08; P=0.038) and SOD (OR=4.99; P=0.031) as independent predictors of cataract maturity. These results suggest that AH lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants may significantly depend on the cataract maturity stage.

  18. Proteomic analysis of human aqueous humor using multidimensional protein identification technology

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Matthew R.; Price, Marianne O.; Price, Francis W.; Pardo, Jennifer C.; Grandin, Juan C.; You, Jinsam; Wang, Mu

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous humor (AH) supports avascular tissues in the anterior segment of the eye, maintains intraocular pressure, and potentially influences the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, the AH proteome is still poorly defined despite several previous efforts, which were hindered by interfering high abundance proteins, inadequate animal models, and limited proteomic technologies. To facilitate future investigations into AH function, the AH proteome was extensively characterized using an advanced proteomic approach. Samples from patients undergoing cataract surgery were pooled and depleted of interfering abundant proteins and thereby divided into two fractions: albumin-bound and albumin-depleted. Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was utilized for each fraction; this incorporates strong cation exchange chromatography to reduce sample complexity before reversed-phase liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve proteins had multi-peptide, high confidence identifications in the albumin-bound fraction and 50 proteins had multi-peptide, high confidence identifications in the albumin-depleted fraction. Gene ontological analyses were performed to determine which cellular components and functions were enriched. Many proteins were previously identified in the AH and for several their potential role in the AH has been investigated; however, the majority of identified proteins were novel and only speculative roles can be suggested. The AH was abundant in anti-oxidant and immunoregulatory proteins as well as anti-angiogenic proteins, which may be involved in maintaining the avascular tissues. This is the first known report to extensively characterize and describe the human AH proteome and lays the foundation for future work regarding its function in homeostatic and pathologic states. PMID:20019884

  19. Clinical spectrum, diagnostic criteria, and polymerase chain reaction of aqueous humor in viral and toxoplasma detection in Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sabhapandit, Swapnali; Murthy, Somasheila I; Balne, Praveen K; Sangwan, Virender Singh; Sumanth, V; Reddy, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of Fuchs’ uveitis (FU) and to determine whether it has an association with virus and toxoplasma in the aqueous humor during cataract surgery. Setting and Design: This is a prospective, case–control study. Materials and Methods: Patients with FU (n = 25), anterior uveitis (n = 15), and no uveitis (normal) (n = 50) were included based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria for all three groups. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of aqueous humor and serum for rubella, herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and toxoplasma was done using conventional uniplex PCR. Statistical Analysis: It was done using SPSS software using Chi-square test for categorical variables, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ninety patients were enrolled in the study in three groups, comparable for age, gender, and laterality of ocular involvement. All patients had diffuse keratic precipitates in FU group (P = 0001) with none having posterior synechiae (P = 0.046) which was statistically significant when compared to anterior uveitis patients. Iris nodules were noted in one case in both groups. Serum and aqueous PCR was negative for detection of VZV, CMV, toxoplasma, and rubella in all groups. PCR for HSV was positive in one patient in “normal” group but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study shows that diagnosis of FU is mainly clinical. There appears to be no role of aqueous humor testing for viruses by PCR to aid in etiological diagnosis. PMID:27688274

  20. Positively charged polymeric nanoparticle reservoirs of terbinafine hydrochloride: preclinical implications for controlled drug delivery in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

    2013-06-01

    Frequent instillation of terbinafine hydrochloride (T HCl) eye drops (0.25%, w/v) is necessary to maintain effective aqueous humor concentrations for treatment of fungal keratitis. The current approach aimed at developing potential positively charged controlled-release polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of T HCl. The estimation of the drug pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor following ocular instillation of the best-achieved NPs in rabbits was another goal. Eighteen drug-loaded (0.50%, w/v) formulae were fabricated by the nanopreciptation method using Eudragit® RS100 and chitosan (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v). Soybean lecithin (1%, w/v) and Pluronic® F68 (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%, w/v) were incorporated in the alcoholic and aqueous phases, respectively. The NPs were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), morphological examination, drug release in simulated tear fluid (pH 7.4), Fourier-transform IR (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), physical stability (2 months, 4°C and 25°C), and drug pharmacokinetics in the rabbit aqueous humor relative to an oily drug solution. Spherical, discrete NPs were successfully developed with mean particle size and zeta potential ranging from 73.29 to 320.15 nm and +20.51 to +40.32 mV, respectively. Higher EE% were achieved with Eudragit® RS100-based NPs. The duration of drug release was extended to more than 8 h. FT-IR and XRD revealed compatibility between inactive formulation ingredients and T HCl and permanence of the latter's crystallinity, respectively. The NPs were physically stable, for at least 2 months, when refrigerated. F5-NP suspension significantly (P<0.05) increased drug mean residence time and improved its ocular bioavailability; 1.657-fold.

  1. Posterior fixation keratoprostheses and mechanical biocompatibility: determination of critical intraocular pressure causing aqueous humor leak and/or keratoprosthesis extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahi, Hassan; Duchesne, Bernard; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Nose, Izuru; Denham, David B.; Villain, Franck L.; Lacombe, Emmanuel

    1997-05-01

    The effect of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in human cadaver eyes implanted with posterior fixation keratoprosthesis was evaluated. Experiments were carried out with six fresh pairs of human cadaver eyes. One eye of each pair was implanted with a PCL-5 keratoprosthesis (8.60 mm diameter with an optic of 5.60 nm diameter) and the contralateral eye was used as a control. The keratoprosthesis was inserted through a 6 mm diameter opening trephined in the cornea. The resistance of the implanted eye to pressure on `aqueous humor' leak and/or keratoprosthesis extrusion was tested by infusing water at a constant flow of 60 mmHg/second into the anterior chamber. IOP variations were recorded with a transducer connected to a computer. IOP could be increased up to 1520 to 2324 mmHg before aqueous humor leaks occurred. Leaks were always located at the keratoprosthesis-cornea interface. No prosthesis extrusion was observed. Implanted eyes that did not leak aqueous and control eyes tore at the sclera. All posterior fixation keratoprostheses implanted eyes resisted more than 100 times the normal physiological intraocular pressure and on this standpoint is safe. Additional experiments were needed to assess the influence of suture fixation and wound healing in an animal model.

  2. Intraocular Pressure and the Mechanisms Involved in Resistance of the Aqueous Humor Flow in the Trabecular Meshwork Outflow Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP), the critical risk factor for glaucoma, is generated and maintained by the aqueous humor circulation system. Aqueous humor is secreted from the epithelial layers of the ciliary body and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. IOP builds up in response to a resistance to aqueous humor flow in the trabecular outflow pathways. The trabecular outflow resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in this region is lowered through the relaxation of contractile myofibroblast-like cells in trabecular meshwork and the adjacent scleral spur, or the contraction of the ciliary muscle. In primary open-angle glaucoma, the most frequent form of glaucoma, outflow resistance of the inner wall region is typically higher than normal. There is evidence that the increase in resistance is related to characteristic biological changes in the resident cells of the JCT, which more and more acquire the structural and functional characteristics of contractile myofibroblasts. The changes involve an augmentation of their actin cytoskeleton and of their surrounding fibrillary extracellular matrix, which connects to JCT cells via integrins. This scenario leads to an overall stiffening of the inner wall region, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells. Stiffening of JCT and SC cells is very likely a critical causative factor for the increase in trabecular outflow resistance in POAG.

  3. Simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis in rabbit aqueous humor by LC-MS/MS: Application to ocular pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yangdan; Huang, Yuting; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to establish a fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis in rabbit aqueous humor. Aqueous humor samples were processed by protein precipitation and then separated on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) with a mobile phase using acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid (28:72, v/v). Detection of the analytes and the internal standard (coptisine) were performed in positive electrospray ionization with selected reaction monitoring. The method showed good linearity (r>0.9931) for all the seven alkaloids. This fully validated method was applied to the studies of aqueous humor pharmacokinetics of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis and the effects of borneol on corneal penetration of these alkaloids into aqueous humor. This is the first work that presents a reliable LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids in rabbit aqueous humor and its application of ocular pharmacokinetics of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of lomefloxacin in rabbit aqueous humor and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiwen; Zhao, Dongyang; Sun, Jing; Miao, Qiuyan; Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Yanling; Zhong, Lu; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-10-15

    Lomefloxacin is a kind of synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which is used for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, a rapid and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay was developed to determine the concentration of lomefloxacin in rabbit aqueous humor quantitatively. Aqueous humor samples were extracted by protein precipitation. Ofloxacin was chosen as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex C18 (50mm×2.10mm, 2.6μm, Phenomenex Corp, USA) column, with a gradient of methanol (0.1% formic acid) and water (0.1% formic acid). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive ionization mode was used for the mass analysis. The validation of this method was based on the European Medicines Agency (2011) [1] and US FDA Guidelines (2001) [2]. The calibration range of aqueous humor samples was 5-1200ng/mL with r=0.9990 (n=6). For all QC samples, Inter-and intra-run precisions were less than 15% and accuracies were between 80%-120%. In conclusion, the assay was rapid, sensitive and able to determinate the lomefloxacin in rabbit aqueous humor accurately. At the same time, this method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of lomefloxacin hydrochloride eye drops and lomefloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbit aqueous humor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In silico analysis of the molecular machinery underlying aqueous humor production: potential implications for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ciliary body epithelia (CBE) of the eye produce the aqueous humor (AH). The equilibrium between the AH production by the CBE and the outflow through the trabecular meshwork ultimately determines the intraocular pressure (IOP). An increased IOP is a major risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). This study aims to elucidate the molecular machinery of the most important function of the CBE: the AH production and composition, and aims to find possible new molecular clues for POAG and AH production-lowering drugs. Methods We performed a gene expression analysis of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented epithelia (PE) of the human CBE of post mortem eyes. We used 44 k Agilent microarrays against a common reference design. Functional annotations were performed with the Ingenuity knowledge database. Results We built a molecular model of AH production by combining previously published physiological data with our current genomic expression data. Next, we investigated molecular CBE transport features which might influence AH composition. These features included caveolin- and clathrin vesicle-mediated transport of large biomolecules, as well as a range of substrate specific transporters. The presence of these transporters implies that, for example, immunoglobins, thyroid hormone, prostaglandins, cholesterol and vitamins can be secreted by the CBE along with the AH. In silico, we predicted some of the molecular apical interactions between the NPE and PE, the side where the two folded epithelia face each other. Finally, we found high expression of seven POAG disease genes in the plasma membrane of extracellular space of the CBE, namely APOE, CAV1, COL8A2, EDNRA, FBN1, RFTN1 and TLR4 and we found possible new targets for AH lowering drugs in the AH. Conclusions The CBE expresses many transporters, which account for AH production and/or composition. Some of these entries have also been associated with POAG. We hypothesize that the CBE may play a more

  6. An Adult Case of Fulminant Mumps Keratitis With Positive Viral RNA in Aqueous Humor Detected by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Teppei; Takahashi, Yoriko; Okamoto, Ayako; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Kazuko

    2016-04-01

    To report an adult case of mumps keratitis with mumps virus in aqueous humor and decreased corneal endothelial cell density. Case report. A 60-year-old female with a 39°C fever and bilateral parotid swelling diagnosed with mumps and treated for photophobia, pain, redness, and decreased vision in 1 eye, was referred to our hospital when her condition deteriorated despite receiving betamethasone phosphate instillation and antiglaucoma agents for elevated intraocular pressure (52 mm Hg) and iritis. Her right eye was normal, whereas her left eye showed 20/400 visual acuity, 21 mm Hg intraocular pressure, ciliary injection and edema, opacity, and Descemet folds in the entire cornea. Round white keratic precipitates were present on the posterior corneal surface, whereas anterior chamber cells could not be examined in detail because of corneal edema. Mumps virus was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in an aqueous humor sample taken at the time of admission. Following diagnosis of keratitis, administration of 30 mg oral prednisolone daily and frequent instillation of betamethasone phosphate steadily improved her corneal edema and opacity. In her left eye, visual acuity recovered to 20/16 and keratitis was resolved at 4 weeks; however, corneal endothelial cell density was significantly decreased to less than 400 per square millimeter. Mumps keratitis may cause severe corneal endothelial cell loss.

  7. A model for the linear stability of the interface between aqueous humor and vitreous substitutes after vitreoretinal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, Krystyna; Pralits, Jan O.; Repetto, Rodolfo; Romano, Mario R.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids induced by periodic oscillations of a flat solid surface along its plane. The interface between the two fluids is parallel to the solid wall; one fluid occupies the region between the wall and the interface and the other extends from the interface to infinity. We study numerically the linear stability of the interface with respect to two-dimensional perturbations using the normal mode analysis and assuming quasi-steady flow conditions. The analysis is motivated by the need of understanding the behavior of vitreous substitutes inserted in the vitreous chamber of the eye after vitrectomy. This is a common surgical procedure adopted to treat retinal detachments, whereby the vitreous humor is removed from the eye and replaced by fluids immiscible with water. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, vitreous substitutes coexist in the vitreous chamber with a certain amount of aqueous humor (the fluid produced in the anterior part of the eye) and, typically, a thin layer of aqueous separates the tamponade fluid from the retina. A common problem with this treatment is that, in some cases, the interface between the two fluids breaks down and this might eventually lead to the generation of an emulsion. It is believed that mechanics plays an important role in this process but the problem remains very poorly understood. We find that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters that is relevant for the problem that motivated the present analysis. This suggests that shear instability is likely a possible mechanism triggering the onset of vitreous substitutes-aqueous interface instability.

  8. Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Julio C; Echeverri, Luis F; Londoño, Manuel J; Ochoa, Sergio A; Quiroz, Andrés F; Romero, César R; Ruiz, Joaquín O

    2017-01-01

    Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Weisz test, a pictorial chart that determines subjective stress perception, and the Parker test, which assesses objective stress, were applied. In the second phase, salivary cortisol levels were measured and the Weisz test was administered before and after the interventions. A total of 306 patients were recruited into this study: 198 in the first phase (94 in the intervention group and 104 in the nonintervention group) and 108 in the second phase. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, or medical diagnosis. The children in the intervention group presented lower cortisol levels, lower scores on the Parker test, and higher scores on the Weisz test than children in the nonintervention group. In the second phase, the children showed lower salivary cortisol levels and higher scores on the Weisz test after the intervention. Humor therapy has beneficial effects on stress and cortisol levels in pediatric inpatients. This supports the implementation and reinforcement of these therapies in pediatric hospitals. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. [The dynamics of the humoral immunity indices and of the beta 2-microglobulin level in children with chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Volosianko, A B

    2000-03-01

    Studied in children with chronic hepatitis B (n = 38) were indices for humoral immunity, such as blood serum content of immunoglobulins A, G, M, and beta 2-microglobulin. The revealed increase in the level of the indices under study suggest to us an apparent tension of the humoral link of immunity. The polyenzymic drug preparation wobenzym in the complex of therapeutic measures instituted in the above children was found out to have a positive effect on humoral homeostasis.

  10. Aberrant Collagen Composition of the Trabecular Meshwork Results in Reduced Aqueous Humor Drainage and Elevated IOP in MMP-9 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Groef, Lies; Andries, Lien; Siwakoti, Anuja; Geeraerts, Emiel; Bollaerts, Ilse; Noterdaeme, Lut; Etienne, Isabelle; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Billen, Johan; West-Mays, Judith A.; Moons, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Homeostatic turnover of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential to regulate aqueous humor outflow and to maintain intraocular pressure homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated aqueous humor turnover, intraocular pressure, and trabecular meshwork organization in MMP-9 null mice. Methods Intraocular pressure and aqueous humor turnover were measured in MMP-9 null versus wild-type mice. Morphology of the anterior segment of the eye, with special attention to the structural organization of the trabecular meshwork, was investigated by means of optical coherence tomography, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostainings, we evaluated the ECM composition of the trabecular meshwork. Finally, the integrity and function of the retina and optic nerve were assessed, via optical coherence tomography, histologic techniques, and optomotor testing. Results MMP-9 null mice displayed early-onset ocular hypertension and reduced aqueous humor turnover. While transmission electron microscopic analysis did not reveal any abnormalities in the cellular organization of the trabecular meshwork, detailed investigation of collagen expression indicated that there is an aberrant trabecular meshwork ECM composition in MMP-9 null mice. Notably, at the age of 13 months, no glaucomatous neurodegeneration was seen in MMP-9 null mice. Conclusions Our observations corroborate MMP-9 as an important remodeler of the collagenous composition of the trabecular meshwork and provide evidence for a causal link between MMP-9 deficiency, trabecular meshwork ultrastructure, and ocular hypertension. PMID:27820954

  11. Angiotensin(1-7) and ACE2, “The Hot Spots” of Renin-Angiotensin System, Detected in the Human Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Holappa, Mervi; Valjakka, Jarkko; Vaajanen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of the study was to establish whether essential components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exist in the human aqueous humor. Methods: Forty-five patients ≥ 60 (74±7) years of age undergoing cataract surgery at Tampere University Hospital were randomly selected for the prospective study. The exclusion criterion was the use of oral antihypertensive medicine acting via renin-angiotensin system. Aqueous humor samples were taken at the beginning of normal cataract extraction. The samples were frozen and stored at -80 °C. The concentrations of intraocular endogenous RAS components Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 were measured using ELISA. Results: Concentration medians of Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 in the aqueous humor were: Ang(1-7) 4.08 ng/ml, ACE2 2.32 ng/ml and ACE1 0.35 ng/ml. The concentrations were significantly higher in glaucomatous than in non-glaucomatous eyes, ACE1 (p=0.014) and Ang(1-7) (p=0.026) vs non-glaucomatous eyes. Conclusions: Ang(1-7), ACE2 and ACE1 are found in the human aqueous humor. The observations are consistent with the conception that local tissue-RAS exists in the human eye and it might have a role in the control of intraocular pressure. PMID:25926900

  12. Hyaluronic acid-coated niosomes facilitate tacrolimus ocular delivery: Mucoadhesion, precorneal retention, aqueous humor pharmacokinetics, and transcorneal permeability.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weidong; Li, Qi; Wan, Tao; Liu, Cui; Pan, Wenhui; Wu, Zushuai; Zhang, Guoguang; Pan, Jingtong; Qin, Mengyao; Lin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Chuanbin; Xu, Yuehong

    2016-05-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506) was used to prevent corneal allograft rejection in patients who were resistant to steroids and cyclosporine. However, the formulation for FK506 ocular delivery remained a challenge due to the drug's high hydrophobicity, high molecular weight, and eye's physiological and anatomical constraints. The aim of this project is to develop an ocular delivery system for FK506 based on a combined strategy of niosomes and mucoadhesive hyaluronic acid (HA), i.e., FK506HA-coated niosomes, which exploits virtues of both niosomes and HA to synergistically improve ophthalmic bioavailability. The FK506HA-coated niosomes were characterized with particle size, zeta potential, and rheology behavior. Mucoadhesion of FK506HA-coated niosomes to mucin was investigated through surface plasmon resonance in comparison with non-coated niosomes and HA solution. The results showed that niosomes possessed adhesion to mucin, and HA coating enhanced the adhesion. The in vivo precorneal retention was evaluated in rabbit, and the results showed that HA-coated niosomes prolonged the residence of FK506 significantly in comparison with non-coated niosomes or suspension. Aqueous humor pharmacokinetics test showed that area under curve of HA-coated niosomes was 2.3-fold and 1.2-fold as that of suspension and non-coated niosomes, respectively. Moreover, the synergetic corneal permeability enhancement of the hybrid delivery system on FK506 was visualized and confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscope. Overall, the results indicated that the hybrid system facilitated FK506 ocular delivery on mucoadhesion, precorneal retention, aqueous humor pharmacokinetics and transcorneal permeability. Therefore, HA-coated niosomes may be a promising approach for ocular targeting delivery of FK506.

  13. Simultaneous quantification of gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and besifloxacin concentrations in cornea and aqueous humor by LC-QTOF/MS after topical ocular dosing.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Luisa C; Moreira, Matheus Vilardo L; Keller, Kelly M; Viana, Fernando Antônio B; Melo, Marília M; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are widely used as ophthalmic antimicrobials. This study aimed to validate a new analytical technique for simultaneous quantification of gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and besifloxacin concentrations in the cornea and aqueous humor by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) at 10min and 1h after instillation of topical ophthalmic antimicrobial suspensions. It was used twenty-two male dogs without ocular lesions verified by ophthalmic and histologic examinations. Methanol:water (4:1) was used for the extraction procedure for cornea and acetonitrile:water (4:1) was used for aqueous humor. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a C18 column with a linear gradient of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% formic acid. The total chromatographic run time was 4min. Mass spectrometry analyses were performed on a Xevo™ G2-S QTof tandem mass spectrometer, operated in a positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI+) mode. The retention times were approximately 1.42min for gatifloxacin, 1.87min for moxifloxacin, and 3.01min for besifloxacin. No interference peak was detected for the three tested antimicrobials in samples obtained from both cornea and aqueous humor, ensuring that the peak response was exclusive to the analyte of interest. The limit of detection for the three antimicrobials was 0.11μg/mL and the limit of quantification was 0.42μg/mL for both cornea and aqueous humor samples. At both time points post instillation of the three antimicrobials, moxifloxacin had the highest corneal concentration and besifloxacin demonstrated the highest concentration in the aqueous humor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytokine and chemokine profiles of aqueous humor and serum in horses with uveitis measured using multiplex bead immunoassay analysis.

    PubMed

    Curto, Elizabeth; Messenger, Kristen M; Salmon, Jacklyn H; Gilger, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether horses with clinically diagnosed Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) and those with Leptospirosis infection have a specific cytokine profile in their aqueous humor (AH) and serum that differs from horses with uveitis secondary to other ocular inflammatory processes and from horses with normal eyes. Twenty-five client-owned horses with uveitis that were presented to the North Carolina State University Ophthalmology Service, and four University-owned horses without history or clinical signs of ocular disease. Samples of AH and serum were obtained from horses with ERU (n=13), acute or non-recurrent uveitis (UV; n=7), uveitis secondary to infectious keratitis (IK; n=5), and normal eyes (N; n=4). Cytokine levels in AH and serum were quantified using a multiplex bead immunoassay. Leptospiral antibody titers in serum and AH and PCR for Leptospiral DNA in AH were performed. In the AH of horses with ERU, increased levels of IL-1a, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, FGF-2, G-CSF, and RANTES were measured compared to UV, IK and N eyes, but the differences were not significant. However, IL-10 was significantly higher in ERU eyes compared to IK and N (P=0.029; 0.013), and IP-10 in ERU eyes was significantly higher than in UV and N (P=0.004). Furthermore, MCP-1 was significantly higher in ERU than N (P=0.04). In the serum, increased levels of IL-1a, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, fractalkine, and G-CSF were measured in horses with ERU, but the levels were not significantly higher than those observed in UV, IK, or N horses. However, serum IP-10 levels in horses with ERU were significantly higher than in UV and N horses (P=0.005) and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in ERU than N (P=0.03). Horses with marked ocular inflammation had significantly higher serum levels of G-CSF, IL-1a, fractalkine, IL-13, IL-4, IL-17a, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and MCP-1. Elevated IL-10 in AH was significantly associated with disease chronicity, both overall and in ERU eyes (P=0.049), and in

  15. Aqueous humor analysis after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy with the laser flare-cell meter.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, D; Mermoud, A; Pittet, N; van Melle, G; Herbort, C P

    1992-11-01

    Using the laser flare-cell meter (Kowa FC-1000), we conducted a prospective study analyzing the effect of Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy on the quantity of aqueous particles, aqueous flare, and intraocular pressure in 65 eyes (58 patients). Aqueous particles increased at six hours, followed by flare rise which was significant at 18 hours after capsulotomy. Only 22 eyes (34%) had a significant flare rise over prelaser values. Anti-inflammatory therapy was necessary in only one patient. The mean intraocular pressure value did not rise significantly after capsulotomy. Acute intraocular hypertension (AIOHT) (> 7 mm Hg increase) occurred between three and six hours after laser therapy in 12 patients (19%), was related in time to particle rise, and always responded to a single dose of acetazolamide. Acute intraocular hypertension was strongly correlated with elevated aqueous particles (P < .0001) and somewhat correlated with flare rise (P < .036), but was not correlated with the intraocular lens position (bag or sulcus fixation). Our findings strongly suggest that trabecular meshwork clogging by debris generated by the capsulotomy is the mechanism at the origin of AIOHT.

  16. Elevated amounts of myocilin in the aqueous humor of transgenic mice cause significant changes in ocular gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Paper, Walter; Kroeber, Markus; Heersink, Sebastian; Stephan, Dietrich A.; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Russell, Paul; Tamm, Ernst R.

    2008-01-01

    Myocilin is a 55–57 kDa secreted glycoprotein and member of the olfactomedin family, which is mutated in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma. To assess the effects of elevated amounts of myocilin on aqueous humor outflow dynamics in an in vivo system, transgenic βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice have been developed that strongly overexpress myocilin in their eyes. The transgenic overexpression of myocilin results in an almost five-fold increase of secreted normal myocilin in the aqueous humor of βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice. In the present study, we wanted to use βB1-crystallin-MYOC as a tool to identify the response of ocular tissues to the presence of higher than normal amounts of myocilin, and to identify changes in gene expression that could help to shed light on the functional in vivo properties of myocilin. RNA was isolated from ocular tissues of βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice and wild-type littermates. Changes in gene expression were determined by hybridization of gene microarrays and confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The expression of genes that had been found to be differentially regulated in βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice was further analyzed in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells treated with recombinant myocilin. Although βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice do not have an obvious phenotype, a statistically significant up- and downregulation of several distinct genes was found when compared to gene expression in wild-type littermates. Among the genes that were found to be differentially regulated were Wasl, Ceacam1, and Spon2, which are involved in cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions. Differences in expression were also found for Six1 which encodes for a transcription factor, and for Pftk1 whose gene product is a cdc2-related protein kinase. The expression of these genes was also found to be regulated in vitro in HTM cells treated with recombinant myocilin. Substantially higher amounts in ocular tissues of βB1-crystallin-MYOC mice were

  17. Elevated amounts of myocilin in the aqueous humor of transgenic mice cause significant changes in ocular gene expression.

    PubMed

    Paper, Walter; Kroeber, Markus; Heersink, Sebastian; Stephan, Dietrich A; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Russell, Paul; Tamm, Ernst R

    2008-09-01

    Myocilin is a 55-57kDa secreted glycoprotein and member of the olfactomedin family, which is mutated in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma. To assess the effects of elevated amounts of myocilin on aqueous humor outflow dynamics in an in vivo system, transgenic betaB1-crystallin-MYOC mice have been developed that strongly overexpress myocilin in their eyes. The transgenic overexpression of myocilin results in an almost five-fold increase of secreted normal myocilin in the aqueous humor of betaB1-crystallin-MYOC mice. In the present study, we wanted to use betaB1-crystallin-MYOC as a tool to identify the response of ocular tissues to the presence of higher than normal amounts of myocilin, and to identify changes in gene expression that could help to shed light on the functional in vivo properties of myocilin. RNA was isolated from ocular tissues of betaB1-crystallin-MYOC mice and wild-type littermates. Changes in gene expression were determined by hybridization of gene microarrays and confirmed by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The expression of genes that had been found to be differentially regulated in betaB1-crystallin-MYOC mice was further analyzed in cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells treated with recombinant myocilin. Although betaB1-crystallin-MYOC mice do not have an obvious phenotype, a statistically significant up- and downregulation of several distinct genes was found when compared to gene expression in wild-type littermates. Among the genes that were found to be differentially regulated were Wasl, Ceacam1, and Spon2, which are involved in cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions. Differences in expression were also found for Six1 which encodes for a transcription factor, and for Pftk1 whose gene product is a cdc2-related protein kinase. The expression of these genes was also found to be regulated in vitro in HTM cells treated with recombinant myocilin. Substantially higher amounts in ocular tissues of betaB1-crystallin

  18. Evaluation of ultrasound velocity in enucleated equine aqueous humor, lens and vitreous body.

    PubMed

    Meister, Ulrike; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Körner, Daniel; Boevé, Michael H

    2014-10-14

    Sonographic ophthalmic examinations have become increasingly important in veterinary medicine. If the velocity of ultrasound in ocular tissues is known, the A-mode ultrasound method may be used to determine the axial intraocular distances, such as anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length of the vitreous and axial globe length, which are required for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations. To the authors' knowledge, the velocity of ultrasound in the ocular tissues of the horse was not previously determined. In the present study, 33 lenses, 29 samples of aqueous and 31 of vitreous from 35 healthy equine eyes have been examined. The corresponding ultrasound velocities are reported in dependence of age, temperature, gender and elapsed time after enucleation. The velocity of ultrasound at 36°C in equine aqueous, lens and vitreous are 1529 ±10 m/s, 1654± 29 m/s and 1527 ±16 m/s respectively, and the corresponding conversion factors are 0.998± 0.007, 1.008 ±0.018 and 0.997 ±0.010. A linear increase of the speed of ultrasound with increasing temperature has been determined for aqueous and vitreous. No temperature dependence was found for the speed of ultrasound in the lens. The ultrasound velocity did not significantly differ (95%) on the basis of gender, age or time after enucleation during the first 72 hours after death. Compared to human eyes, the ultrasound velocity in equine lental tissue deviates by one percent. Therefore, axial length measurements obtained with ultrasound velocities for the human eye must be corrected using conversion factors. For the aqueous and vitreous, deviations are below one percent and can be neglected in clinical settings.

