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Sample records for aqueous nitrate plutonium

  1. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J D

    1985-05-13

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs.

  2. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  3. PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING NEPTUNIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS OF SAME CONTAINING URANYL NITRATE WITH A TERTIARY AMINE

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.C.

    1962-07-31

    A process of selectively extracting plutonium nitrate and neptunium nitrate with an organic solution of a tertiary amine, away from uranyl nitrate present in an aqueous solution in a maximum concentration of 1M is described. The nitric acid concentration is adjusted to about 4M and nitrous acid is added prior to extraction. (AEC)

  4. Aqueous nitrate flowsheet optimization and enhancement using the ATLAS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, S.B.; Punjak, W.A.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) is a pilot plant of all aqueous nitrate plutonium recovery and purification operations within the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The main unit operations include dissolution, anion exchange, precipitations, evaporation, calcination, and waste stream polishing. In the current political environment, the emphasis has been redirected from the traditional goal of recovering a pure plutonium product to that of generating ``clean`` effluents while placing the plutonium into a form suitable for long term storage. The ATLAS facility is uniquely suited to fulfill this new role in the development and demonstration of new or revisited technologies. This report summarizes recent work in equipment improvements to the batch dissolver, an evaluation of homogeneous hydroxide precipitations, a demonstration of nitric acid recycle, and the preparation of neptunium and plutonium standards.

  5. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  6. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  7. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Reber, E.J.

    1959-09-01

    A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  8. METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

  9. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Marshall; J. D. Bess

    2011-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas{reg_sign} reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 {+-} 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter

  10. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  11. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  12. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ION-EXCHANGE

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, J.

    1958-06-01

    A process is described for the separation of plutonium from an aqueous solution of a plutonium salt, which comprises adding to the solution an acid of the group consisting of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and oxalic acid, and mixtures thereof to provide an acid concentration between 0.0001 and 1 M, contacting the resultant solution with a synthetic organic anion exchange resin, and separating the aqueous phase and the resin which contains the plutonium.

  13. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  14. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  15. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  16. Influence of Acidity on Uranyl Nitrate Association in Aqueous Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin; Ye, Xianggui; Smith, Rodney Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Uranyl ion complexation with water and nitrate is a key aspect of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation study to investigate this complexation process, including the molecular composition of the various complex species, the corresponding structure, and the equilibrium distribution of the complexes. The observed structures of the complexes suggest that in aqueous solution, uranyls are generally hydrated by 5 water molecules in the equatorial plane. When associating with nitrate ions, a water molecule is replaced by a nitrate ion, preserving the five-fold coordination and planar symmetry. Analysis of the pair correlation function between uranyl and nitrate suggests that nitrates bind to uranyl in aqueous solution mainly in a monodentate mode, although a small portion of bidentates occur. Dynamic association and dissociation between uranyls and nitrates take place in aqueous solution with a substantial amount of fluctuation in the number of various uranyl nitrate species. The average number of the uranyl mononitrate complexes shows a dependence on acid concentration consistent with equilibrium-constant analysis, namely, the concentration of [UO2NO3]+ increases with nitric acid concentration.

  17. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  18. Redox reactions of neptunium and plutonium in alkaline aqueous solutions upon gamma radiolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.; Gogolev, A. V.; Shilov, V. P.

    1999-10-01

    The paper is a brief review of data obtained by the authors from the study on redox reactions of neptunium and plutonium ions upon γ-radiolysis of their aerated alkaline aqueous solutions. It includes the information on radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) ions under various experimental conditions. It was found that the values of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) reduction yields do not depend on alkali concentration. The values considerably increase in the presence of some organic compounds (EDTA and formate were investigated). The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the γ-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(VI) and Np(V) in the presence of nitrate. The mechanism of radiolytic redox reactions of the ions is discussed in some detail.

  19. A Mechanism for the Aqueous Phase Production of Alkyl Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.; Saltzman, E. S.; DeBruyn, W. J.

    2002-05-01

    Measurements of alkyl nitrates in the surface ocean and marine boundary layer indicate that there is an oceanic source of alkyl nitrates to the marine troposphere. Alkyl nitrates make up a portion of the total reactive nitrogen in the troposphere. They can contribute significantly to the NOx budget in the remote marine atmosphere, affecting regional ozone formation. The origin of the alkyl nitrate in the surface ocean is unknown. One possible mechanism for aqueous alkyl nitrate formation is the reaction of alkyl peroxy radicals with NO (ROO + NO -> RONO2). Peroxy radicals and NO have been observed in seawater at levels that make this a viable reaction (Blough 1997) (Zafiriou and McFarland 1981). In this project, steady state irradiations of nitrite and alkane solutions were used to determine the yield of alkyl nitrates from this reaction. The yield for ethyl nitrate has been determined to be 101+/-12% and 102+/-8% total yield for propyl nitrates (n-propyl and iso-propyl) with no evident temperature dependence between 5 and 30° C. Alkyl nitrates were also generated by the irradiation of natural seawater and nitrite-spiked seawater. These results indicate that the proposed mechanism may be a viable source of alkyl nitrates in surface waters.

  20. Nitrate Concentration near the Surface of Frozen Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Harley A; Michelsen, Rebecca R H

    2014-12-26

    Photolysis of nitrate plays an important role in the emission of nitrogen oxides from snow and ice, which affects the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to quantify these reactions, it is necessary to know how much nitrate is available for photolysis near the surfaces of snow and ice. The concentration of nitrate excluded from frozen solutions of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate was measured with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Liquid water and nitrate were observed at and near the bottom surface of frozen aqueous solutions during annealing from -18 to -2 °C. At -2 °C, the nitrate concentration was determined to be ∼1.0 mol/L for frozen NaNO(3) and Mg(NO(3))(2) solutions and ∼0.8 mol/L for frozen HNO(3) solutions. At lower temperatures, nitrate concentration ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 mol/L. Ideal thermodynamics overestimates nitrate concentration at colder temperatures where the brine is highly concentrated for all solutions. The nitrate concentration at ice surfaces is well described by bulk freezing point depression data close to the melting point of ice and for nitric acid at colder temperatures. Effects of temperature and counterions and implications for modeling snow chemistry are discussed. PMID:25495473

  1. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  2. Dried plutonium nitrate decontamination using HNO{sub 3} or Freon 113

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1988-02-04

    A request was made of the Separations Technology Laboratory to perform tests to determine the relative effectiveness of Freon 113 and 18% (3.15M) nitric acid on removing dried plutonium nitrate from Hypalon{reg_sign} gloves destined for use in F B-Line. Freon 113 was very inefficient for removing dried plutonium nitrate under conditions of moderate agitation of the liquid in contact with the dried compound. Nitric acid proved to be an excellent agent for decontaminating purposes for both the gloves and for the Pyrex glass. In tests conducted on the glass or on the gloves on which dried plutonium nitrate had not been removed by Freon 113, followup with nitric acid efficiently removed the residual plutonium nitrate. Tests were also conducted to give some measure of the resistance of the Hypalon glove to continuous contact with 18% HNO{sub 3} or with Freon 113. Following two weeks` immersion, there was little physical difference noted from the starting material, except the glove piece immersed in the Freon underwent an 8% weight gain.

  3. Criticality experiments with mixed plutonium and uranium nitrate solution at a plutonium fraction of 0.4 in slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, B.A.; Keeton, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    R. C. Lloyd of PNL has completed and published a series of critical experiments with mixed plutonium- uranium nitrate solutions (Reference 1). This series of critical experiments was part of an extensive program jointly sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan and was carried out in the mid-1980`s. The experiments evaluated here (published as Report PNL-6327) were performed with mixed plutonium- uranium nitrate solution in a variable thickness slab tank with two 106.7 cm square sides and a width that could be varied from 7.6 to 22.8 cm. The objective of these experiments was to obtain experimental data to permit the validation of computer codes for criticality calculations and of cross-section data to minimize the uncertainties inherent therein, so that facility safety, efficiency, and reliability could be enhanced. The concentrations of the solution were about 105, 293, and 435 g(Pu+U)/liter with a ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) of about 0. 40 for all eight experiments. Four measurements were made with a water reflector, and four with no reflector. Following the publication of the initial PNL reports, considerable effort was devoted to an extensive reevaluation of this series of experiments by a collaboration of researchers from ORNL, PNL, and PNC (Reference 2). Their work resulted in a more accurate description of the ``as built`` hardware configuration and the materials specifications. For the evaluations in this report, the data published in Reference 2 by Smolen et al. is selected to supersede the original PNL report. Eight experiments have been evaluated and seven (063, 064, 071, 072, 074, 075, and 076) provide benchmark criticality data. Experiment 073 could not achieve criticality within vessel height limitations.

  4. METHOD OF SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM CARRIER PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, I.R.

    1959-09-22

    The recovery of plutonium from fluoride carrier precipitates is described. The precipitate is dissolved in zirconyl nitrate, ferric nitrate, aluminum nitrate, or a mixture of these complexing agents, and the plutonium is then extracted from the aqueous solution formed with a water-immiscible organic solvent.

  5. Plutonium-uranium separation in the Purex process using mixtures of hydroxylamine nitrate and ferrous sulfamate

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J.M.; Chostner, D.F.; Orebaugh, E.G.

    1983-11-01

    Laboratory studies, followed by plant operation, established that a mixture of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) and ferrous sulfamate (FS) is superior to FS used alone as a reductant for plutonium in the Purex first cycle. FS usage has been reduced by about 70% (from 0.12 to 0.04M) compared to the pre-1978 period. This reduced the volume of neutralized waste due to FS by 194 liters/metric ton of uranium (MTU) processed. The new flowsheet also gives lower plutonium losses to waste and at least comparable fission product decontamination. To achieve satisfactory performance at this low concentration of FS, the acidity in the 1B mixer-settler was reduced by using a split-scrub - a low acid scrub in stage one and a higher acid scrub in stage three - to remove acid from the solvent exiting the 1A centrifugal contactor. 8 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  6. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM OTHER METAL VALUES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SELECTIVE COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating tri- or tetravalent plutonium from fission products in an aqueous solution by complexing the fission products with oxalate, tannate, citrate, or tartrate anions at a pH value of at least 2.4 (preferably between 2.4 and 4), and contacting a cation exchange resin with the solution whereby the plutonium is adsorbed while the complexed fission products remain in solution.

  7. Plutonium silicate alteration phases produced by aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.; Mertz, C. J.; Bakel, A. J.; Finch, R. J.; Chamerlain, D. B.

    1999-11-22

    Borosilicate glasses loaded with {approx}10 wt % plutonium were found to produce plutonium-silicate alteration phases upon aqueous corrosion under a range of conditions. The phases observed were generally rich in lanthanide (Ln) elements and were related to the lanthanide orthosilicate phases of the monoclinic Ln{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} type. The composition of the phases was variable regarding [Ln]/[Pu] ratio, depending upon type of corrosion test and on the location within the alteration layer. The formation of these phases likely has implications for the incorporation of plutonium into silicate alteration phases during corrosion of titanate ceramics, high-level waste glasses, and spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Criticality experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays in plutonium-uranium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C. ); Smolen, G.R. )

    1988-08-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having a Pu/(Pu + U) ratio of approximately 0.22 in a boiler tube-type lattice assembly. These experiments were conducted as part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of the experiments and data are included in this report. The experiments were performed with an array of mixed oxide fuel pins in aqueous plutonium-uranium solutions. The fuel pins were contained in a boiler tube-type tank and arranged in a 1.4 cm square pitch array which resembled cylindrical geometry. One experiment was perfomed with the fuel pins removed from the vessel. The experiments were performed with a water reflector. The concentration of the solutions in the boiler tube-type tank was varied from 4 to 468 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was approximately 0.22 for all experiments.

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  10. Effects of inhaled plutonium nitrate on bone and liver in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.; Watson, C.R.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    The life-span biological effects of inhaled soluble, alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the skeleton and liver were studied in 5 groups of 20 beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 0.48 to 518 Bq/g of lung. Average plutonium amounts in the lungs decreased to approximately 1% of the final body deposition in dogs surviving 5 years or more; more than 90% of the final depositions accumulated in the liver and skeleton. The liver-to-skeletal ratio of deposited plutonium was 0.83. The incidence of bone tumors, primarily osteogenic sarcomas causing early mortality, at final group average skeletal depositions of 15.8, 2.1, and 0.5 Bq/g was, respectively, 85%, 50%, and 5%; there were no bone tumors in exposure groups with mean average depositions lower than 0.5 Bq/g. Elevated serum liver enzyme levels were observed in exposure groups down to 1.3 Bq/g. The incidence of liver tumors at final group average liver depositions of 6.9, 1.3, 0.2, and 0.1 Bq/g, was, respectively, 25%, 15%, 15%, and 15%; one hepatoma occurred among 40 control dogs. The risk of the liver cancer produced by inhaled plutonium nitrate was difficult to assess due to the competing risks of life shortening from lung and bone tumors.

  11. Evaluation of a new, macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin for processing plutonium using nitrate anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    Anion exchange in nitric acid is the major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure scrap materials. Most strong-base anion exchange resins incorporate a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. A newly available, macroporous anion exchange resin based on a copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene has been evaluated. Comparative data for Pu(IV) sorption kinetics and capacity are presented for this new resin and two other commonly used anion exchange resins. The new resin offers high capacity and rapid sorption kinetics for Pu(IV) from nitric acid, as well as greatly stability to chemical and radiolytic degradation. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  12. High-speed impact test of an air-transportable plutonium nitrate shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Pope, R.B.; Leisher, W.B.; Joseph, B.J.

    1980-04-01

    To obtain information on package response for comparison with other test environments, a high-speed impact test was performed on a modified Federal Republic of Germany 18B plutonium nitrate air-transportable container. The container, modified with reinforcing rings for improved crush resistance around the inner tube assembly, was impacted at a velocity of 137 m/s onto an unyielding surface. Substantial crushing of the foam overpack and extensive deformation of the container cavity occurred, causing release of the liquid surrogate contents from the titanium shipping container. The container damage resulting from the high-speed pulldown test was more severe than that from a 185-m free fall onto a semirigid surface by a similar container or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-Mg block onto the container resting on an unyielding surface.

  13. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  14. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, David G.; Blum, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  15. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  16. Synthesis and structures of plutonyl nitrate complexes: is plutonium heptavalent in PuO3(NO3)2(-) ?

    PubMed

    Maurice, Rémi; Renault, Eric; Gong, Yu; Rutkowski, Philip X; Gibson, John K

    2015-03-01

    Gas-phase plutonium nitrate anion complexes were produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) of a plutonium nitrate solution. The ESI mass spectrum included species with all four of the common oxidation states of plutonium: Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI). Plutonium nitrate complexes were isolated in a quadrupole ion trap and subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID). CID of complexes of the general formula PuOx(NO3)y(-) resulted in the elimination of NO2 to produce PuOx+1(NO3)y-1(-), which in most cases corresponds to an increase in the oxidation state of plutonium. Plutonyl species, Pu(V)O2(NO3)2(-) and Pu(VI)O2(NO3)3(-), were produced from Pu(III)(NO3)4(-) and Pu(IV)(NO3)5(-), respectively, by the elimination of two NO2 molecules. CID of Pu(VI)O2(NO3)3(-) resulted in NO2 elimination to yield PuO3(NO3)2(-), in which the oxidation state of plutonium could be VII, a known oxidation state in condensed phase but not yet in the gas phase. Density functional theory confirmed the nature of Pu(V)O2(NO3)2(-) and Pu(VI)O2(NO3)3(-) as plutonyl(V/VI) cores coordinated by bidentate equatorial nitrate ligands. The computed structure of PuO3(NO3)2(-) is essentially a plutonyl(VI) core, Pu(VI)O2(2+), coordinated in the equatorial plane by two nitrate ligands and one radical oxygen atom. The computations indicate that in the ground spin-orbit free state of PuO3(NO3)2(-), the unpaired electron of the oxygen atom is antiferromagnetically coupled to the spin-triplet state of the plutonyl core. The results indicate that Pu(VII) is not a readily accessible oxidation state in the gas phase, despite that it is stable in solution and solids, but rather that a Pu(VI)-O· bonding configuration is favored, in which an oxygen radical is involved.