  19. [Quantification of disorders of the blood-aqueous humor barrier in retinitis pigmentosa--initial results].

    PubMed

    Küchle, M; Nguyen, N X; Schalnus, R; Freissler, K; Lüchtenberg, M; Müller, M

    1994-04-01

    Clinical findings in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) frequently include cystoid macular edema (CME) and vitreous pigment dusting (VPD) indicating alterations of the blood-ocular barriers. It was the aim of this study to determine whether alterations of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) are present in RP. Aqueous flare was quantitatively determined in 56 eyes of 29 patients (mean age 36.4 +/- 11.2 years) with RP using the noninvasive laser flare-cell photometer (Kowa FC-1000, Tokyo, Japan). All RP patients had common forms of RP with markedly reduced or nondetectable ERG. The presence of CME and VPD was determined semiquantitatively by biomicroscopy. Fifty-eight eyes of 58 normal controls (mean age 38.2 +/- 8.5 y.) were also examined. Aqueous-flare values were significantly higher in RP eyes (mean 9.65 +/- 3.24 photon counts/ms, range 4.0-18.1) than in the normal control eyes (mean 3.89 +/- 1.05, range 1.9-6.0, p < 0.0001, Mann-Whytney test). Forty-eight of the 56 RP eyes (86%) showed increased flare values (> 6.0 photon counts/ms). RP eyes with moderate to marked CME (n = 11) had significantly higher flare values (mean 14.66 +/- 1.92) than RP eyes without or with only questionable CME (8.52 +/- 2.18, p < 0.0001), and RP eyes with moderate to marked VPD (n = 17) had significantly higher (12.05 +/- 2.84) flare values than RP eyes without or with only minimal VPD (8.74 +/- 2.22, p < 0.0005). Our findings show that the majority of patients with RP have alterations of the BAB with consecutively increased aqueous protein concentrations. The impairment of the BAB appears to be associated with CME and VPD. Measurement of aqueous flare in RP allows quantification of the impairment of the BAB and may be helpful in the future in choosing and monitoring patients with RP and CMP for possible antiinflammatory or antiedematous therapeutic measures.

  20. Automated circumferential construction of first-order aqueous humor outflow pathways using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Alex S.; Belghith, Akram; Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose was to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of circumferential aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in a living human eye with an automated detection algorithm for Schlemm's canal (SC) and first-order collector channels (CC) applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Anterior segment SD-OCT scans from a subject were acquired circumferentially around the limbus. A Bayesian Ridge method was used to approximate the location of the SC on infrared confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopic images with a cross multiplication tool developed to initiate SC/CC detection automated through a fuzzy hidden Markov Chain approach. Automatic segmentation of SC and initial CC's was manually confirmed by two masked graders. Outflow pathways detected by the segmentation algorithm were reconstructed into a 3-D representation of AHO. Overall, only <1% of images (5114 total B-scans) were ungradable. Automatic segmentation algorithm performed well with SC detection 98.3% of the time and <0.1% false positive detection compared to expert grader consensus. CC was detected 84.2% of the time with 1.4% false positive detection. 3-D representation of AHO pathways demonstrated variably thicker and thinner SC with some clear CC roots. Circumferential (360 deg), automated, and validated AHO detection of angle structures in the living human eye with reconstruction was possible.

  1. Analysis of immediate changes of water-soluble metabolites in alkali-burned rabbit cornea, aqueous humor and lens by high-resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Risa, Oystein; Saether, Oddbjørn; Midelfart, Anna; Krane, Jostein; Cejková, Jitka

    2002-01-01

    To investigate immediate changes in water-soluble metabolites of ocular tissue in alkali-burned eyes by using high-resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Adult New Zealand rabbit eyes were burned with 1 M NaOH for 1 min. Normal eyes were used as control. Samples from aqueous humor and perchloric acid extracts of the cornea and lens were analyzed on a NMR spectrometer operating at 500 MHz for protons. Metabolites were quantified by comparing peak area with an added internal standard, TSP (3'-trimethylsilylpropinate-2,2,3,3-d4). Alkali burn of corneal surface causes immediate changes in concentration of many water-soluble metabolites in the anterior segment. Even as far away as the lens a significant increase in lactate was found. Cornea showed a significant increase in glucose and a significant decrease in hypo-taurine concentration. Most changes were observed in aqueous humor, with significant increases in succinate, creatine, scyllo- and myo-inositol and a significant decrease in citrate concentration. Furthermore, a small decrease in ascorbate concentration in aqueous humor was observed. The present study provides a valuable contribution to the knowledge of metabolic alterations in alkali-burned eyes. It shows that 1H-NMR spectroscopy is well suited for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of changes of metabolite concentrations in damaged tissues. This can help us to better evaluate and understand the biological alterations due to alkali burn.

  2. Aqueous humor and serum penetration of tacrolimus after topical and oral administration in rats: an absorption study.

    PubMed

    Yalçindağ, F Nilüfer; Batioğlu, Figen; Ari, Nuray; Ozdemir, Ozden

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the penetration of tacrolimus to the aqueous and serum after topical and oral administration. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups. In the first group (n = 12), a single dose of 0.3 % isotonic tacrolimus solution was applied topically to the rat eyes. The second group (n = 12), received 0.1 mg/kg/day tacrolimus for three days. In control group (n = 6), the rats were administered a single drop of 0.3% salin solution topically. Following collection of samples, the amounts of tacrolimus in aqueous and serum samples were compared with each other. In group I, the mean concentration of tacrolimus was 35.16 ng/ml in aqueous and 2.22 ng/ml in serum. In group II, the mean concentration of tacrolimus was 13.08 ng/ml in aqueous and 13.45 ng/ml in serum. There was no significant difference in the serum concentration levels of tacrolimus between group I and control group. However there was a significant difference of the drug concentrations in aqueous between the groups (p < 0.001). The mean aqueous and serum concentrations of tacrolimus in group II, differed significantly from the mean concentrations in group I (p < 0.001) and the control group (p < 0.001). Tacrolimus may be a promising treatment modality in intraocular inflammation by topical application besides systemic administration.

  3. Aqueous humor and serum penetration of tacrolimus after topical and oral administration in rats: an absorption study

    PubMed Central

    Yalçındağ, F Nilüfer; Batıoğlu, Figen; Arı, Nuray; Özdemir, Özden

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the penetration of tacrolimus to the aqueous and serum after topical and oral administration. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups. In the first group (n = 12), a single dose of 0.3 % isotonic tacrolimus solution was applied topically to the rat eyes. The second group (n = 12), received 0.1 mg/kg/day tacrolimus for three days. In control group (n = 6), the rats were administered a single drop of 0.3% salin solution topically. Following collection of samples, the amounts of tacrolimus in aqueous and serum samples were compared with each other. Results: In group I, the mean concentration of tacrolimus was 35.16 ng/ml in aqueous and 2.22 ng/ml in serum. In group II, the mean concentration of tacrolimus was 13.08 ng/ml in aqueous and 13.45 ng/ml in serum. There was no significant difference in the serum concentration levels of tacrolimus between group I and control group. However there was a significant difference of the drug concentrations in aqueous between the groups (p < 0.001). The mean aqueous and serum concentrations of tacrolimus in group II, differed significantly from the mean concentrations in group I (p < 0.001) and the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Tacrolimus may be a promising treatment modality in intraocular inflammation by topical application besides systemic administration. PMID:19668467

  4. Comparison of Drug Concentrations in Human Aqueous Humor after the Administration of 0.3% Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Gel, 0.3% Gatifloxacin and 0.5% Levofloxacin Ophthalmic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenting; Ni, Weiling; Chen, Huilian; Yuan, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yao; Yu, Yibo; Yao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the penetration of 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel, 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution and 0.5% levofloxacin ophthalmic solution into aqueous humor after topical application. Materials and Methods: Age-related cataract patients (150 eyes in 150 cases) receiving phacoemulsification were randomly divided into three groups: a 0.3% gatifloxacin gel group (n=50), a 0.3% gatifloxacin solution group (n=50), and a 0.5% levofloxacin solution group (n=50). Each group was administered one drop of gel or solution every 15 minutes for four doses. Aqueous samples were collected at different time points after the last drop. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the concentrations. The one-way ANOVA analysis was performed. Results: Our data indicated that the concentration of the gatifloxacin gel group was higher than that of the gatifloxacin solution group at all time points (P <0.05); moreover, the gatifloxacin gel group exhibited higher levels than the levofloxacin solution group at 120.0 min and 180.0 min (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gatifloxacin gel produced the highest concentration at 120.0 min, and the gatifloxacin and levofloxacin solutions reached their peak values at 60.0 min. Conclusions: 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel application produced highest aqueous humor drug concentration, maintained the longest time, had the best penetration and bioavailability. PMID:26078713

  5. Involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the aqueous humor outflow-enhancing effects of abnormal-cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhuanhong; Kumar, Akhilesh; Kumar, Pritesh; Song, Zhao-Hui

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abnormal-cannabidiol (abn-cbd), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid agonist, on aqueous humor outflow via the trabecular meshwork (TM) of porcine eye, and to examine the involvement of a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor and the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) pathway. The effects of abn-cbd on aqueous humor outflow were measured using a porcine anterior segment perfused organ culture model. The activation of p42/44 MAPK by abn-cbd was determined in cultured TM cells with western blot analysis using an anti-phospho-p42/44 MAPK antibody. Administration of abn-cbd caused a concentration-dependent enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility with a maximum effect (155.0 ± 11.7% of basal outflow facility) after administration of 30 nM abn-cbd. Pretreatment with 1 μM of O-1918, a cannabidiol analog that acts as a selective antagonist at the non-CB1/CB2 receptor, produced a full antagonism of 30 nM abn-cbd induced increase of aqueous humor outflow facility. Pretreatment with 1 μM of CB1 antagonist SR141716A partially blocked, whereas pretreatment with either 1 μM of CB1 antagonist AM251 or 1 μM of CB2 antagonist SR144528 had no effect on abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. Treatment of TM cells with 30 nM of abn-cbd activated p42/44 MAPK, which was blocked completely by pretreatment with O-1918, and partially by pretreatment with SR141716A, but not by either AM251 or SR144528. In addition, PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK pathway, blocked completely the abn-cbd induced p42/44 MAPK activation and blocked partially the abn-cbd induced enhancement of outflow facility. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrate that abn-cbd increases aqueous humor outflow through the TM pathway of the eye, and this effect is mediated by a non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor, with an involvement of p42/44 MAPK signaling pathway.

  6. Reduction of the Available Area for Aqueous Humor Outflow and Increase in Meshwork Herniations into Collector Channels Following Acute IOP Elevation in Bovine Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Stephanie A.; Lu, Zhaozeng; Hofmann, Sara; Freddo, Thomas; Overby, Darryl R.; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To understand how hydrodynamic and morphologic changes in the aqueous humor outflow pathway contribute to decreased aqueous humor outflow facility after acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in bovine eyes. Methods Enucleated bovine eyes were perfused at 1 of 4 different pressures (7, 15, 30, 45 mm Hg) while outflow facility was continuously recorded. Dulbecco PBS + 5.5 mM glucose containing fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm, 0.002% vol/vol) was perfused to outline aqueous outflow patterns, followed by perfusion-fixation. Confocal images were taken along the inner wall (IW) of the aqueous plexus (AP) in radial and frontal sections. Percentage effective filtration length (PEFL; IW length exhibiting tracer labeling/total length of IW) was measured. Herniations of IW into collector channel (CC) ostia were examined and graded for each eye by light microscopy. Results Increasing IOP from 7 to 45 mm Hg coincided with a twofold decrease in outflow facility (P < 0.0001), a 33% to 57% decrease in PEFL with tracer confined more to the vicinity of CC ostia, progressive collapse of the AP, and increasing percentage of CC ostia exhibiting herniations (from 15.6% ± 6.5% at 7 mm Hg to 95% ± 2.3% at 30 mm Hg [P < 10−4], reaching 100% at 45 mm Hg). Conclusions Decreasing outflow facility during acute IOP elevation coincides with a reduction in available area for aqueous humor outflow and the confinement of outflow to the vicinity of CC ostia. These hydrodynamic changes are likely driven by morphologic changes associated with AP collapse and herniation of IW of AP into CC ostia. PMID:18515571

  7. Ocular parameters related to drug delivery in the canine and equine eye: aqueous and vitreous humor volume and scleral surface area and thickness.

    PubMed

    Gilger, Brian C; Reeves, Keri-Ann; Salmon, Jacklyn H

    2005-01-01

    To measure the ocular surface area, scleral thickness, and the aqueous and vitreous humor volumes in the canine and equine eye. Animals studied Fourteen canine and 16 equine cadaver eyes. Eyes were measured either fresh or following fixation in formalin. Ocular surface area was calculated using the fluid displacement method. Globes were hemisected and aqueous and vitreous humor were collected and quantitated. Scleral thickness was measured by digital caliper, by image projection, and by ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM). Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) scleral surface areas in canine and equine eyes were 12.87 +/- 2.24 and 57.23 +/- 5.63 cm2, respectively. Mean +/- SD aqueous humor volume was 0.77 +/- 0.24 in the dog and 3.04 +/- 1.27 mL in the horse. Mean vitreous humor volume was 1.7 +/- 0.86 mL for the canine eye and 26.15 +/- 4.87 mL for the equine eye. In canine and equine eyes, the sclera was thinnest at the ocular equator: 0.34 +/- 0.13 mm (canine) and 0.53 +/- 0.1 (equine). There were no significant differences between the direct caliper and projected thickness measurements or differences between measurements in the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrants of the eye. Scleral thickness in fresh tissue was greater than in fixed tissue at most sites. The UBM measurement method appeared to be most consistent and reproducible when compared to direct measurement techniques. Formalin fixation of the eyes was associated with significantly thinner scleral tissue than with fresh ocular tissue.

  8. Aqueous Humor Suppression of Dendritic Cell Function Helps Maintain Immune Regulation in the Eye during Human Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Denniston, Alastair K.; Tomlins, Paul; Williams, Geraint P.; Kottoor, Sherine; Khan, Imran; Oswal, Kadambari; Salmon, Mike; Wallace, Graham R.; Rauz, Saaeha; Murray, Philip I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Noninfectious uveitis is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory or immune response in the eye. It is unclear whether this represents a failure of immune privilege or an overwhelming inflammatory drive that has exceeded the capacity of regulatory mechanisms that are still functioning. The authors investigated immune regulation in the human eye during intraocular inflammation (uveitis) and its impact on dendritic cell (DC) function and subsequent T-cell responses. Methods. Myeloid DCs were isolated from the aqueous humor (AqH) and peripheral blood of patients with active uveitis and characterized by flow cytometry. The effect of uveitis AqH was interrogated in an in vitro model of peripheral blood monocyte-derived DCs from healthy controls. Results. Myeloid DCs isolated from uveitic AqH were characterized by elevated major histocompatibility complex classes I and II (MHC I/II), but reduced CD86 compared with matched peripheral blood DCs. Exposure of peripheral blood monocyte-derived DCs from healthy controls to the inflammatory AqH supernatant recapitulated this phenotype. Despite interferon gamma (IFNγ)–dependent upregulation of MHC I, inflammatory AqH was overall suppressive to DC function, with reduced CD86 expression and diminished T-cell responses. This suppressive effect was equal to or greater than that induced by noninflammatory AqH, but was glucocorticoid independent (in contrast to noninflammatory AqH). Conclusions. These data indicate that the ocular microenvironment continues to regulate DC function during uveitis, despite IFNγ-driven upregulation of MHC expression, supporting the hypothesis that immune regulation within the eye is maintained during inflammation. PMID:22247464

  9. Anterior Segment Alterations and Comparative Aqueous Humor Proteomics in the Buphthalmic Rabbit (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Deepak P.; Bouhenni, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use an integrated proteohistologic approach to gain insight into the anterior segment alterations in the buphthalmic rabbit. Methods Eyes from 2- and 5-year-old buphthalmic and normal rabbits (n=20) were studied histologically. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of aqueous humor (AH) was used to determine differential protein expression between animal groups. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. Results The buphthalmic rabbits manifested a mild clinical phenotype with typical angle anomalies that appeared progressive by histology. Significantly thickened Descemet’s membrane (DM) and anterior lens capsule in all buphthalmic rabbits showed increased fibronectin and collagen-IV immunolabeling. LC-MS/MS applying stringent filtering criteria revealed significant differential expression of several AH proteins in these rabbits. The protein of interest in the 2-year-old group was histidine-rich glycoprotein, and those in the 5-year-old group included alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, clusterin, apolipoprotein E, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, transthyretin, cochlin, gelsolin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, and beta-2 microglobulin. The proteomic data for selected proteins was validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A wide range of functional groups were affected by the altered AH proteins. These included extracellular matrix modulation, regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protein transport. Conclusions Multiple anterior segment alterations were histologically identified in the buphthalmic rabbits that showed progressive changes with age. The differentially expressed AH proteins in these rabbits suggest a multifunctional role for AH in modulating pathologic changes in DM, anterior lens capsule, and the angular meshwork in these animals. PMID:22253484

  10. Mechanisms of ATP Release by Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells, the Enabling Step in Purinergic Regulation of Aqueous Humor Outflow

    PubMed Central

    LI, ANG; LEUNG, CHI TING; PETERSON-YANTORNO, KIM; STAMER, W. DANIEL; MITCHELL, CLAIRE H.; CIVAN, MORTIMER M.

    2011-01-01

    Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A1 adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5). Responses to 21 inhibitors indicated that pannexin-1 (PX1) and connexin (Cx) hemichannels and P2X7 receptors (P2RX7) were comparably important in modulating ATP release induced by hypotonic swelling, whereas vesicular release was insignificant. Consistent with prior studies of PX1 activity in certain other cells, ATP release was lowered by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Overexpressing PX1 in HEK293T cells promoted, while partial knockdown (KD) in both HEK293T and TM5 cells inhibited hypotonicity-activated ATP release. Additionally, KD reduced the pharmacologically-defined contribution of PX1 and enhanced those of Cx and P2RX7. ATP release was also triggered by raising intracellular Ca2+ activity with ionomycin after a prolonged lag time and was unaffected by the PX1 blocker probenecid, but nearly abolished by P2RX7 antagonists. We conclude that swelling-stimulated ATP release from human TM cells is physiologically mediated by PX1 and Cx hemichannels and P2X7 receptors, but not by vesicular release. PX1 appears not to be stimulated by intracellular Ca2+ in TM cells, but can be modulated by oxidation-reduction state. The P2RX7-dependent component of swelling-activated release may be mediated by PX1 hemichannels or reflect apoptotic magnification of ATP release, either through itself and/or hemichannels. PMID:21381023

  11. Simultaneous determination of dorzolomide and timolol in aqueous humor: a novel salting out liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud Ismail; Abdel-Wadood, Hanaa Mohammed; Mousa, Heba Salah

    2014-12-01

    A Snovel method for the simultaneous separation and determination of two antiglaucoma drugs namely, dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR) and timolol maleate (TIM) in aqueous humor samples (AH) was developed by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (SALLME) combined with HPLC-UV method. Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology were employed to assist the optimization of SALLME conditions, including salt concentration, the pH of sample solution and vortex time as variable factors. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: to 50 µL of AH sample, 100 µL of phosphate buffer (100 mmol L(-1), pH 11.9), 90 µL of acetonitrile (ACN) and 0.11 g of (NH4)2SO4 salt were added into an Eppendorf vial (1 mL) then vortexed for 1.1 min. As an effort to miniaturize SALLE system, a 1 mL syringe adapted with a capillary tube was employed as the phase separation device. Once the phase separation occurred, the upper layer could be narrowed into the capillary tube by pushing the plunger; thus, the collection of the upper layer solvent was simple and convenient. By miniaturization, the consumption of the organic solvent was decreased as low as possible. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Gemini C18 column using a mobile phase of ACN: 30 mmol L(-1) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 3.5 (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and UV detection at 254 and 295 nm for DOR and TIM, respectively. Mepivacaine hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. The described method showed better separation with enhanced sensitivities than the previously reported methods with limits of quantitation of 8.75 and 10.32 ng mL(-1) in aqueous solution and 15.97 and 23.53 ng mL(-1) in AH for DOR and TIM, respectively. The simple, rapid and eco-friendly SALLME-HPLC method has been successfully applied for the simultaneous pharmacokinetic studies of DOR and TIM in rabbit AH.

  12. Extracellular vesicles mediate signaling between the aqueous humor producing and draining cells in the ocular system

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Natalie; Avissar, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Canonical Wnt signaling is associated with glaucoma pathogenesis and intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Our goal was to gain insight into the influence of non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived exosomes on Wnt signaling by trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. The potential impact of exosomes on Wnt signaling in the ocular drainage system remains poorly understood. Methods Exosomes isolated from media collected from cultured NPCE cells by differential ultracentrifugation were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), sucrose density gradient migration and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cellular target specificity of the NPCE-derived exosomes was investigated by confocal microscopy-based monitoring of the uptake of DiD-labeled exosomes over time, as compared to uptake by various cell lines. Changes in Wnt protein levels in TM cells induced by NPCE exosomes were evaluated by Western blot. Results Exosomes derived from NPCE cells were purified and detected as small rounded 50–140 nm membrane vesicles, as defined by DLS, NTA, TRPS and TEM. Western blot analysis indicated that the nanovesicles were positive for classic exosome markers, including Tsg101 and Alix. Isolated nanoparticles were found in sucrose density fractions typical of exosomes (1.118–1.188 g/mL sucrose). Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated time-dependent specific accumulation of the NPCE-derived exosomes in NTM cells. Other cell lines investigated hardly revealed any exosome uptake. We further showed that exosomes induced changes in Wnt signaling protein expression in the TM cells. Western blot analysis further revealed decreased phosphorylation of GKS3β and reduced β-catenin levels. Finally, we found that treatment of NTM cells with exosomes resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in the level of β-catenin in the cytosolic fraction. In contrast, no remarkable difference

  13. Extracellular vesicles mediate signaling between the aqueous humor producing and draining cells in the ocular system.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Natalie; Avissar, Sofia; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is associated with glaucoma pathogenesis and intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Our goal was to gain insight into the influence of non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived exosomes on Wnt signaling by trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. The potential impact of exosomes on Wnt signaling in the ocular drainage system remains poorly understood. Exosomes isolated from media collected from cultured NPCE cells by differential ultracentrifugation were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), sucrose density gradient migration and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cellular target specificity of the NPCE-derived exosomes was investigated by confocal microscopy-based monitoring of the uptake of DiD-labeled exosomes over time, as compared to uptake by various cell lines. Changes in Wnt protein levels in TM cells induced by NPCE exosomes were evaluated by Western blot. Exosomes derived from NPCE cells were purified and detected as small rounded 50-140 nm membrane vesicles, as defined by DLS, NTA, TRPS and TEM. Western blot analysis indicated that the nanovesicles were positive for classic exosome markers, including Tsg101 and Alix. Isolated nanoparticles were found in sucrose density fractions typical of exosomes (1.118-1.188 g/mL sucrose). Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated time-dependent specific accumulation of the NPCE-derived exosomes in NTM cells. Other cell lines investigated hardly revealed any exosome uptake. We further showed that exosomes induced changes in Wnt signaling protein expression in the TM cells. Western blot analysis further revealed decreased phosphorylation of GKS3β and reduced β-catenin levels. Finally, we found that treatment of NTM cells with exosomes resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in the level of β-catenin in the cytosolic fraction. In contrast, no remarkable difference in the amount of

  14. The influence of scleral flap thickness, shape, and sutures on intraocular pressure (IOP) and aqueous humor flow direction in a trabeculectomy model

    PubMed Central

    Samsudin, Amir; Eames, Ian; Brocchini, Steve; Khaw, Peng Tee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose IOP and aqueous humor flow direction determined by the scleral flap immediately after trabeculectomy are critical determinants of the surgical outcome. We used a large-scale model to objectively measure the influence of flap thickness and shape, and suture number and position on pressure difference across the flap and flow of fluid underneath it. Methods The model exploits the principle of dynamic and geometric similarity, so while dimensions were up to 30× greater than actual, the flow had similar properties. Scleral flaps were represented by transparent 0.8 and 1.6 mm thick silicone sheets on an acrylic plate. Dyed 98% glycerine, representing the aqueous humor was pumped between the sheet and plate, and the equilibrium pressure measured with a pressure transducer. Image analysis based on the principle of dye dilution was performed using MATLAB software. Results The pressure drop across the flap was larger with thinner flaps, due to reduced rigidity and resistance. Doubling the surface area of flaps and reducing the number of sutures from 5 to 3 or 2 also resulted in larger pressure drops. Flow direction was affected mainly by suture number and position, it was less towards the sutures and more towards the nearest free edge of the flap. Posterior flow of aqueous humor was promoted by placing sutures along the sides while leaving the posterior edge free. Conclusion We demonstrate a new physical model which shows how changes in scleral flap thickness and shape, and suture number and position affect pressure and flow in a trabeculectomy. PMID:26561421

  15. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    MedlinePlus

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  16. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Our Funding Philosophy Events Contact News & Media Science News Publications Multimedia Press Releases Newsletters Media Coverage Media ... FAQs Our Funding Philosophy Events Contact News & Media Science News Publications Multimedia Press Releases Newsletters Media Coverage Media ...

  17. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  18. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  19. [Changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Yin; Peng, Shao; Zhang, Ting

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia. Blood samples were collected from 30 children with recurrent pneumonia (recurrent pneumonia group), 30 children with acute pneumonia (acute pneumonia group), and 30 healthy children (control group). Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between serum YKL-40 level and laboratory indices related to humoral immune function was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum YKL-40 level for recurrent pneumonia. The recurrent pneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the acute pneumonia and control groups (P<0.05). The acute pneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the control group (P<0.05). Serum levels of IgG and complement 4 in the recurrent pneumonia group were significantly lower than in the acute pneumonia group (P<0.05). Serum YKL-40 level was negatively correlated with serum IgG level (rs=-0.309, P=0.047) and serum complement 4 level (r=-0.324, P=0.039). The area under the ROC curve of serum YKL-40 level for diagnosing recurrent pneumonia was 0.958 (95%CI: 0.921-0.994). Humoral immune function is low in children with recurrent pneumonia. Serum YKL-40 may be involved in the occurrence of recurrent pneumonia and can be used as a reference index for diagnosing recurrent pneumonia.

  20. Humor Competence: The Fifth Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Gladys M.

    The production and understanding of humor calls for a specific competence. It appears that second language learners fail to develop this competence even when they reach native-like proficiency levels. A review of the literature suggests that the notion of humor competence in second language learning has not been examined. Humor competence can be…

  1. Teaching the Psychology of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endlich, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the study of the psychology of humor integrates areas such as child development stereotyping and creativity. Describes an undergraduate college-level course in which students apply psychological theories of humor to understand both popular humor and experiences in everyday life. (CFR)

  2. Comparison of aqueous levels of inflammatory mediators between toxic anterior segment syndrome and endotoxin-induced uveitis animal models.