  17. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  18. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  19. Criticality experiments with planar arrays of three-liter bottles containing plutonium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, B.M.; Clayton, E.D.; Smith, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in critically safety assessments of plant configurations. Arrays containing up to as many as sixteen three-liter bottles filled with plutonium nitrate were used in the experiments. A split-table device was used in the final assembly of the arrays. Ths planar arrays were reflected with close fitting plexiglas on each side and on the bottom but not the top surface. The experiments addressed a number of factors effecting criticality: the critical air gap between bottles in an array of fixed number of bottles, the number of bottles required for criticality if the bottles were touching, and the effect on critical array spacing and critical bottle number due to the insertion of an hydrogeneous substance into the air gap between bottles. Each bottle contained about 2.4l of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution at a Pu concentration of 105g Pu/l, with the {sup 240}Pu content being 2.9 wt% at a free acid molarity H{sup +} of 5.1. After the initial series of experiments were performed with bottles separated by air gaps, plexiglas shells of varying thicknesses were placed around each bottle to investigate how moderation between bottles affects both the number of bottles required for criticality and the critical spacing between each bottle. The minimum of bottles required for criticality was found to be 10.9 bottles, occurring for a square array with bottles in contact. As the bottles were spaced apart, the critical number increased. For sixteen bottles in a square array, the critical separation between surfaces in both x and y direction was 0.96 cm. The addition of plexiglas around each bottle decreased the critical bottle number, compared to those separated in air, but the critical bottle number, even with interstitial plastic in place was always greater than 10.9 bottles. The most reactive configuration was a tightly packed array of bottles with no intervening material.

  20. Radiolysis of hexavalent plutonium in solutions of uranyl nitrate containing fission product simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rance, Peter J. W.; Zilberman, B. Ya.; Akopov, G. A.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the inherent radioactivity on the chemical state of plutonium ions in solution was recognized very shortly after the first macroscopic amounts of plutonium became available and early studies were conducted as part of the Manhattan Project. However, the behavior of plutonium ions, in nitric acid especially, has been found to be somewhat complex, so much so that a relatively modern summary paper included the comment that, "The vast amount of work carried out in nitric acid solutions can not be adequately summarized. Suffice it to say results in these solutions are plagued with irreproducibility and induction periods…" Needless to say, the presence of other ions in solution, as occurs when irradiated nuclear fuel is dissolved, further complicates matters. The purpose of the work described below was to add to the rather small amount of qualitative data available relating to the radiolytic behavior of plutonium in solutions of irradiated nuclear fuel.

  1. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  2. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

    1959-10-13

    The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

  3. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  4. EXTRACTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS FROM COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING SAME

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1957-10-29

    Methods for separating plutonium from the fission products present in masses of neutron irradiated uranium are reported. The neutron irradiated uranium is first dissolved in an aqueous solution of nitric acid. The plutonium in this solution is present as plutonous nitrate. The aqueous solution is then agitated with an organic solvent, which is not miscible with water, such as diethyl ether. The ether extracts 90% of the uraryl nitrate leaving, substantially all of the plutonium in the aqueous phase. The aqueous solution of plutonous nitrate is then oxidized to the hexavalent state, and agitated with diethyl ether again. In the ether phase there is then obtained 90% of plutonium as a solution of plutonyl nitrate. The ether solution of plutonyl nitrate is then agitated with water containing a reducing agent such as sulfur dioxide, and the plutonium dissolves in the water and is reduced to the plutonous state. The uranyl nitrate remains in the ether. The plutonous nitrate in the water may be recovered by precipitation.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Solution-Air Interface of Aqueous Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jennie L.; Roeselova, Martina; Dang, Liem X.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2007-04-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the behavior of aqueous sodium nitrate in interfacial environments. Polarizable potentials for the water molecules and the nitrate ion in solution were employed. Calculated surface tension data at several concentrations are in good agreement with measured surface tension data. The surface potential of NaNO3 solutions at two concentrations also compare favorably with experimental measurements. Density profiles suggest that NO3 - resides primarily below the surface of the solutions over a wide range of concentrations. When the nitrate anions approach the surface of the solution, they are significantly undercoordinated compared to in the bulk, and this may be important for reactions where solvent cage effects play a role, such as photochemical processes. Surface water orientation is perturbed by the presence of nitrate ions, and this has implications for experimental studies that probe interfacial water orientation. Nitrate ions near the surface also have a preferred orientation that places the oxygen atoms in the plane of the interface. The availability of NO3 - for reaction at the surface of aerosols in the atmosphere is discussed. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the Department of Energy.

  6. Kinetic studies of nitrate removal from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qili; Chen, Nan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Weiwu; Lv, Long

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a granular chitosan-Fe(III) complex was prepared as a feasible adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from an aqueous solution. There was no significant change in terms of nitrate removal efficiency over a wide pH range of 3-11. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. In order to more accurately reflect adsorption and desorption behaviors at the solid/solution interface, kinetic model I and kinetic model II were proposed to simulate the interfacial process in a batch system. Nitrate adsorption on the chitosan-Fe(III) complex followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and kinetic model I. The proposed half-time could provide useful information for optimizing process design. Adsorption and desorption rate constants obtained from kinetic model I and kinetic model II were beneficial to understanding the interfacial process and the extent of adsorption reaction. Kinetic model I and kinetic model II implied that nitrate uptake exponentially approaches a limiting value. PMID:26942545

  7. Detection of the improvised explosives ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea nitrate (UN) using non-aqueous solvents with electrospray ionization and MS/MS detection.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Inge; McCord, Bruce

    2013-10-15

    In this study methods for the detection of trace levels of the improvised explosives urea nitrate and ammonium nitrate were developed using electrospray ionization with infusion. By using a non-aqueous solvent mixture containing 95% acetone with 5% 2-methoxyethanol we were able to preserve the urea and ammonium nitrate ion pairs and discriminate between these and other similar salts. Negative ion electrospray ionization was used for urea nitrate detection and positive ion electrospray ionization was used for ammonium nitrate. Two specific adduct ions were detected for each explosive with ammonium nitrate producing m/z 178 [2AN+NH4](+) and m/z 258 ions [3AN+NH4](+) while urea nitrate produced m/z 185 [UN+NO3](-) and m/z 248 [UN+HNO3+NO3](-) The specificity of the analysis was examined by mixing the different explosives with various salts and interferents. Adduct ions formed in the gas phase were found to be useful in distinguishing between ion pairs and mixed salts. Overall the method demonstrates the sensitive detection of both explosives, and more specifically the potential to determine intact urea nitrate.

  8. Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.5 in Annular Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, RC

    1988-04-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.5. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in annular cylindrical geometry. The measurements were made with a water reflector. The central region included a concrete annular cylinder containing B{sub 4}C. Interior to the concrete insert was a stainless steel bottle containing plutonium-uranium solution. The concentration of the solution in the annular region was varied from 116 to 433 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 52% for all experiments.

  9. The structure of plutonium(IV) oxide as hydrolysed clusters in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Christian; Larsson, Kristian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-02-14

    The behavior of plutonium still puzzles scientists 70 years after its discovery. There are several factors making the chemistry of plutonium interesting including its ability to keep several oxidation states. Another unique property is that the oxidation states +III, +IV, +V and +VI may exist simultaneously in solution. Another property plutonium shares with some other tetravalent metal ions is the ability to form stable polynuclear complexes or colloids. The structures of freshly prepared and five-year old plutonium(IV) colloids are compared with crystalline plutonium(IV) oxide using Pu L(3)-edge EXAFS. It was shown that as the plutonium colloids age they do in fact shrink in size, contrary to previous expectations. The aged colloidal particles are indeed very small with only 3-4 plutonium atoms, and with a structure very similar to solid plutonium(IV) oxide, but with somewhat shorter mean Pu-O bond and Pu···Pu distances indicating a partial oxidation. The very small size of the colloidal particles is further supported by the fact that they do not sediment on heavy ultra-centrifugation.

  10. Method for recovering aluminum fluoride from fluorine-containing aqueous aluminum nitrate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimi, H.; Shimauchi, H.; Tanaka, C.

    1983-02-22

    In a process for converting UF/sub 6/ into UO/sub 2/, the UF/sub 6/ is brought into contact with an aqueous aluminum nitrate solution. The resultant product is solvent extracted with tributyl phosphate to remove uranyl nitrate. The raffinate has a fluorine/aluminum (F/Al) weight ratio within the range of from about 0.5 to about a sufficient quantity of hydrofluoric acid is added to T raffinate to minimize the solubility of aluminum fluoride (AlF/sub 3/) therein and thereby maximize the precipitation potential of AlF/sub 3/. Generally this occurs when sufficient hydrofluoric acid has been added to cause the F/Al weight ratio to be within the range of from about 1.8 to about 2.2. As a result of this treatment, the raffinate is divided into an uranium-containing aqueous solution and an AlF/sub 3/ precipitate which contains substantially no uranium.

  11. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  12. Complexation and redox interactions between aqueous plutonium and manganese oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Nitsche, Heino; Booth, Corwin H.; Shuh, David K.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Wilson, Richard E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2001-11-01

    The sorption of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) onto manganite (MnOOH) and Hausmannite (Mn3O4) was studied at pH 5. Manganite sorbed 21-24% from a 1x10-4 M plutonium solution and the hausmannite removed between 43-66% of the plutonium. The increased sorption by hausmannite results from its larger surface area (about twice that of manganite) plus a larger number of active surface sites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra taken at the Pu LIII edge were compared to standard spectra of plutonium in single oxidation states. Based on these spectra, it appears that both manganite and hausmannite reduce the higher valent plutonium species to Pu(IV). Between 53-59% of the plutonium was present as Pu(IV) in the manganite samples while 55-61% of the plutonium complexed to the hausmannite had also been reduced to Pu(IV). The exact mechanism behind this redox interaction between the plutonium and the manganese needs to be identified.

  13. Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.4 in Slab and Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, RC

    1988-04-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.4. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in cylinqrical and slab geometries and included measurements with a water reflector, a concrete reflector, and without an added reflector. The concentration was varied from 105 to 436 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 0.4 for all experiments.

  14. Criticality experiments with mixed plutonium and uranium nitrate solution at a plutonium fraction of 0.5 in slab and cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.5. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in cylindrical and slab geometries and included measurements with a water reflector, a concrete reflector, and without an added reflector. The concentration was varied from 112 to 332 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 52% for all experiments.

  15. [Adsorption Characteristics of Nitrate and Phosphate from Aqueous Solution on Zirconium-Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Chloride Modified Activated Carbon].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-jing; Lin, Jian-wei; Zhan, Yan-hui; Wang, Hong

    2015-06-01

    A novel adsorbent material, i.e., zirconium-cationic surfactant modified activated carbon (ZrSMAC) was prepared by loading zirconium hydroxide and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) on activated carbon, and was used as an adsorbent for nitrate and phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The adsorption characteristics of nitrate and phosphate on ZrSMAC from aqueous solution were investigated in batch mode. Results showed that the ZrSMAC was effective for nitrate and phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted both the nitrate and phosphate kinetic experimental data well. The equilibrium isotherm data of nitrate adsorption onto the ZrSMAC were well fitted to the Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Freundlich isotherm models. The equilibrium isotherm data of phosphate adsorption onto the ZrSMAC could be described by the Langmuir and,D- R isotherm models. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum nitrate and phosphate adsorption capacities for the ZrSMAC were 7.58 mg x g(-1) and 10.9 mg x g(-1), respectively. High pH value was unfavorable for nitrate and phosphate adsorption onto the ZrSMAC. The presence of Cl-, HCO3- and SO4(2-) in solution reduced the nitrate and phosphate adsorption capacities for the ZrSMAC. The nitrate adsorption capacity for the ZrSMAC was reduced by the presence of coexisting phosphate in solution, and the phosphate adsorption capacity for the ZrSMAC was also reduced by the presence of coexisting nitrate in solution. About 90% of nitrate adsorbed on the ZrSMAC could be desorbed in 1 mol x L(-1) NaCl solution, and about 78% of phosphate adsorbed on the ZrSMAC could be desorbed in 1 mol x L(-1) NaOH solution. The adsorption mechanism of nitrate on the ZrSMAC included the anion exchange interactions and electrostatic attraction, and the adsorption mechanism of phosphate on the ZrSMAC included the ligand exchange interaction, electrostatic attraction and anion exchange interaction.

  16. Efficient frequency conversion by stimulated Raman scattering in a sodium nitrate aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ganot, Yuval E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il; Bar, Ilana E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il

    2015-09-28

    Frequency conversion of laser beams, based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is an appealing technique for generating radiation at new wavelengths. Here, we investigated experimentally the SRS due to a single pass of a collimated frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) through a saturated aqueous solution of sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}), filling a 50 cm long cell. These experiments resulted in simultaneous generation of 1st (564 nm) and 2nd (599 nm) Stokes beams, corresponding to the symmetric stretching mode of the nitrate ion, ν{sub 1}(NO{sub 3}{sup −}), with 40 and 12 mJ/pulse maximal converted energies, equivalent to 12% and 4% efficiencies, respectively, for a 340 mJ/pulse pump energy. The results indicate that the pump and SRS beams were thermally defocused and that four-wave mixing was responsible for the second order Stokes process onset.

  17. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  18. Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium and Uranium Nitrate Solution at a Plutonium Fraction of 0.2 and 1.0 in Annular Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, RC

    1988-04-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutoniumuranium solutions having Pu/(Pu + U) ratios of approximately 0.2 and 1.0. These experiments were a part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of, and data from, the experiments are included in this report. The experiments were performed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions in annular cylindrical geometry. The measurements were made with a water reflector. The central region included a concrete, polyethylene or void annular cylindrical insert. Interior to the insert was a stainless steel bottle containing plutonium-uranium solution or a void region. In one experiment the central region was filled with a solid cadmium-covered polyethylene insert. The concentration of the solution in the annular region was varied from 61 to 489 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was 0.22 or 0.97 for all experiments.

  19. Release of nitrous acid and nitrogen dioxide from nitrate photolysis in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Berke, Andrew E; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-10-21

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) is an abundant component of aerosols, boundary layer surface films, and surface water. Photolysis of NO3(-) leads to NO2 and HONO, both of which play important roles in tropospheric ozone and OH production. Field and laboratory studies suggest that NO3¯ photochemistry is a more important source of HONO than once thought, although a mechanistic understanding of the variables controlling this process is lacking. We present results of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy measurements of NO2 and HONO emitted during photodegradation of aqueous NO3(-) under acidic conditions. Nitrous acid is formed in higher quantities at pH 2-4 than expected based on consideration of primary photochemical channels alone. Both experimental and modeled results indicate that the additional HONO is not due to enhanced NO3(-) absorption cross sections or effective quantum yields, but rather to secondary reactions of NO2 in solution. We find that NO2 is more efficiently hydrolyzed in solution when it is generated in situ during NO3(-) photolysis than for the heterogeneous system where mass transfer of gaseous NO2 into bulk solution is prohibitively slow. The presence of nonchromophoric OH scavengers that are naturally present in the environment increases HONO production 4-fold, and therefore play an important role in enhancing daytime HONO formation from NO3(-) photochemistry.

  20. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

    1958-05-01

    A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

  1. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  2. Aqueous atmospheric chemistry: formation of 2,4-dinitrophenol upon nitration of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol in solution.

    PubMed

    Vione, Davide; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Pelizzetti, Ezio

    2005-10-15

    Field studies have shown that the powerful phytotoxic agent 2,4-dinitrophenol is very likely to form in the atmospheric aqueous phase upon nitration of 2-nitrophenol or 4-nitrophenol. However, until now, the nitration pathway and the relative importance of the two mononitrophenols as sources of 2,4-dinitrophenol were not known. The present study shows that 2,4-dinitrophenol formation from mononitrophenols can take place upon photolysis and photooxidation of nitrite/nitrous acid (NO2-/HONO) and that nitrogen dioxide plays a key role in the process. A possible pathway might be the reaction between light-excited mononitrophenols (both 2- and 4-isomers) and nitrogen dioxide, in the presence of oxygen. As an alternative, nitration might involve *NO3 + *NO2. Possible sources of nitrogen dioxide in the atmospheric aqueous phase are dissolution from the gas phase and oxidation of NO2-. In the latter case, however, it is necessary that NO2- oxidation is faster than the oxidation of mononitrophenols. This would happen, for instance, in the presence of hematite under irradiation. Radiation absorption and scattering by hematite would also inhibit the direct photolysis of nitrophenols. The formation rate and the yield of 2,4-dinitrophenol are slightly higher when starting from 2-nitrophenol than those from 4-nitrophenol, but they are compensated by the higher concentration of 4-nitrophenol in the atmospheric aqueous phase.