    PubMed

    Eom, Youngsub; Lee, Dong Yeol; Kang, Bo-Ram; Heo, Jeong-Hwa; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Hyo Myung; Song, Jong Suk

    2014-08-21

    To compare clinical findings and the aqueous levels of inflammatory mediators between toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) animal models and to evaluate the efficacy of systemic steroid pretreatment in both animal models. Rats were used in this study. Ortho-phthalaldehyde solution was injected into the anterior chamber to produce TASS (n=30), and lipopolysaccharide was injected into one hind footpad to produce EIU (n=30). Clinical findings were evaluated under slit-lamp examination, and the aqueous levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured 24 hours after these procedures. Twelve of the rats in each animal model were pretreated with intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone for 4 days before the development of TASS and EIU. Corneal haze scores were significantly higher for TASS than EIU, but clinical scores for anterior uveitis were not different between the two animal models. Although aqueous levels of PGE2 were markedly increased in both animal models, PGE2 levels were significantly higher for TASS than for EIU. However, an increase in aqueous levels of TNF-α was observed only in EIU. Dexamethasone pretreatment reduced the corneal haze score and clinical score for anterior uveitis in both animal models and inhibited the increase in aqueous levels of PGE2 and TNF-α. Prostaglandin E2 and TNF-α in aqueous humor seem to be regulated differently in animal models of TASS and EIU. However, dexamethasone pretreatment improved the clinical findings and inhibited the increases in PGE2 and TNF-α in both animal models. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. [Research on antibodies anti toxoplasma gondii in intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humor) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, in the City of Belém, Pará State].

    PubMed

    Carmo, Ediclei Lima do; Almeida, Edmundo Frota; Bichara, Cléa Nazaré; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2005-01-01

    Tests were performed for antibodies IgG, IgM and IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humor) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. By the results obtained, it was verified that intraocular IgG and IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies can be important markers for the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  4. Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Margi A; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. 15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for PGE(2) concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit. For all 4 treatment groups, PGE(2) concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE(2) synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE(2) concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE(2) concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups. Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE(2) concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.

  5. Circulating levels of the innate and humoral immune regulators CD14 and CD23 are associated with adult glioma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Wiemels, Joseph L; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette D; Patoka, Joseph S; Wiencke, John K

    2010-10-01

    Allergy history has been consistently inversely associated with glioma risk. Two serologic markers, soluble CD23 (sCD23) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), are part of the innate and adaptive humoral immune systems and modulate allergic responses in opposite directions, with sCD23 enhancing and sCD14 blunting inflammatory responses. We measured sCD23 and sCD14 in serum from blood that was drawn at a single time point from 1,079 glioma patients postdiagnosis and 736 healthy controls. Glioma was strongly associated with high sCD14 [highest versus lowest quartile odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.98-5.21] and low sCD23 (lowest versus highest quartile OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.89-3.23). Results were consistent across glioma histologic types and grades, but were strongest for glioblastoma. Whereas temozolomide treatment was not associated with either sCD14 or sCD23 levels among cases, those taking dexamethasone had somewhat lower sCD23 levels than those not taking dexamethasone. However, sCD23 was associated with case status regardless of dexamethasone treatment. These results augment the long-observed association between allergies and glioma and support a role for the innate and adaptive humoral functions of the immune system, in particular immunoregulatory proteins, in gliomagenesis.

  6. Upregulation of Mir-21 Levels in the Vitreous Humor Is Associated with Development of Proliferative Vitreoretinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Usui-Ouchi, Ayumi; Ouchi, Yasuo; Kiyokawa, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Toshiro; Ito, Rei; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of mRNA translation. Dysregulation of miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs, has been reported to play an important role in the development of various diseases, including fibrotic diseases. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in the vitreous humor of vitreoretinal diseased eyes has been reported. However, the expression pattern of miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of proliferative vitreoretinal disease (PVD) patients, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), remains unknown. To investigate the factors important for the development of PVD, we characterized the miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of PVD patients and analyzed the expression profiles of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based miRNA arrays. The expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, previously reported to be associated with the development of angiogenesis and fibrosis, was significantly altered in the vitreous of PVD patients. Among these miRNAs, we identified miR-21 as a candidate fibrotic miRNA with an important role in the pathogenesis of PVD. Increased miR-21 levels in the vitreous were associated with retinal fibrosis, including PVR and PDR. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs) plays a critical role in retinal fibrosis, the expression of miR-21 in human RPECs was determined. Its expression in RPECs was induced by transforming growth factor-β, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis, and was enhanced by high glucose culture conditions, suggesting that miR-21 expression positively correlates with disease progression. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that miR-21 promoted cell proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells without affecting EMT-related gene expression. Together, our studies have identified miR-21 as a potential disease-modifying mi

  7. Aqueous cytokine levels are associated with reduced macular thickness after intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Satoshi; Araki, Fumiyuki; Ueta, Takashi; Miyaji, Tempei; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction. Methods Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0.5 mg) with a 1 month interval, and a total of 26 aqueous humor samples were obtained. Macular thickness was measured with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) using thickness-map mode with an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 9-zone grid that was divided into two zones: a central circle with a diameter of 1 mm (zone1); and an outer circle with a diameter of 6 mm (zone2). Results The concentration of eotaxin-1 in aqueous humor samples decreased significantly after IVR. Baseline cytokine concentration was associated with IVR-induced DME reduction. In zone1, higher baseline concentration of interferon-induced protein (IP)-10, and in zone 2, higher baseline concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α; and lower baseline concentration of eotaxin-1, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-8 were associated with improved DME. Cytokine changes were associated with IVR-induced DME reduction. In zone1, lower concentration of IP-10 compared to baseline or higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) -α, and in zone 2, lower concentration of IL-5 compared to baseline, IL-8, and IP-10 or higher concentration of eotaxin-1 and MIP-1β were associated with improved DME. Conclusions These findings suggest that ranibizumab affects the concentration of cytokines in aqueous humor. Various cytokines contribute to a decrease in retinal thickness, both in the center of the macula and in a larger area of the retina. PMID:28346545

  8. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Claudia; Fernández De Ortega, Lourdes; Bustos, Francisco R; Chávez, Eduardo; Oregon-Miranda, Aldo A; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification. A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69) or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70). Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain. The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 μm; P=0.958) and in nepafenac group (250.8±34 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.137), respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between bromfenac and nepafenac group: (252.0±24.9 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.022), at day 30, respectively; even though there was no clinical relevance in the presentation of CME. There were no significant alterations in intraocular pressure, either lissamine green or fluorescein stains. The adverse events were not related to the interventions. Bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution showed similar clinical efficacy to reduce the presentation of CME after phacoemulsification compared to nepafenac 0.01%.

  9. Bromfenac 0.09% bioavailability in aqueous humor, prophylactic effect on cystoid macular edema, and clinical signs of ocular inflammation after phacoemulsification in a Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Claudia; Fernández De Ortega, Lourdes; Bustos, Francisco R; Chávez, Eduardo; Oregon-Miranda, Aldo A; Mercado-Sesma, Arieh R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor bioavailability and clinical efficacy of bromfenac 0.09% vs nepafenac on the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification. Material and methods A Phase II, double-blind, masked, active-controlled, multicenter, clinical trial of 139 subjects, randomized to either a bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution (n=69) or nepafenac 0.1% (n=70). Subjects instilled a drop three times a day for a period of 30 days. Follow-up visits were on days 2, 7, 15, 30, and 60. Biomicroscopy, clinical ocular signs, and assessment of posterior segment were performed. The primary efficacy endpoints included the presence of CME evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Safety evaluation included intraocular pressure, transaminase enzymes, lissamine green, and fluorescein stain. Results The demographic and efficacy variables were similar between groups at baseline. The presence of pain, photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, cellularity, and corneal edema disappeared by day 30 in both groups. The central retinal thickness did not show significant changes after treatment when compared to baseline as follows: in the bromfenac group (247.2±32.9 vs 252.0±24.9 μm; P=0.958) and in nepafenac group (250.8±34 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.137), respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between bromfenac and nepafenac group: (252.0±24.9 vs 264.0±34.1 μm; P=0.022), at day 30, respectively; even though there was no clinical relevance in the presentation of CME. There were no significant alterations in intraocular pressure, either lissamine green or fluorescein stains. The adverse events were not related to the interventions. Conclusion Bromfenac 0.09% ophthalmic solution showed similar clinical efficacy to reduce the presentation of CME after phacoemulsification compared to nepafenac 0.01%. PMID:26869758

  10. The atomic level journey from aqueous polyoxometalate to metal oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Yu; Fast, Dylan B.; Ruther, Rose E.; Amador, Jenn M.; Fullmer, Lauren B.; Decker, Shawn R.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Dolgos, Michelle R. Nyman, May

    2015-01-15

    Aqueous precursors tailored for the deposition of thin film materials are desirable for sustainable, simple, low energy production of advanced materials. Yet the simple practice of using aqueous precursors is complicated by the multitude of interactions that occur between ions and water during dehydration. Here we use lithium polyoxoniobate salts to investigate the fundamental interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to oxide film. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions, total X-ray scattering of intermediate gels, and morphological and structural characterization of the lithium niobate thin films reveal the atomic level transitions between these states. The studies show that (1) lithium–[H{sub 2}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 6−} has drastically different solution behaviour than lithium–[Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 8−}, linked to the precursor salt structure (2) in both compositions, the intermediate gel preserves the polyoxoniobate clusters and show similar local order and (3) the morphology and phases of deposited films reflect the ions behaviour throughout the journey from cluster solution to metal oxide. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous lithium polyoxoniobate salts were used to prepare lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) thin films. Fundamental studies were performed to investigate the interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to the oxide film. It was found that acid–base and ion-association chemistries of the aqueous and gel systems significantly affect the key processes in this atom-level journey. - Highlights: • Lithium polyoxoniobate clusters were synthesized with control over Li:Nb ratio as precursors for LiNbO{sub 3} films. • X-ray scattering studies in solution and the solid-state revealed differences controlled by Li:Nb ratio. • Film deposition studies revealed phase, composition and morphology is controlled by Li:Nb ratio. • Cluster to film transformation was revealed using total X-ray scattering and TGA.

  11. Elevated intraocular pressure increases melatonin levels in the aqueous humour.

    PubMed

    Alkozi, Hanan; Sánchez-Naves, Juan; de Lara, Maria Jesús Perez; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Fonseca, Begoña; Martinez-Aguila, Alejandro; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-05-01

    To study the levels of melatonin in the aqueous humour of normotensive and hypertensive intraocular pressure (IOP) patients and to compare them to an animal model of glaucoma. A total of 37 eyes of 37 patients who underwent cataract surgery were included in the study and were divided into normotensive patients, with IOP below 21 mmHg (n = 23), and hypertensive patients, with IOP > 21 mmHg (n = 14). Glaucomatous DBA/2J (n = 6) and control C57BL/6J (n = 6) mice presenting 3 and 12 months of age for each strain were also used. Human and mice aqueous humours were aspirated using a 30-gauge Rycroft cannula on a tuberculin syringe and further processed to quantify melatonin by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Melatonin levels in normotensive patients (IOP below 21 mmHg) presented values as medians (first quartile; third quartile) of 14.62 (5.38;37.99) ng/ml (n = 23), while hypertensive patients (IOP above 21 mmHg) showed melatonin concentrations of 46.63 (10.28; 167.28) ng/ml (n = 14; p < 0.039). Glaucoma mice presented melatonin values of 0.37 (0.34; 0.59) ng/ml (at 3 months of age, before the pathology starts), which increased to 1.55 (0.94; 1.88) ng/ml (at 12 months of age, when the pathology is fully developed and IOP is maximum; n = 6, p < 0.001). Control mice did not significantly modified melatonin concentrations between 3 and 12 months of age. Patients with high IOP present increased concentrations of melatonin in their aqueous humour compared to normotensive patients. This has been confirmed in a glaucomatous animal model in which it has been possible to see a correlation between the development of the pathology, with an increase in IOP, and a concomitant elevation of melatonin in the aqueous humour. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The atomic level journey from aqueous polyoxometalate to metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yu; Fast, Dylan B.; Ruther, Rose E.; Amador, Jenn M.; Fullmer, Lauren B.; Decker, Shawn R.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Dolgos, Michelle R.; Nyman, May

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous precursors tailored for the deposition of thin film materials are desirable for sustainable, simple, low energy production of advanced materials. Yet the simple practice of using aqueous precursors is complicated by the multitude of interactions that occur between ions and water during dehydration. Here we use lithium polyoxoniobate salts to investigate the fundamental interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to oxide film. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions, total X-ray scattering of intermediate gels, and morphological and structural characterization of the lithium niobate thin films reveal the atomic level transitions between these states. The studies show that (1) lithium-[H2Nb6O19]6- has drastically different solution behaviour than lithium-[Nb6O19]8-, linked to the precursor salt structure (2) in both compositions, the intermediate gel preserves the polyoxoniobate clusters and show similar local order and (3) the morphology and phases of deposited films reflect the ions behaviour throughout the journey from cluster solution to metal oxide.

  13. Promising ion-sensitive in situ ocular nanoemulsion gels of terbinafine hydrochloride: design, in vitro characterization and in vivo estimation of the ocular irritation and drug pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Saadia Ahmed; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Abd-Elsalam, Wessam Hamdy

    2013-02-25

    Terbinafine hydrochloride (T-HCl) is recommended for the management of fungal keratitis. To maintain effective aqueous humor concentrations, frequent instillation of T-HCl drops is necessary. This work aimed to develop alternative controlled-release in situ ocular drug-loaded nanoemulsion (NE) gels. Twelve pseudoternary-phase diagrams were constructed using oils (isopropyl myristate/Miglyol 812), surfactants (Tween 80/Cremophor EL), a co-surfactant (polyethylene glycol 400) and water. Eight drug-loaded (0.5%, w/v) NEs were evaluated for thermodynamic stability, morphology, droplet size and drug release in simulated tear fluid (pH 7.4). Following dispersion in gellan gum solution (0.2%, w/w), the in situ NE gels were characterized for transparency, rheological behavior, mucoadhesive force, drug release and histopathological assessment of ocular irritation. Drug pharmacokinetics of sterilized F31 [Miglyol 812, Cremophor EL: polyethylene glycol 400 (1:2) and water (5, 55 and 40%, w/w, respectively)] in situ NE gel and oily drug solution were evaluated in rabbit aqueous humor. The NEs were thermodynamically stable and have spherical droplets (<30 nm). The gels were transparent, pseudoplastic, mucoadhesive and showed more retarded zero-order drug release rates. F31 in situ NE gel showed the least ocular irritation potential and significantly (P<0.01) higher C(max), delayed T(max), prolonged mean residence time and increased bioavailability.

  14. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Analysis of protein composition of rabbit aqueous humor following two different cataract surgery incision procedures using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aqueous humor (AH), a liquid of the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye, comprises many proteins with various roles and important biological functions. Many of these proteins have not been identified yet and their functions in AH are still unknown. Recently, our laboratory published the protein database of AH obtained from healthy rabbits which expanded known protein identifications by 65%. Our present study extends our previous work and analyses AH following two types of cataract surgery incision procedures (clear corneal and limbal incisions) by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although both incision protocols are commonly used during cataract surgeries, the difference in protein composition and their release into AH following each surgery has never been systematically compared and remains unclear. The first step, which is the focus of this work, is to assess the scale of the protein change, at which time does maximum release occurs and when possible, to identify protein changes. Results Samples of AH obtained prior to surgery and at different time points (0.5, 2, 12, 24 and 48 hours) following surgery (n = 3/protocol) underwent protein concentration determination, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. There was a large (9.7 to 31.2 mg/mL) and rapid (~0.5 hour) influx of proteins into AH following either incision with a return to baseline quantities after 12 hours and 24 hours for clear corneal and limbal incision, respectively. We identified 80 non-redundant proteins, and compared to our previous study on healthy AH, 67.5% of proteins were found to be surgery-specific. In addition, 51% of those proteins have been found either in clear corneal (20%) or limbal incision (31%) samples. Conclusions Our results imply that a mechanism of protein release into AH after surgery is a global response to the surgery rather than increase in amount of protective proteins found in healthy AH and a

  16. Humor in Educational Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurtler, Leo

    Humor can be a crucial factor of learning environments and of communication. Recent investigations of humor in educational settings mostly focus on learning performance. This paper shifts the attention to the enhancement of social climate through humor. Humor can be an element to solve critical social situations. To develop humor, it is necessary…

  17. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  18. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  19. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  20. Aqueous levels of erythropoietin in acute retinal vein occlusion with macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyung Chan; Moon, Jun Woong

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the aqueous erythropoietin (EPO) levels and associated factors in patients with acute retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS The aqueous EPO level was measured in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to acute branched retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Aqueous fluid from cataract patients served as the control. We also evaluated whether aqueous level of EPO was associated with factors such as serum EPO level, non-perfusion area, central macular thickness (CMT), and arterio-venous (AV) transit time RESULTS Twenty-seven RVO patients (16 BRVO, 11 CRVO) and 9 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The aqueous EPO level (mU/mL) was higher in RVO (68.2±54.3) than that in the control subjects (12.9±5.9). More specifically, the aqueous EPO level was higher in CRVO (118.9±52.1) than that in BRVO (33.3±10.8). However, no differences were found in serum EPO levels among three groups. CMT in RVO patients had a positive correlation with the aqueous EPO level (r=0.66). Also, in terms of non-perfusion area, the aqueous EPO levels were more elevated in the ischemic subgroup than in the non-ischemic subgroup in both BRVO and CRVO. CONCLUSION Aqueous EPO levels are elevated in patients with macular edema secondary to recent onset RVO. Patients with CRVO have higher EPO levels than those with BRVO. The aqueous EPO level in RVO has a positive correlation with CMT and is associated with non-perfusion area. These results suggest that the aqueous EPO level could be associated with retinal ischemia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to RVO. PMID:24967199

  1. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( < or = 0.01), but this difference was nonsignificant after Bonferroni correction for multiple simultaneous amino acid comparisons (none achieved < 0.0025). No amino acid was significantly different from control in the nerve transection groups (all > 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( < 0.0001) and 1 week ( < 0.002). One day and 1 week after optic nerve transection, vitreal proteins were significantly elevated compared with control eyes from untreated animals ( < 0.0020 and < 0.0022, respectively), though not compared with their fellow eyes ( = 0.25 and 0.10). Chronic experimental glaucoma and transection of the optic nerve increase the amount of protein in the rat vitreous above control levels. In the vitreous of rats with experimental glaucoma, a number of free amino acids were transiently elevated to a modest degree, but no significant difference in

  2. American Humor. [Course Syllabus].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, David E. E.

    This syllabus describes a three-credit course entitled "American Humor," offered at the University of New Haven (Connecticut). According to the syllabus, "American Humor" will identify traits of American humor as historical phenomena with relations to national character, business attitudes, regionalism, folk humor, and health;…

  3. Aqueous Levels of Angiopoietin-like 4 and Semaphorin 3E Correlate with Nonperfusion Area and Macular Volume in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Jae Pil; Kim, In Taek; Park, Dong Ho

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the aqueous levels of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with diabetic retinopathy and to ascertain their association with diabetic retinopathy phenotypes. Prospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series. Of all 104 consecutive patients (104 eyes) who had intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from April 2012 through April 2013 for diabetic macular edema (DME), 51 had severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and 53 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The controls were 54 consecutive nondiabetic patients who had undergone cataract surgery (54 eyes) during the same period. The ANGPTL4, Sema3E, and VEGF levels in aqueous humor samples obtained before intravitreal injections were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Capillary nonperfusion area (NPA) was calculated from encircled angiography using the 7 standard field images described in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. Total macular volume (TMV) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Aqueous ANGPTL4, Sema3E, and VEGF levels in severe NPDR, PDR, and control groups and their correlations with each other, NPA, and TMV. The severe NPDR and PDR groups had higher aqueous levels of ANGPTL4 and VEGF than the control group (all P < 0.001). The PDR group had higher ANGPTL4 and VEGF levels than the severe NPDR group (both P < 0.001). The aqueous ANGPTL4 levels of all diabetic retinopathy patients correlated positively with NPA (r = 0.820, P = 0.003) and TMV (r = 0.824, P < 0.001). The control group had higher aqueous Sema3E levels than the NPDR and PDR groups (both P < 0.001). Aqueous Sema3E levels correlated negatively with VEGF levels in all subjects (r = -0.57, P = 0.025). The ANGPTL4 may be a candidate target in DME treatment and a biomarker of ischemic-induced retinopathy, including diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology

  4. Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Karli K; Matthews, Benjamin J; Allman, John M

    2007-02-01

    Humor is a hallmark of human discourse. People use it to relieve stress and to facilitate social bonding, as well as for pure enjoyment in the absence of any apparent adaptive value. Although recent studies have revealed that humor acts as an intrinsic reward, which explains why people actively seek to experience and create humor, few have addressed the cognitive aspects of humor. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate brain activity induced by the hedonic similarities and cognitive differences inherent in 2 kinds of humor: visual humor (sight gags) and language-based humor. Our findings indicate that the brain networks recruited during a humorous experience differ according to the type of humor being processed, with high-level visual areas activated during visual humor and classic language areas activated during language-dependent humor. Our results additionally highlight a common network activated by both types of humor that includes the amygdalar and midbrain regions, which presumably reflect the euphoric component of humor. Furthermore, we found that humor activates anterior cingulate cortex and frontoinsular cortex, 2 regions in the brain that are known to have phylogenetically recent neuronal circuitry. These results suggest that humor may have coevolved with another cognitive specialization of the great apes and humans: the ability to navigate through a shifting and complex social space.

  5. Humor, Aggression, and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Ann Louise; And Others

    Although humor is an important phenomenon in human interactions, it has rarely been studied in the elderly. An understanding of responses to humor in aggressive cartoons as a function of advancing age would provide information regarding both the development of humor and the negative (aggressive) emotional experiences of the elderly. This study was…

  6. Decoding Photocopy Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Dan

    Photocopy humor is defined as any facsimile, photocopy, or wire-copy line drawing, iconography, or textual material that was drawn or written for distribution to a larger select audience using the available technology to disperse material intended to be humorous. Professional humor is excluded from this consideration. The content of photocopy…

  7. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  8. Humor. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)

  9. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  10. Humoral immunity and bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Stead, A; Douglas, J G; Broadfoot, C J; Kaminski, E R; Herriot, R

    2002-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is a common complication of primary antibody deficiency but the incidence of antibody deficiency as an underlying cause of bronchiectasis is largely undefined. In this study the humoral immune status of a cohort of bronchiectatic patients was investigated to detect the frequency of significant antibody deficiency and to determine the extent of immunological investigation which is appropriate for routine assessment of bronchiectasis patients. Fifty-six out-patients (with a mean age of 59·6 years) had serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses and specific antibodies to capsular polysaccharides of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae measured. Where specific antibody levels were low, where possible, appropriate immunization with pneumococcal or conjugated Haemophilus polysaccharide vaccines was offered and the responses quantified. Three of 56 patients had low total serum IgG levels. Thirteen of 56 had deficiencies of either a single IgG subclass or combinations of two or more subclasses, with IgG4 being most frequently implicated (9/56). Twenty-nine of 56 had low basal specific polysaccharide antibody levels. Test immunization, where performed, produced satisfactory responses in all cases except one, where a specific defect of responsiveness to pneumococcal polysaccharide was identified. This study indicates that antibody deficiency is an uncommon aetiological/underlying factor in the causation of bronchiectasis beyond the fourth decade and that detailed investigation of humoral immune status as a routine in bronchiectasis patients, at least at this age, is not generally justified. PMID:12390323

  11. Uranium recovery from low-level aqueous sources. [76 references

    SciTech Connect

    Kelmers, A.D.; Goeller, H.E.

    1981-03-01

    The aqueous sources of soluble uranium were surveyed and evaluated in terms of the uranium geochemical cycle in an effort to identify potential unexploited resources. Freshwater sources appeared to be too low in uranium content to merit consideration, while seawater, although very dilute (approx. 3.3 ppB), contains approx. 4 x 10/sup 9/ metric tons of uranium in all the world's oceans. A literature review of recent publications and patents concerning uranium recovery from seawater was conducted. Considerable experimental work is currently under way in Japan; less is being done in the European countries. An assessment of the current state of technology is presented in this report. Repeated screening programs have identified hydrous titanium oxide as the most promising candidate absorbent. However, some of its properties such as distribution coefficient, selectivity, loading, and possibly stability appear to render its use inadequate in a practical recovery system. Also, various assessments of the energy efficiency of pumped or tidal power schemes for contacting the sorbent and seawater are in major disagreement. Needed future research and development tasks are discussed. A fundamental sorbent development program to greatly improve sorbent properties would be required to permit practical recovery of uranium from seawater. Major unresolved engineering aspects of such recovery systems are also identified and discussed.

  12. Denosumab is Effective for Controlling Serum Calcium Levels in Patients with Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Syndrome: A Case Report on Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein-producing Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ashihara, Norihiro; Nakajima, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Shirahata, Kumiko; Maeda, Chika; Uehara, Takeshi; Gomi, Daisuke; Ito, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Hypercalcemia resulting in the elevation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and suppression of serum PTH was observed in a patient with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) and multiple lymph node metastases. We confirmed humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy based on PTHrP-producing CCC. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin could not control the patient's serum PTHrP levels and the patient was affected with bisphosphonate-refractory hypercalcemia. We administered a single dose of denosumab, an anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand monoclonal antibody, and the patient's serum calcium levels remained close to the normal range for approximately 3 weeks without additional treatment. PMID:27904108

  13. The Association Between Aqueous Connective Tissue Growth Factor and the Severity of Age-related Cataracts as Graded by the Lens Opacities Classification System III.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyung Bin; Yim, Hye Bin; Cho, Yang Kyung; Choi, Jin A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between aqueous humor concentrations of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and the severity of age-related cataracts. We conducted a prospective clinical study on 43 eyes of 43 patients with senile cataracts scheduled to undergo routine phacoemulsification surgery. Before surgery, all patients were graded for cataract severity using the Lens Opacities Classification System III in terms of four features: nuclear opalescence (NO), nuclear color (NC), cortical cataracts (C), and posterior sub-capsular cataracts (P). During surgery, aqueous humor samples were obtained from all patients, and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to determine CTGF concentrations. To assess any relationship between cataract severity and CTGF levels of the aqueous humor, various correlation analyses and multiple linear regression were used. We found a positive correlation between the overall cataract grade and aqueous CTGF level (p < 0.05). In addition, four features of the cataract grade (nuclear opalescence, nuclear color, cortical cataract and posterior sub-capsular cataract) were positively correlated with the aqueous CTGF concentration (p < 0.05). The final regression model identified overall cataract grade as an independent predictor of increased CTGF levels in the aqueous humor (p < 0.05). CTGF tends to increase in the aqueous humor as the severity of age-related cataracts increases. Therefore, this cytokine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of age-related cataracts. Additional studies are required for clarification of this finding.

  14. Humor in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Howard J

    2003-12-01

    Humor and laughter have been a focus of attention in the popular media and in the medical literature. Despite statements about the health benefits of humor, current research is insufficient to validate such claims. There is support in the literature for the role of humor and laughter in other areas, including patient-physician communication, psychological aspects of patient care, medical education, and as a means of reducing stress in medical professionals.

  15. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  16. Humor and laughter may influence health. I. History and background.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Mary Payne; Lengacher, Cecile A

    2006-03-01

    Articles in both the lay and professional literature have extolled the virtues of humor, many giving the impression that the health benefits of humor are well documented by the scientific and medical community. The concept that humor or laughter can be therapeutic goes back to biblical times and this belief has received varying levels of support from the scientific community at different points in its history. Current research indicates that using humor is well accepted by the public and is frequently used as a coping mechanism. However, the scientific evidence of the benefits of using humor on various health related outcomes still leaves many questions unanswered.

  17. Effect of humor on interpersonal attraction and mate selection.

    PubMed

    McGee, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined whether different levels of sense of humor would influence respondents' ratings about a potentially desirable partner. The authors used vignettes to predict that the targets who possessed a good sense of humor would receive significantly higher ratings in measures of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner than would those who possessed an average or no sense of humor. In an experimental design--with gender and humor as independent variables and level of attractiveness and suitability as a long-term partner as dependent variables--the authors analyzed the data using a multivariate analysis of variance. Results show that the targets with a good sense of humor received significantly higher ratings of attractiveness and suitability than did those with an average or no sense of humor. Furthermore, male participants rated female targets as significantly more attractive than female participants rated male targets. The authors found no significant interaction between gender and humor.