  3. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  4. CONCENTRATION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM IONS, IN AN OXIDATION STATE NOT GREATER THAN +4, IN AQUEOUS ACID SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-06-14

    A process for concentrating plutonium is given in which plutonium is first precipitated with bismuth phosphate and then, after redissolution, precipitated with a different carrier such as lanthanum fluoride, uranium acetate, bismuth hydroxide, or niobic oxide.

  5. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  6. Calculated equilibria between adjacent valence states of plutonium in simple aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeton, F.H.

    1981-02-01

    Equilibrium data have been taken from the literature for the oxidation of Pu/sup 3 +/ to Pu/sup 4 +/, Pu/sup 4 +/ to PuO/sub 2//sup +/ and PuO/sub 2//sup +/ to PuO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and for the hydrolysis of these four plutonium species in dilute solutions. These data have been used to calculate the oxidation-reduction potentials (expressed as E/sub h/) at which the concentrations of the two species (including the hydrolyzed forms) in each pair are equal. These calculations cover the pH range of 0 to 13. The results indicate that there are conditions under which each species can be predominant. The solubility of PuO/sub 2/ under environmental conditions is also discussed.

  7. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Brooks, Antone L.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Patton, Kristin M.; McComish, Stacey; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  8. Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Odoh, Samuel O.; Bylaska, Eric J.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2013-11-27

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations have been used to examine the hydration structures, coordination energetics and the first hydrolysis constants of Pu3+, Pu4+, PuO2+ and PuO22+ ions in aqueous solution at 300 K. The coordination numbers and structural properties of the first shell of these ions are in good agreement with available experimental estimates. The hexavalent PuO22+ species is coordinated to 5 aquo ligands while the pentavalent PuO2+ complex is coordinated to 4 aquo ligands. The Pu3+ and Pu4+ ions are both coordinated to 8 water molecules. The first hydrolysis constants obtained for Pu3+ and PuO22+ are 6.65 and 5.70 respectively, all within 0.3 pH units of the experimental values (6.90 and 5.50 respectively). The hydrolysis constant of Pu4+, 0.17, disagrees with the value of -0.60 in the most recent update of the Nuclear Energy Agency Thermochemical Database (NEA-TDB) but supports recent experimental findings. The hydrolysis constant of PuO2+, 9.51, supports the experimental results of Bennett et al. (Radiochim. Act. 1992, 56, 15). A correlation between the pKa of the first hydrolysis reaction and the effective charge of the plutonium center was found.

  9. Selective decomposition of aqueous nitrate into nitrogen using iron deposited bimetals.

    PubMed

    Liou, Ya Hsuan; Lin, Chin Jung; Weng, Shih Chi; Ou, Hsin Hung; Lo, Shang Lien

    2009-04-01

    In the case of the reduction of nitrate in groundwater, the problem is how to convert nitrate [N(+V)] selectively to nontoxic dinitrogen [N(O)] and not to completely reduced ammonia [N(-III)]. Unfortunately, near 100% of the total nitrogen in nitrate is reductively converted to ammonia using naked zerovalent iron (ZVI) thus far reported. In this study, deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Au) and Cu on iron surface to offer favorable pathways for nitrate reduction was fabricated using either the complete mixing orthe successive method with spontaneous redox reactions. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy, and electrochemical analysis. The formation of N2 from the reduction of nitrate was confirmed by residual gas analyzer coupled to a high vacuum system. Based on the experimental results, the ZVI deposited Pd and Cu closely is suggested to promote the abstraction of oxygen from NOx by adsorbed atomic hydrogen on the Cu surface, and enhance N2 formation on the Pd surface. An optimum N2 selectivity of approximately 30% obtained in the alkaline solution containing nitrate using 0.3 wt.% Pd-0.5 wt% Cu/Fe is evident. For groundwater treatment, iron deposited Pd and Cu could facilitate the development of a process requiring neither a massive addition of chemicals nor complex equipment.

  10. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  11. Simultaneous electrochemical determination of nitrate and nitrite in aqueous solution using Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy electrode.

    PubMed

    Manea, Florica; Remes, Adriana; Radovan, Ciprian; Pode, Rodica; Picken, Stephen; Schoonman, Joop

    2010-11-15

    In this work a new electrochemical sensor based on an Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy composite electrode (AgZEGE) was evaluated as a novel alternative for the simultaneous quantitative determination of nitrate and nitrite in aqueous solutions. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the electrode in the presence of individual or mixtures of nitrate and nitrite anions in 0.1M Na(2)SO(4) supporting electrolyte. Linear dependences of current versus nitrate and nitrite concentrations were obtained for the concentration ranges of 1-10mM for nitrate and 0.1-1mM for nitrite using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and multiple-pulsed amperometry (MPA) procedures. The comparative assessment of the electrochemical behavior of the individual anions and mixtures of anions on this modified electrode allowed determining the working conditions for the simultaneous detection of the nitrite and nitrate anions. Applying MPA allowed enhancement of the sensitivity for direct and indirect nitrate detection and also for nitrite detection. The proposed sensor was applied in tap water samples spiked with known nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the results were in agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method. This work demonstrates that using multiple-pulse amperometry with the Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy composite electrode provides a real opportunity for the simultaneous detection of nitrite and nitrate in aqueous solutions. PMID:21035645

  12. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH4)2SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate. PMID:24145916

  13. Nitrate adsorption from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qili; Chen, Nan; Feng, Chuanping; Hu, WeiWu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, In order to efficiently remove nitrate, granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex with high chemical stability and good environmental adaptation was synthesized through precipitation method and characterized using SEM, XRD, BET and FTIR. The nitrate adsorption performance was evaluated by batch experiments. The results indicated that granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex was an amorphous and mesoporous material. The BET specific surface area and average pore size were 8.98 m2 g-1 and 56.94 Å, respectively. The point of zero charge was obtained at pH 5. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 8.35 mg NO3--N g-1 based on Langmuir-Freundlich model. Moreover, no significant change in the nitrate removal efficiency was observed in the pH range of 3.0-10.0. The adverse influence of sulphate on nitrate removal was the most significant, followed by bicarbonate and fluoride, whereas chloride had slightly adverse effect. Adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental equilibrium data were fitted well with the Langmuir-Freundlich and D-R isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that nitrate adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Granular chitosan-Fe3+ complex could be effectively regenerated by NaCl solution.

  14. An electronic tongue designed to detect ammonium nitrate in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Campos, Inmaculada; Pascual, Lluis; Soto, Juan; Gil-Sánchez, Luis; Martínez-Máez, Ramón

    2013-10-18

    An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni) encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH₄NO₃; MgSO₄; NH₄Cl; NaCl; Na₂CO₃; (NH₄)₂SO₄; MgCl₂; Na₃PO₄; K₂SO₄; K₂CO₃; CaCl₂; NaH₂PO₄; KCl; NaNO₃; K₂HPO₄. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.

  15. Nitrate-induced photodegradation of atenolol in aqueous solution: kinetics, toxicity and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuefei; Zeng, Chao; Ferronato, Corinne; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Yang, Xi

    2012-07-01

    The extensive utilization of β-blockers worldwide led to frequent detection in natural water. In this study the photolysis behavior of atenolol (ATL) and toxicity of its photodegradation products were investigated in the presence of nitrate ions. The results showed that ATL photodegradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics upon simulated solar irradiation. The photodegradation was found to be dependent on nitrate concentration and increasing the nitrate from 0.5 mML(-1) to 10 mML(-1) led to the enhancement of rate constant from 0.00101 min(-1) to 0.00716 min(-1). Hydroxyl radical was determined to play a key role in the photolysis process by using isopropanol as molecular probe. Increasing the solution pH from 4.8 to 10.4, the photodegradation rate slightly decreased from 0.00246 min(-1) to 0.00195 min(-1), probably due to pH-dependent effect of nitrate-induced .OH formation. Bicarbonate decreased the photodegradation of ATL in the presence of nitrate ions mainly through pH effect, while humic substance inhibited the photodegradation via both attenuating light and competing radicals. Upon irradiation for 240 min, only 10% reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) can be achieved in spite of 72% transformation rate of ATL, implying a majority of ATL transformed into intermediate products rather than complete mineralization. The main photoproducts of ATL were identified by using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS) techniques and possible nitrate-induced photodegradation pathways were proposed. The toxicity of the phototransformation products was evaluated using aquatic species Daphnia magna, and the results revealed that photodegradation was an effective mechanism for ATL toxicity reduction in natural waters. PMID:22497785

  16. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.

    1957-09-10

    A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

  17. PROCESS OF OXIDIZING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Coryell, C.D.

    1959-08-25

    The oxidation of plutonium to the plus six valence state is described. The oxidation is accomplished by treating the plutonium in aqueous solution with a solution above 0.01 molar in argentic ion, above 1.1 molar in nitric acid, and above 0.02 molar in argentous ion.

  18. Aqueous Binary Lanthanide(III) Nitrate Ln(NO3)3 Electrolytes Revisited: Extended Pitzer and Bromley Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Campbell, Emily L.; Neiner, Doinita; Pence, Natasha; Robinson, Troy; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2015-09-11

    To date, only limited thermodynamic models describing activity coefficients of the aqueous solutions of lanthanide ions are available. This work expands the existing experimental osmotic coefficient data obtained by classical isopiestic technique for the aqueous binary trivalent lanthanide nitrate Ln(NO3)3 solutions using a combination of water activity and vapor pressure osmometry measurements. The combined osmotic coefficient database for each aqueous lanthanide nitrate at 25°C, consisting of literature available data as well as data obtained in this work, was used to test the validity of Pitzer and Bromley thermodynamic models for the accurate prediction of mean molal activity coefficients of the Ln(NO3)3 solutions in wide concentration ranges. The new and improved Pitzer and Bromley parameters were calculated. It was established that the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients in the solutions with ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 can be estimated by both Pitzer and single-parameter Bromley models, even though the latter provides for more accurate prediction, particularly in the lower ionic strength regime (up to 6 mol kg-1). On the other hand for the concentrated solutions, the extended three-parameter Bromley model can be employed to predict the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients with remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of the extended Bromley model in predicting the activity coefficients was greater than ~95% and ~90% for all solutions with the ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 and and 20 mol kg-1, respectively. This is the first time that the activity coefficients for concentrated lanthanide solutions have been predicted with such a remarkable accuracy.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  20. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  1. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack

  2. A spectrophotometric study of Am(III) complexation with nitrate in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guoxin; Shuh, David K

    2014-10-21

    The complexation of americium(iii) with nitrate was studied at temperatures from 10 to 85 °C in 1 M HNO3-HClO4 by spectrophotometry. The 1 : 1 complex species, AmNO3(2+), was identified and the stability constants were calculated from the absorption spectra recorded for titrations at several temperatures. Specific ion interaction theory (SIT) was used for ionic strength corrections to obtain the stability constants of AmNO3(2+) at infinite dilution and variable temperatures. The absorption spectra of Am(iii) in diluted HClO4 were also reviewed, and the molar absorptivity of Am(iii) at around 503 nm and 813 nm was re-calibrated by titrations with standardized DTPA solutions to determine the concentration of Am(iii). PMID:24999760

  3. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  4. A shear viscosity study of cerium (III) nitrate in concentrated aqueous solutions at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerfelli, N.; Bouanz, M.

    1996-04-01

    Kinematic viscosities and densities of 0953-8984/8/16/005/img1 in aqueous solutions, from pure water to very concentrated solutions, were determined at different temperatures. Shear viscosity data for this asymmetrical 3:1 electrolyte were calculated. For the low concentrations 0953-8984/8/16/005/img2, the Jones - Dole coefficients A and B were determined for this rare-earth salt by fitting the quadratic behaviour of the square root of the molar concentration with the least-squares method. At concentrations above 1 mol 0953-8984/8/16/005/img3, the logarithm of viscosity can be fitted by a third-order polynomial, where the coefficients exhibit a linear dependence on the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. This phenomenon is due to the strong ion - solvent correlation.

  5. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  6. Studies on Nylon-66 membrane using aqueous solutions of potassium and lead nitrate salts as permeants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Ram, Bali

    2015-03-01

    Measurements on hydrodynamic and electro-osmotic permeability of water and aqueous solutions of KNO3 and Pb(NO3)2 in the concentration (C) range of 10 -4 10^{-4} M to 10 -3 10^{-3} M are made across the Nylon-66 membrane. The data obtained are used to ascertain the form of transport equation using the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Conductance of membrane equilibrated with water and aqueous solutions are measured and the data are used to estimate phenomenological coefficients. These phenomenological coefficients are used to determine the average pore radius, the average number of pores and the membrane constant. Zeta potentials are evaluated using electro-osmotic permeability and membrane-permeant conductance data to understand the electrical nature of the membrane-permeant interface. It is observed that hydrodynamic permeability and electro-osmotic permeability depend linearly on the applied pressure difference and the potential difference, respectively.

  7. CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

  8. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    DOEpatents

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  9. PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

  10. Recent plutonium science and technology at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium research and development (R and D) at ORNL has generally followed development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic plutonium chemistry studies have diminished since the mid-1970s; however, significant efforts have been made recently to determine fundamental characteristics of the aqueous plutonium polymer and to develop thermodynamic representations of plutonium oxides. Some studies have also been made on plutonium phosphates related to waste isolation and on definition of the oxidation states of environmental plutonium. The remaining work has been supported by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) and includes: (1) establishment of boundary limits for polymer formation in Purex systems; (2) preparation of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide microspheres by internal gelation sol-gel techniques; (3) direct thermal denitration of aqueous systems; and (4) plutonium/uranium extraction from spent fast reactor fuels.

  11. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-09-01

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

  12. METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1961-04-25

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

  13. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Whal, A.C.

    1958-04-15

    A process is described of separating plutonium values from an aqueous solution by electrodeposition. The process consists of subjecting an aqueous 0.1 to 1.0 N nitric acid solution containing plutonium ions to electrolysis between inert metallic electrodes. A current density of one milliampere io one ampere per square centimeter of cathode surface and a temperature between 10 and 60 d C are maintained. Plutonium is electrodeposited on the cathode surface and recovered.

  14. Chemical Reactivity of alpha-Pinene-derived Products in the Aqueous Phase: Implications on the Fate of Organic Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindelaub, J. D.; Hostetler, M. A.; Lipton, M. A.; Shepson, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The production of organic nitrates has significant atmospheric importance due to the impact on regional air quality by influencing NOx lifetimes and ozone formation. Additionally, these low volatility compounds readily partition into the particle phase and are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol. Once in the aerosol phase, organic nitrates undergo further chemical reactions that govern their fate in the atmosphere and, consequently, their impact on air quality. Recent research indicates that the presence of water on aerosol particles has a major impact on the reactivity of organic nitrates and that condensed phase hydrolysis leads to the destruction of organic nitrate species, depending on structure. Despite this knowledge, the chemical mechanisms, products, product reactivity and volatility are still uncertain, negatively impacting our understanding of aerosol phase processing and the contribution to air quality. To further understand the atmospheric impact of aerosol phase hydrolysis, we analyzed both condensed phase hydrolysis reactions involving alpha-pinene-derived standards and alpha-pinene photochemical chamber reaction filter samples, using a suite of spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. We were able to measure the pH-dependent hydrolysis rate constants for several types of organic nitrates and identify specific reaction products. The chemistry involved exhibits a strong dependence on pH, providing important mechanistic clues. The results of this study will significantly contribute to our knowledge of aerosol phase chemistry and the impact on regional air quality with respect to the fate of organic nitrate species.

  15. 17. VIEW OF THE FIRST PLUTONIUM BUTTON PRODUCED FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE FIRST PLUTONIUM BUTTON PRODUCED FROM THE BUILDING 371 AQUEOUS RECOVERY OPERATION. (9/30/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  17. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  18. ION EXCHANGE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Taylor, M.D.