  18. Humor's healing potential.

    PubMed

    Seaward, B L

    1992-04-01

    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  19. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  20. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  1. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  2. Sense of Humor Preferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    Humor is a powerful tool. It can disarm an adversary. It can leaven the purposefully self-aggrandizing nature of a job interview. Perhaps most important, it can serve as a window to personality in the same way that a resume is a window to experience. In this article, the author emphasizes the value of having a sense of humor. He emphasizes that it…

  3. Humor and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner; Gadish, Orit

    1990-01-01

    Two studies investigated humor among a total of 151 gifted adolescents. It was found that (1) in a sociometry of humor test, gifted adolescents received either few or many choices in a bimodal distribution; and (2) gifted adolescent humorists were more extroverted, more creative, and lower in need for social approval than other gifted adolescents.…

  4. Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Breakdown of the Blood-Aqueous Barrier After Retinal Laser Photocoagulation in Pigmented Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Muh-Shy; Chang, Ching-Chung; Lin, Chang-Ping; Wang, Peng-Chen; Lin, Li-Rong; Hou, Ping-Kang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Retinal laser photocoagulation is used to treat a variety of retinal diseases. Breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier has been noted after retinal laser photocoagulation. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the function of the blood-aqueous barrier after retinal laser photocoagulation remains undetermined. The current study was designed to evaluate the relationship between intraocular levels of VEGF and breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier after retinal laser photocoagulation in rabbits. Methods Pigmented rabbits were treated with retinal laser photocoagulation in one eye; the other served as control. Laser flare photometry was carried out on post-treatment days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Animals were sacrificed at the time period just mentioned postlaser, the eyes were removed, and samples of vitreous and aqueous humor were collected. Intraocular VEGF levels were measured by using an immunoassay. An intravitreal injection of VEGF was administered, and the aqueous flare intensity and VEGF levels in the aqueous and vitreous humor were measured at the time periods just mentioned. Results A significant increase in the aqueous flare intensity after retinal laser photocoagulation was noticed on postoperative day 1, with the values returning to baseline levels on day 14. The VEGF levels in the vitreous of the lasered eyes were significantly increased on day 1 compared with the nonlasered control eyes. The VEGF levels in the aqueous humor of the lasered eyes were also significantly increased on day 1 compared with the control eyes. An intravitreal injection of VEGF induced a significant increase in the aqueous flare intensity and VEGF levels in the aqueous and vitreous humor. Conclusions The current results suggested that retinal laser photocoagulation can produce a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier. VEGF may play a role in the blood-aqueous barrier dysfunction after retinal laser photocoagulation. PMID:22011077

  5. Trivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) VLP vaccine covering HPV type 58 can elicit high level of humoral immunity but also induce immune interference among component types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Yufei; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Youchun; Wu, Xueling; Fan, Dongsheng; Peng, Qinglin; Xu, Xuemei

    2010-04-26

    Both Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 bivalent vaccine and type 16/18/6/11 quadrivalent vaccine have been proved to be safe and effective, and licensed for public use. However, these two vaccines do not quite match the distribution of HPV types in China, Southeast Asia and Latin America, where HPV 58 is highly prevalent. Here we produced three types of virus-like particles (VLPs) in baculovirus expression system, formulated a trivalent vaccine containing HPV 16, 18, and 58 L1 VLPs and examined its in vitro neutralizing titers. This vaccine could induce high level and long-term humoral immunity against the component types. But immune interference was observed when comparing type specific neutralizing antibody levels induced by trivalent vaccine to those by corresponding monovalent vaccines. This kind of interference would become more obvious when formulating more types of VLPs into multivalent vaccines, but could be greatly overcome by decreasing the antigen dosage and adding a proper adjuvant. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-esteem instability and humor styles: does the stability of self-esteem influence how people use humor?

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jessica; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Arnau, Randolph C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and the use of humor. This was accomplished by examining the associations that humor styles had with self-esteem level and self-esteem instability among 499 undergraduates. The results of the present study show that self-esteem instability moderated the association between self-esteem level and humor styles such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the highest levels of affiliative humor as well as the lowest levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor. These results suggest that individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem employ different styles of humor.

  8. Levels of bimatoprost acid in the aqueous humour after bimatoprost treatment of patients with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Louis B; Hoop, Joni; Wudunn, Darrell; Yung, Chi‐Wah; Catoira, Yara; Valluri, Shailaja; Cortes, Arnold; Acheampong, Andrew; Woodward, David F; Wheeler, Larry A

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the aqueous humour concentration of the acid hydrolysis products of bimatoprost and latanoprost after a single topical dose of bimatoprost 0.03% or latanoprost 0.005% in humans. Methods Randomised, controlled, double‐masked, prospective study. 48 eyes of 48 patients scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomised in an 8:2:2 ratio to treatment with a single 30 μl drop of bimatoprost 0.03%, latanoprost 0.005% or placebo at 1, 3, 6 or 12 h before the scheduled cataract surgery. Aqueous humour samples were withdrawn at the beginning of the surgical procedure and analysed using high‐performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Bimatoprost acid (17‐phenyl trinor prostaglandin F2α) was detected in aqueous samples at a mean concentration of 5.0 nM at hour 1, 6.7 nM at hour 3 and 1.9 nM at hour 6 after bimatoprost treatment. After latanoprost treatment, the mean concentration of latanoprost acid (13,14‐dihydro‐17‐phenyl trinor prostaglandin F2α) in aqueous samples was 29.1 nM at hour 1, 41.3 nM at hour 3 and 2.5 nM at hour 6. Acid metabolites were below the limit of quantitation in all samples taken 12 h after dosing and in all samples from placebo‐treated patients. None of the samples from latanoprost‐treated patients contained quantifiable levels of non‐metabolised latanoprost. Non‐metabolised bimatoprost was detected in aqueous samples at a mean concentration of 6.6 nM at hour 1 and 2.4 nM at hour 3 after bimatoprost treatment. Conclusions Low levels of bimatoprost acid were detected in aqueous humour samples from patients with cataract treated with a single dose of bimatoprost. Latanoprost acid concentrations in samples from patients treated with latanoprost were at least sixfold higher. These results suggest that bimatoprost acid in the aqueous humour does not sufficiently account for the ocular hypotensive efficacy of bimatoprost. PMID:17135335

  9. The Humor in Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of horror fiction for teenagers focuses on the element of humor. Topics include parodies, plots, the element of mystery, cover art, end-of-chapter cliffhangers, and formula books. An annotated list of 10 pertinent titles is included. (LRW)

  10. Memory for humorous cartoons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R; Williams, A R

    2001-03-01

    Incidental memory for three types of cartoons was compared: original cartoons, literal translations of the originals, and weird cartoons created by inserting incongruous material into the literal translations. In Experiment 1, the three types of cartoons were mixed together in lists. In Experiment 2, each list contained only two cartoon types. In both experiments, original cartoons were remembered better than the literal and the weird cartoons, whereas the literal and the weird cartoons were equally well remembered. The detection of incongruities, or attempts to resolve those incongruities, cannot adequately explain the observed humor effects. The results were also inconsistent with both rehearsal and distinctiveness interpretations. Rather, humor per se appears to support good memory performance. Perhaps participants elaborated or gave sustained attention to humorous material at the expense of less humorous material.

  11. The origin of humor.

    PubMed

    Howe, N E

    2002-09-01

    Humor is spread throughout every culture on earth and occupies a large portion of our literature and social interaction. It is so deeply rooted in our culture that it may be a defining characteristic of our species. Yet there has been comparatively little effort to understand its origin. According to the Accepted Theory of Humor all jokes begin with a buildup of tension while an initial paradigm is formed. When the punch line occurs the subject must realign his thinking to accommodate the differences between the initial paradigm and the sudden burst of new information. The Mind Reading Hypothesis extends the accepted theory of humor to include a relationship between the observer and the subject of the humor. The actual source of amusement is the observation of the resolution in the mind of the subject of the collision between old perception and new reality.

  12. Humor and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  13. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  14. Changes in the levels of humoral immune activities after storage of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) skin mucus.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2016-11-01

    Skin mucus is increasingly used as a source for determining immunity-related proteins and enzymes. However, the ability to accurately measure some activities may be modified by inadequate handling and storage of the samples. This study aims to measure the effect of freezing and lyophilization at the time of collection on such activities. Fresh, frozen (immediately after collection at -20 °C and -80 °C) and lyophilized skin mucus samples obtained from the same groups of fish specimens of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) were analysed in the assays. The amount of total proteins and sugar residues (determined by lectin binding) present in skin mucus samples fell after both freezing and lyophilization of the samples. While no significant differences were exhibited in the levels of some proteins or enzymes (immunoglobulin M, antiprotease, peroxidase, esterase and alkaline phosphatase) determined in fresh or frozen mucus samples, protease and lysozyme activities were lower in frozen mucus samples than in fresh samples. Lyophilization of the mucus samples drastically decreased the total level of proteins obtained, as well as of protease, peroxidase, lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase activities. The results suggest that freezing skin mucus samples is more suitable than lyophilization if samples are stored before determining enzymatic activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels of humoral antibodies induced by different inactivated vaccines correlate with egg production in commercial layers challenged with virulent Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the relationship between humoral antibodies from homologous and heterologous vaccines and egg production, twenty-two week-old commercial layers previously vaccinated with four live B1 vaccines were boosted with two different inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines, a virulent ...

  16. Trait humor and longevity: do comics have the last laugh?

    PubMed

    Rotton, J

    1992-01-01

    Four sets of biographical data were analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that the ability to generate humor is associated with longevity. Although steps were taken to ensure that tests had high levels of statistical power, analyses provided very little support for the idea that individuals with a well-developed sense of humor live longer than serious writers and other entertainers. In addition, a subsidiary analysis revealed that those in the business of entertaining others died at an earlier age than those in other lines of endeavor. These findings suggest that researchers should turn their attention from trait humor to the effects of humorous material.

  17. [Humoral sleep theories].

    PubMed

    Radulovački, Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    The common feature that characterized humoral theories of sleep is the production and accumulation of certain substances, usually end-products of metabolism, either in the tissues, in general, or in certain organs, such as the brain. When a definite concentration of such substances has been reached, the activity of the brain is depressed either directly, or through indirect influences, like vasoconstriction or asphyxia. The gradual removal of these substances during sleep leads to a return to the waking state. Humoral sleep theories were popular in the twentieth century. However, none of them lasted for a long time since either their authors or other investigators were not able to repeat them. Thus, this brief review mentions only a few of them. Today, humoral sleep theories are only of historic interest to sleep researchers and illustrate the creativity and the rich imagination of our predecessors.

  18. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  19. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  20. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, T T; Cochrane, T A

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate that the authors' new "aqueous solution vs pure water" equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of "free" water molecules per unit volume of solution, "Nf," and (c) the "t" factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate Nf was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors' equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. The provisional equations formulated to calculate Nf, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of Nf using recorded relative density data at 20 °C. They were

  1. Detection of trace levels of lead in aqueous liquids using extractive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xinglei; Xiao, Saijin; Jia, Bin; Cui, Shasha; Shi, Jianbo; Xu, Ning; Xie, Xi; Gu, Haiwei; Chen, Huanwen

    2012-08-30

    A sensitive approach, based on semi-quantitative measurement of the characteristic fragments in multi-stage extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS(n)), was developed for fast detection of trace levels of lead in aqueous liquids including mineral water, lake water, tap water, energy drinks, soft drinks, beer, orange juice, and tea. A disodium ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) aqueous solution was electrosprayed to produce negatively charged primary ions which then intersected the neutral sample plume to generate anions of EDTA-Pb(II) complexes. The charged EDTA-Pb(II) complexes were characterized with multistage collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The limit of detection (LOD) using EESI-MS(3) was estimated to be at the level of 10(-13)g/mL for directly detecting lead in many of these samples. The linear dynamic range was higher than 2 orders of magnitude. A single sample analysis could be completed within 2 min with reasonable semi-quantitative performance, e.g., relative standard deviations (RSDs) for deionized water were 4.6-7.6% during 5 experimental runs (each of them had 10 repeated measurements). Coca-cola and Huiyuan orange juice, representative beverage samples with complex matrices, generated recovery rates of 91.5% and 129%, respectively. Our experimental data demonstrated that EESI-MS is a useful tool for the fast detection of lead in various solutions, and EESI-MS showed promises for fast screening of lead-contaminated aqueous liquid samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  3. "Tickle Your Storybone": Humorous Storytelling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klor, Ellin

    1991-01-01

    Describes methods to use for successful humorous storytelling. Guidelines for story selection, preparation, and presentation are discussed in relation to various age groups from preschoolers through adolescents; types of humor are described; appropriate humorous stories and collections are suggested; and methods for learning a new story are…

  4. Humor Hints for School Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bryan

    An attempt is made to show or suggest to the newcomer, whether adviser or reporter, some of the humor forms, devices, or ideas that can be used in a school publication. Twenty-four different types of humorous devices are included. These are boners (humorous errors); howlers (play on words); the pun; ethical light verse and limericks; humorous…

  5. Using Humor in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  6. Humor as a teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Parrott, T E

    1994-01-01

    Nurse educators often look for alternate teaching strategies to increase students' attention, comprehension, motivation, and retention of content. Frequently, the use of humor has been shown qualitatively to be such a strategy. The author gives some of the theoretical basis for the use of humor in education and some examples of how humor has been used in her own teaching.

  7. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  8. "Tickle Your Storybone": Humorous Storytelling!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klor, Ellin

    1991-01-01

    Describes methods to use for successful humorous storytelling. Guidelines for story selection, preparation, and presentation are discussed in relation to various age groups from preschoolers through adolescents; types of humor are described; appropriate humorous stories and collections are suggested; and methods for learning a new story are…

  9. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  10. Serum and aqueous xanthine oxidase levels, and mRNA expression in anterior lens epithelial cells in pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Simavli, Huseyin; Tosun, Mehmet; Bucak, Yasin Y; Erdurmus, Mesut; Ocak, Zeynep; Onder, Halil I; Acar, Muradiye

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum and aqueous xanthine oxidase (XO) levels, and mRNA expression in anterior lens epithelial cells in pseudoexfoliation (PEX). In this prospective study, serum, aqueous and anterior lens capsules were taken from 21 patients with PEX and 23 normal subjects who had undergone routine cataract surgery. Serum and aqueous XO levels were analyzed using the colorimetric method. mRNA expression of XO in anterior lens epithelial cells was evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Serum XO levels (means ± standard deviations) were 207.0 ± 86.1 IU/mL and 240.6 ± 114.1 IU/mL in the normal and PEX groups, respectively (p = 0.310). Aqueous XO levels (means ± standard deviations) were 65.5 ± 54.3 IU/mL in the normal group and 130.5 ± 117.4 IU/mL in the PEX group (p = 0.028). There was a 2.9 fold decrease in mRNA expression in anterior lens epithelial cells of PEX, which is significantly lower than the normal group (p = 0.01). Higher aqueous XO levels lacking associated different serum XO suggests higher oxidative stress in the aqueous. Higher aqueous XO levels in PEX with decreased mRNA expression in anterior lens epithelial cells indicate possible overexpression of XO in other structures related to the aqueous.

  11. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  12. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  13. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  14. Friendship, Intimacy and Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature in philosophy in the past 20 years indicates that relatively little has been written on the connection between friendship, intimacy and humor. This article is intended to begin to address the neglect of this topic among philosophers by focusing on some interesting aspects of the relationship between friendship, intimacy…

  15. On Humorous Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menair, Marion Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine the patterns and uses of transgressive humor and sexual talk that male traders from Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) indulge in when at their leisure from trading. I investigate how cultural conceptualizations or ideologies are brought into the present moment through discursive interaction and how the cultural signs…

  16. First-principles approach to calculating energy level alignment at aqueous semiconductor interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-21

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b₁ energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101¯0 ) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and themore » dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. As a result, these effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.« less

  17. First-principles approach to calculating energy level alignment at aqueous semiconductor interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-21

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b₁ energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101¯0 ) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and the dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. As a result, these effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.

  18. First-Principles Approach to Calculating Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-10-01

    A first-principles approach is demonstrated for calculating the relationship between an aqueous semiconductor interface structure and energy level alignment. The physical interface structure is sampled using density functional theory based molecular dynamics, yielding the interface electrostatic dipole. The GW approach from many-body perturbation theory is used to place the electronic band edge energies of the semiconductor relative to the occupied 1b1 energy level in water. The application to the specific cases of nonpolar (101 ¯0) facets of GaN and ZnO reveals a significant role for the structural motifs at the interface, including the degree of interface water dissociation and the dynamical fluctuations in the interface Zn-O and O-H bond orientations. These effects contribute up to 0.5 eV.

  19. Hope, Laughter, and Humor in Residents and Staff at an Assisted Living Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westburg, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses and compares hope levels and laughter and humor experiences of 24 elderly residents and 21 staff at an assisted living facility. Residents and staff reported numerous benefits from humor and laughing, but differences arose between the two groups about the source and frequency of humor and laughter. Implications for mental health…

  20. Exposure to Humorous Stimuli as an Adjunct to Muscle Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prerost, Frank J.; Ruma, Christine

    1987-01-01

    Tested 40 male and 40 female college students for level of relaxation and mood state following exposure to three types of humor content or a nonhumorous control. Humor appreciation was found to be effective in aiding relaxation while promoting positive affective mood state in subjects. Humor appreciation may be possible adjunct to biofeedback…

  1. Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous GaN and ZnO Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark S.; Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.

    2014-03-01

    Electronic energy level alignment at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces is fundamental to electrochemical activity. Motivated in particular by the search for new materials that can be more efficient for photocatalysis, we develop a first principles method to calculate this alignment at aqueous interfaces and demonstrate it for the specific case of non-polar GaN and ZnO interfaces with water. In the first step, density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics is used to sample the physical interface structure and to evaluate the electrostatic potential step at the interface. In the second step, the GW approach is used to evaluate the reference electronic energy level separately in the bulk semiconductor (valence band edge energy) and in bulk water (the 1b1 energy level), relative to the internal electrostatic energy reference. Use of the GW approach naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. With this predicted interface alignment, specific redox levels in water, with potentials known relative to the 1b1 level, can then be compared to the semiconductor band edge positions. Our results will be discussed in the context of experiments in which photoexcited GaN and ZnO drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. Research carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, T. T.; Cochrane, T. A.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N{sub f},” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N{sub f} was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N{sub f}, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N{sub f

  3. First-Principles Approach to Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybertsen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a first principles method to calculate the energy level alignment between semiconductor band edges and reference energy levels at aqueous interfaces. This alignment is fundamental to understand the electrochemical characteristics of any semiconductor electrode in general and the potential for photocatalytic activity in particular. For example, in the search for new photo-catalytic materials, viable candidates must demonstrate both efficient absorption of the solar spectrum and an appropriate alignment of the band edge levels in the semiconductor to the redox levels for the target reactions. In our approach, the interface-specific contribution to the electrostatic step across the interface is evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics to sample the physical interface structure and the corresponding change in the electrostatic potential at the interface. The reference electronic levels in the semiconductor and in the water are calculated using the GW approach, which naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. Taken together, our calculations provide the alignment of the semiconductor valence band edge to the centroid of the highest occupied 1b1 level in water. The known relationship of the 1b1 level to the normal hydrogen electrode completes the connection to electrochemical levels. We discuss specific results for GaN, ZnO, and TiO2. The effect of interface structural motifs, such as different degrees of water dissociation, and of dynamical characteristics, will be presented together with available experimental data. Work supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  4. Does humor moderate the effects of experimentally-induced stress?

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Stone, A A

    1996-06-01

    This study attempted to determine whether humor production moderates mood and physiological responses to stress of subjects high and low in trait humor. Forty subjects who were high and 40 subjects who were low in trait humor were selected. Half of each group was randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In one condition they generated a humorous monologue and in the other condition they generated a serious monologue to a silent stressful film. Heart rate, skin conductance level, and skin temperature were taken continuously for the fifteen minutes before, during, and fifteen minutes after the film. Pre- and post-stress mood and tension ratings were also recorded. Analyses of covariance were conducted with baseline mood and tension as covariates. Compared to the production of a serious narrative, humor production led to lower negative affect, lower tension, and reduced psychophysiological reactivity for both high and low trait-humor groups. These results suggest that humor production may be an effective coping strategy, even for individuals who do not typically use humor to cope with stress.

  5. Humor. An antidote for terrorism.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Elaine Anne

    2003-12-01

    It has been more than 2 years since the terrorist attacks of September 11, and the emotional fallout is still being felt. Nurses need to understand the crisis presented by terrorism and explore ways of dealing with it. The purpose of this article is to discuss humor as a means of facilitating coping with terrorism. Terrorism is a humanly caused disaster that threatens the physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of one's personhood. The effects of humor strengthen these dimensions of self. In trying to deal with a terrorist event, people pass through several phases of emotional adjustment. Humor is a holistic, noninvasive strategy that may facilitate that adjustment and may be used effectively to heal both survivor-clients and disaster personnel who are working with them. Awareness of the phases of emotional adjustment, associated humor styles, and ways to incorporate therapeutic humor into crisis management approaches are essential for effectively using humor as an antidote for terrorism.

  6. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  7. College Students' Perception of Lecturers Using Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamborini, Ron; Zillmann, Dolf

    1981-01-01

    Audio-taped lectures by male or female professors were produced in four versions: no humor; sexual humor; other-disparaging humor; and self-disparaging humor. Male and female students rated lecturers' intelligence and appeal. Intelligence ratings were unaffected by humor variations, but significant lecturer-student sex interactions were found on…

  8. Expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in aqueous from glaucomatous eyes

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Jocelyn; Vania, Maya; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Ang, Marcus; Chee, Soon Phaik; Yang, Henry; Wong, Tina T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the proinflammatory cytokine profile of aqueous humor from glaucomatous eyes. Methods Aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from 38 eyes (26 primary open angle glaucoma [POAG] and 12 primary angle closure glaucoma [PACG] eyes) of 37 medically treated glaucoma patients and 23 cataract subjects recruited in an institutional setting in this case-controlled study. The main outcome measure was to quantify the levels of 29 inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous of glaucoma and cataract subjects using a multiplexed cytokine analysis. Data on patient demographics, duration of glaucoma, preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as duration of anti-glaucoma therapy were also collected for correlation analysis. Results Mean duration of glaucoma was 53.8 months (range 1–360 months). Aqueous obtained from the glaucoma patients showed increased concentration of interleukin (IL)-9 (p=0.032), IL-12 (p=0.003), interferon (IFN)-α (p=0.034), IFN-γ (p=0.002), monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG or CXCL9) (p=0.006), and IL-10 (p=0.050), compared to the cataract group. The POAG group had higher IL-12 (p=0.011), IFN-γ (p=0.005), and CXCL9 (p=0.047) levels than controls, while the PACG group had higher interleukin-8 (CXCL8) (p=0.015) and CXCL9 (p=0.023) levels than the controls. No significant correlation was observed between aqueous cytokine level and preoperative IOP and duration of glaucoma. Duration of topical Timolol and Alphagan therapy correlated negatively with CXCL8 (r=-0.588, p=0.035), respectively. Conclusions Primary glaucoma is associated with an aqueous inflammatory response and this is different between POAG and PACG groups. Duration of glaucoma treatment may have an effect on cytokine profile in the aqueous. PMID:22355254

  9. Redox levels in aqueous solution: Effect of van der Waals interactions and hybrid functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, Francesco; Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We investigate redox levels in aqueous solution using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and thermodynamic integration methods. The molecular dynamics are performed with both the semilocal Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and a nonlocal functional (rVV10) accounting for van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The band edges are determined through three different schemes, namely, from the energy of the highest occupied and of the lowest unoccupied Kohn-Sham states, from total-energy differences, and from a linear extrapolation of the density of states. It is shown that the latter does not depend on the system size while the former two are subject to significant finite-size effects. For the redox levels, we provide a formulation in analogy to the definition of charge transition levels for defects in crystalline materials. We consider the H+/H2 level defining the standard hydrogen electrode, the OH-/OH∗ level corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxyl ion, and the H2O/OH∗ level for the dehydrogenation of water. In spite of the large structural modifications induced in liquid water, vdW interactions do not lead to any significant structural effect on the calculated band gap and band edges. The effect on the redox levels is also small since the solvation properties of ionic species are little affected by vdW interactions. Since the electronic properties are not significantly affected by the underlying structural properties, it is justified to perform hybrid functional calculations on the configurations of our MD simulations. The redox levels calculated as a function of the fraction α of Fock exchange are found to remain constant, reproducing a general behavior previously observed for charge transition levels of defects. Comparison with experimental values shows very good agreement. At variance, the band edges and the band gap evolve linearly with α. For α ≃ 0.40, we achieve a band gap, band-edge positions, and redox levels in overall

  10. Redox levels in aqueous solution: Effect of van der Waals interactions and hybrid functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Francesco Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-12-28

    We investigate redox levels in aqueous solution using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and thermodynamic integration methods. The molecular dynamics are performed with both the semilocal Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and a nonlocal functional (rVV10) accounting for van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The band edges are determined through three different schemes, namely, from the energy of the highest occupied and of the lowest unoccupied Kohn-Sham states, from total-energy differences, and from a linear extrapolation of the density of states. It is shown that the latter does not depend on the system size while the former two are subject to significant finite-size effects. For the redox levels, we provide a formulation in analogy to the definition of charge transition levels for defects in crystalline materials. We consider the H{sup +}/H{sub 2} level defining the standard hydrogen electrode, the OH{sup −}/OH{sup ∗} level corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxyl ion, and the H{sub 2}O/OH{sup ∗} level for the dehydrogenation of water. In spite of the large structural modifications induced in liquid water, vdW interactions do not lead to any significant structural effect on the calculated band gap and band edges. The effect on the redox levels is also small since the solvation properties of ionic species are little affected by vdW interactions. Since the electronic properties are not significantly affected by the underlying structural properties, it is justified to perform hybrid functional calculations on the configurations of our MD simulations. The redox levels calculated as a function of the fraction α of Fock exchange are found to remain constant, reproducing a general behavior previously observed for charge transition levels of defects. Comparison with experimental values shows very good agreement. At variance, the band edges and the band gap evolve linearly with α. For α ≃ 0.40, we achieve a band gap, band

  11. Kinetic sonication effects in aqueous acetonitrile solutions. Reaction rate levelling by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Piiskop, Sander; Salmar, Siim; Tuulmets, Ants; Kuznetsov, Aleksei; Järv, Jaak

    2013-11-01

    The kinetics of the pH-independent hydrolysis of 4-methoxyphenyl dichloroacetate were investigated with and without ultrasonic irradiation in acetonitrile-water binary mixtures containing 0.008 to 35 wt.% of acetonitrile and the kinetic sonication effects (kson/knon) were calculated. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the structure of the solutions were performed with ethyl acetate as the model ester. The ester is preferentially solvated by acetonitrile. The excess of acetonitrile over water in the solvation shell grows fast with an increase in the co-solvent content in the bulk solution. In parallel, the formation of a second solvation shell rich in acetonitrile takes place. Significant kinetic sonication effects for the hydrolysis were explained with facile destruction of the diffuse second solvation shell followed by a rearrangement of the remaining solvent layer under sonication. The rate levelling effect of ultrasound was discussed. In an aqueous-organic binary solvent, independent of the solvent composition, the ultrasonic irradiation evokes changes in the reaction medium which result in an almost identical solvation state of the reagent thus leading to the reaction rate levelling.

  12. Some Humor in the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehlk, Heinz D.

    The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…

  13. The Scoop on Good Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends teaching about the uses of humor in technical writing classes by using computer user manuals. Suggests that humor has a place in technical communication, particularly in computer manuals, where new users' apprehension must be reduced, heavy technical points need clarification, and warnings and cautions should be reinforced. (SKC)

  14. Some Humor in the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehlk, Heinz D.

    The Bible contains a variety of literary genres including drama, tragedy, and epic poetry, and it is an excellent basis for character study. It also contains a certain amount of humor, which should not be overlooked by students of biblical literature. Examples of intentional humor include the second version of the creation, found in the second…

  15. Cartoon humor in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pease, R A

    1991-01-01

    The use of cartoons and humor in nursing education has had a positive effect on learning: Humor promotes group unity, relieves tension, and stimulates creative thinking. Cartoons have been used to help nursing students identify and examine stereotypes, an important part of their education, because they must provide care to many people of different ages and cultural backgrounds.

  16. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  17. Comparing teaching practices about humor among nursing faculty: an international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Adamle, Kathleen N; Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Ludwick, Ruth; Zeller, Richard A; Brown, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Humor has been recognized by nurse researchers as a therapeutic intervention known to have positive psychological and physiological outcomes for patients. There is, however, no research that examines how nurses learn about humor. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine nursing faculty members' teaching practices about humor education in the classroom and in clinical settings. Nursing faculty members from four nursing programs, two in the United States, one in Northern Ireland, and one in Taiwan, were surveyed about the inclusion of humor in the nursing curriculum. Findings revealed that substantially more humor education was included in clinical settings in the USA and Northern Ireland than in the classroom. In Taiwan, however, humor education was included more in the classroom than in clinical settings. Older and more experienced nurses with higher levels of education reported using less humor in teaching practices.

  18. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  19. Not Just a Humor"ous" Text: Humor "as" Text in the Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The use of humorous texts in the writing class can help students improve skills in effective writing while encouraging critical thinking and an increased range in expression. In addition, because of the accessible nature of humor and the focus on purpose and audience that is necessary when writing it, students show a natural inclination toward…

  20. Not Just a Humor"ous" Text: Humor "as" Text in the Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The use of humorous texts in the writing class can help students improve skills in effective writing while encouraging critical thinking and an increased range in expression. In addition, because of the accessible nature of humor and the focus on purpose and audience that is necessary when writing it, students show a natural inclination toward…

  1. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  2. Balance of cellular and humoral immunity determines the level of protection by HIV vaccines in rhesus macaque models of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fouts, Timothy R; Bagley, Kenneth; Prado, Ilia J; Bobb, Kathryn L; Schwartz, Jennifer A; Xu, Rong; Zagursky, Robert J; Egan, Michael A; Eldridge, John H; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Le Buanec, Hélène; Zagury, Daniel; Pal, Ranajit; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K; Franchini, Genoveffa; Gordon, Shari; Vaccari, Monica; Lewis, George K; DeVico, Anthony L; Gallo, Robert C

    2015-03-03

    A guiding principle for HIV vaccine design has been that cellular and humoral immunity work together to provide the strongest degree of efficacy. However, three efficacy trials of Ad5-vectored HIV vaccines showed no protection. Transmission was increased in two of the trials, suggesting that this vaccine strategy elicited CD4+ T-cell responses that provide more targets for infection, attenuating protection or increasing transmission. The degree to which this problem extends to other HIV vaccine candidates is not known. Here, we show that a gp120-CD4 chimeric subunit protein vaccine (full-length single chain) elicits heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) acquisition in three independent rhesus macaque repeated low-dose rectal challenge studies with SHIV162P3 or SIVmac251. Protection against acquisition was observed with multiple formulations and challenges. In each study, protection correlated with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity specific for CD4-induced epitopes, provided that the concurrent antivaccine T-cell responses were minimal. Protection was lost in instances when T-cell responses were high or when the requisite antibody titers had declined. Our studies suggest that balance between a protective antibody response and antigen-specific T-cell activation is the critical element to vaccine-mediated protection against HIV. Achieving and sustaining such a balance, while enhancing antibody durability, is the major challenge for HIV vaccine development, regardless of the immunogen or vaccine formulation.

  3. Evaluating the potential efficacy of mercury total maximum daily loads on aqueous methylmercury levels in four coastal watersheds.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2008-08-01

    Of the approximately 780 U.S. EPA approved mercury total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), most specify a reduction in total mercury (Hg(T)) loads to reduce methylmercury levels in fish tissue, assuming a 1:1 correspondence. However, mercury methylation is more complex, and therefore, proposed load reductions may not be adequate. Using multiple regression with microlevel and macrolevel variables, the potential efficacy of mercury TMDLs on decreasing aqueous methylmercury levels was investigated in four coastal watersheds: Mugu Lagoon (CA), San Francisco Bay Estuary, Long Island Sound, and south Florida. Hg(T) and methylmercury levels were positively correlated in all watersheds except in Long Island Sound, where spatial differences explained over 40% of the variability in methylmercury levels. A mercury TMDL would be least effective in Long Island Sound due to spatial heterogeneity but most effective in south Florida, where the ratio between aqueous Hg(T) and methylmercury levels was close to 1 and the 95% confidence interval was narrow, indicating a probable reduction in aqueous methylmercury levels if Hg(T) loads were reduced.

  4. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  5. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  6. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  7. Relation between humor and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Hampes, W P

    2001-02-01

    A series of studies have shown that humor is associated with close interpersonal relationships and effective in reducing stress, which in turn enhances empathy. Therefore, it was hypothesized that humor and empathic concern would be positively correlated. The Empathic Concern subscale of the Empathy Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 124 subjects. Scores on the Empathic Concern subscale were significantly correlated with those on each of the humor scales. Types of humor may be an important variable in the relationship between empathic concern and humor. Both humor and empathic concern are associated for people with emotional intelligence who use these to interact effectively with other individuals. As such, it was suggested that exploration would yield a relation between humor and emotional self-awareness, which is also associated with emotional intelligence.

  8. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Inverstigation of Molecular-level Behavior within Aqueous 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Abhra; Ali, Maroof; Baker, Gary A; Tetin, Sergey Y.; Ruan, Qiaoqiao; Pandey, Siddharth

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an array of molecular-level solvent featuressincluding solute-solvent/solvent-solvent interactions, dipolarity, heterogeneity, dynamics, probe accessibility, and diffusionswere investigated across the entire composition of ambient mixtures containing the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF4], and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer, based on results assembled for nine different molecular probes utilized in a range of spectroscopic modes. These studies uncovered interesting and unusual solvatochromic probe behavior within this benchmark mixture. Solvatochromic absorbance probessa watersoluble betaine dye (betaine dye 33), N,N-diethyl-4-nitroaniline, and 4-nitroanilineswere employed to determine ET (a blend of dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor contributions) and the Kamlet-Taft indices * (dipolarity/polarizability), R (hydrogen bond donor acidity), and (hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) characterizing the [bmim][BF4] + phosphate buffer system. These parameters each showed a marked deviation from ideality, suggesting selective solvation of the individual probe solutes by [bmim][BF4]. Similar conclusions were derived from the responses of the fluorescent polarity-sensitive probes pyrene and pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde. Importantly, the fluorescent microfluidity probe 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane senses a microviscosity within the mixture that significantly exceeds expectations derived from simple interpolation of the behavior in the neat solvents. On the basis of results from this probe, a correlation between microviscosity and bulk viscosity was established; pronounced solvent-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions were implicit in this behavior. The greatest deviation from ideal additive behavior for the probes studied herein was consistently observed to occur in the buffer-rich regime. Nitromethane-based fluorescence quenching of pyrene within the [bmim][BF4] + phosphate buffer system showed unusual compliance with a sphere

  9. [Humoral reaction to Bordetella pertussis antigens: pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide in children with clinical symptoms of whooping cough. II. Occurence and level of B. pertussis antigens in children with suspected whooping cough].

    PubMed

    Chodorowska, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate IgG, IgM and IgA levels to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and endotoxin (LPS) of B. pertussis in children with clinical symptoms of whooping cough. The serum samples obtained from 265 children (age range: 2 months-16 years) suspected of pertussis were examined by indirect haemagglutination (IH) and ELISA tests. Higher antibody level was most frequently observed in IgA class to PT, FHA and LPS in 45.3%, 35.1% and 66% of pertussis patients sera respectively. The least positive results were obtained in IgM class to PT and FHA (in 9.8% and 2.6% of children sera respectively) but in the case of LPS applied as the antigen in ELISA, higher IgM level was determined in 46.8% of pertussis patients sera. The four times increase of antibody level to LPS determined by IH was observed in 86.7% of children suspected of pertussis. Humoral response to B. pertussis infection is mainly connected with higher IgA level to PT, FHA, LPS and IgM to LPS in children with clinical symptoms of whooping cough.

  10. Total oxidative stress, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels at patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Feyza; Vural Ozec, Ayse; Aydin, Huseyin; Topalkara, Aysen; Dursun, Ayhan; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Erdogan, Haydar; Arici, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the oxidative stress status of the aqueous humor and serum of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG) and to measure paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) levels. METHODS A total of 78 patients were enrolled in the study, with 26 patients in each separate group. The patients were divided into three groups: the first group entailed PEX syndrome patients, while the second group consisted of patients with PEG and the third group involved patients with no additional systemic diseases, other than the diagnosis of cataract as control. Total oxidative stress (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), PON, and ARE levels in aqueous humor and serum were measured. RESULTS TAC, PON and arylesterase levels in aqueous humor and serum of the PEX syndrome and PEG patients were significantly decreased compared with control group (P<0.05). TOS values were higher in patients with PEX syndrome and PEG than controls (P<0.05). TAC, PON and ARE levels of aqueous humor did not differ significantly between the PEX syndrome and PEG groups CONCLUSION These findings are potentially of significance and add to the growing body of evidence for oxidative stress in PEX syndrome and PEG. Decreased antioxidant defense and increased oxidative stress system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEX syndrome and PEG. PMID:26558214

  11. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    PubMed

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall.

  12. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    PubMed

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  14. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:27757091

  15. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  16. Impact of land use and physicochemical settings on aqueous methylmercury levels in the Mobile-Alabama River System.

    PubMed

    Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J; Lyons, W Berry

    2004-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations above levels that could pose health risks have been measured recently in predatory fish from many aquatic systems in the southeastern region of the United States. Based on hypotheses derived from published experimental data on the aqueous geochemistry of Hg, we investigated the effect of certain natural and human-imposed conditions on in situ levels of methylmercury (MeHg) in the Mobile-Alabama River System (MARS). Water samples were collected from different types of environments, hypothesized to have contrasting levels of MeHg in the aqueous phase, and were analyzed for total-Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, as well as some key geochemical parameters. The results showed the following. i) Overall, total Hg concentrations in waters of the MARS are quite uniformly distributed and vary from 0.2 to 6 ng L(-1), suggesting that besides geological sources, atmospheric deposition is certainly the main source of Hg inputs in the studied system. ii) In locations with comparable THg levels, the Hg fraction present as MeHg was consistently higher in samples collected from the Coastal Plain portion of the MARS as compared to those from other geological provinces. iii) Our in situ observations confirmed conclusions derived from laboratory experiments, in that, MeHg abundance in aquatic systems correlates with sulfate (but only within a narrow range of concentrations); decreasing pH; and has no direct relationships with either nitrate or phosphate. iv) The investigation of Hg accumulation in biota at a single site showed that an aquatic system with low THg concentrations but a high MeHg:THg ratios, could have organisms with Hg content above safe levels. Therefore, potential health risks to fish eating populations can exist even when the aqueous phase does not show signs of significant Hg enrichment.

  17. Frontal brain asymmetry and transient cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor.

    PubMed

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Samson, Andrea C; Freudenthaler, H Harald; Lackner, Helmut K

    2013-04-01

    The study examined the relationship of individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, measured by the EEG in resting conditions, to the individual's responsivity in the context of humor (n=42). Several weeks after the EEG recording, immediate cardiovascular responses to the perception of humor and behavioral indicators of humor processing were obtained in an experimental paradigm involving non-verbal cartoons. Relatively greater resting activity in the left than right prefrontal cortex, particularly at the ventrolateral positions, was associated with faster detection of humor, a more pronounced cardiac response to the perception of humor (heart rate and cardiac output), and more accessible internal positive affective states (indicated by faster reports of amusement levels). The study confirms and extends findings of the relevance of prefrontal brain asymmetry to affective responsivity, contributing evidence in the domain of positive affect and humor, and demonstrating relationships to the immediate cardiovascular response pattern to an emotional event.

  18. If I don't laugh, I'll cry: Exploring humor coping in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Melton, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among humor coping, optimism, neuroticism, and depression in a sample of breast cancer survivors and matched control participants. Breast cancer survivors reported marginally lower levels of depression than the controls. In both groups, humor coping was not related to depression, optimism, or neuroticism, but depression was correlated negatively with optimism and positively with neuroticism. In the breast cancer group, humor coping was correlated with the coping subscales of self-distraction, positive reframing, planning, and active coping. In the control group, humor coping was correlated with the coping sub-scales of self-distraction, positive reframing, planning, venting, and using instrumental support. These results suggest either that humor coping is not a stable variable or that whether humor is a positive or negative coping technique depends partly on the population under study.

  19. Measurement of hydrogen peroxide in biological samples containing high levels of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Bleau, G; Giasson, C; Brunette, I

    1998-10-01

    The physiological concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous humor was reported to range between 25 and 60 microM, and conditions leading to elevated levels could have important damaging effects such as cataract formation. However, the high concentration of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor, which is 20 times that of plasma, was recently shown to interfere in the dichlorophenol-indophenol assay for hydrogen peroxide. The actual concentration of hydrogen peroxide in this fluid has become a controversial issue. In the present study, we used the method of ferrous oxidation of xylenol orange (FOX1 assay) performed in a nitrogen atmosphere to accurately measure low levels of hydrogen peroxide, even in the presence of ascorbic acid at concentrations normally found in aqueous humor. Contrary to values reported in the literature, we observed that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the rabbit aqueous humor is less than 5 microM, which is the detection limit of the method. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  20. Multi-level Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Study of Ring Opening Process of Guanine Damage by Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Qiong; Niu, Meixing; Wang, Dunyou

    2017-08-10

    Combining multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics with an explicit water model, we investigated the ring opening process of guanine damage by hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution. The detailed, atomic-level ring-opening mechanism along the reaction pathway was revealed in aqueous solution at the CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. The potentials of mean force in aqueous solution were calculated at both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of the theory. Our study found that the aqueous solution has a significant effect on this reaction in solution. In particular, by comparing the geometries of the stationary points between in gas phase and in aqueous solution, we found that the aqueous solution has a tremendous impact on the torsion angles much more than on the bond lengths and bending angles. Our calculated free-energy barrier height 31.6 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory agrees well with the one obtained based on gas-phase reaction profile and free energies of solvation. In addition, the reaction path in gas phase was also mapped using multi-level quantum mechanics theories, which shows a reaction barrier at 19.2 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T) level of theory, agreeing very well with a recent ab initio calculation result at 20.8 kcal/mol.

  1. Extraversion and evaluation of humorous advertisements.

    PubMed

    Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata A; Borecka, Dorota

    2010-02-01

    Evaluation of humorous advertisements is supposed to be influenced by the perceivers' traits. The present study assessed the relation of extraversion with ratings of eight characteristics of humorous and informative advertisements. 75 high school students viewed the advertisements; a small positive correlation was found between scores on Extraversion and overall positive ratings of the humorous advertisement, but the correlation of scores on Extraversion with overall ratings of the informative advertisement was not statistically significant. Higher scores for Extraversion were positively correlated with more favorable reactions toward the humorous advertisement. Overall ratings of the humorous advertisement were also positively correlated with the humorousness and informativeness ratings, indicating that the more the advertisement was perceived as humorous and informative, the more positive was the overall rating. The latter ratings were significantly intercorrelated at r(s) = .50. The role of extraversion was small but significant in the evaluation of humorous advertisements.

  2. The Benefits of Humor in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulloth, Joan Kay

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 31 nursing students and 3 teachers identified several benefits from using humor in class: relieving stress, focusing attention, making learning fun, enhancing learning, and strengthening relationships. Students overwhelmingly supported the use of appropriate humor. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  3. Humor modulates the mesolimbic reward centers.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Dean; Greicius, Michael D; Abdel-Azim, Eiman; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L

    2003-12-04

    Humor plays an essential role in many facets of human life including psychological, social, and somatic functioning. Recently, neuroimaging has been applied to this critical human attribute, shedding light on the affective, cognitive, and motor networks involved in humor processing. To date, however, researchers have failed to demonstrate the subcortical correlates of the most fundamental feature of humor-reward. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological substrate that subserves the reward components of humor, we undertook a high-field (3 Tesla) event-related functional MRI study. Here we demonstrate that humor modulates activity in several cortical regions, and we present new evidence that humor engages a network of subcortical regions including the nucleus accumbens, a key component of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Further, the degree of humor intensity was positively correlated with BOLD signal intensity in these regions. Together, these findings offer new insight into the neural basis of salutary aspects of humor.

  4. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Look at Humor in Literature and Children's Responses to Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L.

    Humor in literature and children's responses to humor deserve serious study. Humor in literature may focus on a character's method for coping with a disturbing situation, problems (such as riddles) that engender sudden insights when things fall into place, or ludicrous characters. Incongruity and surprise also play an important part in humor and…

  6. A Look at Humor in Literature and Children's Responses to Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L.

    Humor in literature and children's responses to humor deserve serious study. Humor in literature may focus on a character's method for coping with a disturbing situation, problems (such as riddles) that engender sudden insights when things fall into place, or ludicrous characters. Incongruity and surprise also play an important part in humor and…

  7. Humor use in romantic relationships: the effects of relationship satisfaction and pleasant versus conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the authors explored the use of positive, negative, and avoiding humor in 2 types of situations by individuals in romantic relationships. Participants (N = 154) rated their frequency of humor use in either a typical conflict scenario with their partner or a typical pleasant event. Participants also indicated their overall degree of romantic relationship satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that individuals who were more satisfied with their relationship reported higher levels of positive humor use and lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use. Furthermore, lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use were reported for the conflict situation. Last, a significant 2-way interaction revealed that individuals who were high in relationship satisfaction reported significantly lower levels of negative humor use in a conflict situation as compared with a pleasant encounter. In contrast, individuals who were low in relationship satisfaction reported the same high levels of negative humor use regardless of whether they were in a conflict situation or a pleasant encounter. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the need for further research to clearly delineate the factors that may influence the complex use of humor in romantic relationships.

  8. Mathematical modeling the radiation effects on humoral immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O. A.

    A mathematical model of humoral immune response in nonirradiated and irradiated mammals is developed. It is based on conventional theories and experimental facts in this field. The model is a system of nonlinear differential equations which describe the dynamics of concentrations of antibody and antigen molecules, immunocompetent B lymphocytes, and the rest blood lymphocytes, as well as the bone-marrow lymphocyte precursors. The interaction of antigen molecules with antibodies and with antibody-like receptors on immunocompetent cells is also incorporated. The model quantitatively reproduces the dynamics of the humoral immune response to the T-independent antigen (capsular antigen of plague microbe) in nonirradiated mammals (CBA mice). It describes the peculiarities of the humoral immune response in CBA mice exposed to acute radiation before or after introducing antigen. The model predicts an adaptation of humoral immune system to low dose rate chronic irradiation in the result of which the intensity of immune response relaxes to a new, lower than normal, stable level. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are revealed. The results obtained show that the developed model, after the appropriate identification, can be used to predict the effects of acute and low-level long-term irradiation on the system of humoral immunity in humans. Employment of the mathematical model identified in the proper way should be important in estimating the radiation risk for cosmonauts and astronauts on long space missions such as a voyage to Mars or a lunar colony.

  9. COGNITIVE PROCESSES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN'S APPRECIATION OF HUMOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZIGLER, EDWARD; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDREN'S HUMOR RESPONSE AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. BY USING CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT GRADE LEVELS AS SUBJECTS, IT WAS ASSUMED THAT THE STUDY WOULD INCLUDE SEVERAL LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT. TWENTY-FIVE CARTOONS WERE SHOWN TO 64 TEST CHILDREN. THE TEST CHILDREN WERE CHOSEN FROM GRADES TWO,…

  10. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  11. Effects of Including Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    Two 50-item multiple-choice forms of a grammar test were developed differing only in humor being included in 20 items of one form. One hundred twenty-six (126) eighth graders received the test plus alternate forms of a questionnaire. Humor inclusion did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items nor on common post-treatment…

  12. Effects of Incorporating Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two matched forms of a 50 item grammar test were developed. Twenty items designed to be humorous were included in one form. Inclusion of humorous items did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items, nor on commmon post-treatment items. Inclusion did not affect results of anxiety measures. (Author/DWH)

  13. Funny Babies: Humor and Power in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys existing research on the role of humor in early childhood. Babies and toddlers use humor to develop, apply, and expand their understanding of existing concepts; define themselves; and establish relationships with peers and caregivers. Humor helps young children view stressful situations in a nonthreatening way. As soon as…

  14. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  15. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  16. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  17. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  18. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R.

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when…

  19. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng L(-1) levels of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Noppe, H; Verheyden, K; Gillis, W; Courtheyn, D; Vanthemsche, P; De Brabander, H F

    2007-03-14

    Since the 1970s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promoters, such as thyreostats, anabolics, beta-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng L(-1) levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water supplements), commercially available on the 'black' market. For this, extraction was performed with Bakerbond C18 speedisk, a technique commonly used in environmental analysis. After fractionation, four fractions were collected using a methanol:water gradient program. Gas chromatography coupled to electron impact multiple mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS2) screening for the EGAs was carried out on the derivatized extracts. For the detection of corticosteroids, gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) was used after oxidation of the extracts. Confirmation was done by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2). The combined use of GC and LC coupled to MS enabled the identification and quantification of anabolics and corticosteroids at the low ng L(-1) level. This study demonstrated the occurrence of both androgens and corticosteroids in different commercial aqueous samples.

  20. Aqueous Humour and Serum Levels of Nitric Oxide, Malondialdehyde and Total Antioxidant Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Nondiabetic Senile Cataracts.

    PubMed

    Kulaksızoglu, Sevsen; Karalezli, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is associated with enhanced oxidative stress and/or reduction of antioxidant status. Several studies have examined the oxidative agents, such as nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), in the body fluids of patients with diabetes. However, total antioxidant status (TAS) in the aqueous humour of patients with diabetes has not been determined to date. To address this issue, we analyzed the aqueous humour and serum levels of NO, MDA and TAS in patients with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic senile cataracts. This prospective study included 35 patients with type 2 diabetes and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in whom cataract surgery was indicated. Aqueous humour and serum MDA, NO and TAS levels were determined by spectrophotometric methods, respectively. The analysis of MDA levels in the serum and aqueous humour revealed no significant differences in any of the groups (p>0.05). At the level of aqueous humour, patients with type 2 diabetes had significantly increased NO levels, compared to the controls (p=0.003). The control group also presented significantly higher TAS levels than the subgroup with type 2 diabetes in serum (p=0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the TAS levels of aqueous humour and serum NO levels in the groups (p>0.05). Our results seem to demonstrate that the development of diabetic retinopathy is associated with high levels of aqueous humour NO and reduced serum antioxidant defenses. Therefore, inhibition of reactive oxygen species production and substitution of serum antioxidant status may be a therapeutic target for eye diseases associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. INFLUENCE OF METHOD OF QUESTIONING UPON CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO HUMOROUS SITUATIONS IN LITERATURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONSON, DIANNE L.

    TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF METHODS OF ELICITING CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO HUMOR IN LITERATURE AND TO DETERMINE HOW THESE RESPONSES ARE AFFECTED BY SEX, SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL, INTELLIGENCE, AND READING ABILITY, 365 FIFTH GRADERS WERE ASKED TO READ EXCERPTS CONTAINING ELEMENTS OF FIVE TYPES OF HUMOR. UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES REQUIRING…

  2. Does Humor Explain Why Relationally Aggressive Adolescents Are Popular?

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377

  3. Humor Comprehension and Humor Appreciation of Cognitively Oriented Humor: A Study of Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Amelia J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates kindergarten children's ability to comprehend and appreciate cognitively-oriented humor. Conceptual development was measured by assessing children's responses to a liquid conservation task modeled after Piaget. Results fail to support previous theories and indicate that a majority of the children fully comprehended and were able to…

  4. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  5. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hampes, William

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252

  6. Level 1 transient model for a molybdenum-99 producing aqueous homogeneous reactor and its applicability to the tracy reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, E. T.; Williams, M. M. R.; Angelo, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group (B and W) has identified aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) as a technology well suited to produce the medical isotope molybdenum 99 (Mo-99). AHRs have never been specifically designed or built for this specialized purpose. However, AHRs have a proven history of being safe research reactors. In fact, in 1958, AHRs had 'a longer history of operation than any other type of research reactor using enriched fuel' and had 'experimentally demonstrated to be among the safest of all various type of research reactor now in use [1].' A 'Level 1' model representing B and W's proposed Medical Isotope Production System (MIPS) reactor has been developed. The Level 1 model couples a series of differential equations representing neutronics, temperature, and voiding. Neutronics are represented by point reactor kinetics while temperature and voiding terms are axially varying (one-dimensional). While this model was developed specifically for the MIPS reactor, its applicability to the Japanese TRACY reactor was assessed. The results from the Level 1 model were in good agreement with TRACY experimental data and found to be conservative over most of the time domains considered. The Level 1 model was used to study the MIPS reactor. An analysis showed the Level 1 model agreed well with a more complex computational model of the MIPS reactor (a FETCH model). Finally, a significant reactivity insertion was simulated with the Level 1 model to study the MIPS reactor's time-dependent response. (authors)

  7. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    PubMed

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  8. How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance.

    PubMed

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Allen, Joseph A

    2014-11-01

    Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor-performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams' supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254

  10. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  11. Positive correlation between pigment epithelium‐derived factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 levels in the aqueous humour of patients with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamagishi, Sho‐ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate whether aqueous humour levels of pigment epithelium‐derived factor (PEDF) are associated with monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 (MCP‐1) in patients with uveitis. Methods Aqueous humour levels of MCP‐1 and PEDF were determined by ELISA in 34 uveitis samples and 9 cataract control samples. Results Aqueous humour MCP‐1 and PEDF levels were significantly higher in patients with infectious or non‐infectious uveitis than in controls (mean (SD) 32.3 (10.7) ng/ml vs 4.48 (1.10) ng/ml vs 0.47 (0.10) ng/ml, and 8.40 (1.30) μg/ml vs 5.01 (0.92) μg/ml vs 1.32 (0.22) μg/ml, respectively, p<0.001). A positive correlation between PEDF and MCP‐1 was found in patients with uveitis (r = 0.39, p<0.01). Conclusion The results demonstrated that aqueous humour levels of PEDF were positively associated with MCP‐1 in patients with uveitis. The present observations suggest that aqueous humour levels of PEDF may be a marker of inflammation in uveitis. PMID:17166895

  12. Effect of oxidation level on the inclusion capacity and solution stability of oxidized amylose in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xinying; Lv, Yongbo; Shi, Yifeng; Zeng, Yu; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2016-03-15

    The oxidized amyloses with high oxidation level and carboxyl content were successfully prepared through a two-step oxidation method using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant and copper sulfate as the catalyst. The results showed that oxidation would prevent the oxidized product to crystallize and induce depolymerization of amylose molecules. Accordingly, the helices and inclusion capacity of oxidized amylose molecules were reduced. However, the solubility of oxidized amyloses in water was highly improved due to the introduced carboxyl groups. The solution stability of oxidized amylose-guest inclusion complexes in aqueous solution was efficiently improved to a large extent. The result suggested that the two-step oxidation method was an efficient way to highly broaden the applications of amylose-guest inclusion complexes in water environment.

  13. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  14. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  15. Growth response and tissue accumulation trends of herbaceous wetland plant species exposed to elevated aqueous mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jonathan M; Gambrell, Robert P; Hester, Mark W

    2010-08-01

    The impacts of elevated aqueous mercury levels (0, 2, and 4 ppm) on the growth status and mercury tissue concentrations of Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, Juncus effuses, Typha latifolia, and Panicum hemitomon were determined. Both short-term (net CO2 assimilation) and long-term (biomass) indicators of plant growth status suggest that Eleocharis parvula, Saururus cernuus, and Juncus effuses were relatively unimpacted by elevated mercury levels, whereas Typha latifolia and Panicum hemitomon were somewhat impacted at elevated mercury levels. Eleocharis parvula, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia generally had the greatest overall belowground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 7.21, 7.32, and 9.64 ppm respectively; 4 ppm treatment: 16.23, 18.23, and 13.98 ppm, respectively) and aboveground tissue concentrations of mercury (2 ppm treatment: 0.01, 0.04, 0.02; 4 ppm treatment: 0.26; 0.11; 0.17 ppm, respectively). However, the species investigated in this study demonstrated lower levels of mercury accumulation into tissues when compared with similar investigations of other aquatic plants, suggesting that the above species are not optimal for phytoremediation efforts.