    1961-07-11

    Ion exchange processes for the separation of plutonium from fission products are described. In accordance with these processes an aqueous solution containing plutonium and fission products is contacted with a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring adsorption of plutonium and fission products on the resin. A portion of the fission product is then eluted with a solution containing 0.05 to 1% by weight of a carboxylic acid. Plutonium is next eluted with a solution containing 2 to 8 per cent by weight of the same carboxylic acid, and the remaining fission products on the resin are eluted with an aqueous solution containing over 10 per cent by weight of sodium bisulfate.

  19. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, A.C.

    1957-11-12

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

  20. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  1. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  2. METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-11-17

    C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

  3. Apparent molar and partial molar volumes of aqueous ceric ammonium nitrate solutions at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Wanale, S. G.; Shelke, M. P.

    2014-07-01

    Present paper reports the measured densities (ρ) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous solutions of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C in different concentrations of solution. Apparent molar volumes (φv) have been calculated from the density data at different temperatures and fitted to Massons relation to get limiting partial molar volumes (ϕ{v/0}) of CAN. Refractive index data were fitted to linear dependence over concentration of solutions and values of constant K and n {D/0} for different temperatures were evaluated. Specific refractions ( R D) of solutions were calculated from the refractive index and density data. Concentration and temperature effects on experimental and derived properties have been discussed in terms of structural interactions.

  4. WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

    1958-11-11

    S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

  5. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  6. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R.H.

    1961-04-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

  7. Effects of nitrate on the UV photolysis of H2O2 for VOCs degradation in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S H; Lee, J Y; Lim, S H; Yun, Z; Yim, S K; Ko, K B

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to delineate the effect of nitrate on the UV oxidation of benzene and toluene, dissolved in less than 100 microg l(-1), by conducting a bench-scale operation at various reaction times and with various initial concentrations of H2O2 and NO3-. The oxidation of benzene and toluene can be expected to be only about 10% and 18%, respectively, through the photolysis of H2O2 (initial conc. of 50 mg l(-1)), where the reactor was operated at a reaction time of 2 min, with an initial NO(3-)-N concentration of 5 mg l(-1). Nitrate clearly hindered UV oxidation when the initial H2O2 concentration in the reactor was less than 50 mg l(-1). Even if approximately 40% removal could be achieved under the conditions mentioned above (an initial H2O2 concentration of 200 mg l(-1) at a reaction time of 9 min, with a high UV dose), the operating conditions for the 40% removal might be beyond the practical limits applied for effluents discharged from wastewater treatment plants. The results of the experiment also indicate that benzene and toluene can be oxidized in very limited amounts through direct photolysis, without additional oxidation by hydroxyl radicals.

  8. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  9. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  10. OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

    1958-06-10

    A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

  11. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  12. Removal of americium from aqueous nitrate solutions by sorption onto PC88A-impregnated macroporous polymeric beads.

    PubMed

    Pathak, S K; Tripathi, S C; Singh, K K; Mahtele, A K; Kumar, Manmohan; Gandhi, P M

    2014-08-15

    The removal of Am (III) ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using indigenously synthesized Extractant Impregnated Macroporous Polymeric Beads (EIMPBs). These beads were prepared by an in situ phase inversion method using polyethersulfone (PES) as base polymer and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) as an extractant. The synthesized EIMPBs were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM techniques. The batch equilibration study using these beads for the uptake of Am (III) was carried out as a function of parameters, like pH, equilibration time, Am (III) concentration, etc. The blank polymeric beads, without PC88A, have shown negligible sorption of Am (III) under the experimental conditions. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of Am (III) on the polymeric beads fitted well in the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The synthesized polymeric beads exhibited very good sorption capacity for Am (III) at pH 3. The reusability of the beads was also ascertained by repetitive sorption/desorption of Am (III) up to 10 cycles of operation, without any significant change in their sorption characteristics. PMID:24997262

  13. Plutonium flowsheet development in miniature mixer-settlers

    SciTech Connect

    Hannaford, B.A.; Davis, G.D.

    1981-05-01

    Initial runs were completed in a new solvent extraction facility that has been built for testing coprocessing flowsheets with simulated LWR and FBR fuel solutions. The equipment, which is assembled in glove boxes, includes three 16-stage miniature mixer-settler banks with associated in-line monitors, pumping equipment, and sampling apparatus. Following shakedown runs with solutions containing uranium only, two flowsheet test runs were made with a simulated LWR fuel solution (U/Pu = 100). The solution was fed to an extraction-scrub bank, where 30% tributyl phosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent was used to coextract uranium and plutonium. The extract was fed to a second mixer-settler bank, where all of the plutonium was stripped into an aqueous product stream using hydroxylamine nitrate for plutonium reduction; a controlled fraction of the uranium was simultaneously stripped to produce a U/Pu ratio of {similar_to}2. The amount of the uranium stripped with the plutonium was regulated by careful control of an organic backscrub stream. Finally, the residual uranium in the solvent was stripped in the third mixer-settler bank. The success of the experiments depended on precise control of very low liquid flow rates, and on in-line monitors which indicated the uranium or total heavy-metal concentrations. The most useful in-line device was the Mettler-Paar density meter, from which metal concentrations could be determined to within {similar_to}1 g/L. A miniature spectrophotometer also gave promising results for uranium analysis. Preliminary use of a Hewlett-Packard data acquisition system was satisfactory; recorded variables were temperature, solution density, liquid flow rates, and liquid levels.

  14. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  15. PROCESS OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION WITH GROUP IVB METAL PHOSPHO-SILICATE COMPOSITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1957-10-29

    A process for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions which contain the plutonium in minute concentrations is described. These values can be removed from an aqueous solution by taking an aqueous solution containing a salt of zirconium, titanium, hafnium or thorium, adding an aqueous solution of silicate and phosphoric acid anions to the metal salt solution, and separating, washing and drying the precipitate which forms when the two solutions are mixed. The aqueous plutonium containing solution is then acidified and passed over the above described precipi-tate causing the plutonium values to be adsorbed by the precipitate.

  16. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  17. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of differently coated silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in Enchytraeus crypticus upon aqueous exposure in an inert sand medium.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Enchytraeus crypticus, applying a combined toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics approach to understand the relationship between survival and the development of internal Ag concentrations in the animals over time. Toxicity tests were conducted in medium composed of well-defined aqueous solutions added to inert quartz sand to avoid the complexity of soil conditions. Citrate-coated AgNPs (AgNP-Cit) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (AgNP-PVP) were tested and compared with silver nitrate (AgNO3), which was used as a positive control for Ag ion effects. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values based on Ag concentrations in the solution phase of the test medium decreased over time and reached steady state after 7 d, with AgNO3 and AgNP-PVP being more toxic than AgNP-Cit. Slow dissolution may explain the low uptake kinetics and lower toxicity of AgNP-Cit compared with the other 2 Ag forms. The LC50 values based on internal Ag concentrations in the animals were almost stable over time, highlighting the importance of integrating toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and relating survival with internal Ag concentrations. Neither survival-based elimination rates nor internal LC50s in the organisms showed any significant evidence of nano-specific effects for both AgNPs, although they suggested some uptake of particulate Ag for AgNP-Cit. The authors conclude that the toxicity of both types of AgNP probably is mainly attributable to the release of Ag ions.

  18. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of differently coated silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in Enchytraeus crypticus upon aqueous exposure in an inert sand medium.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Enchytraeus crypticus, applying a combined toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics approach to understand the relationship between survival and the development of internal Ag concentrations in the animals over time. Toxicity tests were conducted in medium composed of well-defined aqueous solutions added to inert quartz sand to avoid the complexity of soil conditions. Citrate-coated AgNPs (AgNP-Cit) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (AgNP-PVP) were tested and compared with silver nitrate (AgNO3), which was used as a positive control for Ag ion effects. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values based on Ag concentrations in the solution phase of the test medium decreased over time and reached steady state after 7 d, with AgNO3 and AgNP-PVP being more toxic than AgNP-Cit. Slow dissolution may explain the low uptake kinetics and lower toxicity of AgNP-Cit compared with the other 2 Ag forms. The LC50 values based on internal Ag concentrations in the animals were almost stable over time, highlighting the importance of integrating toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and relating survival with internal Ag concentrations. Neither survival-based elimination rates nor internal LC50s in the organisms showed any significant evidence of nano-specific effects for both AgNPs, although they suggested some uptake of particulate Ag for AgNP-Cit. The authors conclude that the toxicity of both types of AgNP probably is mainly attributable to the release of Ag ions. PMID:26094724

  19. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  20. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  1. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  2. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM BY CHELATION-EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium can be separated from a mixture of plutonlum and lanthanum in which the lanthanum to plutonium molal ratio ls at least five by adding the ammonium salt of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine to an aqueous solution having a pH between about 3 and 0.2 and containing the plutonium in a valence state of at least +3, to form a plutonium chelate compound of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine. The plutonium chelate compound may be recovered from the solution by extracting with an immiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  3. PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

  4. METHOD OF IMPROVING THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kamack, H.J.; Balthis, J.H.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium values can be recovered from acidic solutlons by adding lead nitrate, hydrogen fluoride, lantha num nitrate, and sulfurlc acid to the solution to form a carrler preclpitate. The lead sulfate formed improves the separatlon characteristics of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate,

  5. Plutonium Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  6. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  7. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

  8. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-24

    S>A method is described for separating plutonium, in a valence state of less than five, from an aqueous solution in which it is dissolved. The niethod consists in adding potassium and sulfate ions to such a solution while maintaining the solution at a pH of less than 7.1, and isolating the precipitate of potassium plutonium sulfate thus formed.

  9. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  10. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  11. METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1961-07-18

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

  12. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  13. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  14. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  15. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Callis, C.F.; Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    >The separation of ruthenium from aqueous solutions containing uranium plutonium, ruthenium, and fission products is described. The separation is accomplished by providing a nitric acid solution of plutonium, uranium, ruthenium, and fission products, oxidizing plutonium to the hexavalent state with sodium dichromate, contacting the solution with a water-immiscible organic solvent, such as hexone, to extract plutonyl, uranyl, ruthenium, and fission products, reducing with sodium ferrite the plutonyl in the solvent phase to trivalent plutonium, reextracting from the solvent phase the trivalent plutonium, ruthenium, and some fission products with an aqueous solution containing a salting out agent, introducing ozone into the aqueous acid solution to oxidize plutonium to the hexavalent state and ruthenium to ruthenium tetraoxide, and volatizing off the ruthenium tetraoxide.

  16. Production of gas phase NO₂ and halogens from the photochemical oxidation of aqueous mixtures of sea salt and nitrate ions at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Richards, Nicole K; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2012-10-01

    Nitrate and halide ions coexist in a number of environmental systems, including sea salt particles, the Arctic snowpack, and alkaline dry lakes. However, little is known about potential synergisms between halide and nitrate ions. The effect of sea salt on NO(3)(-) photochemistry at 311 nm was investigated at 298 K using thin films of deliquesced NaNO(3)-synthetic sea salt mixtures. Gas phase NO(2), NO, and halogen products were measured as a function of photolysis time using NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). The production of NO(2) increases with the halide-to-nitrate ratio, and is similar to that for mixtures of NaCl with NaNO(3). Gas phase halogen production also increased with the halide-to-nitrate ratio, consistent with NO(3)(-) photolysis yielding OH which oxidizes halide ions in the film. Yields of gas phase halogens and NO were strongly dependent on the acidity of the solution, while that of NO(2) was not. An additional halogen formation mechanism in the dark involving molecular HNO(3) is proposed that may be important in other systems such as reactions on surfaces. These studies show that the yield of Br(2) relative to NO(2) during photolysis of halide-nitrate mixtures could be as high as 35% under some atmospheric conditions.

  17. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  18. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  19. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  20. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  1. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  2. Recovery of Plutonium by Carrier Precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R. H.

    1961-04-01

    The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

  3. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  4. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

  5. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  6. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, W.C.; Phillips, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  7. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  8. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

    1961-07-11

    A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-26

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

  10. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  11. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  12. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  13. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  14. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1994-03-29

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions. 3 figures.

  15. Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Burger, Leland L.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

  16. Oxidation of Nitric Oxide in Aqueous Solution to Nitrite but not Nitrate: Comparison with Enzymatically Formed Nitric Oxide From L-Arginine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarro, Louis J.; Fukuto, Jon M.; Griscavage, Jeannete M.; Rogers, Norma E.; Byrns, Russell E.

    1993-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in oxygen-containing aqueous solution has a short half-life that is often attributed to a rapid oxidation to both NO^-_2 and NO^-_3. The chemical fate of NO in aqueous solution is often assumed to be the same as that in air, where NO is oxidized to NO_2 followed by dimerization to N_2O_4. Water then reacts with N_2O_4 to form both NO^-_2 and NO^-_3. We report here that NO in aqueous solution containing oxygen is oxidized primarily to NO^-_2 with little or no formation of NO^-_3. In the presence of oxyhemoglobin or oxymyoglobin, however, NO and NO^-_2 were oxidized completely to NO^-_3. Methemoglobin was inactive in this regard. The unpurified cytosolic fraction from rat cerebellum, which contains constitutive NO synthase activity, catalyzed the conversion of L-arginine primarily to NO^-_3 (NO^-_2/NO^-_3 ratio = 0.25). After chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel or affinity chromatography using 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose 4B, active fractions containing NO synthase activity catalyzed the conversion of L-arginine primarily to NO^-_2 (NO^-_2/NO^-_3 ratio = 5.6) or only to NO^-_2, respectively. Unpurified cytosol from activated rat alveolar macrophages catalyzed the conversion of L-arginine to NO^-_2 without formation of NO^-_3. Addition of 30 μM oxyhemoglobin to all enzyme reaction mixtures resulted in the formation primarily of NO^-_3 (NO^-_2/NO^-_3 ratio = 0.09 to 0.20). Cyanide ion, which displaces NO^-_2 from its binding sites on oxyhemoglobin, inhibited the formation of NO^-_3, thereby allowing NO^-_2 to accumulate. These observations indicate clearly that the primary decomposition product of NO in aerobic aqueous solution is NO^-_2 and that further oxidation to NO^-_3 requires the presence of additional oxidizing species such as oxyhemoproteins.

  17. Extraction of selected transplutonium(III) and lanthanide(III) ions by dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate from aqueous nitrate media

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Muscatello, A.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1981-05-01

    The extraction behavior of selected transplutonium(III) and lanthanide(III) ions from nitrate solution was studied using relatively pure dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP). The data obtained for Am(III) and Eu(III) using DHDECMP were compared with analogous measurements obtained with dibutyl butylphosphonate (DB(BP)) and in certain cases with dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylethylphosphonate (DHDECEP). It was found that both the nitrate and extractant concentration dependencies were third power. The K/sub d/'s for Am(III) and for Eu(III) measured from low acid LiNO/sub 3/ solutions were similar for DHDECMP, DHDECEP, and DB(BP), thus giving no evidence for any significant chelation effect for DHDECMP. Significant differences among DHDECMP, DHDECEP, and DB(BP) are found for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 to 5 M HNO/sub 3/. These differences are explained by the ability of DHDECMP (and to a lesser extent, DHDECEP) to buffer itself against HNO/sub 3/ by protonation of the amide group. The K/sub d/'s for Am(III) through Fm(III) and for La(III) through Lu(III) measured from LiNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3/ using DHDECMP show a definite tetrad effect when plotted as a function of Z. The K/sub d/'s for the lanthanides generally decrease with Z whereas the K/sub d/'s for the transplutonium elements change very little with Z.

  18. BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1959-02-10

    A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

  19. Evaluation of the Guided Wave Model 200 Scanning Spectrophotometer for plutonium (VI) determination

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Lujan, E.