  16. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  17. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Janina; Sawicka, Teresa; Prosińska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was an estimation of the influence of two plant pharmaceutical preparations containing an extract from the root of Eleutherococcus senticosus: Argoeleuter tablets and Immuplant tablets, on the humoral response of immunological system. Experiments were performed with female Balb/c mice six weeks old. In order to reveal the influence of taking preparations, containing an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus on some elements of the immunological system, three ways of their administration have been compared: before illness, during illness and a combination of both. The obtained results allow formulating the following conclusions: - the pharmaceutical preparations, containing the extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus administered orally, influence on the increase of the level of immunoglobulins comprised in the mice's blood serum, - the pharmaceutical preparations act with different power, not fully dependent on the content of marker of the active substance - eleutheroside E, - dosage of the preparations containing the extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus should not be established basing only on the extract content, - best curative results, measured as the stimulation of humoral response of the organism were obtained when a given preparation was administered therapeutically, even though the combined administration - prophylactically with prolonged administration during illness also is correct.

  18. Assessing 16-Year-Old Students' Understanding of Aqueous Solution at Submicroscopic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Vogrinc, Janez; Glazar, Sasa Aleksij

    2009-01-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMR) could be an important element, not only for explaining the experimental observations to students, but also in the process of evaluating students' knowledge and identifying their chemical misconceptions. This study investigated the level of students' understanding of the solution concentration and the process of…

  19. Humoral immune responses of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri to challenge with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Xuemei; Wu, Di

    2006-08-01

    Humoral parameters of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri, including lysozyme, antimicrobial activity, microbial agglutinin and haemagglutinins were measured before and after challenge with Escherichia coli. Humoral fluids from unchallenged B. belcheri had lysozyme, antimicrobial, microbial agglutinating and haemagglutinating activities, which may represent part of the baseline level of innate immunity in this organism. After challenge with E. coli, the lysozyme activity, growth-inhibiting activities against E. coli and Vibrio alginolyticus, microbial agglutinating activities against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococus aureus, and haemagglutinating activities against rabbit and human A and O erythrocytes in the humoral fluids were all increased significantly. In contrast, the agglutinating activities against Vibrio harveyi and E. coli and the haemagglutinating activity against human B erythrocytes in the humoral fluids were reduced in response to E. coli challenge. It appears that the humoral fluids of B. belcheri contain components that are able to differentiate different microbes and different human blood cell types.

  20. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the impact of an important factor contributing to successful aging, humor, on post-awakening cortisol levels among a group of 45 older men whose ages ranged from 64 years to 86 years (mean=73.6 years). Four saliva samples were collected from the participants for 2 days immediately after waking and every 15 min thereafter for three times. Cortisol data of the 2 days were aggregated for analysis. Two separate indices of cortisol awakening response reflecting the mean level of secretion and the rise from immediately to 45 min post-awakening, AUC(G) and AUC(I), were computed using the trapezoid formula. The relation of these two indices to humor (operationalized as coping) was examined in a multiple regression analysis while controlling for the effect of age, socioeconomic status, and self-esteem. Results indicated that higher humor scores were associated with lower AUC(G) but had no relation with AUC(I). Findings of the present study suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is the major pathway whereby positive psychological dispositions, such as humor, exert their health effects in the aging population. Moreover, cortisol levels in the awakening period may be particularly sensitive to the influences of psychosocial factors.

  1. Comprehension of humor in children with nonverbal learning disabilities, reading disabilities, and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Glass, Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    The normal development of humor in children has been well documented with a predictable course that is tied to social, cognitive, and linguistic development in children. This study explored humor comprehension in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). Children with NVLD were compared with children with reading disabilities and a comparison group of children with no learning disabilities to assess their comprehension of humor. The humor test was composed of a joke and cartoon section. No group differences in humor comprehension were found when the NVLD group was defined as having visual-spatial and visual reasoning deficits. However, when the NVLD group was divided into children with and without social perceptual difficulties as defined by a direct measure of social comprehension, significant group differences were found in the levels of humor comprehension. These results support the association of humor comprehension with social perception and lend tentative support to the hypothesis that children with NVLD may not be a homogenous group. Future study directions include further exploration into the nature of the association between humor comprehension and social perception as well as closer examination of the heterogeneity of NVLD.

  2. Identification of light absorbing oligomers from glyoxal and methylglyoxal aqueous processing: a comparative study at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Hamilton, Jacqueline; Rickard, Andrew; Baeza-Romero, Maria; Healy, Robert; Peppe, Salvatore; Adams, Tom; Daniels, Mark; Ball, Stephen; Goodall, Iain; Monks, Paul; Borras, Esther; Munoz, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies point to the reactive uptake of gaseous low molecular weight carbonyls onto atmospheric waters (clouds/fog droplets and wet aerosols) as an important SOA formation route not yet included in current models. However, the evaluation of these processes is challenging because water provides a medium for a complex array of reactions to take place such as self-oligomerization, aldol condensation and Maillard-type browning reactions in the presence of ammonium salts. In addition to adding to SOA mass, aqueous chemistry products have been shown to include light absorbing, surface-active and high molecular weight oligomeric species, and can therefore affect climatically relevant aerosol properties such as light absorption and hygroscopicity. Glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) are the gaseous carbonyls that have perhaps received the most attention to date owing to their ubiquity, abundance and reactivity in water, with the majority of studies focussing on bulk physical properties. However, very little is known at the molecular level, in particular for MGLY, and the relative potential of these species as aqueous SOA precursors in ambient air is still unclear. We have conducted experiments with both laboratory solutions and chamber-generated particles to simulate the aqueous processing of GLY and MGLY with ammonium sulphate (AS) under typical atmospheric conditions and investigated their respective aging products. Both high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-Vis detection and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MSn) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) have been used for molecular identification purposes. Comprehensive gas chromatography with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-NCD) has been applied for the first time to these systems, revealing a surprisingly high number of nitrogen-containing organics (ONs), with a large extent of polarities. GCxGC-NCD proved to be a valuable tool to determine overall amount and rates of

  3. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan) PMID:24799863

  4. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  5. [Investigation into the motives for different expressions of humor].

    PubMed

    Tsukawaki, Ryota; Koshi, Ryoko; Higuchi, Masataka; Fukada, Hiromi

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the motives for different expressions of humor. University students (n = 286) completed a questionnaire regarding motives for three types of humor expressions: aggressive humor, self-disparaging humor, and playful humor. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the motives for the expressions of humor could be classified into five types: relationship construction, transmitting dissatisfaction, supporting others, managing self-impression, or supporting self. ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in the strengths of the motives among the three types of humor expressions. The results indicated that the motive for transmitting dissatisfaction was stronger in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. On the other hand, the motive for supporting others was weaker in aggressive humor expressions than in the two other types of humor expressions. Moreover, the motive for supporting self was stronger in self-disparaging humor expression than in aggressive humor expression.

  6. Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Dangguijagyagsan on Serum Lipid Levels and Blood Flow Improvement in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Sil; Lee, Hye Won; Ko, Byoung Seob

    2014-01-01

    Dangguijagyagsan (DJS), a traditional herbal prescription, has long been used to treat menopause-related symptoms. We identified the cardioprotective effects of an aqueous extract of DJS using an ovariectomized (OVX) and ferric chloride- (FeCl-) induced carotid thrombosis rat model. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized or Sham-operated (Sham-control). The ovariectomized rats were divided into three groups: OVX with saline (OVX-control), aspirin 30 mg/kg/day (OVX-ASA), and DJS 100 mg/kg/day (OVX-DJS). The treatments were administered for 5 weeks. Then, blood samples were collected to analyze the serum lipid levels and platelet aggregation. The topical application of 40% FeCl3 induced intravascular thrombosis, which was used to test thrombotic occlusion and for histological examination. Body weight and the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in the OVX rats. These effects were reduced by ASA and DJS treatment. In addition, ASA and DJS treatment significantly inhibited platelet aggregation. These treatments also increased time to occlusion and decreased both thrombus size and the presence of collagen fibers in surrounding vessel walls compared with the Sham-control and OVX-control groups. These results suggest that DJS has beneficial effects in terms of preventing cardiovascular disease in menopausal woman because it can reduce the serum lipid levels and improve blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. PMID:25276217

  7. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  8. Regionally Discrete Aqueous Humor Outflow Quantification Using Fluorescein Canalograms

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Pritha; Schuman, Joel S.; Sigal, Ian A.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To visualize and quantify conventional outflow directly in its anatomic location. Methods We obtained fluorescein canalograms in six porcine whole eyes and six porcine anterior segment cultures. Eyes were perfused with a constant pressure of 15 mmHg using media containing 0.017 mg/ml fluorescein. Flow patterns were visualized using a stereo dissecting microscope equipped for fluorescent imaging. Images were captured every 30 seconds for 20 minutes for time lapse analysis. Anterior chamber cultures were imaged again on day three of culture. Canalograms were first analyzed for filling time per quadrant. We then wrote a program to automatically compute focal flow fits for each macropixel and to detect convergent perilimbal flow patterns with macropixels grouped into 3 equal-radial width rings around the cornea. A generalized additive model was used to determine fluorescence changes of individual macropixels. Results The resulting imaging algorithm deployed 1024 macropixels that were fit to determine maximum intensity and time to fill. These individual fits highlighted the focal flow function. In whole eyes, significantly faster flow was seen in the inferonasal (IN) and superonasal (SN) quadrants compared to the superotemporal (ST) and inferotemporal (IT) ones (p<0.05). In anterior chamber cultures, reduced flow on day 1 increased in all quadrants on day 3 except in IT (p<0.05). Perilimbal ring analysis uncovered convergent perilimbal flow. Conclusions An algorithm was developed that analyzes regional and circumferential outflow patterns. This algorithm found flow patterns that changed over time and differ in whole eyes and anterior segment cultures. PMID:26998833

  9. The humoral immune system of anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Zwollo, Patty

    2017-01-03

    The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response. Immunological memory in the form of long-lived plasma cells likely plays important roles in health and survival during the life cycle of anadromous fishes. This review discusses some of the complex immune-endocrine pathways in anadromous fish, focusing on essential roles for B lineage cells in the successful completion of their life cycle. A discussion is included on potential differences in immuno-competence between wild and hatchery-raised fish.

  10. Humor: Aggression, Defence, and Conservatism: Group Characteristics and Differential Humor Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askenasy, George H.

    1976-01-01

    A broad sample of adult male and female subjects was administered an humor appreciation inventory (54 jokes, 9 categories). The major finding was that humor appreciation scores are remarkably similar regardless of background characteristics. (Author/SBP)

  11. Laughing It Up: Native American Humor as Spiritual Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Native American humor is explored through a brief discussion of the current literature regarding the use of humor in counseling and descriptions of various forms and communication styles of Native humor as spiritual tradition. Implications for multicultural awareness in the use of humor and possible use of Native humor in counseling with Native…

  12. Acetylcholinesterase activity in grass shrimp and aqueous pesticide levels from South Florida drainage canals.

    PubMed

    Key, P B; Fulton, M H; Harman-Fetcho, J A; McConnell, L L

    2003-10-01

    Freshwater drainage canals in South Florida are utilized to manage water in agricultural, urban, and water conservation areas and, as a result, collect urban and agricultural storm runoff that is discharged into the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Pesticides in this runoff may be toxic to the biota inhabiting these waters. This study evaluated the effects of contaminants in South Florida canals draining into Biscayne Bay on the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes intermedius), a representative invertebrate species. Results of surface water analysis for pesticides indicated that eight pesticides out of 52 analyzed were detected. The herbicide metolachlor was found at all nine sites in the five canals sampled at concentrations up to 119 ng/L. Atrazine was detected at seven sites at concentrations up to 29 ng/L. Three organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon) were detected at three sites in two canals (Military and North). Grass shrimp from these three sites showed significantly reduced levels of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme as compared to control shrimp. These two canals are similar in the land use areas drained--urban and suburban and agriculture. The results suggest that monitoring organisms for AChE levels can be a means of detecting exposure to organophosphorus pesticide contamination.

  13. Humor in autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in autism and Asperger syndrome in the context of the main psychological theories (Theory of Mind, Executive Functions, Weak Central Coherence and Laterization models) and associated neural substrates. In the concluding sections, examples of humor displayed by individuals with autism/Asperger syndrome which appear to challenge the above theories are analyzed and areas for further research are suggested.

  14. Humor: The "Witting" Edge in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)

  15. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  16. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  17. Gradient Boosted Decision Tree Classification of Endophthalmitis Versus Uveitis and Lymphoma from Aqueous and Vitreous IL-6 and IL-10 Levels.

    PubMed

    Kuo, David E; Wei, Maggie M; Armbrust, Karen R; Knickelbein, Jared E; Yeung, Ian Y L; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Chan, Chi-Chao; Sen, Hatice Nida

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of gradient boosting to classify endophthalmitis versus uveitis and lymphoma by intraocular cytokine levels. Patient diagnoses and aqueous and vitreous levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were retrospectively extracted from a National Eye Institute Histopathology Core database and compared by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn tests. A gradient-boosted decision tree classifier was trained to differentiate endophthalmitis versus uveitis and lymphoma from vitreous IL-6 and IL-10, vitreous IL-6 only, and aqueous IL-6 only data sets; and was tested with 80-20 train-test split and 3-fold cross-validation of the training set. Seven endophthalmitis, 29 lymphoma, and 49 uveitis patients were included. IL-6 was higher in endophthalmitis than uveitis (P = 0.0713 aqueous, 0.0014 vitreous) and lymphoma (P = 0.0032 aqueous, 0.0001 vitreous). IL-10 was significantly higher in lymphoma than uveitis (P = 0.0017 aqueous, 0.0014 vitreous). Three-fold cross validation demonstrated 95% ± 5%, 95% ± 4%, and 97% ± 5% predictive accuracy for vitreous IL-6 and IL-10, vitreous IL-6 only, and aqueous IL-6 only data sets. Upon validation with the testing set, vitreous IL-6 and IL-10 and aqueous IL-6 only data sets achieved 100% predictive accuracy and vitreous IL-6 only data achieved 93% predictive accuracy with 100% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC/AUC) of 96%. With limited sample size, gradient boosting can differentiate endophthalmitis from uveitis and lymphoma by IL-6 and IL-10 with high sensitivity and specificity; however, a larger cohort is needed for further validation.

  18. Humor as an Instructional Practice: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Humor Use in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Scott G.

    A study analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the use of humor in the classroom. A longitudinal content analysis of presentational and classroom studies from 1941 to 1991 was conducted. Earlier studies were included if they had been cited five or more times within articles on humor in the classroom. Scholars have argued that humor: is a…

  19. Removal of trace level aqueous mercury by adsorption and photocatalysis on silica-titania composites.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Heather E; Mazyck, David W

    2009-10-30

    Silica-titania composites (STCs) were applied to trace level mercury solutions (100 microg/L Hg) to determine the degree of mercury removal that could be accomplished via adsorption and photocatalysis. STCs are a porous, high surface area silica substrate (> 200 m(2)/g), manufactured using sol-gel methodology, impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles. The performance of this material along with its precursors, silica and Degussa P25 TiO2 were compared. Under adsorption alone (no UV illumination), STCs were able to achieve approximately 90% removal of mercury, which is comparable to that of Degussa P25. Silica without TiO2 performed poorly in comparison and was minimally affected by UV illumination. Contrary to expectations, the performance of Degussa P25 was not largely changed by UV irradiation and the STC was detrimentally affected under the same conditions. It was concluded that elemental mercury was formed under UV irradiation with or without the presence of TiO2 due to photochemical reactions, decreasing the mercury removal by STC. Additionally, the primary particle size of the STC was reduced to increase mass transfer. The result was improved Hg removal under adsorption and photocatalysis conditions. Improved adsorption kinetics were also achieved by altering the STC pore size and TiO2 loading.

  20. Effect of diclofenac on ocular levels of ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacin in rabbits with endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Krustev, Svetozar Zhelev; Rusenova, Nikolina Velizarova; Haritova, Aneliya Milanova

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacin penetration into the anterior eye tissues after topical instillation in healthy rabbits and with experimental Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis. Additionally, effect of diclofenac sodium eye drops on the distribution of both fluoroquinolones in the inflamed eye tissues was investigated. An intense protocol with frequent antibiotic administration was chosen. Samples from aqueous humor were obtained 2 and 6 h after the start of the treatment. Samples from cornea and iris were obtained at the end of the experiment, after euthanasia of the animals. Drug concentrations were measured by HPLC method. The median levels of ciprofloxacin and lomefloxacin in aqueous humor of healthy animals, 2 and 6 h after drug administration were 6.39-9.65 and 5.30-6.81 µg/ml, respectively. Ciprofloxacin levels were neither changed from the inflammation nor after instillation of diclofenac. In contrary, lomefloxacin concentrations in aqueous humour of inflamed eye were significantly increased 12.15-15.08 µg/ml, especially after diclofenac administration (17.12-27.76 µg/ml). Levels of both fluoroquinolones in cornea (13.08 µg/g for ciprofloxacin and 12.25 µg/g for lomefloxacin) and in iris (0.84 µg/g for ciprofloxacin and 1.34 µg/g for lomefloxacin) were higher than MIC and MBC values against S. aureus ATCC 25923. Although higher lomefloxacin concentrations were observed in the aqueous humor after instillation of diclofenac, the levels of both fluoroquinolones in iris and in cornea were not significantly changed. Topical administration of lomefloxacin and diclofenac in combination improved penetration of the antibacterial agent in the aqueous humor which can be of clinical importance.

  1. Both Innate Immunity and Type 1 Humoral Immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae Are Mediated by MyD88 but Differ in Their Relative Levels of Dependence on Toll-Like Receptor 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    type 1 IgG humoral immune response to a gram -positive extracellular bacterium. Adaptive immunity to extracellular bacteria is largely con- ferred by...role for TLR2 in the induction of innate responses to gram -positive bacteria. Indeed, a key role for TLR2 in mediating innate immunity, including...cytokine induc- tion in response to a variety of gram -positive bacteria, includ- ing S. pneumoniae, has been demonstrated (11, 15, 23, 36, 43, 49

  2. Sex differences in brain activation elicited by humor.

    PubMed

    Azim, Eiman; Mobbs, Dean; Jo, Booil; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L

    2005-11-08

    With recent investigation beginning to reveal the cortical and subcortical neuroanatomical correlates of humor appreciation, the present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study was designed to elucidate sex-specific recruitment of these humor related networks. Twenty healthy subjects (10 females) underwent fMRI scanning while subjectively rating 70 verbal and nonverbal achromatic cartoons as funny or unfunny. Data were analyzed by comparing blood oxygenation-level-dependent signal activation during funny and unfunny stimuli. Males and females share an extensive humor-response strategy as indicated by recruitment of similar brain regions: both activate the temporal-occipital junction and temporal pole, structures implicated in semantic knowledge and juxtaposition, and the inferior frontal gyrus, likely to be involved in language processing. Females, however, activate the left prefrontal cortex more than males, suggesting a greater degree of executive processing and language-based decoding. Females also exhibit greater activation of mesolimbic regions, including the nucleus accumbens, implying greater reward network response and possibly less reward expectation. These results indicate sex-specific differences in neural response to humor with implications for sex-based disparities in the integration of cognition and emotion.

  3. Sex differences in brain activation elicited by humor

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Eiman; Mobbs, Dean; Jo, Booil; Menon, Vinod; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    With recent investigation beginning to reveal the cortical and subcortical neuroanatomical correlates of humor appreciation, the present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study was designed to elucidate sex-specific recruitment of these humor related networks. Twenty healthy subjects (10 females) underwent fMRI scanning while subjectively rating 70 verbal and nonverbal achromatic cartoons as funny or unfunny. Data were analyzed by comparing blood oxygenation-level-dependent signal activation during funny and unfunny stimuli. Males and females share an extensive humor-response strategy as indicated by recruitment of similar brain regions: both activate the temporal-occipital junction and temporal pole, structures implicated in semantic knowledge and juxtaposition, and the inferior frontal gyrus, likely to be involved in language processing. Females, however, activate the left prefrontal cortex more than males, suggesting a greater degree of executive processing and language-based decoding. Females also exhibit greater activation of mesolimbic regions, including the nucleus accumbens, implying greater reward network response and possibly less reward expectation. These results indicate sex-specific differences in neural response to humor with implications for sex-based disparities in the integration of cognition and emotion. PMID:16275931

  4. Direct detection of sulfide ions [S2-] in aqueous media based on fluorescence quenching of functionalized CdS QDs at trace levels: analytical applications to environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Gore, Anil H; Vatre, Sandip B; Anbhule, Prashant V; Han, Sung-Hwan; Patil, Shivajirao R; Kolekar, Govind B

    2013-03-07

    A novel, simple but highly selective fluorescent probe is developed for the direct detection of sulfide ions [S(2-)] based on the fluorescence quenching of the functionalized CdS QDs in aqueous solution at trace levels and successfully applied for quantitation of S(2-) from water samples in a complex matrix exclusive of pretreatment by standard addition method.

  5. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences.

  6. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  7. The Value of Humor in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the use of humor in the technology education classroom can reduce stress while lessening the gap between teacher and students and stimulating cooperative work. Cautions against using humor that can be cruel or detrimental to the classroom environment. Includes a list of acceptable jokes. (Contains 17 references.) (JOW)

  8. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  9. Humor in Advertising: The Language Pun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seely, Jonathan

    While it is fashionable to use the semantic pun in advertising (for example, the meaning extension in "dollars and sense"), a lot of this humor slips past the American reader; not only unintentional bloopers that get past the proofreader but also intentional puns that escape the audience. Advertising humor has other pitfalls as well--the…

  10. Improving Performance through the Use of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Frank A.; Siegel, Laurence

    Although the role of humor in relaxation and interpersonal relationships is well documented, its role in increasing performance in the classroom has not been systematically studied. To investigate the effect of appropriately timed humor on performance of a stressful task, 40 college students performed a mathematics test under one of four…

  11. Humorous Literature: A Doorway to Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Melanie

    Many theories have been developed to try to explain humor, among them, the social theory; psychoanalytic theories based on Freud; cognitive theories which identify stages corresponding to those of Piaget; and eclectic theories which combine elements of all the theories. The developmental stages of humor parallel the intellectual and emotional…

  12. American Learners' Comprehension of Russian Textual Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, second language (L2) humor has attracted scholarly attention as both a means and a goal of L2 development. Much of this research, however, has focused on oral communication, whereas virtually no studies address humor as an aspect of reading comprehension. This exploratory study combines these two areas of inquiry, examining…

  13. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  14. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  15. Humor as a perioperative nursing management tool.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S

    1999-04-01

    Humor is a powerful tool for accomplishing management goals. This article offers suggestions for using humor to relieve stress, cultivate teamwork, buy attention, improve morale, increase productivity, foster communication, enhance problem solving, and create a positive work culture in the operating room.

  16. "That Hurts!": Humor and Sadomasochism in "Lolita."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Ilsa J.

    1994-01-01

    States that humor is dependent on individual perspective, and that the subject matter of "Lolita" (1962), which concerns child abuse and molestation, is difficult to treat with humor. Argues that despite its subject, "Lolita" continues to be funny. Concludes that viewers know the subject matter is not funny, but while watching,…

  17. Confessions from a Guy Who Teaches Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.

    2008-01-01

    Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…

  18. Humorous Literature: A Doorway to Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Melanie

    Many theories have been developed to try to explain humor, among them, the social theory; psychoanalytic theories based on Freud; cognitive theories which identify stages corresponding to those of Piaget; and eclectic theories which combine elements of all the theories. The developmental stages of humor parallel the intellectual and emotional…

  19. Ocular Pharmacokinetics of Fluocinolone Acetonide Following Iluvien Implantation in the Vitreous Humor of Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Frances E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics (PK) of fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) following administration of Iluvien® intravitreal implants. Methods: The FAc intravitreal implant was administered to rabbits in 3 doses (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/day). The concentration of FAc was measured by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in plasma and ocular tissues at various time points through month 24. Results: Following administration of the 0.2 μg/day implant, FAc levels peaked in most tissues at day 2 or 8, reached approximate steady state levels by month 3 and very gradually decreased over the duration of the study. The FAc level in the aqueous humor was not measurable at most time points in the rabbit. FAc was still present in most ocular tissues at 2 years. The 0.5 and 1.0 μg/day dose groups followed the same pattern through month 9. The elimination half lives in the tissues for which it was measurable were greater than 83 days. Exposure to FAc was highest in the choroid/retinal pigment epithelium for all doses, followed by lens and retina. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate sustained delivery of FAc from the Iluvien intravitreal implant in the ocular tissue of rabbits. Retina and lens FAc levels with the Iluvien implant were approximately 1/10 those reported with the Retisert® implant. FAc levels in the aqueous were not measureable with Iluvien where they were measured for 12 months with Retisert. PMID:25562126

  20. Topical, Aqueous, Clear Cyclosporine Formulation Design for Anterior and Posterior Ocular Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cholkar, Kishore; Gilger, Brian C.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to optimize cyclosporine (CsA) nanomicellar solution and study in vivo ocular CsA tissue distribution with a topical drop. Methods: An optimized blend of hydrogenated castor oil-40 and octoxynol-40 was prepared to entrap CsA within nanomicelles. In vivo studies were conducted in New Zealand White albino rabbits with topical drop instillation. Results: Average size of CsA-loaded nanomicelles was approximately 22.4 nm. Ocular tissue CsA quantification with single and multiple dosing revealed that CsA levels followed as cornea → iris-ciliary body → aqueous humor → lens. Cyclosporine levels were also found to be in the following order: conjunctiva → sclera → retina/choroid → vitreous humor. High CsA level was detected in retina/choroid (53.7 ng/g tissue). Conclusions: Ocular tissue CsA distribution studies revealed high CsA concentrations in anterior ocular tissues. Moreover, it appears that nanomicelles are transported through a conjunctival–scleral pathway and deliver CsA to the retina/choroid. Results suggest polymeric blend to be a safe carrier for anterior and posterior ocular tissues. Translational Relevance: This study has significant translational relevance, disclosing results that suggest that aqueous nanomicellar approach can provide high corneal and conjunctival CsA concentrations. Aqueous nanomicelles can deliver high drug concentrations not only to anterior but also to back of the eye tissues, including retina. This article provides a platform for noninvasive back of the eye drug delivery with topical eye drops. Aqueous CsA nanomicelles have no perceptible toxicity such as cell membrane damage or cytotoxicity to corneal and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Clear aqueous nanomicellar solution can be translated to human conditions for keratoconjunctivitis sicca and other anti-inflammatory conditions. PMID:25964868

  1. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others.

  2. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Fiacconi, Chris M.; Owen, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological “moment of insight” that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  3. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  4. Steps towards verification and validation of the Fetch code for Level 2 analysis, design, and optimization of aqueous homogeneous reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, E. T.; Pain, C. C.; Eaton, M. D.; Gomes, J. L. M. A.; Goddard, A. J. H.; Gorman, G.; Tollit, B.; Buchan, A. G.; Cooling, C. M.; Angelo, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group (B and W) has identified aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) as a technology well suited to produce the medical isotope molybdenum 99 (Mo-99). AHRs have never been specifically designed or built for this specialized purpose. However, AHRs have a proven history of being safe research reactors. In fact, in 1958, AHRs had 'a longer history of operation than any other type of research reactor using enriched fuel' and had 'experimentally demonstrated to be among the safest of all various type of research reactor now in use [1].' While AHRs have been modeled effectively using simplified 'Level 1' tools, the complex interactions between fluids, neutronics, and solid structures are important (but not necessarily safety significant). These interactions require a 'Level 2' modeling tool. Imperial College London (ICL) has developed such a tool: Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH). FETCH couples the radiation transport code EVENT with the computational fluid dynamics code (Fluidity), the result is a code capable of modeling sub-critical, critical, and super-critical solutions in both two-and three-dimensions. Using FETCH, ICL researchers and B and W engineers have studied many fissioning solution systems include the Tokaimura criticality accident, the Y12 accident, SILENE, TRACY, and SUPO. These modeling efforts will ultimately be incorporated into FETCH'S extensive automated verification and validation (V and V) test suite expanding FETCH'S area of applicability to include all relevant physics associated with AHRs. These efforts parallel B and W's engineering effort to design and optimize an AHR to produce Mo99. (authors)

  5. Trace level uranyl complexation with phenylphosphonic acid in aqueous solution: direct speciation by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Catherine; Del Nero, Mirella

    2013-04-15

    The complexation of U(VI) by organic P-containing ligands in humic substances (HS) is an important issue of uranyl mobility in soil. We have investigated the complexation of uranyl by a model ligand for aromatic phosphorus functionalities in HS, phenylphosphonic acid, by using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The high sensitivity permitted to investigate the complexation of trace level uranyl and to explore directly in the native aqueous solutions the nature of the uranyl-phenylphosphonate complexes. Positive identification of the complexes coexisting in solutions with low pH and varying ligand-to-metal ratio was achieved thanks to the high resolving power, high mass accuracy, and reliability of ion abundance of the technique. The positively charged and neutral uranyl species were detected simultaneously on negative ion mass spectra, evidencing formation of three types of U(VI)-phenylphosphonate complexes. Two complexes with a metal-to-ligand stoichiometry of 1:1 (in the monoprotonated and nonprotonated forms) existed in solutions at pH 3-5, and a 1:2 complex was additionally formed at relatively high ligand-to-metal ratio. A strategy based on the use of uranyl-phosphate solution complexes as internal standards was developed to determine from the ESI(-)MS results the stability constants of the complexes, which were calculated to be log K111 = 3.4 ± 0.2 for UO2(HPhPO3)(+), log K101 = 7.1 ± 0.1 for UO2PhPO3, and log K112 = 7.2 ± 0.2 for UO2(HPhPO3)2. The speciation model presented here suggests that organic P existing at low concentration in HS is involved significantly in binding by humic and fulvic acids of trace level uranyl in soil.

  6. The Effect of Pictures and Humor on Memory for Verbal Material in Two Extreme Scholastic Aptitude Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.; Derks, Peter L.

    In an effort to understand why pictures are used to supplement learning material, a study explored (1) the role of humor in recall, and (2) whether the effects of humor are independent of the individual's ability level. Subjects--students from either the high SAT (approximate average of 1200 points) population (HS), or the low SAT (approximate…

  7. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  8. Vitreous humor thermodynamics during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Villanueva, Guillermo; Kon-Jara, Veronica; Harasawa, Mariana; Cervantes-Coste, Guadalupe; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Guerrero-Naranjo, José Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Landers, Maurice B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine baseline vitreous humor temperature during a combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) procedure; to determine what is the temperature variation during phacoemulsification; and to compare vitreous temperature to sublingual temperature. The methods used are prospective, interventional and comparative study. Patients with a diagnosis of cataract and vitreous hemorrhage, programed for a combined procedure of phacoemulsification and PPV, were included. Patients were excluded if posterior capsular rupture existed during the anterior segment procedure. A thermoprobe was inserted through a PPV trocar. Measurement of the vitreous temperature was obtained at baseline and throughout phacoemulsification, at the end of every surgical step, and every 5 min. Sublingual temperature was measured with the same probe at the end of the surgery. Room temperature was registered. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients were included. Mean sublingual temperature was 36.5 °C (standard deviation [σ] 0.26 °C). Mean total vitreous temperature was 31.47 °C (σ 2.1 °C). Mean baseline vitreous temperature was 33.04 °C (σ 0.99 °C). Comparison of sublingual temperature with baseline vitreous temperature resulted in a significant difference (t test P < 0.000. 95 % confidence interval 2.93-3.98). Temperature measured by surgical step and surgical time presented a significant decrease in temperature from baseline (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.000, P = 0.003, respectively). Vitreous humor is significantly hypothermic when compared to sublingual temperature. Vitreous temperature decreases significantly during phacoemulsification.

  9. A threshold theory of the humor response.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the "setup" stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a "punch line" or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden "revelation" or "understanding"; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner.

  10. A Threshold Theory of the Humor Response

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Robert; Joker, Veronica R

    2007-01-01

    The humor response has long been considered mysterious, and it is given relatively little attention in modern experimental psychology, in spite of the fact that numerous studies suggest that it has substantial benefits for mood and health. Existing theories of humor fail to account for some of the most basic humor phenomena. On most occasions when a humor response occurs, certain verbal or visual stimuli (the “setup” stimuli, which function as an establishing operation) must precede a critical stimulus (such as a “punch line” or the final panel or critical feature of a cartoon), which then occasions a sudden “revelation” or “understanding”; this revelation is often accompanied by the humor response. We suggest that the setup stimuli increase the strength of the revelatory response to a point just below the threshold of awareness and that the critical stimulus, properly designed and timed, edges the revelatory response to a point just above threshold. We also suggest that it is this threshold phenomenon that produces most instances of the humor response. We discuss these issues in the context of some notable humor of Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. PMID:22478488

  11. Acetylcholine in the rat pituitary: a possible humoral factor.

    PubMed

    Egozi, Y; Kloog, Y; Fleminger, G; Sokolovsky, M

    1988-12-20

    Significant amounts of acetylcholine (ACh) were detected in each of the 3 lobes of the rat pituitary (3-6 pmol/anterior lobe, 3 pmol/intermediate lobe and 1.8 pmol/posterior lobe). In the anterior lobes of cyclic rats the levels of ACh varied with the estrous cycle, with daily peaks being observed on the days of proestrus and estrus. The occurrence of ACh, apparently as a humoral factor, appears to be unique to the anterior pituitary.

  12. Multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics study of the double-inversion mechanism of the F(-) + CH3I reaction in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jingxue; Wang, Dunyou

    2017-06-07

    A double-inversion mechanism of the F(-) + CH3I reaction was discovered in aqueous solution using combined multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics. The stationary points along the reaction path show very different structures to the ones in the gas phase due to the interactions between the solvent and solute, especially strong hydrogen bonds. An intermediate complex, a minimum on the potential of mean force, was found to serve as a connecting-link between the abstraction-induced inversion transition state and the Walden-inversion transition state. The potentials of mean force were calculated with both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. Our calculated free energy barrier of the abstraction-induced inversion is 69.5 kcal mol(-1) at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory, which agrees with the one at 72.9 kcal mol(-1) calculated using the Born solvation model and gas-phase data; and our calculated free energy barrier of the Walden inversion is 24.2 kcal mol(-1), which agrees very well with the experimental value at 25.2 kcal mol(-1) in aqueous solution. The calculations show that the aqueous solution makes significant contributions to the potentials of mean force and exerts a big impact on the molecular-level evolution along the reaction pathway.

  13. Counseling through the Funny Bone: Humor in Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Meredith

    This paper examines the role that humor may play in guidance counseling. After a brief review of the literature on the physiology of laughter and the therapeutic effects of humor, the paper draws on past research to discuss the developmental stages of humor from infancy to late adolescence and adulthood, citing examples of the kinds of humor that…

  14. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  17. [An examination of support function of humor: construction of a preference scale for supportive humor].

    PubMed

    Miyato, M; Ueno, Y

    1996-10-01

    In this study, we constructed a scale to measure individual preference for supportive humor, and examined whether the preference related to mental health. Two samples of female undergraduates cooperated with survey studies. In the first, a scale was constructed to measure preference for supportive kinds of humor, and relationships were examined between its score, hardiness to negative events, and depression, together with preference for other types of humor identified in a previous study (Ueno, 1992). In the second, the preference was correlated with hedonistic attitudes and private self-consciousness. Main findings were as follows: (1) Of the three types of humor (aggressive, playful, and supportive), only preference for supportive humor correlated with depression. (2) Hedonistic attitudes correlated with preference for each of the three types. (3) Private self-consciousness correlated only with preference for supportive humor.

  18. Humor in Evaluating and Treating Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    BERNET, WILLIAM

    1993-01-01

    Humor can provide useful information during the psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents and can also facilitate the therapeutic process. Clinical examples demonstrate how humor is useful as a diagnostic tool; how it can be used to shape the therapeutic relationship; and the role of humor as a therapeutic technique. Humor may help the child and adolescent patient explore feelings and may help the therapist deal with resistance. In some circumstances, the humor itself can become an agent of change. Humor has been used in the treatment of depression, aggression, social ineptitude, and conduct problems. Both the benefits and the risks of using humor are discussed. PMID:22700156

  19. Short-term improvement of erectile dysfunction by viewing humorous films in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2008-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by eczema, pruritus and cutaneous hyperreactivity to allergic triggers. We and others have reported that psychogenic stress aggravates these symptoms, while viewing humorous films alleviates them. We have also found that many AD patients suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED). ED exhibits multifactorial etiologies, including psychogenic stress and reduction of serum testosterone levels. This study assessed the effects of viewing humorous films on ED in patients with AD. The effects of viewing humorous films on International Index Erectile Function (IIEF) domain (erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction) were studied. Subjects comprised 36 AD patients with ED and their healthy wives. Randomly assigned 18 patients and their healthy wives first viewed humorous films on three consecutive days (Days 1-3). After 2 weeks, they viewed control nonhumorous weather information films on three consecutive days (Days 1-3). Alternatively, other 18 patients and their wives first viewed control films on three consecutive days, and after 2 weeks they viewed humorous films on three consecutive days. Severity of ED and serum testosterone and estradiol levels were assessed 1 day before viewing (Day -1) and 1-4 days after viewing (Days 4-7). Viewing humorous films significantly improved the IIEF domain in association with increased serum testosterone levels and decreased serum estradiol levels on Day 4, while viewing control films failed to do so. However, this effect was short-term. After 4 days of viewing (Day 7), no improvement in ED or modulation of serum sex hormone levels was observed. Viewing humorous films improved ED in AD patients in association with increased serum testosterone levels and decreased serum estradiol levels. These results may be useful for the study and treatment of ED.

  20. The effect of humorous movies on inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gelkopf, Marc; Gonen, Bruria; Kurs, Rena; Melamed, Yuval; Bleich, Avi

    2006-11-01

    We assessed the impact of humorous movies on psychopathology, anxiety, depression, anger, social functioning, insight, and therapeutic alliance in schizophrenia inpatients. Twenty-nine psychiatric inpatients in open wards participated in the study. The study group viewed humorous and the control group viewed neutral movies daily for 3 months. Participants were assessed before and after viewing movies with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, Calgary Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Multinomah Community Ability Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire, and the Working Alliance Inventory. Reduced levels of psychopathology, anger, anxiety, and depression symptoms and an improvement in social competence were revealed in the study group. No changes were observed in treatment insight or working alliance. Video films are a practical and cost-efficient means of entertainment that seem to have a positive effect on patient morale, mood, and mental status.

  1. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  2. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being scanned. For each drawing, they were instructed to generate either a humorous or a mundane caption. Greater comedic experience was associated with decreased activation in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased activation in temporal association regions (TMP). Less experienced comedians manifested greater activation of mPFC, reflecting their deliberate search through TMP association space. Professionals, by contrast, tend to reap the fruits of their spontaneous associations with reduced reliance on top-down guided search. PMID:27932965

  3. Humoral innate immune response and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie N.; Varahan, Sriram; Yuan, Kai; Li, Xiangdong; Fleming, Sherry D.

    2012-01-01

    The humoral innate immune response consists of multiple components, including the naturally occurring antibodies (NAb), pentraxins and the complement and contact cascades. As soluble, plasma components, these innate proteins provide key elements in the prevention and control of disease. However, pathogens and cells with altered self proteins utilize multiple humoral components to evade destruction and promote pathogy. Many studies have examined the relationship between humoral immunity and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the interactions between the humoral components and their role in promoting the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections and chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Understanding the beneficial and detrimental aspects of the individual components and the interactions between proteins which regulate the innate and adaptive response will provide therapeutic targets for subsequent studies. PMID:22771788

  4. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  5. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinal hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05). Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats. PMID:27200420

  6. In vitro susceptibility of oral Candida albicans strains to different pH levels and calcium hydroxide saturated aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Carnietto, Cristiane; Weckwerth, Ana Carolina Villas Boas; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is present in the oral cavity and in the whole digestive tract of humans and other animals, being frequently related to endodontic treatment failure. The present study determined the incidence of C. albicans in the oral cavity and the susceptibility of isolates to different pH values and saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution at pH 12.5. Sixty-five patients attending the Endodontic Clinic at the Sagrado Coração University participated in the study. The collected samples were cultivated in selective media for C. albicans and the isolates were tested in terms of resistance to both alkaline pH and saturated aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. In relation to time variables, yeast viability was assessed by the Sabouraud's agar culture and fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide fluorescent staining method. Results from the different pHs and experimental times, including those from different techniques measuring fungal viability, were compared using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (α=0.05). The yeasts became completely inviable after 48 h of contact with the calcium hydroxide solution. On the other hand, when exposed to the alkaline culture broth, the yeasts were found to be viable at pHs 9.5 and 10.5 for up to 7 days. In conclusion, C. albicans can only be completely inhibited by direct contact with saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution after 48 h of exposure.

  7. Antidepressant Effect of Crocus sativus Aqueous Extract and its Effect on CREB, BDNF, and VGF Transcript and Protein Levels in Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, T; Abnous, K; Vahdati, F; Mehri, S; Razavi, B M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-07-01

    Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is a perennial stemless herb in Iridaceae family. It has been used in traditional medicine as well as in modern pharmacological studies for variety of conditions including depression. Recent studies have suggested brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), VGF Neuropeptide, Cyclic-AMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) may play roles in depression. In this research the molecular mechanism of antidepressant effect of aqueous extract of saffron and its effect on the levels of BDNF, VGF, CREB and p-CREB in rat hippocampus, were investigated. The aqueous extract of saffron (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day) and imipramine 10 mg/kg/day were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 21 days to rats. The FST (forced swimming test) was performed on the days 1(st) and 21(st). The protein expression and transcript levels of BDNF, VGF CREB and phospho-CREB in rat hippocampus, were evaluated using western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results of FST showed that saffron reduced the immobility time. The protein levels of BDNF, CREB and p-CREB were significantly increased in saffron treated rats. VGF protein expression was also increased, but not significantly. The transcript levels of BDNF significantly increased. No significant changes in CREB and VGF transcript levels were observed. It was concluded that aqueous extract of saffron has antidepressant effects and the mechanism of its antidepressant effect may be due to increasing the levels of BDNF, VGF, CREB and P-CREB in rat hippocampus.

  8. Humor and Trauma-Related Psychopathology Among Survivors of Terror Attacks and Their Spouses.

    PubMed

    Besser, Avi; Weinberg, Michael; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Ataria, Yochai; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationships between humor and trauma-related psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and anxiety symptoms) among 105 dyads consisting of Israelis who were injured during terror attacks and their spouses (N = 210). An actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied as part of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis aimed at examining the associations between the use of different styles of humor and trauma-related psychopathology. Consistent with our hypotheses, results suggested that benign styles of humor were associated with survivors' lower levels of trauma-related symptoms (actor effects) and also had a buffering effect for the spouse (partner effects). More specifically, the use of self-enhancing humor by survivors was negatively associated with spousal symptoms and the use of affiliative humor by spouses was negatively associated with psychopathology symptoms reported by survivors. The results of this study shed light on the role that benign humor may play in coping with traumatic events while taking into account the dyadic relationships among survivors and their spouses. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Retention of Lecture Items Reinforced with Humorous and Non-Humorous Exemplary Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, Charles R.; Freshley, Dwight L.

    College students in nine intact beginning speech classes served as subjects for a study testing the effects of humor on student recall of lecture information. The 156 subjects were exposed to one of three versions of an audiotaped lecture. One version amplified eight points in the subject matter with humorous material; and a third version (the…

  10. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  11. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  12. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  13. Altered sense of humor in dementia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L; Cohen, Miriam H; Woodward, Felix J; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications.

  14. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  15. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  16. Direct aqueous measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in a cellular environment by LC-MS/MS using the novel chemical derivatization reagent MDBP.

    PubMed

    Müller, Miriam J; Bruns, Heiko; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2017-01-30

    Vitamin D measurements in biological fluids by mass spectrometry are challenging at very low concentration levels. As a result, chemical derivatization is often employed to enhance the ionization properties of low abundant vitamin D compounds. Cookson-type reagents such as 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) or similar derivatives work well but require careful, water-free experimental conditions, as traces of water inactivate the reagent and inhibit or stop the derivatization reactions, thus making quantitative measurements in aqueous samples impossible. We describe a novel electrospray liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for determining 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) directly in aqueous cellular systems using a new derivatization reagent, the ionic liquid 12-(maleimidyl)dodecyl-tri-n-butylphosphonium bromide (MDBP). The proof-of-concept for the MDBP assay was demonstrated by measuring the levels of 25(OH)D3 in four different human cell types, namely T cells, helper T cells, B cells, and macrophages. In addition to the ability to determine the levels of 25(OH)D3 directly in aqueous samples, the cellular integrity was maintained in our application. We show the time-dependent uptake of 25(OH)D3 into the investigated cells to demonstrate the applicability of the new label. Furthermore, the MDBP derivatization technique may be equally useful in imaging mass spectrometry, where it could be used for response enhancements of spatially localized vitamin D metabolites on wet tissue surfaces, without destroying the integrity of the tissue surface. Graphical Abstract MDBP labelling of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the extracellular space.

  17. A LC-MS method allowing the analysis of HMX and RDX present at the picogram level in natural aqueous samples without a concentration step.

    PubMed

    Vigneau, Olivier; Machuron-Mandard, Xavier

    2009-03-15

    The introduction of chloroform into the nebulising gas of a LC/MS electrospray interface (ESI), in a perfectly controlled way, leads to the formation of intense adducts ([M+Cl](-)) when a mobile phase containing HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane or octogen) and RDX (1,3,5-trintro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane or hexogen) is eluted. This LC/MS method allows the direct analysis of aqueous samples containing HMX and RDX at the pictogram level without a concentration step. The method is used to determine HMX and RDX concentrations in ground water samples from a military site.

  18. Humor in the classroom using faculty skits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cheryl Mixon; Noviello, Sheri Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The infusion of humor in the classroom through faculty-developed skits is a teaching-learning strategy that engages nursing students in the learning process. Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory for Adult Learners provides the framework for the use of humor as a strategy in higher education. Three exemplars are presented with a description of the specific strategy, an objective for each strategy, and the effect of the strategy on student engagement in nursing education. In the exemplars, the authors provide "ready to use" ideas with some "pearls of wisdom" for other faculty interested in developing similar learning activities.

  19. Aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and clinical outcomes correlation after single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Thiago; Lima, Luiz H; Polido, Júlia; Duong, Jimmy; Okuda, Érika; Oshima, Akiyoshi; Serracarbassa, Pedro; Regatieri, Caio V; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in aqueous humor after a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this prospective interventional case series study, 24 eyes of 24 patients with types 1 and 2 choroidal neovascularization secondary to neovascular AMD were treated with a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Aqueous humor samples were obtained before the intravitreal injection and at one week, one month, and three months follow-up periods. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and three spectral-domain optical coherence tomography parameters (central retinal thickness, macular volume and macular area) were also analyzed and correlated with VEGF expression at the baseline and each follow-up period. All of the ninety-six aqueous humor study taps were well tolerated by the study patients without adverse events. Increased VEGF levels (mean ± SD = 179.7 ± 88.3 pg/mL) were observed in the aqueous humor of all study patients before the intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. At all follow-up periods, compared to baseline, levels of VEGF significantly reduced (P < 0.0001), and BCVA significantly improved (P < 0.005). The lowest VEGF expression was observed at 1 week, and the greatest BCVA improvement occurred 1 month after treatment. At 1 month, central retinal thickness (CRT), macular volume (MV), and macular area (MA) significantly reduced compared to baseline (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005, P = 0.007, P = 0.009, respectively). At 1 week and 3 months, although without statistical significance (P > 0.005), CRT, MV and MA also reduced in comparison to baseline. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection in eyes with neovascular AMD resulted in a substantial decrease of aqueous VEGF levels 1 week after treatment with the greatest improvement of clinical outcomes occurring at 1 month follow-up.

  20. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    PubMed

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  2. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    PubMed

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  3. Soluble Mediators of Diabetic Macular Edema: The Diagnostic Role of Aqueous VEGF and Cytokine Levels in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Leah A.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a significant cause of vision loss and represents an important clinical and public health problem. It is characterized by breakdown of the blood retinal barrier with fluid accumulation in the sub-retinal and intra-retinal spaces. Although several hypotheses exist for the causes of diabetic macular edema, specific molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Current thinking includes the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cytokines in vascular permeability. We review studies showing a relationship between elevated aqueous VEGF, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1, interleukin 6, or interleukin 8 in association with DME and as predictors of DME. The presence of mediators in both the angiogenesis and inflammatory pathways data suggest a multifactorial model for the development of DME. Further studies targeting individual cytokine activity will be important to our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23649946

  4. Vitreous Humor Changes Expression of Iron-Handling Proteins in Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goralska, Malgorzata; Fleisher, Lloyd N.; McGahan, M. Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In humans, vitrectomy is associated with development of nuclear cataracts. Iron catalyzes free radical formation causing oxidative damage, which is implicated in cataract formation. This study was designed to determine if vitreous humor, which can initiate differentiation of lens epithelial cells, would have an effect on iron-handling proteins. Methods Cultured canine lens epithelial cells were treated with collected canine vitreous humor. Lysates of treated and control cells were separated by SDS-PAGE. Ferritin H- and L-chains, transferrin receptor 1, and aquaporin 0 were immunodetected and quantitated with specific antibodies. Morphologic changes in treated cells were assessed. Results Treatment of lens epithelial cells with a 33% (vol/vol) solution of vitreous humor changed the morphology of lens cells and induced expression of aquaporin 0, a marker of fiber cell differentiation that was undetectable in control cells. Treatment did not modify the size of iron-handling proteins but significantly increased content of ferritin from 2.9- to 8.8-fold over control and decreased levels of transferrin receptor by 37% to 59%. Conclusions Vitreous humor may significantly limit iron uptake by transferrin/transferrin receptor pathway, and by increasing ferritin levels could profoundly increase the iron-storage capacity of ferritin in lens cells. Vitreous humor may play a significant protective role against iron-catalyzed oxidative damage of lens epithelial cells and therefore in the formation of cataracts. PMID:28245299

  5. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  6. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  7. Stress Management Strategies for Students: The Immediate Effects of Yoga, Humor, and Reading on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…

  8. Use of Humorous Visuals To Enhance Computer-Based-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snetsinger, Wendy; Grabowski, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that a visual strategy that incorporates a humorous theme and cartoons with humorous comments relevant to the content helps motivate students to focus on and retain computer-based instructional material. An experiment to assess this hypothesis was undertaken with 43 college students who received a humorous presentation on…

  9. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  10. Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that humor is an invaluable teaching tool in English classes. Describes how the author and her students: found humor an important means of discovering profound truths in Shakespeare's dramas; enjoyed the epic "Paradise Lost"; worked with satire in Chaucer; and used humor in students' own creative activities. (SR)

  11. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  12. Are We Having Fun Yet? Humor in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Argues that humor is an invaluable teaching tool in English classes. Describes how the author and her students: found humor an important means of discovering profound truths in Shakespeare's dramas; enjoyed the epic "Paradise Lost"; worked with satire in Chaucer; and used humor in students' own creative activities. (SR)

  13. Learning through Laughter: Humor in the Classroom. Fastback 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Claudia E.

    Focusing on humor as a powerful instructional resource, this booklet addresses a variety of issues regarding humor in the elementary and secondary classroom. Thirteen ways in which humor can help teachers to achieve educational goals are presented, specifically that it (1) attracts attention and provokes thought, (2) liberates creative capacities,…

  14. The Performance of Humor in Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baym, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that humor can be accomplished in computer-mediated communication and can be critical to creating social meaning online. Analyzes the humor of the USENET news group rec.arts.tv.soaps (r.a.t.s.), which discusses soap operas. Combines user surveys with message analysis to show the prevalence and importance of humor in r.a.t.s. (RS)

  15. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  16. Truly Funny: Humor, Irony, and Satire as Moral Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    The occasional role of humor as a vehicle for moral criticism is investigated. I begin by distinguishing between this particular role and the other kinds of ways in which humor and amusement might be regarded through a moral lens, consider historical approaches to humor that corroborate the kind of role for it on which my investigation focuses,…

  17. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  18. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  19. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  20. Continuity and Change: The Cultural Context of Women's Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Alice

    As a technique of social control intimately associated with the display and control of power, humor reflects empowerment. Contemporary women have few traditions of using power, and a variety of covert factors have discouraged women's use of humor. The most significant of these is the way that the popular mind has defined humor as a male…

  1. The Influence of Humorous Atmosphere on Divergent Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1983-01-01

    In one experiment, 78 adolescents were shown humorous film clips and required to write captions for cartoons. A creativity test was administered. In a second study, the experimental group completed the Torrance Creativity Test with humorous responses. In both studies, a humorous atmosphere was found to significantly increase creativity scores.…

  2. Teaching French Language and Culture by Means of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Humor can enliven classes, establish and maintain rapport, create ambiance for learning, and enhance student acquisition and retention. Ways to use humor in the classroom are presented, including clearly verbal approaches, visual aid techniques (magazines, cartoons, ads, etc.), and the humor of stand-up comedians. (12 references) (LB)

  3. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  4. Appropriate and Inappropriate Uses of Humor By Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekelja Wanzer, Melissa; Bainbridge Frymier, Ann; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M; Smith, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The use of humor in teaching has been linked to learning in several studies, although the research has been equivocal. The various types of humor used by teachers have also been investigated but not in terms of what students view as appropriate and inappropriate uses of humor. Participants in this study were asked to generate examples of…

  5. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  6. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    This study replicated and extended a preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it demeaned students as a group or individually.…

  7. Assessing Student Perceptions of Inappropriate and Appropriate Teacher Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Wojtaszczyk, Ann M.

    2007-01-01

    This study replicated and extended Wanzer, Frymier, Wojtaszczyk, and Smith's (2006) preliminary typology of appropriate and inappropriate teacher humor and advanced three explanations for differences in interpretations of teacher humor. Students were more likely to view teacher humor as inappropriate when it was perceived as offensive and when it…

  8. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Mafakheri, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the issues surrounding the use of humor as an informal teaching method in higher education lecturing. The impact and usefulness of humor, from both a teacher's and a student's perspective, will be investigated. The aim is to classify the challenges and limitations of using humor in classrooms and to investigate and…

  9. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Culture through Humor in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guegan-Fisher, C.

    Humor can be a very effective tool to make students remember what they should know about the traditions and beliefs, manners and institutions of a culture. The teacher himself should outwardly be the embodiment of the culture which is taught. For example, when a teacher of French walks into the classroom the first day he should introduce himself…

  11. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  12. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  13. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  14. Mark Twain and American Humor [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this three-part lesson, students examine structure and characterization in the short story and consider the significance of humor through a study of Mark Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." In Part I, through skits and storytelling, students first examine the structure of Twain's story and the role he creates…

  15. Using Humor to Gain Mathematical Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Gadanidis, Janette M.; Huang, Alyssa Y.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical humor and insight are creative and pleasurable experiences. Both help students develop a positive attitude toward mathematics and facilitate higher-order thinking. The authors' classroom experience suggests that many middle school students have come to view mathematics as being a superficial and an uncreative activity where they…

  16. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection. PMID:28090322

  17. Vaccination to gain humoral immune memory.

    PubMed

    Sarkander, Jana; Hojyo, Shintaro; Tokoyoda, Koji

    2016-12-01

    The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination. This long-term investigation is disadvantageous for prevalent and pandemic infections. Long-lived memory plasma cells and memory helper T cells which contribute to humoral immune memory are generated in the bone marrow after migration of memory cell precursors through bloodstream. Thus, it may be a novel evaluation strategy to assess the precursors of memory cells in the blood in the early phase of the immune reaction(s). We here review recent advances on the generation and maintenance of immune memory cells involved in humoral immunity and introduce a current concept of direct and short-term assessment of humoral immune memory formation upon vaccination as a correlate of protection.