    1991-04-01

    We measured the plutonium(VI) in 2M HNO{sub 3} using a Model 200 Guided Wave Scanning Spectrophotometer. In evaluating this instrument for use with the plutonium peak at 831 nm, we determined its precision, stability, and resolution. Chloride and other anions that can strongly complex plutonium must be removed before assay. Plutonium solutions that are free of these anions are diluted with 2M HNO{sub 3} and distributed into calibrated 50-mL volumetric flasks for analysis. The plutonium is oxidized by addition of ceric ammonium nitrate, diluted to 50 mL, and the net peak absorbance at 831 nm measured. The Guided Wave instrument does not completely resolve the plutonium(VI) peak at 831 nm. Poor resolution of the peak results in a lower apparent molar absorptivity (less sensitivity) and diminished compliance with Beer's Law, requiring higher order fits for calibration data. Also small changes in measurements caused by spectral drift of the instrument do not significantly limit its use on this system. Precisions of 0.07% relative for absorbance measurements enable us to quantitate changes resulting from temperature and nitric acid concentration. Absorbances from standards are used to generate a quadratic fit of the calibration data. We then use the quadratic coefficients combined with sample absorbances to calculate the plutonium content of samples. Our calibration data have precisions of 0.15% relative. Compared with coulometric results, assay recoveries are 100.0% with a relative standard deviation of 0.2% for samples (both oxides and nitrates). Once system variables for the chemistry are controlled, the instrument can successfully measure total plutonium in samples. We discuss some system parameters, including nitric acid concentration and temperature at varying plutonium concentrations. Finally, we describe a procedure to assay plutonium content in plutonium oxide and plutonium nitrate solutions. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.; Goeckermann, R.H.

    1958-06-10

    An improvement in oxidation-reduction type methods of separating plutoniunn from elements associated with it in a neutron-irradiated uranium solution is described. The method relates to the separating of plutonium from lanthanum ions in an aqueous 0.5 to 2.5 N nitric acid solution by 'treating the solution, at room temperature, with ammonium sulfite in an amount sufficient to reduce the hexavalent plutonium present to a lower valence state, and then treating the solution with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ thereby forming a tetravalent plutonium peroxide precipitate.

  1. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  2. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  3. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  4. Mechanistic Features of the TiO2 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis of Arsenic and Uranyl Nitrate in Aqueous Suspensions Studied by the Stopped-Flow Technique.

    PubMed

    Meichtry, Jorge M; Levy, Ivana K; Mohamed, Hanan H; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef W; Litter, Marta I

    2016-03-16

    The dynamics of the transfer of electrons stored in TiO2 nanoparticles to As(III) , As(V) , and uranyl nitrate in water was investigated by using the stopped-flow technique. Suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles with stored trapped electrons (etrap (-) ) were mixed with solutions of acceptor species to evaluate the reactivity by following the temporal evolution of etrap (-) by the decrease in the absorbance at λ=600 nm. The results indicate that As(V) and As(III) cannot be reduced by etrap (-) under the reaction conditions. In addition, it was observed that the presence of As(V) and As(III) strongly modified the reaction rate between O2 and etrap (-) : an increase in the rate was observed if As(V) was present and a decrease in the rate was observed in the presence of As(III) . In contrast with the As system, U(VI) was observed to react easily with etrap (-) and U(IV) formation was observed spectroscopically at λ=650 nm. The possible competence of U(VI) and NO3 (-) for their reduction by etrap (-) was analyzed. The inhibition of the U(VI) photocatalytic reduction by O2 could be attributed to the fast oxidation of U(V) and/or U(IV) .

  5. FLAME DENITRATION AND REDUCTION OF URANIUM NITRATE TO URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.

    1962-06-26

    A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

  6. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-07-01

    Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

  7. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-12-31

    A horizontal, agitated film concentrator designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high solid content slurry is briefly described. The Rototherm unit is being studied for use at US Department of Energy facilities to handle large quantities of aqueous plutonium solutions. Capabilities for evaporating more than 98% of the water present in a single pass have been demonstrated. Decontamination factors of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} are expected. The unit may also be useful for recycling aqueous waste treatment reagents from the decontamination of gaseous diffusion plants.

  8. Use of Gadolinium as a Primary Criticality Control in Disposing Waste Containing Plutonium at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Vincent

    2005-01-04

    Use of gadolinium as a neutron poison has been proposed for disposing of several metric tons of excess plutonium at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The plutonium will first be dissolved in nitric acid in small batches. Gadolinium nitrate will then be added to the plutonium nitrate solution. The Gd-poisoned plutonium solution will be neutralized and transferred to large under-ground tanks. The pH of small batches of neutralized plutonium solution will be adjusted prior to addition of the glass frit for eventual production as glass logs. The use of gadolinium as the neutron poison would minimize the number of glass logs generated from this disposition. The primary criticality safety concerns regarding the disposal process are: (1) maintaining neutron moderation under all processing conditions since gadolinium has a very large absorption cross section for thermal neutrons, (2) characteristics of plutonium and gadolinium precipitation during the neutralization process, (3) mixing characteristics of the precipitate to ensure that plutonium would remain homogeneously mixed with gadolinium, and (4) potential separation of plutonium and gadolinium during nitric and formic acids addition. A number of experiments were conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to study the behavior of plutonium and gadolinium at various stages of the disposition process.

  9. Separation and recovery of plutonium from oxalate supernatant using CMPO

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Rizvi, G.H.; Iyer, R.H.; Michael, K.M.; Kapoor, S.C.; Dhumwad, R.K.; Badheka, L.P.; Banerji, A. )

    1994-08-01

    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed to quantitatively recover Pu from oxalate supernatant using a mixture of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. Pu(IV) in the range of 6.9 to 34.6 mg/l was quantitatively extracted into 0.2M CMPO + 1.2 M TBP in dodecane from an aqueous solution containing 3.0 M HNO[sub 3] and 0.1 M H[sub 2]C[sub 2]O[sub 4]. At such low concentrations of Pu, the distribution ratio (D) did not change but the increase in oxalic acid concentration drastically reduced these values. The variation in HNO[sub 3] concentration at a fixed concentration of 0.2 M CMPO + U 1.2 M TBP has shown a dramatic increase in the D values, being 0.3 at 1.0 M and >10[sup 4] at 7.5 M. The extraction was almost quantitative even at the aqueous-to-organic ratio of 10:1. Plutonium could be quantitatively recovered by (i) stripping with 0.5 M acetic acid and (ii) coprecipitating it directly from the organic phase with 0.3 M oxalic acid + 0.3 M calcium nitrate + sodium nitrite. [approximately] 92% of the Pu was found in the precipitate and [approximately] 7% in the supernant. Using this procedure, Pu in a concentrated form ([approximately] 50 times) could be recovered from the oxalate supernatant solutions without recourse to the destruction of oxalate ion. 19 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCT VALUES FROM THE HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1959-12-15

    An improved precipitation of fission products on bismuth phosphate from an aqueous mineral acid solution also containing hexavalent plutonium by incorporating, prior to bismuth phosphate precipitation, from 0.05 to 2.5 grams/ liter of zirconium phosphate, niobium oxide. and/or lanthanum fluoride is described. The plutonium remains in solution.

  11. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  12. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  13. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  15. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (²³⁸Pu and ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout.

  16. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  17. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  20. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  1. Adsorption and diffusion of plutonium in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of plutonium (Pu) was studied in three soils that varied in texture, CEC, pH, organic matter content and mineralogy (Fuquay, Muscatine, Burbank). Two isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, were used in order to detect Pu over a range of several orders of magnitude. Unless added in a chelated form, Pu was added to the soil as a nitrate in .01 N HNO/sub 3/ to simulate the release of acidic waste on the soil and to prevent rapid Pu hydrolysis or polymerization.

  2. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  3. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  4. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  5. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  6. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  7. METHOD OF SEPARATING TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM CERIUM SUB-GROUP RARE EARTH VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium from the cerium sub-group of rare earths when both are present in an aqueous solution. The method consists in adding an excess of alkali metal carbonate to the solution, which causes the formation of a soluble plutonium carbonate precipitate and at the same time forms an insoluble cerium-group rare earth carbonate. The pH value must be adjusted to bctween 5.5 and 7.5, and prior to the precipitation step the plutonium must be reduced to the tetravalent state since only tetravalent plutonium will form the soluble carbonate complex.

  8. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS BY A COLLOID REMOVAL PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, J.

    1960-05-24

    A method is given for separating plutonium from uranium fission products. An acidic aqueous solution containing plutonium and uranium fission products is subjected to a process for separating ionic values from colloidal matter suspended therein while the pH of the solution is maintained between 0 and 4. Certain of the fission products, and in particular, zirconium, niobium, lanthanum, and barium are in a colloidal state within this pH range, while plutonium remains in an ionic form, Dialysis, ultracontrifugation, and ultrafiltration are suitable methods of separating plutonium ions from the colloids.

  9. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  10. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  11. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes a horizontal, compact agitated-film concentrator called a Rototherm, manufactured by Artisan Industries, Inc. which can be used to process aqueous solutions of radioactive wastes containing plutonium. The unit is designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high-solid content slurry.

  12. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements.

  13. Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10{sup {minus}3}--10{sup {minus}7} M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes.

  14. Uranium and plutonium in hair as an indicator of body burden in mice of different age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Wyatt, J.H.; Wilson, D.J.; Dixon, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The uptake of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 in mice of different age and sex is examined in a controlled study. The animals received a single intraperitoneal dose of either plutonium-239 nitrate or uranium-235 nitrate at amounts of 0.2 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg respectively. Seven days after radioisotope administration, the animals were sacrificed and the uranium or plutonium content of the hair (including skin) was measured directly by delayed neutron analysis. Results show a higher retention of both uranium and plutonium in the whole body of young animals, but for specific whole body burden there was a marked increase with age for plutonium and only a slight increase for uranium. Sex did not appear to have any significant influence on the residual whole body or hair burdens. (JMT)

  15. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2003-06-28

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium, in particular in environmental conditions, is often complicated by plutonium's complex redox chemistry. Because plutonium possesses four oxidation states, all of which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is needed. The identification of plutonium oxidation states at low levels in aqueous solution is often accomplished through an indirect determination using series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using oxidation state specific reagents such as HDEHP and TTA. While these methods, coupled with radioactive counting techniques provide superior limits of detection they may influence the plutonium redox equilibrium, are time consuming, waste intensive and costly. Other analytical methods such as mass spectrometry and radioactive counting as stand alone methods provide excellent detection limits but lack the ability to discriminate between the oxidation states of the plutonium ions in solution.

  16. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  17. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  18. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  19. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  20. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  1. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  2. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  3. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOEpatents

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1981-01-21

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates is described, wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300 to 800/sup 0/C is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  4. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.; Stines, William B.

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  5. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  6. Plutonium: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

  7. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, D; Chiang, T; Krisch, M; Occelli, F; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Xu, R; Boro, C

    2003-12-17

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties [1]. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}' {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts. Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimental data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter-atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single-grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc {delta}-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution

  8. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G

    1987-03-01

    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

  9. Extraction of Uranium, Neptunium and Plutonium from Caustic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia H.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Engle, Nancy L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jade

    2004-03-28

    5 Fundamental research on uranium, neptunium and plutonium separation from alkaline media using solvent extraction is being conducted. Specific extractants for these actinides from alkaline media have been synthesized to investigate the feasibility of selective removal of these elements. Two families of extractants have been studied: terephthalamide and tetra(hydroxybenzyl)ethylene diamine derivatives. Fundamental studies were conducted to characterize their extraction behavior from a wide variety of aqueous conditions. The terephthalamide derivatives exhibit a significant extraction strength along with a discriminatory behavior among the actinides, plutonium being extracted the most strongly. Quantitative extraction of plutonium and moderate extraction of neptunium and uranium was achieved from a simple caustic solution. Interestingly, strontium is also quantitatively extracted by these derivatives. However, their stability to highly caustic solutions still needs to be imp roved. Tetra(hydroxybenzyl)ethylene diamine derivatives exhibit a very good stability to caustic conditions and are currently being studied.

  10. Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.H.; Haschke, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H{sub 2} after liquid water is removed by evacuation. Rapid exposure of PuOH to air at room temperature does not produce a detectable reaction, but similar exposure of a partially corroded metal sample containing Pu and PuOH results in hydride (PuH{sub x})-catalyzed corrosion of the residual Pu. Kinetics of he first-order reaction resulting in formation of the PuH{sub x} catalyst and of the indiscriminate reaction of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} with plutonium metal are defined. The rate of the catalyzed Pu+air reaction is independent of temperature (E{sub a} = 0), varies as the square of air pressure, and equals 0.78 {+-} 0.03 g Pu/cm{sup 2} min in air at one atmosphere. The absence of pyrophoric behavior for PuOH and differences in the reactivities of PuOH and PuOH + Pu mixtures are attributed to kinetic control by gaseous reaction products. Thermodynamic properties of the oxide hydride are estimated, particle size distributions of corrosion products are presented, and potential hazards associated with products formed by aqueous corrosion of plutonium are discussed.

  11. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  12. COGEMA Experience in Uranous Nitrate Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Tison, E.; Bretault, Ph.

    2006-07-01

    Separation and purification of plutonium by PUREX process is based on a sequence of extraction and back extraction which requires reducing plutonium Pu IV (extractable form) into Pu III (inextractable form) Different reducers can be used to reduce Pu IV into Pu III. Early plants such as that for Magnox fuel at Sellafield used ferrous sulfamate while UP 1 at Marcoule used uranous sulfamate. These reducers are efficient and easy to prepare but generates ferric and/or sulphate ions and so complicates management of the wastes from the plutonium purification cycle. Recent plants such as UP3 and UP2 800 at La Hague, THORP at Sellafield, and RRP at Rokkasho Mura (currently under tests) use uranous nitrate (U IV) stabilized by hydrazinium nitrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 5}NO{sub 3}) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). In the French plants, uranous nitrate is used in U-Pu separation and alpha barrier and HAN is used in Pu purification. Compared to sulfamate, U IV does not generate extraneous chemical species and uranyl nitrate (U VI) generated by reducing Pu IV follows the main uranium stream. More over uranous nitrate is prepared from reprocessed purified uranyl nitrate taken at the outlet of the reprocessing plant. Hydrazine and HAN offer the advantage to be salt-free reagents. Uranous nitrate can be generated either by electrolysis or by catalytic hydrogenation process. Electrolytic process has been implemented in early plant UP 1 at Marcoule (when changing reducer from uranous sulfamate to uranous nitrate) and was used again in UP2 plant at La Hague. However, the electrolytic process presented several disadvantages such as a low conversion rate and problems associated with the use of mercury. Electrolysis cells with no mercury were developed for the Eurochemic plant in Belgium and then implemented in the first Japanese reprocessing plant in Tokai-Mura. But finally, in 1975, the electrolytic process was abandoned in favor of the catalytic hydrogenation process developed at La

  13. Separation of Plutonium from Irradiated Fuels and Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Leonard W.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Murray, Alice; Thompson, Major; Thorp, Donald T.; Yarbro, Stephen; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2015-09-30

    Spent nuclear fuel from power production reactors contains moderate amounts of transuranium (TRU) actinides and fission products in addition to the still slightly enriched uranium. Originally, nuclear technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel for military purposes. Military plutonium separations had essentially ceased by the mid-1990s. Reprocessing, however, can serve multiple purposes, and the relative importance has changed over time. In the 1960’s the vision of the introduction of plutonium-fueled fast-neutron breeder reactors drove the civilian separation of plutonium. More recently, reprocessing has been regarded as a means to facilitate the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and thus requires development of radically different technical approaches. In the last decade or so, the principal reason for reprocessing has shifted to spent power reactor fuel being reprocessed (1) so that unused uranium and plutonium being recycled reduce the volume, gaining some 25% to 30% more energy from the original uranium in the process and thus contributing to energy security and (2) to reduce the volume and radioactivity of the waste by recovering all long-lived actinides and fission products followed by recycling them in fast reactors where they are transmuted to short-lived fission products; this reduces the volume to about 20%, reduces the long-term radioactivity level in the high-level waste, and complicates the possibility of the plutonium being diverted from civil use – thereby increasing the proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. In general, reprocessing schemes can be divided into two large categories: aqueous/hydrometallurgical systems, and pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical systems. Worldwide processing schemes are dominated by the aqueous (hydrometallurgical) systems. This document provides a historical review of both categories of reprocessing.

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  15. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely...

  16. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely used in accordance with the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely...

  18. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely...

  19. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution. An aqueous solution containing a mixture of silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide may be safely...

  20. METHOD OF MAINTAINING PLUTONIUM IN A HIGHER STATE OF OXIDATION DURING PROCESSING

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent deals with the oxidation of tetravalent plutonium contained in an aqueous acid solution together with fission products to the hexavalent state, prior to selective fission product precipitation, by adding to the solution bismuthate or ceric ions as the oxidant and a water-soluble dichromate as a holding oxidant. Both oxidant and holding oxidant are preferably added in greater than stoichiometric quantities with regard to the plutonium present.