  18. The Role of Humor in Children's Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    A total of 40 children in the three primary grades were studied to determine if they would donate more to a worthy cause after having been exposed to a humorous situation, in contrast to exposure to a serious one. The children who had heard a serious story about sharing donated slightly more to help Ethiopian refugees than did children who had…

  19. Proteomic analysis of human vitreous humor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vitreous humor is a transparent, gelatinous mass whose main constituent is water. It plays an important role in providing metabolic nutrient requirements of the lens, coordinating eye growth and providing support to the retina. It is in close proximity to the retina and reflects many of the changes occurring in this tissue. The biochemical changes occurring in the vitreous could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in vitreoretinopathy. In this study, we investigated the proteome of normal human vitreous humor using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Results The vitreous humor was subjected to multiple fractionation techniques followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 1,205 proteins, 682 of which have not been described previously in the vitreous humor. Most proteins were localized to the extracellular space (24%), cytoplasm (20%) or plasma membrane (14%). Classification based on molecular function showed that 27% had catalytic activity, 10% structural activity, 10% binding activity, 4% cell and 4% transporter activity. Categorization for biological processes showed 28% participate in metabolism, 20% in cell communication and 13% in cell growth. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000957. Conclusion This large catalog of vitreous proteins should facilitate biomedical research into pathological conditions of the eye including diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment and cataract. PMID:25097467

  20. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  1. Wit and Humor in Discourse Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Debra L.; Graesser, Arthur C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy of jokes and wit as a useful, descriptive tool. Argues that humor processing may occur in a parallel rather than serial fashion by contrasting a serial-processing, incongruity-resolution model with an alternative dual-processing model. Also presents a taxonomy of the social functions of wit. (JK)

  2. Economics with a Sense of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Diane

    1985-01-01

    In this humorous dialogue that can be read and acted out as a play in high school economics classes, Karl Marx, a spokesman for communism, and Adam Smith, the father of capitalism, debate (1) whether an economy should produce designer jeans and (2) who should own McDonald's restaurant. (RM)

  3. Humor in the Films of Alfred Hitchcock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    Although usually considered the "master of suspense," Alfred Hitchcock relished working humor into his films, frequently juxtaposing it against scenes of utter gruesomeness. This placement of comic elements--comic relief--in an otherwise serious murder mystery or suspense thriller became a Hitchcock trademark early in his career.…

  4. Prosodic Markers of Saliency in Humorous Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Lucy; Corduas, Marcella; Eisterhold, Jodi; Seifried, Brenna; Eggleston, Alyson; Attardo, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    Much of what we think we know about the performance of humor relies on our intuitions about prosody (e.g., "it's all about timing"); however, this has never been empirically tested. Thus, the central question addressed in this article is whether speakers mark punch lines in jokes prosodically and, if so, how. To answer this question,…

  5. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist

    2016-01-01

    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  6. Humorous Materials to Enhance Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. L.; Wilson, K.; Miller, J.; Enomoto, K.

    2017-01-01

    The use of humour in teaching and learning can be contentious, with some authors suggesting that the efficacy of humorous materials is mediated by the culture of the student. Nevertheless, humour represents a potential vehicle for the introduction of active learning in a classroom setting, as judicious use of humour may lead to a more relaxed…

  7. Humor: A Critical Analysis for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibles, Warren

    Part of the "Teaching Young People to be Critical Series," this booklet defines and analyzes humor for children in light of theories of philosophers Ludwig Wittenstein and John Dewey. Intended for individual or small group work, the objectives are threefold: reading improvement, reading enjoyment, and student involvement in making the leap from…

  8. Comic Relief: Engaging Students through Humor Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebel, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    In this time of high-stakes tests and school accountability, English classrooms have been pushed to become increasingly serious places. Combining NCLB pressures with desires to use literature to do important cultural work--such as fighting ethnic, gender, and social-class discrimination--virtually bans humor from the classroom. This is unfortunate…

  9. Elevation of testosterone and reduction of transepidermal water loss by viewing a humorous film in elderly patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The effect of viewing a humorous film on salivary testosterone levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values on the back of the neck in 36 elderly healthy people (36 male, mean 70 years) and 36 elderly patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) (36 male, mean age 70 years) were studied. Salivary testosterone levels were decreased while TEWL values were increased in elderly patients with AD compared to those in elderly healthy people. Viewing a humorous film (The Best Bits of Mr. Bean, Universal studios, 1996) slightly, but significantly (P<0.05), elevated salivary testosterone levels and reduced TEWL values in elderly healthy people, while viewing a control non-humorous film (weather information) failed to do so. Similarly, but more pronouncedly, viewing a humorous film markedly elevated salivary testosterone levels and reduced TEWL values in elderly patients with AD, while viewing a control non-humorous film failed to do so. These finding indicate that viewing a humorous film may be useful in the study of testosterone and TEWL, and treatment for dry skin in elderly people with or without AD.

  10. Cellular and humoral immunity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dhib-Jalbut, S S; Abdelnoor, A M; Haddad, F S

    1981-01-01

    Cellular and humoral immunity was studied in 26 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Results were compared with those of 14 normal controls and 11 patients suffering from other neurological disorders. It was shown that cellular and humoral immune responses are adequate in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The persistently elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA indicated a persistent infection, and their progressive rise in later stages correlated with the progressive nature of the illness. IgG progressively increased with the clinical stage in the cerebrospinal fluid unaccompanied by a corresponding rise in the measles antibody titer. This suggests that antigenic determinants other than those tested play a role in the production of IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid. The progressive increase in the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to serum IgG with the advance of the disease suggests synthesis of IgG locally in the central nervous system. Elevated measles antibody titer in serum and cerebrospinal fluid is a consistent aid in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. It is more specific in cerebrospinal fluid than in serum. Its level did not vary significantly with the clinical stages or duration of illness. Depressed serum complement activity has been detected in some subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients in whom serum levels of the third and fourth components of the complement were normal. PMID:6973545

  11. Estimation of time since death by vitreous humor hypoxanthine, potassium, and ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Rognum, T O; Holmen, S; Musse, M A; Dahlberg, P S; Stray-Pedersen, A; Saugstad, O D; Opdal, S H

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of vitreous humor potassium (K(+)) has since the 1960s been recognized as an adjunct for estimation of time since death. In 1991 we introduced hypoxanthine (Hx) as a new marker. Furthermore we demonstrated that time since death estimation was more accurate when ambient temperature was included in the calculations, both for K(+) and for Hx. In this paper we present a refined method. The subjects consist of 132 cases with known time of death and ambient temperature. One sample from each subject was used in the calculations. Vitreous humor Hx levels were available in all subjects, while K(+) was measured in 106 of the subjects, due to insufficient volume of vitreous humor. Linear regression analysis was applied to model the correlation between vitreous humor Hx and K(+), taking the interactions with temperature into consideration. The diagrams published in 1991, which also included ambient temperature, estimated median time since death with range between the 10th and 90th percentile, whereas the linear regression analysis presented in this paper estimates mean time since death with a corresponding 95% interval of confidence. We conclude that time since death may be estimated with relatively high precision applying vitreous humor Hx and K(+) concentrations combined with ambient temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Colors, humors and evil eye: indigenous classification and treatment of childhood diarrhea in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Burleigh, E; Dardano, C; Cruz, J R

    1990-11-01

    Focal group interviews on indigenous perceptions and reported management of childhood diarrhea were conducted in 1987-88 in Guatemala as a part of a prospective epidemiological field study of chronic diarrhea. Six cognitive schemata were identified, each with specific causes, a linked progression of concepts, symptoms, signs, and diagnostic characteristics. Nearly all were related to the humoral theory of disease, including the concept of evil eye. Diarrheal disease was conceptualized in the village as a set of processes which could be either "hot" or "cold" rather than as an unchanging single-symptom entity occupying only one spot on the humoral continuum. Clarification of the temporal relationship between concepts was found to be essential to the understanding of these indigenously-defined schemata. Stool color reflecting humoral theory was the primary concept used in household-level diagnosis. Reported behavior associated with these cognitive schemata (traditional treatments, pharmaceutical and dietary management) showed remarkable constancy, and adhered for the most part to the humoral concept of equilibrium. These included the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and liquids. The applied importance of humoral theory to home-based use of ORS is discussed briefly as is the indigenous definition of dehydration.

  13. A multi-level quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics study of SN2 reaction at nitrogen: NH2Cl + OH(-) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jingxue; Wang, Dunyou

    2016-02-17

    We employed a multi-level quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics approach to study the reaction NH2Cl + OH(-) in aqueous solution. The multi-level quantum method (including the DFT method with both the B3LYP and M06-2X exchange-correlation functionals and the CCSD(T) method, and both methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set) was used to treat the quantum reaction region in different stages of the calculation in order to obtain an accurate potential of mean force. The obtained free energy activation barriers at the DFT/MM level of theory yielded a big difference of 21.8 kcal mol(-1) with the B3LYP functional and 27.4 kcal mol(-1) with the M06-2X functional respectively. Nonetheless, the barrier heights become very close when shifted from DFT to CCSD(T): 22.4 kcal mol(-1) and 22.9 kcal mol(-1) at CCSD(T)(B3LYP)/MM and CCSD(T)(M06-2X)/MM levels of theory, respectively. The free reaction energy obtained using CCSD(T)(M06-2X)/MM shows an excellent agreement with the one calculated using the available gas-phase data. Aqueous solution plays a significant role in shaping the reaction profile. In total, the water solution contributes 13.3 kcal mol(-1) and 14.6 kcal mol(-1) to the free energy barrier heights at CCSD(T)(B3LYP)/MM and CCSD(T)(M06-2X)/MM respectively. The title reaction at nitrogen is a faster reaction than the corresponding reaction at carbon, CH3Cl + OH(-).

  14. Variable effects of humor styles on organizational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Eric J; Arendt, Lucy A

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between individual humor styles and several organizational variables was investigated: stress, satisfaction with coworkers, team cooperation, and organizational commitment. Four humor styles from the Humor Styles Questionnaire were measured. Survey results of 349 participants indicated different humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating) can have either a positive or negative effect on organizational outcomes. Results suggested that both researchers and practitioners can benefit from having a better understanding of how different humor styles affect people and outcomes in organizations.

  15. Postmortem distribution of heroin metabolites in femoral blood, liver, cerebrospinal fluid, and vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Wyman, John; Bultman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) is often used to distinguish between heroin (diacetylmorphine) and morphine exposures. 6-MAM, however, is rapidly metabolized to morphine and may not be present in detectable quantities in blood following heroin exposure. Recent studies have shown that 6-MAM may persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and this specimen may be preferable for establishing heroin exposure. This study reports postmortem distribution of 6-MAM, unconjugated morphine, and codeine in different tissues from 25 deceased individuals. In all cases, 6-MAM was detected in vitreous humor, and in CSF in 16 of the 25 cases (64%). When 6-MAM was detected in blood (13 of 25 cases), the level of 6-MAM in vitreous humor and CSF was higher than in blood, with a mean concentration ratio of 11.3 (range: 1.7-27) for vitreous humor and 6.6 (range: 2.6-17.3) for CSF. 6-MAM was not detected in liver in any of the cases examined. Free morphine levels were highest in liver, followed by blood, CSF, and vitreous humor. The concentration ratios (mean +/- standard deviation) for free morphine in vitreous humor, CSF, and liver to that in blood were 0.36 +/- 0.18, 0.64 +/- 0.27, and 2.99 +/- 2.12, respectively. The liver/blood ratio was consistent with previously reported values for morphine in heart and femoral blood. Codeine levels following heroin overdose were consistently low relative to the morphine concentration. For blood, liver, and CSF, the ratio of codeine to morphine was essentially the same (0.06), whereas the vitreous codeine/morphine concentration ratio was slightly higher (0.19). These results characterize the distribution of heroin metabolites in postmortem tissues. Vitreous humor appears to be a useful specimen for determining 6-MAM and establishing the morphine was derived from heroin.

  16. Trace-level mercury ion (Hg2+) analysis in aqueous sample based on solid-phase extraction followed by microfluidic immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Terakado, Shingo; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Matsue, Tomokazu; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-01-02

    Mercury is considered the most important heavy-metal pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Monitoring widespread ionic mercury (Hg(2+)) contamination requires high-throughput and cost-effective methods to screen large numbers of environmental samples. In this study, we developed a simple and sensitive analysis for Hg(2+) in environmental aqueous samples by combining a microfluidic immunoassay and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Using a microfluidic platform, an ultrasensitive Hg(2+) immunoassay, which yields results within only 10 min and with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.13 μg/L, was developed. To allow application of the developed immunoassay to actual environmental aqueous samples, we developed an ion-exchange resin (IER)-based SPE for selective Hg(2+) extraction from an ion mixture. When using optimized SPE conditions, followed by the microfluidic immunoassay, the LOD of the assay was 0.83 μg/L, which satisfied the guideline values for drinking water suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2 μg/L; total mercury), and the World Health Organisation (WHO) (6 μg/L; inorganic mercury). Actual water samples, including tap water, mineral water, and river water, which had been spiked with trace levels of Hg(2+), were well-analyzed by SPE, followed by microfluidic Hg(2+) immunoassay, and the results agreed with those obtained from reduction vaporizing-atomic adsorption spectroscopy.

  17. An efficient near infrared spectroscopy based on aquaphotomics technique for rapid determining the level of Cadmium in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Alfian; Vassileva, Maria; Santo, Ryoko; Tsenkova, Roumina

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common industrial pollutant with long biological half-life, which makes it as a cumulative toxicant. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully used for quick and accurate assessment of Cd content in agricultural materials, but the development of a quick detection method for ground and drinking water samples is equal importance for pollution monitoring. Metals have no absorbance in the NIR spectral range, thus the methods developed so far have focused on detection of metal-organic complexes (move to intro). This study focuses on the use of Aquaphotomics technique to measure Cd in aqueous solutions by analyzing the changes in water spectra that occur due to water-metal interaction. Measurements were performed with Cd (II) in 0.1 M HNO3, in the 680-1090 nm (water second and third overtones) and 1110-1800 nm (water first overtone) spectral regions, and were subjected to partial least-square regression analysis. It was found/determined that A concentration of Cd from 1 mg L-1 to 10 mg L-1 could be predicted by this model with average prediction correlation coefficient of 0.897. The model was tested by perturbations with temperature and other metal presence in the solution. The regression coefficient showed consistent peaks at 728, 752, 770, 780, 1362, 1430,1444, 1472/1474 and 1484 nm under various perturbations, indicating that metal to influence the water spectra. The residual predictive deviation values (RPD) were greater than 2, indicating that the model is appropriate for practical use. The result suggested that this newly proposed approach is capable of detecting metal ion in a much simpler, rapid and reliable way.

  18. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-11-21

    Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ); all the cases met the inclusion criteria for the study. We obtained three biopsies from each patient and from each of the predetermined regions of the stomach: antrum, angular portion, corpus, and fundus. From the patients with gastric cancer, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor mid-lesion and tumor margin, and additional specimens were collected at least 2 and 5 cm from the tumor margin. We compared IgA levels against H. pylori in each area of stomach between cases and controls as well as between early and advanced stages of gastric cancer. IgA values were strikingly elevated in cancer cases compared with control subjects; a value that was even higher in the distant periphery of tumor but was remarkably decreased toward the carcinoma lesion. The advanced stages of gastric cancer demonstrated the relapse of the humoral immune response in the mid-lesion region of the tumor compared with the tumor margins and adjacent non-tumor tissue. Gastric cancer is characterized by progressive accumulation of a concentrated, specific IgA response against H. pylori, beginning with an abnormal increase in the entire stomach but particularly in the adjacent non-tumor tissue. Thus, it is possible that this strong immune response also participates in some degree in the damage and in the development of gastric cancer to some extent.

  19. Humor and competence in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Masten, A S

    1986-04-01

    Multiple aspects of humor were evaluated in children between the ages of 10 and 14 and related to several areas of competence manifested at school. Humor measures assessed appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production, while competence measures included teacher ratings of classroom behavior, peer reputation, and achievement. Humor was related to competence in several ways consistent with previous theory and research: (1) through the manifestation of intellectual ability both in humor behaviors and in competent functioning; (2) through the role of mastery motivation enhancing both types of functioning; and (3) through peer relations, resulting from the effects of humor on peer acceptance or the effects of peer relations on humor behaviors. Ideas for further research relating humor to social competence, social cognition, and mastery motivation are discussed.

  20. Need for Humor Scale: validation with French children.

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine; Blanc, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    The Need for Humor (NFH) Scale measures the tendency to produce and seek out humor. This personality trait affects the processing and recall of humorous material. This study is a transcultural adaptation and validation of the NFH Scale with French participants, including 100 university students (Study 1a) and 160 school-aged children (Study 1b). Results from iterative exploratory analyses and confirmatory analyses revealed a bi-dimensional structure with satisfactory factor loadings. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also found to be adequate (Cronbach's alphas = .79 and .68; test-retest rs = .87 and .82). Children were tested on a preference task for humorous vs non-humorous print advertisements; children with high NFH scores responded more positively to humorous advertisements (Study 2). The French NFH Scale can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing need for humor in children and its effects on responses to print advertisements.

  1. Humor, laughter, and happiness in the daily lives of recently bereaved spouses.

    PubMed

    Lund, Dale A; Utz, Rebecca; Caserta, Michael S; De Vries, Brian

    The positive psychology movement has created more interest in examining the potential value of experiencing positive emotions (e.g., humor, laughter, and happiness) during the course of bereavement. This study of 292 recently widowed (5-24 weeks) men (39%) and women (61%) age 50 and over examined both the perceived importance of and actual experience of having positive emotions in their daily lives and how they might impact bereavement adjustments. We found that most of the bereaved spouses rated humor and happiness as being very important in their daily lives and that they were also experiencing these emotions at higher levels than expected. Experiencing humor, laughter, and happiness was strongly associated with favorable bereavement adjustments (lower grief and depression) regardless of the extent to which the bereaved person valued having these positive emotions.

  2. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-07-25

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level.

  3. Serial changes of humor comprehension for four-frame comic Manga: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843

  4. The cellular and humoral immunity assay in patients with complicated urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, E; Banov, P; Galescu, A; Tanase, D

    2017-01-01

    Especially complicated, renal lithiasis contributes to the general inflammatory syndrome development that interferes with nonspecific, humoral and cellular immune system. The surgical treatment of nephrolithiasis is closely related to drug therapy of urinary infection, one of the reasons being the reduction of the immune status. The work is performed by evaluating the immunological status preoperatively in 58 patients with complicated lithiasis. The analysis of the status in these patients demonstrated that complicated urolithiasis results in significant changes in the immune system, these changes being expressed at the cellular and humoral level of immunity. PMID:28255384

  5. Children's Appreciation of Humor: A Test of the Cognitive-Congruency Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Paul E.

    According to the cognitive-congruency principle, humor appreciation peaks when the cognitive demands of the stimulus are congruent with the cognitive level of the child. This study tested the principle with jokes based on concepts associated with concrete operational thinking, conservation of mass and weight. This method provides a satisfactory…

  6. Evidence of Dual Mechanisms of Glutathione Uptake in the Rodent Lens: A Novel Role for Vitreous Humor in Lens Glutathione Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Jeremy A.; Sell, David R.; Goodman, Michael C.; Monnier, Vincent M.; Fan, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lens glutathione synthesis knockout (LEGSKO) mouse lenses lack de novo glutathione (GSH) synthesis but still maintain >1 mM GSH. We sought to determine the source of this residual GSH and the mechanism by which it accumulates in the lens. Methods Levels of GSH, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and GSH-related compounds were measured in vitro and in vivo using isotope standards and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Results Wild-type (WT) lenses could accumulate GSH from γ-glutamylcysteine and glycine or from intact GSH, but LEGSKO lenses could only accumulate GSH from intact GSH, indicating that LEGSKO lens GSH content is not due to synthesis by a salvage pathway. Uptake of GSH in cultured lenses occurred at the same rate for LEGSKO and WT lenses, could not be inhibited, and occurred primarily through cortical fiber cells. In contrast, uptake of GSH from aqueous humor could be competitively inhibited and showed an enhanced Km in LEGSKO lenses. Mouse vitreous had >1 mM GSH, whereas aqueous had <20 μM GSH. Testing physiologically relevant GSH concentrations for uptake in vivo, we found that both LEGSKO and WT lenses could obtain GSH from the vitreous but not from the aqueous. Vitreous rapidly accumulated GSH from the circulation, and depletion of circulating GSH reduced vitreous but not aqueous GSH. Conclusions The above data provide, for the first time, evidence for the existence of dual mechanisms of GSH uptake into the lens, one mechanism being a passive, high-flux transport through the vitreous exposed side of the lens versus an active, carrier-mediated uptake mechanism at the anterior of the lens. PMID:27472077

  7. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    PubMed

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  8. Humoral and cellular immunity in chromium picolinate-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, B S L; McManus, C M; Caldeira, D F; Campeche, A; Burtet, R T; Paim, T P; Gomes, E F; Branquinho, R P; Braz, S V; Louvandini, H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of oral supplementation of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on humoral and cellular immunity in sheep were investigated. Twenty-four male lambs divided into four treatments and received different dosages of CrPic: placebo (0), 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 mg of chromium/animal/day during 84 days. The base ration was Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Blood samples were collected fortnightly for total and differential leukocyte counts. On days 28 and 56, the lambs were challenged with chicken ovalbumin I.M. Serum samples were collected on days 46 and 74 and subjected to an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure IgG anti-ovalbumin. The cell-mediated immune response was determined by a delay-type hypersensitivity test using phytohemagglutinin. CrPic did not significantly affect humoral immunity in lambs but there was a negative effect on cellular immunity (P < 0.05) as Cr supplementation increased. Therefore, the level of Cr supplementation for lambs must be better studied to address its effect on stressed animals or the possible toxic effects of Cr on the animal itself or its immune system.

  9. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. GC-FID determination of cocaine and its metabolites in human bile and vitreous humor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, P; Aldonza, M; Bouzas, A; Lema, M; Bermejo, A M; Tabernero, M J

    2006-01-01

    Gas chromatography was used in combination with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to develop a method for determining cocaine and its two metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BEG) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in bile and vitreous humor. The method used a 12 m x 0.2 mm i.d. column of 0.33 microm film thickness packed with 5% phenylmethylsiloxane, and proadifen as a reference compound. Drug-free bile and vitreous humor samples were used to prepare solutions of the target compounds at concentrations over the range 0.1-4 microg ml(-1) that were subjected to solid-phase extraction through Bond Elut Certify columns and derivatized with 99:1 (v/v) N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)/trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). Calibration graphs were highly linear, with correlation coefficients above 0.99 in all instances. Also, the precision of the method was found to be quite acceptable, with coefficients of variation less than 5% for bile and less than 7% for vitreous humor. The average extraction yields ranged from 73.6% to 91.2% for bile and from 71.5% to 92.2% for vitreous humor. The proposed method was used to analyse 26 samples of bile and as many of vitreous humor from individuals fatally poisoned by cocaine, whether alone or in combination with other drugs. The mean drug levels found were 0.75 and 1.54 microg ml(-1) for cocaine in bile and vitreous humor, respectively, 6.35 and 0.94 microg ml(-1) for BEG, and 2.18 and 0.61 microg ml(-1) for EME.

  11. Prolonged weightlessness and humoral immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, E. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Preflight, inflight, and postflight serum samples obtained from crewmen aboard STS-9 were analyzed for immunoglobulin content. Control studies for circadian rhythm were conducted to further validate the analyses. Quantitation of immunoglobulins G, M, A, D, and E indicated relatively minor fluctuations in the concentration of each class of immunoglobulin during the experiment. Thus, microgravity effects on immunoglobulin levels during a 10-day flight were considered insignificant.

  12. Prolonged weightlessness and humoral immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, E. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Preflight, inflight, and postflight serum samples obtained from crewmen aboard STS-9 were analyzed for immunoglobulin content. Control studies for circadian rhythm were conducted to further validate the analyses. Quantitation of immunoglobulins G, M, A, D, and E indicated relatively minor fluctuations in the concentration of each class of immunoglobulin during the experiment. Thus, microgravity effects on immunoglobulin levels during a 10-day flight were considered insignificant.

  13. Characterization of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Rubella Vaccine in Four Distinct Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Nathaniel; Haralambieva, Iana; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Larrabee, Beth; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Although vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced the global burden of rubella disease, there are still regional outbreaks and cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Rubella vaccination elicits a strong humoral, as well as cellular, response. The relationship between these two measures in response to rubella vaccine is poorly understood. We have previously reported no correlation between rubella virus-specific cytokine secretion and IgG antibody levels after rubella vaccination. In the current study, we extend our previous work to report correlations between secreted cytokines and functional neutralizing antibodies after rubella vaccination in four distinct cohorts. There was evidence of significant differences (p <0.05) in rubella virus-specific humoral and cellular responses between cohorts. When investigating relationships between rubella vaccine-specific humoral and cellular immunity, we observed a significant correlation between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ (rs = 0.21, p = 0.0004). We also observed correlations in subjects with extreme humoral immune phenotypes and IFN-γ levels in two of the four cohorts (rs = 0.32, p = 0.01; rs = 0.36, p = 0.01, respectively). These findings indicate that there is a high level of heterogeneity in rubella-specific immune responses between study populations. We believe that the novel correlation discovered between IFN-γ and neutralizing antibody titers will give future insight into the functional mechanisms of immunity induced by rubella virus and other live viral vaccines. PMID:24375276

  14. Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to achieve safe levels in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Teresa J; Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Ketelle, Richard H; Valentine, Charles S; Gregory, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and White Oak Creek (WOC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EFPC by 85 %. Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WOC are an order of magnitude lower than in EFPC. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations, fish fillet concentrations in WOC have also been above the AWQC, making the most recent aqueous Hg target of 200 ng/L in EFPC seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WOC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EFPC and in other point-source contaminated streams.

  15. Humor as aggression: effects of motivation on hostility expressed in humor appreciation.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Netta; Hodgins, Holley S; Ostvik-White, Elin

    2011-06-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the hypothesis that relative to primed autonomy motivation, primed control would increase enjoyment of hostile (compared with nonhostile) humor as assessed by self-reported enjoyment and aversiveness and by nonverbal behavior. Results confirmed the hypothesis. Furthermore, initial state hostility moderated the effect such that high-hostility participants who were primed with control motivation especially enjoyed hostile humor. The 2 final studies showed that the effect was mediated by implicit aggression such that the combination of high initial state hostility and control priming led to implicit aggression, which in turn resulted in hostile humor enjoyment. Results are interpreted in terms of the effects of autonomy versus control motivation on intrapersonal self-regulatory processes, which influence interpersonal functioning.

  16. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnoor, Hatim; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia; Liu, Xianjie; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2015-08-01

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  17. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Alnoor, Hatim Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer; Liu, Xianjie; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2015-08-15

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  18. [Dynamics of riboflavin level in aqueous humour of anterior chamber of experimental animals under standard stroma saturation by ultraviolet corneal cross-linking solutions].

    PubMed

    Bikbov, M M; Shevchuk, N E; Khalimov, A R; Bikbova, G M

    To evaluate the dynamics of riboflavin changes in the aqueous humour of the anterior chamber (AHAC) of rabbits' eyes during standard ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking with account to the area of corneal debridement. Forty two rabbits were studied sequentially. The following solutions of riboflavin were used for cornea saturation: IR - 0.1% isosmotic riboflavin, D - Dextralink (0.1% riboflavin with 20% dextran), R - 0.1% riboflavin with 1.0% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Each solution was evaluated in 3 groups that differed in the diameter of corneal debridement: group 1 - Epi-Off 3 mm (IR-3, D-3, P-3), group 2 - Epi-Off 6 mm (IR-6, D-6, R-6), and group 3 - Epi-Off 9 mm (IR-9, D-9, R-9). Aqueous humour sampling (252 samples in total) was performed in 10-minute intervals within a 60 minute period. Riboflavin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ID-Vit microbiological test system; Immundiagnostik, Germany). Stable growth rates of riboflavin level in the AHAC (with maximum values reached at 30-40 min) were observed for solutions D and R, regardless of the variant of corneal debridement. Moreover, throughout the whole follow-up period and regardless of the area of corneal debridement, the solution D provided a relatively lower concentration of riboflavin in the AHAC as compared to the two other solutions. At 30 minutes, when the cornea was considered ready for UV irradiation, the riboflavin level in the AHAC ranged from 385±26.1 μg/l (D-9) to 665±28 μg/l (R-9). In groups IR-9, IR-6, P-6, IR-3, and P-3 riboflavin levels were found to be in the same range starting at 20 minutes. However, even a sufficient concentration of riboflavin in the cornea or AHAC cannot guarantee safe and effective UV cross-linking, since the removed epithelium limits the area of the stroma that can be saturated with riboflavin, while the area of UV exposure is 8-10 mm. Safe and efficient standard UV cross-linking may be performed only under sufficient saturation of the

  19. Humor as an adjunct to occupational therapy interactions.

    PubMed

    Tooper, V O

    1984-01-01

    Although humor and laughter have been a natural part of human life in all cultures as far back as recorded history can determine, the conscious use of humor as a therapeutic technique is comparatively recent. This article suggests that health specialists have been slow to adopt the ideas of some of the better known researchers and writers in the field due to professional and cultural attitudes toward humor as a "frivolous" subject. As more information on the positive benefits of humor and laughter is being disseminated in books and workshops, previous myths regarding humor are being dispelled and attitudes are changing. A brief history of the state of the art over the past decade is included along with a few ideas from seminars and workshops on the use of humor as a planned activity in health and educational settings.

  20. Does Humor Influence the Stigma of Mental Illnesses?

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared to the non-disclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the non-disclosed condition suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719