  1. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  2. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-22

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu2[B12O18(OH)4Br2(H2O)3]·0.5H2O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  4. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  5. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  6. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  7. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOEpatents

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  8. Mechanics of plutonium metal aerosolization

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Reliable estimates of hazards posed by a plutonium release are contingent on the availability of technical data to define the source term for aerosolization of plutonium oxide particles and the resulting size distribution. The release of aerosols from the oxidation of plutonium metal depends partly on the forces acting on the particles while they remain attached to the bulk material and partly on the ability of the airstream around the metal ingot to transport the particles when they detach. The forces that attach or detach the plutonium oxide particles can be described as binding of the particle to the metal or oxide layer around it and expansion and contraction stresses and external vibration. Experimental data forms the basis for defining size distributions and release fractions for plutonium oxide. The relevance of the data must be evaluated in the light of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium metal, plutonium oxide, and intermediate Plutonium compounds. The effects of temperature on reaction kinetics must also be understood when evaluating experimental data. Size distribution functions are remarkably similar for products of all Pu+gas reactions. The distributions are all bimodal. Marked differences are seen in the sizes of large particles depending on reaction temperature and reaction rate. However, the size distributions of small particles are very similar. The bimodal distribution of small particles vanishes as the sizes of the large particles decrease to the point of equal dimensions with the small particles. This is the situation realized for the fine plutonium oxide powder produced by air oxidation at room temperature. This report addresses important factors for defining the formation of an aerosol from the oxidation of plutonium metal. These factors are oxidation kinetics of plutonium metal and plutonium hydride, the particle distribution of products formed by the reactions, and the kinetics of processes limiting entrainment of particles.

  9. Plutonium recovery from organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1973-12-11

    A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

  10. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  11. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  12. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  13. Nitrate removal using natural clays modified by acid thermoactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena-Duran, C. J.; Sun Kou, M. R.; Lopez, T.; Azamar-Barrios, J. A.; Aguilar, D. H.; Domínguez, M. I.; Odriozola, J. A.; Quintana, P.

    2007-04-01

    Groundwater pollution by nitrates is a widespread problem in many locations in the world. The underground aquatic mantle of the Peninsula of Yucatan is highly vulnerable due to its karstic nature. Adsorption methods are a good choice for nitrate elimination. In this work, a natural calcium bentonite was modified by acid thermoactivation with HCl and H 2SO 4, and tested as a media for nitrate removal in an aqueous solution. The nitrate concentration in the solution was measured by FT-IR, using the Lambert-Beer law. Clay characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy; surface area was measured by the BET method.

  14. RECOVERY OF TETRAVALENT CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-05-01

    The recovery of plutonium, zirconium, and tetravalent cerium values from aqueous solutions is described. It consists of adding an alkyl phosphate to a nnineral acid aqueous solution containing the metal to be recovered, whereby a precipitate forms with the tetravalent values, and separating the precipitate from the solution. All alkyl phosphates, if water-soluble, are suitable for the process; however, monobutyl phosphate has been found best.

  15. Report of scouting study on precipitation of strontium, plutonium, and americium from Hanford complexant concentrate waste

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1995-09-05

    A laboratory scouting test was conducted of precipitation methods for reducing the solubility of radionuclides in complexant concentrate (CC) waste solution. The results show that addition of strontium nitrate solution is effective in reducing the liquid phase activity of 90Sr (Strontium) in CC waste from tank 107-AN by 94% when the total strontium concentration is adjusted to 0.1 M. Addition of ferric nitrate solution effective in reducing the 241Am (Americium) activity in CC waste by 96% under the conditions described in the report. Ferric nitrate was also marginally effective in reducing the solubility of 239/240Pu (Plutonium) in CC waste

  16. Molecular Characterization of Actinide Oxocations from Protactinium to Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Den Auwer, C.; Guilbaud, P.; Guillaumont, D.; Moisy, P.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.; Conradson, S. D.

    2007-02-02

    This presentation addresses the structural characterization by EXAFS of actinide cations at oxidation states (V) and (VI) as one walks across the periodic table from Z = 91 (protactinium) to Z = 94 (plutonium). A structural comparison between Pa, U, Np and Pu oxocations in aqueous solution at formal oxidation states (V) and (VI) is carried out. These results are corroborated by quantum chemical and molecular dynamics calculations.

  17. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  18. Enzyme catalytic nitration of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kong, Mingming; Wang, Kun; Dong, Runan; Gao, Haijun

    2015-06-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are important intermediates in organic synthesis. The classic method used to synthesize them is chemical nitration, which involves the use of nitric acid diluted in water or acetic acid, both harmful to the environment. With the development of green chemistry, environmental friendly enzyme catalysis is increasingly employed in chemical processes. In this work, we adopted a non-aqueous horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/NaNO2/H2O2 reaction system to study the structural characteristics of aromatic compounds potentially nitrated by enzyme catalysis, as well as the relationship between the charges on carbon atoms in benzene ring and the nitro product distribution. Investigation of various reaction parameters showed that mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature and neutral pH), plus appropriate use of H2O2 and NaNO2 could prevent inactivation of HRP and polymerization of the substrates. Compared to aqueous-organic co-solvent reaction media, the aqueous-organic two-liquid phase system had great advantages in increasing the dissolved concentration of substrate and alleviating substrate inhibition. Analysis of the aromatic compounds' structural characteristics indicated that substrates containing substituents of NH2 or OH were readily catalyzed. Furthermore, analysis of the relationship between natural bond orbital (NBO) charges on carbon atoms in benzene ring, as calculated by the density functional method, and the nitro product distribution characteristics, demonstrated that the favored nitration sites were the ortho and para positions of substituents in benzene ring, similar to the selectivity of chemical nitration. PMID:26002502

  19. Enzyme catalytic nitration of aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kong, Mingming; Wang, Kun; Dong, Runan; Gao, Haijun

    2015-06-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are important intermediates in organic synthesis. The classic method used to synthesize them is chemical nitration, which involves the use of nitric acid diluted in water or acetic acid, both harmful to the environment. With the development of green chemistry, environmental friendly enzyme catalysis is increasingly employed in chemical processes. In this work, we adopted a non-aqueous horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/NaNO2/H2O2 reaction system to study the structural characteristics of aromatic compounds potentially nitrated by enzyme catalysis, as well as the relationship between the charges on carbon atoms in benzene ring and the nitro product distribution. Investigation of various reaction parameters showed that mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature and neutral pH), plus appropriate use of H2O2 and NaNO2 could prevent inactivation of HRP and polymerization of the substrates. Compared to aqueous-organic co-solvent reaction media, the aqueous-organic two-liquid phase system had great advantages in increasing the dissolved concentration of substrate and alleviating substrate inhibition. Analysis of the aromatic compounds' structural characteristics indicated that substrates containing substituents of NH2 or OH were readily catalyzed. Furthermore, analysis of the relationship between natural bond orbital (NBO) charges on carbon atoms in benzene ring, as calculated by the density functional method, and the nitro product distribution characteristics, demonstrated that the favored nitration sites were the ortho and para positions of substituents in benzene ring, similar to the selectivity of chemical nitration.

  20. SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Beederman, M.; Vogler, S.; Hyman, H.H.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from a rathenium containing aqueous solution is described. The separation is accomplished by adding sodium nitrite, silver nitrate and ozone to the ruthenium containing aqueous solution to form ruthenium tetroxide and ihen volatilizing off the ruthenium tetroxide.

  1. CSER 00-003 Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    SciTech Connect

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-07-13

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material.

  2. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

  3. Technical report for the generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E. D.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can b e dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C.

  4. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  5. Biodegradation of glycidol and glycidyl nitrate.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D L; Cornell, J H; Kaplan, A M

    1982-01-01

    When calcium hydroxide is used to desensitize glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerine)-containing waste streams, the epoxides glycidol and glycidyl nitrate are formed. The epoxide rings of both compounds are unstable to heat in aqueous solutions, and they open to form glycerol 1-mononitrate and presumably glycerol. These transformations were accelerated by microbial activity. Glycerol 1-mononitrate was slowly denitrated to form glycerol. Glycidol and glycidyl nitrate caused base-pair substitutions in the Ames test for mutagenicity, whereas glycerol 1-mononitrate tests were negative.

  6. Biodegradation of Glycidol and Glycidyl Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, David L.; Cornell, John H.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1982-01-01

    When calcium hydroxide is used to desensitize glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerine)-containing waste streams, the epoxides glycidol and glycidyl nitrate are formed. The epoxide rings of both compounds are unstable to heat in aqueous solutions, and they open to form glycerol 1-mononitrate and presumably glycerol. These transformations were accelerated by microbial activity. Glycerol 1-mononitrate was slowly denitrated to form glycerol. Glycidol and glycidyl nitrate caused base-pair substitutions in the Ames test for mutagenicity, whereas glycerol 1-mononitrate tests were negative. PMID:16345917

  7. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-08-11

    ay of plutonium-241) in the dissolved precipitate, a value consistent with the recovery of europium, the americium surrogate.In a subsequent experiment, the plutonium solubility following an oxalate precipitation to simulate the preparation of a slurry feed for a batch melter was 21 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. The increase in solubility compared to the value measured during the pretreatment experiment was attributed to the increased nitrate concentration and ensuing increase in plutonium complexation. The solubility of the plutonium following a precipitant wash with 0.1M oxalic acid was unchanged. The recovery of plutonium from the precipitate slurry was greater than 97 percent allowing an estimation that approximately 92 percent of the plutonium in Tank 17.1 will report to the glass. The behavior of the lanthanides and soluble metal impurities was consistent with the behavior seen during the pretreatment experiment. A trace level material balance showed that 99.9 percent of the americium w as recovered from the precipitate slurry. The overall recovery of americium from the pretreatment and feed preparation processes was greater than 97 percent, which was consistent with the measured recovery of the europium surrogate.

  8. Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Rabideau, Sherman W.; Campbell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

  9. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  10. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Nuttall, R.L.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for extracting plutonium from powdered neutron- irradiated urarium metal by contacting the latter, while maintaining it in the solid form, with molten magnesium which takes up the plutonium and separating the molten magnesium from the solid uranium.

  11. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  12. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  13. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  14. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  15. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources...

  16. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  17. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  18. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same

  19. The absorption of ingested neptunium, plutonium and americium in newborn hamsters.

    PubMed

    David, A J; Harrison, J D

    1984-09-01

    Hamsters aged 1, 4, 7, 22 and 30 days were given oral doses of either plutonium-239 citrate or americium-241 nitrate. The values of gastrointestinal absorption obtained were 3.5, 1.4, 0.04, 0.007 and 0.003 per cent, respectively, for plutonium and 4.5, 1.7, 0.5, 0.006 and 0.02 per cent, respectively, for americium, compared with values in adults of 0.01 per cent for plutonium and 0.05 per cent for americium. The absorption of neptunium was measured in hamsters aged 2 and 4 days and values of 2.3 and 1.7 per cent, respectively, were obtained for 239Np as the nitrate and 5.5 and 2.1 per cent, respectively, for 239Np as the bicarbonate compared with the values in adults of 0.02 per cent for both chemical forms. Thus, the absorption of plutonium, americium and neptunium at 1-2 days of age was about 100 times greater than in adults. The results for plutonium and americium show that absorption decreased rapidly with age over the suckling period. The values of absorption obtained at the time of weaning at 22 days were lower than in adults.

  20. Aging phenomenon in metallic plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.F.; Martz, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    Today, as with weapons science issues, the monitoring of plutonium aging becomes an important issue for surveillance. The reasons for this are many-fold. First, and perhaps most important, plutonium is radioactive, primarily through the process of alpha decay. This process has many consequences. One pragmatic one is that the alpha particles ejected near the surface can be used with an ionization gauge-type detector to assess the presence of fine plutonium particulates, allowing plutonium handlers and facilities to detect the presence of contamination in virtual real time. But this alpha decay has other consequences for weapon integrity which are not well known. The same surface alpha particles which allow it`s detection, can also cause a variety of problems with materials which may be found in contact with plutonium over extended time periods. However, when this alpha emission occurs within the bulk of the plutonium metal, it is essentially trapped. Within the metal atom lattice, it acquires valence electrons and becomes a helium atom. At the same time that these helium atoms accumulate within the lattice, atomic displacements and damage to the plutonium lattice occurs due to collisions with the energetic uranium and alpha particles. At the current time, the authors have insufficient data to either assess or postulate how or when such defect structures may cause a deleterious change in the plutonium or effect other indirect changes. The Laboratory is currently initiating a variety of enhanced surveillance technologies to asses such effects. Results of these studies to understand aging phenomena in plutonium will be reviewed.

  1. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-11-16

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the

  2. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  3. Recent results on the solubility of uranium and plutonium in Savannah River Site waste supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1994-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in a highly alkaline condition to prevent corrosion of the carbon steel storage tanks. Major components in the liquid phase include nitrate, hydroxide, nitrite, aluminate, carbonate and sulfate. Minor components include chloride, fluoride, oxalate and phosphate. The low solubility of uranium and plutonium in the HLW becomes significant to nuclear safety analyses when the supernate is evaporated to solids to conserve waste storage space and then redissolved to process for permanent disposal. The study of uranium and plutonium solubility in synthetic waste tank solutions was initiated to define actinide behavior during waste removal operations.

  4. Vitrified magnesia dissolution and its impact on plutonium residue processing

    SciTech Connect

    Keith W. Fife; Jennifer L. Alwin; Coleman A. Smith; Michael D. Mayne; David A. Rockstraw

    2000-03-01

    Aqueous chloride operations at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility cannot directly dispose of acidic waste solutions because of compatibility problems with existing disposal lines. Consequently, all hydrochloric acid must be neutralized and filtered prior to exiting the facility. From a waste minimization standpoint, the use of spent magnesia pyrochemical crucibles as the acid neutralization agent is attractive since this process would take a stream destined for transuranic waste and use it as a reagent in routine plutonium residue processing. Since Los Alamos National Laboratory has several years of experience using magnesium hydroxide as a neutralizing agent for waste acid from plutonium processing activities, the use of spent magnesia pyrochemical crucibles appeared to be an attractive extension of this activity. In order to be competitive with magnesium hydroxide, however, size reduction of crucible shards had to be performed effectively within the constraints of glovebox operations, and acid neutralization time using crucible shards had to be comparable to neutralization times observed when using reagent-grade magnesium hydroxide. The study utilized non-plutonium-contaminated crucibles for equipment evaluation and selection and used nonradioactive acid solutions for completing the neutralization experiments. This paper discusses experience in defining appropriate size reduction equipment and presents results from using the magnesia crucibles for hydrochloric acid neutralization, a logical precursor to introduction into glovebox enclosures.

  5. Dissolution Behavior of Plutonium Containing Zirconia-Magnesia Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kiel Holliday; Thomas Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Ken Czerwinski

    2012-03-01

    This study explores the dissolution properties of zirconia-magnesia ceramics containing plutonium as the basis of an inert atrix nuclear fuel. The magnesium oxide phase remains pure MgO, while the zirconia incorporates a small amount of magnesium oxide along with all of the plutonium oxide and erbium oxide. The performance of the material under reactor and repository environments was examined. Reactor conditions are examined using a pressure vessel to expose the material to 300 degrees C water. To assess the performance of the material as a waste form it was submerged in 90 degrees C water for 1000 h. In both aqueous dissolution studies there was minimal release of less than 0.8 wt.% of plutonium from the material. To examine the potential for recycling, the dissolution behavior of the fuel matrix was examined in acidic solutions: pure nitric acid and a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid-peroxide solution. Both acidic media exhibit potential for dissolving plutonium from the zirconia matrix. The experiments performed in this study are meant to lay a foundation for the chemical performance of zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel containing fissile material and burnable poison.

  6. Dissolution behavior of plutonium containing zirconia-magnesia ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Kiel; Hartmann, Thomas; Cerefice, Gary; Czerwinski, Ken

    2012-03-01

    This study explores the dissolution properties of zirconia-magnesia ceramics containing plutonium as the basis of an inert matrix nuclear fuel. The magnesium oxide phase remains pure MgO, while the zirconia incorporates a small amount of magnesium oxide along with all of the plutonium oxide and erbium oxide. The performance of the material under reactor and repository environments was examined. Reactor conditions are examined using a pressure vessel to expose the material to 300 °C water. To assess the performance of the material as a waste form it was submerged in 90 °C water for 1000 h. In both aqueous dissolution studies there was minimal release of less than 0.8 wt.% of plutonium from the material. To examine the potential for recycling, the dissolution behavior of the fuel matrix was examined in acidic solutions: pure nitric acid and a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid-peroxide solution. Both acidic media exhibit potential for dissolving plutonium from the zirconia matrix. The experiments performed in this study are meant to lay a foundation for the chemical performance of zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel containing fissile material and burnable poison.

  7. Improved recovery and purification of plutonium at Los Alamos using macroporous anion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Mann, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    For almost 30 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has used anion exchange in nitric acid as the major aqueous process or the recovery and purification of plutonium. One of the few disadvantages of this system is the particularly slow rate at which the anionic nitrato complex of Pu(IV) equilibrates with the resin. The Nuclear Materials Process Technology Group at Los Alamos recently completed an ion exchange development program that focused on improving the slow sorption kinetics that limits this process. A comprehensive investigation of modern anion exchange resins identified porosity and bead size as the properties that most influence plutonium sorption kinetics. Our study found that small beads of macroporous resin produced a dramatic increase in plutonium process efficiency. The Rocky Flats Plant has already adopted this improved ion exchange technology, and it currently is being evaluated for use in other DOE plutonium-processing facilities.

  8. Separating Metallic Beryllium from Plutonium by Selective Dissolution with Ammonium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R A

    2006-11-29

    Plutonium metal is stabilized for long-term storage by calcining to produce PuO{sub 2}. However, if beryllium is present, the calcined product may have a high neutron dose rate because of the {sup 9}Be({alpha},n){sup 12}C reaction in the finely divided oxide mixture. (At LLNL, inadvertent calcining of a mixture of {approx}500 g Pu/50 g Be produced a neutron source of {approx}5 R/hr.) Therefore, for health physics reasons, we would like a convenient procedure to remove beryllium from plutonium with high selectivity. Two reagents, sodium hydroxide and ammonium fluoride, were considered for aqueous processing. Each reagent selectively dissolves beryllium, which can be separated from the insoluble plutonium by decanting/filtering operations followed by water washes to remove the excess reagent. The washed plutonium is calcined for storage; the beryllium and wash fractions are solidified for disposal.

  9. PLUTONIUM-HYDROGEN REACTION PRODUCT, METHOD OF PREPARING SAME AND PLUTONIUM POWDER THEREFROM

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Baumbach, H.L.

    1959-12-01

    A process is described for forming plutonlum hydride powder by reacting hydrogen with massive plutonium metal at room temperature and the product obtained. The plutonium hydride powder can be converted to plutonium powder by heating to above 200 deg C.

  10. From separations to reconstitution - a short history of Plutonium in the U.S. and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W

    1999-04-15

    During the cold war plutonium was produced in reactors in both the US and Russia. It was then separated from the residual uranium and fission products by a variety of precipitation processes, such as Bismuth Phosphate, Redox, Butex, Purex, etc. in the US and uranium acetate and Purex in Russia. After a period of time in the field, plutonium weapons were recycled and the plutonium re-purified and returned to weapons. purification was accomplished by a variety of aqueous and molten salt processes, such as nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution followed by anion exchange, Purex modifications, molten salt extraction, electrorefining, etc. in the US and nitric acid dissolution or sodium hydroxide fusion followed by anion exchange in Russia. At the end of the Cold War, plutonium production of weapons-grade plutonium was cut off in the US and is expected to be cut off in Russia shortly after the turn of the century. Now both countries are looking at methods to reconstitute plutonium with fission products to render it no longer useful for nuclear weapons. These methods include immobilization in a ceramic matrix and then encasement in fission product laden glass, irradiation of MOX fuel, and disposal as waste in WIPP in the US and irradiation of MOX fuel in Russia. This paper details the contrast between the treatment of plutonium during the cold war and after the cold war was over.

  11. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  12. Cylodextrin Polymer Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosowski, Bernard; Ruebner, Anja; Statton, Gary; Robitelle, Danielle; Meyers, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    The development of the use of cyclodextrin nitrates as possible components of insensitive, high-energy energetics is outlined over a time period of 12 years. Four different types of cyclodextrin polymers were synthesized, nitrated, and evaluated regarding their potential use for the military and aerospace community. The synthesis of these novel cyclodextrin polymers and different nitration techniques are shown and the potential of these new materials is discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  14. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a Molecular Plutonium(IV) Compound Constructed from Dimeric Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Runde, Wolfgang; Brodnax, Lia F.; Goff, George S.; Peper, Shane M.; Taw, Felicia L.; Scott, Brian L.

    2007-04-01

    Single crystals of Na8Pu2(O2)2(CO3)6•12H2O, exhibiting mu2, eta2-O2 ligands in unprecedented Pu(IV) dimeric units, were obtained at ambient temperature from aqueous Plutonium(IV) peroxide carbonate solution.

  15. METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Blaedel, W.J.; Walling, M.T. Jr.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for separating from each other uranium, plutonium, and fission products in an aqueous nitric acid solution by the so-called Redox process. The plutonium is first oxidized to the hexavalent state, e.g., with a water-soluble dichromate or sodium bismuthate, preferably together with a holding oxidant such as potassium bromate. potassium permanganate, or an excess of the oxidizing agent. The solution is then contacted with a water-immiscible organic solvent, preferably hexone. whereby uranium and plutonium are extracted while the fission products remain in the aqueous solution. The separated organic phase is then contacted with an aqueous solution of a reducing agent, with or without a holding reductant (e.g., with a ferrous salt plus hydrazine or with ferrous sulfamate), whereby plutonium is reduced to the trivalent state and back- extracted into the aqueous solution. The uranium may finally be back-extracted from the organic solvent (e.g., with a 0.1 N nitric acid).

  16. Gallium nitrate revisited.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2003-04-01

    Gallium nitrate, the nitrate salt of the "near-metal" element gallium, is highly effective in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Unlike bisphosphonates, gallium nitrate is effective in both parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated and non-parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate's effects on bone are clearly different from those of bisphosphonates. Gallium nitrate enhances calcium and phosphate content of bone and has direct, noncytotoxic effects on osteoclasts at markedly lower doses than those used for the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. The drug may have clinical application in a variety of disorders associated with accelerated bone loss, including multiple myeloma. Gallium nitrate was originally evaluated as an antitumor agent. Its antitumor activity occurs at somewhat higher doses than those used in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate has substantial single-agent activity in the treatment of advanced lymphoma, particularly diffuse large cell lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. Because of its profile, including a different mechanism of action and minimal myelosuppression, the drug merits further evaluation in the treatment of advanced lymphoma. Gallium nitrate also has activity in advanced bladder cancer and may be useful in patients with metastatic or unresectable disease failing first-line chemotherapy regimens. Gallium nitrate exhibits a range of dose-dependent pharmacologic actions that provide a basis for its therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases and warrants further investigational evaluation as an antiresorptive and antitumor agent. PMID:12776253

  17. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  18. Plutonium measurements near background levels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of a nationwide nuclear weapons research, development, and production complex administered by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Low-levels of environmental Plutonium occurs in and about RFP as a result of plant operations. Plutonium is a key element in remediation investigations and surface water discharge limits. Most of the plutonium analyses at RFP measure concentrations at or near background levels. Measurements often show little, if any, plutonium in the media being sampled, except at known contamination sites. Many plutonium results are less than the calculated minimum detectable-level (MDL). (MDL is an a priori estimate of the activity concentration that can be practically achieved under a specified set of typical measurement conditions.) This paper investigates the relationship between plutonium concentrations and the counting uncertainty when measurements are near background, and suggests why the MDL should not be used as a criteria for limiting data. Issues with defining site background and determining attainment of standards are presented.

  19. Nitrate sequestration by corticolous macrolichens during winter precipitation events.

    PubMed

    Levia, Delphis F

    2002-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in the biogeochemistry of forested ecosystems. The influence of canopy lichens on the winter biogeochemistry of nitrate in broadleaved deciduous forests is examined and it is hypothesized that nitrate sequestration will not differ between winter precipitation events. Rejection of this hypothesis would mean that meteorological conditions of winter precipitation events have a detectable influence on nitrate sequestration by canopy lichens and nitrate input to the forest floor. Canopy lichens of the genus Parmelia were found to influence winter nitrate stemflow inputs to forest soils differentially. Epiphytic lichens on an individual Carya glabra Mill. (pignut hickory) canopy tree, centrally located within the stand of an open deciduous forest, actively sequestered nitrate leached from the tree's woody frame, lowering aqueous stemflow inputs at the tree base. The quantities of nitrate sequestered by corticolous lichens during the 2 February 1999 mixed-precipitation event were significantly greater than those during all other precipitation events examined. Greater rates of nitrate uptake during the 2 February 1999 event may be attributed to (1) its intermediate rain intensity, which would have soaked the lichen thalli in a nutrient-rich bath, and (2) an air temperature range between -2 degrees C and 8 degrees C that would have increased viscosity and surface tension of stemflow drainage, thereby decreasing stemflow velocity and increasing the contact time of stemflow water on the lichen thalli. Other precipitation events were either too cold to promote metabolic activity by canopy lichens or too warm and intense for an optimal contact time of stemflow with lichen thalli, resulting in lower quantities of nitrate sequestered. Meteorological conditions of winter precipitation events have been documented to influence sequestration of nitrate by corticolous lichens and decrease aqueous stemflow inputs to the forest floor of broadleaved

  20. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk. PMID:22962267

  1. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  2. Microdistribution and long-term retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the respiratory tracts of an acutely exposed plutonium worker and experimental beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Christopher E; Wilson, Dulaney A; Brooks, Antone L; McCord, Stacey L; Dagle, Gerald E; James, Anthony C; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Thrall, Brian D; Morgan, William F

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [(239)Pu (NO(3))(4)] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histologic lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a nonuniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the subpleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential to increase cancer risk.

  3. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  4. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS AND CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC FORMS FOR DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Cozzi, A; Crawford, C.; Herman, C.; Marra, John; Peeler, D.

    2009-09-10

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has identified up to 50 metric tons of excess plutonium that needs to be dispositioned. The bulk of the material is slated to be blended with uranium and fabricated into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel for subsequent burning in commercial nuclear reactors. Excess plutonium-containing impurity materials making it unsuitable for fabrication into MOX fuel will need to be dispositioned via other means. Glass and crystalline ceramics have been developed and studied as candidate forms to immobilize these impure plutonium feeds. A titanate-based ceramic was identified as an excellent actinide material host. This composition was based on Synroc compositions previously developed for nuclear waste immobilization. These titanate ceramics were found to be able to accommodate extremely high quantities of fissile material and exhibit excellent aqueous durability. A lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass was developed to accommodate high concentrations of plutonium and to be very tolerant of impurities yet still maintain good aqueous durability. Recent testing of alkali borosilicate compositions showed promise of using these compositions to disposition lower concentrations of plutonium using existing high level waste vitrification processes. The developed waste forms all appear to be suitable for Pu disposition. Depending on the actual types and concentrations of the Pu residue streams slated for disposition, each waste form offers unique advantages.

  6. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10/sup -4/; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10/sup -4/. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10/sup -4/. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10/sup -4/ for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10/sup -4/ for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state (Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)) and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  9. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tusler, L.A.

    1995-05-31

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates.

  10. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  11. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-06-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125{degrees}C and 250{degrees}C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110{degrees}C to 270{degrees}C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252{degrees}C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  12. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  13. Perselectivity of porous cellulose nitrate membranes in evapomeation with temperature difference

    SciTech Connect

    Uragami, T.; Komatsu, R.; Miyata, T.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol-permselectivity from aqueous ethanol solutions through porous cellulose nitrate membranes was investigated by evaporation with temperature difference under various conditions. On the other hand, same experiments using porous cellulose acetate were carried out. From these results of porous cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate membranes, mechanism of permeation and separation for ethanol-permselectivity through cellulose nitrate membranes is discussed from viewpoints of physical and chemical structures of porous cellulose ester membranes.

  14. On the existence of 'bis (L-glutamine) potassium nitrate' crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Shyama, Soorambail K.; Naik, Suvidha G.; Jyai, Rita N.

    2015-02-01

    The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing L-glutamine and potassium nitrate in 2:1 mol ratio results in the fractional crystallization of L-glutamine and not the formation of a so called bis (L-glutamine) potassium nitrate as reported recently by Hanumantharao and Kalainathan (2012).

  15. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  16. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  1. Halide Ion Enhancement of Nitrate Ion Photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, N. K.; Wingen, L. M.; Callahan, K. M.; Tobias, D. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate ion photochemistry is an important source of NOx in the polar regions. It is uncertain whether coexisting ions such as halides play a role in nitrate photochemistry. The effect of halides on NO3 photolysis was investigated using photolysis experiments in 230 L Teflon chambers that contain deliquesced aerosols of NaBr:NaNO3, KBr:KNO3 and ternary mixtures of NaCl:NaBr:NaNO3. Gas phase NO2 and gaseous halogen products were measured as a function of photolysis time using long path FTIR, NOx chemiluminescence and API-MS (atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry). Experiments were conducted with NO3- held at a constant 0.5 M and with the amount of total halide concentration varying from 0.25 M to 4 M. Studies on NaBr:NaNO3 mixtures suggest that as the bromide ion to nitrate ion ratio increases, there is an enhancement in the rate of production of NO2 in the nitrate-bromide mixtures over that formed in the photolysis of NaNO3. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations provide molecular level insight into the ions near the air-water interface in the aqueous halide-nitrate mixtures. These studies suggest that the presence of sodium halides at the air-water interface may encourage some nitrate ions to approach the top layers of water, allowing for more efficient escape of photoproducts than is seen in the absence of halides. Experiments on mixtures of KBr:KNO3 are being conducted to determine potential cation effects. In addition, ternary mixtures of NaCl:NaBr:NaNO3 are being examined to determine the effects of mixtures of halides on production of NO2 and gaseous halogen products. The implications of this photochemistry for tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  2. Hydroxylamine Nitrate Decomposition under Non-radiological Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; DePaoli, David W.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Phelps, Clarice E.; Roach, Benjamin D.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in the separation of plutonium from uranium. HAN becomes unstable under certain conditions and has been known to explode, causing injury to humans including death. Hence, it is necessary to deactivate HAN once the reduction of plutonium is finished. This report reviews what is known about the chemistry of HAN and various methods to achieve a safe decomposition. However, there are areas where more information is needed to make a decision about the handling of HAN in reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Experiments have demonstrated a number of non-radiolytic ways to safely decompose HAN, including heating in HNO3, photolytic oxidation in the presence of H2O2, and the addition of a metal such as Fe(III) that will oxidize the HAN.

  3. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  4. Determination of intracellular nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J M; Lara, C; Guerrero, M G

    1989-01-01

    A sensitive procedure has been developed for the determination of intracellular nitrate. The method includes: (i) preparation of cell lysates in 2 M-H3PO4 after separation of cells from the outer medium by rapid centrifugation through a layer of silicone oil, and (ii) subsequent nitrate analysis by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. with, as mobile phase, a solution containing 50 mM-H3PO4 and 2% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran, adjusted to pH 1.9 with NaOH. The determination of nitrate is subjected to interference by chloride and sulphate when present in the samples at high concentrations. Nitrite also interferes, but it is easily eliminated by treatment of the samples with sulphamic acid. The method has been successfully applied to the study of nitrate transport in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. PMID:2497740

  5. Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1997-09-30

    The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

  6. Protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Leterrier, Marina; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide metabolism in plant cells has a relative short history. Nitration is a chemical process which consists of introducing a nitro group (-NO2) into a chemical compound. in biological systems, this process has been found in different molecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that can affect its function. This mini-review offers an overview of this process with special emphasis on protein tyrosine nitration in plants and its involvement in the process of nitrosative stress. PMID:19826215

  7. BenzoDODA grafted polymeric resin-Plutonium selective solid sorbent.

    PubMed

    Ruhela, R; Panja, S; Singh, A K; Dhami, P S; Gandhi, P M

    2016-11-15

    A new ligand grafted polymeric resin (BenzoDODA SDVB) was synthesized by covalently attaching plutonium selective ligand (BenzoDODA) on to styrene divinyl benzene (SDVB) polymer matrix. BenzoDODA SDVB resin was evaluated for separation and recovery of plutonium(IV) from nitric acid medium. Sorption of Pu(IV) was found to decrease with the increase in nitric acid concentration, with very small sorption above 7.0M HNO3. Sorption kinetics was fast enough to achieve the equilibrium within 60min of contact where the kinetic data fitted well to pseudo-second-order model. Sorption isotherm data fitted well to Langmuir model suggesting chemical interaction between the BenzoDODA moiety and plutonium(IV) ions. Sorption studies with some of representative radionuclides of high level waste showed that BenzoDODA SDVB is selective and therefore could be a promising solid sorbent for separation and recovery of plutonium. Further, the theoretical calculations done on BenzoDODA SDVB resin suggested Pu(NO3)4·BenzoDODA (1:1) sorbed complex conformed to generally observed square antiprism geometry of the plutonium complexes, with contributions from oxygen atoms of four nitrate ions as well as from four oxygen atoms present in BenzoDODA (two phenolic ether oxygen atoms and two carbonyl oxygen atoms of amidic moiety). PMID:27420390

  8. BenzoDODA grafted polymeric resin-Plutonium selective solid sorbent.

    PubMed

    Ruhela, R; Panja, S; Singh, A K; Dhami, P S; Gandhi, P M

    2016-11-15

    A new ligand grafted polymeric resin (BenzoDODA SDVB) was synthesized by covalently attaching plutonium selective ligand (BenzoDODA) on to styrene divinyl benzene (SDVB) polymer matrix. BenzoDODA SDVB resin was evaluated for separation and recovery of plutonium(IV) from nitric acid medium. Sorption of Pu(IV) was found to decrease with the increase in nitric acid concentration, with very small sorption above 7.0M HNO3. Sorption kinetics was fast enough to achieve the equilibrium within 60min of contact where the kinetic data fitted well to pseudo-second-order model. Sorption isotherm data fitted well to Langmuir model suggesting chemical interaction between the BenzoDODA moiety and plutonium(IV) ions. Sorption studies with some of representative radionuclides of high level waste showed that BenzoDODA SDVB is selective and therefore could be a promising solid sorbent for separation and recovery of plutonium. Further, the theoretical calculations done on BenzoDODA SDVB resin suggested Pu(NO3)4·BenzoDODA (1:1) sorbed complex conformed to generally observed square antiprism geometry of the plutonium complexes, with contributions from oxygen atoms of four nitrate ions as well as from four oxygen atoms present in BenzoDODA (two phenolic ether oxygen atoms and two carbonyl oxygen atoms of amidic moiety).

  9. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium.

  10. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  11. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  12. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  13. Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.

    2010-02-02

    The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Van’t Hoff equation.

  15. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  16. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  17. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  18. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  19. The First Weighing of Plutonium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1967-09-10

    Recollections and reminiscences at the 25th Anniversary of the First Weighing of Plutonium, Chicago, IL, September 10, 1967, tell an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  20. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Form Development Interim and Final Data Report Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    VanKonynenburg, R.; Ebbinghaus, B.

    2000-06-01

    Contained within this report are summaries of the available interim and final data summary reports provided by ANSTO, ANL, LLNL, and WSRC in support of work in the Form Development activity in the Plutonium Immobilization Development and Testing Program. Milestone reports and technical papers prepared for journals or conference proceedings are not included in this list. This document covers work from about 1997 to the present. All of the following reports are available from the Plutonium Immobilization Program Document Control Center (DCC) at LLNL. In most cases, the documents can also be obtained from the libraries the originating site or from the document's authors. All samples of the various formulations discussed in the following summaries were prepared by one of four processes: Wet-milling, dry-milling, an alkoxide-nitrate process, or attritor milling. The fabrication processes differ primarily in the mixing steps. The wet milling process is the one most commonly used. It is a simple ball milling process where water is added that provides intimate mixing of the materials. The dry milling process is a worst case dry mixing process. The alkoxide-nitrate process provides for very intimate mixing and is used when equilibrium samples are desired. The attritor milling process simulates the process being developed for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant. After mixing, the subsequent calcination and consolidation steps are generally the same. Most samples were consolidated by cold pressing and sintering although some of the earlier samples or Some of the single-phase samples were prepared by hot pressing. The sample identification numbers (ID's) that are referenced in the summaries (e.g. A-0, B3-13, etc.) are described in the Sample Test Matrix (PIP-99-012 and PIP-00-016). Samples which contain both plutonium and uranium are given the designation Hf-Pu-U samples. When Ce was used as a surrogate for Pu, the designation is Hf-Ce-U. When Th was used as a surrogate for Pu

  2. Glutarimidedioxime: A Complexing and Reducing Reagent for Plutonium Recovery from Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Xian, Liang; Tian, Guoxin; Beavers, Christine M; Teat, Simon J; Shuh, David K

    2016-04-01

    Efficient separation processes for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel are essential to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The performance characteristics of a new salt-free complexing and reducing reagent, glutarimidedioxime (H2A), are reported for recovering plutonium in a PUREX process. With a phase ratio of organic to aqueous of up to 10:1, plutonium can be effectively stripped from 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene into 1 M HNO3 with H2A. The complexation-reduction mechanism is illustrated with the combination of UV/Vis absorption spectra and the crystal structure of a Pu(IV) complex with the reagent. The fast stripping rate and the high efficiency for stripping Pu(IV), through the complexation-reduction mechanism, is suitable for use in centrifugal contactors with very short contact/resident times, thereby offering significant advantages over conventional processes. PMID:26970221

  3. Glutarimidedioxime: A Complexing and Reducing Reagent for Plutonium Recovery from Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Xian, Liang; Tian, Guoxin; Beavers, Christine M; Teat, Simon J; Shuh, David K

    2016-04-01

    Efficient separation processes for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel are essential to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The performance characteristics of a new salt-free complexing and reducing reagent, glutarimidedioxime (H2A), are reported for recovering plutonium in a PUREX process. With a phase ratio of organic to aqueous of up to 10:1, plutonium can be effectively stripped from 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene into 1 M HNO3 with H2A. The complexation-reduction mechanism is illustrated with the combination of UV/Vis absorption spectra and the crystal structure of a Pu(IV) complex with the reagent. The fast stripping rate and the high efficiency for stripping Pu(IV), through the complexation-reduction mechanism, is suitable for use in centrifugal contactors with very short contact/resident times, thereby offering significant advantages over conventional processes.

  4. Decorporation approach following rat lung contamination with a moderately soluble compound of plutonium using local and systemic Ca-DTPA combined chelation.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Bruel, Sylvie; Renault, Daniel; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Decorporation efficacy of prompt pulmonary delivery of DTPA dry powder was assessed following lung contamination with plutonium nitrate and compared to an intravenous injection of DTPA solution and a combined administration of both DTPA compounds. In addition, efficacy of a delayed treatment was assessed. In case of either early or late administration, insufflated DTPA was more efficient than intravenously injected DTPA in reducing the plutonium lung burden due to its high local concentration. Prompt treatment with DTPA powder was also more effective in limiting extrapulmonary deposits by removing the early transportable fraction of plutonium from lungs prior its absorption into blood. Translocation of DTPA from lungs to blood may also contribute to the decrease in extrapulmonary retention, as shown by reduced liver deposit after delayed pulmonary administration of DTPA. Efficacy of DTPA dry powder was further increased by the combined intravenous administration of DTPA solution for reducing extrapulmonary deposits of plutonium and promoting its urinary excretion. According to our results, the most effective treatment protocol for plutonium decorporation was the early pulmonary delivery of DTPA powder supplemented by an intravenous injection of DTPA solution. Following inhalation of plutonium as nitrate chemical form, this combined chelation therapy should provide a more effective method of treatment than conventional intravenous injection alone. At later stages following lung contamination, pulmonary administration of DTPA should also be considered as the treatment of choice for decreasing the lung burden.

  5. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    To address the accelerated disposition of the supernate and salt portions of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW), solubility experiments were performed to develop a predictive capability for plutonium (Pu) solubility. A statistically designed experiment was used to measure the solubility of Pu in simulated solutions with salt concentrations and temperatures which bounded those observed in SRS HLW solutions. Constituents of the simulated waste solutions included: hydroxide (OH{sup -}), aluminate (Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) anions. Each anion was added to the waste solution in the sodium form. The solubilities were measured at 25 and 80 C. Five sets of samples were analyzed over a six month period and a partial sample set was analyzed after nominally fifteen months of equilibration. No discernable time dependence of the measured Pu concentrations was observed except for two salt solutions equilibrated at 80 C which contained OH{sup -} concentrations >5 mol/L. In these solutions, the Pu solubility increased with time. This observation was attributed to the air oxidation of a portion of the Pu from Pu(IV) to the more soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) valence states. A data driven approach was subsequently used to develop a modified response surface model for Pu solubility. Solubility data from this study and historical data from the literature were used to fit the model. The model predicted the Pu solubility of the solutions from this study within the 95% confidence interval for individual predictions and the analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant lack of fit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) model was compared with predicted values from the Aqueous Electrolyte (AQ) model developed by OLI Systems, Inc. and a solubility prediction equation developed by Delegard and Gallagher for Hanford tank waste. The agreement between

  6. Desferrioxamine Inhibits Protein Tyrosine Nitration: Mechanisms and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Adgent, Margaret A.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Ballinger, Carol A.; Krzywanski, David M.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Postlethwait, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    Tissues are exposed to exogenous and endogenous nitrogen dioxide (•NO2), which is the terminal agent in protein tyrosine nitration. Besides iron chelation, the hydroxamic acid (HA) desferrioxamine (DFO) shows multiple functionalities including nitration inhibition. To investigate mechanisms whereby DFO affects 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, we utilized gas phase •NO2 exposures, to limit introduction of other reactive species, and a lung surface model wherein red cell membranes (RCM) were immobilized under a defined aqueous film. When RCM were exposed to •NO2 covered by +/− DFO: (i) DFO inhibited 3-NT formation more effectively than other HA and non-HA chelators; (ii) 3-NT inhibition occurred at very low [DFO] for prolonged times; and (iii) 3-NT formation was iron independent but inhibition required DFO present. DFO poorly reacted with •NO2 compared to ascorbate, assessed via •NO2 reactive absorption and aqueous phase oxidation rates, yet limited 3-NT formation at far lower concentrations. DFO also inhibited nitration under aqueous bulk phase conditions, and inhibited 3-NT generated by active myeloperoxidase “bound” to RCM. Per the above and kinetic analyses suggesting preferential DFO versus •NO2 reaction within membranes, we conclude that DFO inhibits 3-NT formation predominantly by facile repair of the tyrosyl radical intermediate, which prevents •NO2 addition, and thus nitration, and potentially influences biochemical functionalities. PMID:22705369

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  10. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans. PMID:27575347

  11. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-10-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

  12. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  13. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  14. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Paul T.; Caviness, Michael L.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  15. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  16. Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]·0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  17. On NO3-H2O interactions in aqueous solutions and at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Roeselova, Martina; Garrett, Bruce C.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2006-02-14

    Constrained molecular dynamics technique was employed to investigate the transport of a nitrate ion across the water liquid/vapor interface. We developed the nitrate ion-water polarizable potential capable of describing well the solvation properties of the hydrated nitrate ion. The computed free energy profile for the transfer of the nitrate ion across the air/water interface increases monotonically as the nitrate ion approaches the Gibbs dividing surface from the bulk liquid side. The computed density profiles of 1M KNO3 salt solution slab indicate that the nitrate and potassium ions are both found below the aqueous interface. Upon analyzing the results, we can conclude that the probability of finding the nitrate anion at the aqueous interface is quite small.

  18. Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial

  19. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  20. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  1. Plutonium decontamination studies using Reverse Osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.

    1980-06-17

    Water in batches of 45 gallons each, from a creek crossing the Rocky Flats Plant, was transferred to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) laboratory for experimental testing. The testing involved using RO for plutonium decontamination. For each test, the water was spiked with plutonium, had its pH adjusted, and was then processed by RO. At a water recovery level of 87%, the plutonium decontamination factors ranged from near 100 to 1200, depending on the pH of the processed water.

  2. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Potratz, H.A.

    1958-12-16

    A process for the separation of plutonium from uranlum and other associated radioactlve fission products ls descrlbed conslstlng of contacting an acid solution containing plutonium in the tetravalent state and uranium in the hexavalent state with enough ammonium carbonate to form an alkaline solution, adding cupferron to selectlvely form plutonlum cupferrlde, then recoverlng the plutonium cupferride by extraction with a water lmmiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  3. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  4. PLUTONIUM-CUPFERRON COMPLEX AND METHOD OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM FROM SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Potratz, H.A.

    1959-01-13

    A method is presented for separating plutonium from fission products present in solutions of neutronirradiated uranium. The process consists in treating such acidic solutions with cupferron so that the cupferron reacts with the plutonium present to form an insoluble complex. This plutonium cupferride precipitates and may then be separated from the solution.

  5. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  6. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    DOEpatents

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  7. Plutonium behavior after pulmonary administration according to solubility properties, and consequences on alveolar macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Van der Meeren, Anne; Gremy, Olivier; Renault, Daniel; Miroux, Amandine; Bruel, Sylvie; Griffiths, Nina; Tourdes, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical form in which plutonium enters the body influences the lung distribution and the transfer rate from lungs to blood. In the present study, we evaluated the early lung damage and macrophage activation after pulmonary contamination of plutonium of various preparation modes which produce different solubility and distribution patterns. Whatever the solubility properties of the contaminant, macrophages represent a major retention compartment in lungs, with 42 to 67% of the activity from broncho-alveolar lavages being associated with macrophages 14 days post-contamination. Lung changes were observed 2 and 6 weeks post-contamination, showing inflammatory lesions and accumulation of activated macrophages (CD68 positive) in plutonium-contaminated rats, although no increased proliferation of pneumocytes II (TTF-1 positive cells) was found. In addition, acid phosphatase activity in macrophages from contaminated rats was enhanced 2 weeks post-contamination as compared to sham groups, as well as inflammatory mediator levels (TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1) in macrophage culture supernatants. Correlating with the decrease in activity remaining in macrophages after plutonium contamination, inflammatory mediator production returned to basal levels 6 weeks post-exposure. The production of chemokines by macrophages was evaluated after contamination with Pu of increasing solubility. No correlation was found between the solubility properties of Pu and the activation level of macrophages. In summary, our data indicate that, despite the higher solubility of plutonium citrate or nitrate as compared to preformed colloids or oxides, macrophages remain the main lung target after plutonium contamination and may participate in the early pulmonary damage.

  8. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  9. PROCESS FOR SEGREGATING URANIUM FROM PLUTONIUM AND FISSION-PRODUCT CONTAMINATION

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, C.V.; Runion, T.C.

    1961-06-27

    An aqueous nitric acid solution containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values is contacted with an organic extractant comprised of a trialkyl phosphate and an organic diluent. The relative amounts of trialkyl phosphate and uranium values are controlled to achieve a concentration of uranium values in the organic extractant of at least 0.35 moles uranium per mole of trialkyl phosphate, thereby preferentially extracting uranium values into the organic extractant.

  10. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hixon, Amy E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nitsche, Heino; Qafoku, Odeta; Powell, Brian A.

    2010-10-01

    Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and oxidation state. A pH 6.3 vadose zone sediment containing iron oxides and iron-containing phyllosilicates was treated with various complexants (ammonium oxalate) and reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate) to selectively leach and/or reduce iron oxide and phyllosilicate phases. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to identify initial iron mineral composition of the sediment and monitor dissolution and reduction of iron oxides. Sorption of Pu(V) was monitored over one week for each of six treated sediment fractions. Plutonium oxidation state speciation in the aqueous and solid phases was monitored using solvent extraction, coprecipitation, and XANES. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the sediment contained 25-30% hematite, 60-65% Al-goethite, and <10%Fe(III) in phyllosilicate; there was no detectable Fe(II). Upon reduction with a strong chemical reductant (dithionite-citrate buffer, DCB), much of the hematite and goethite disappeared and the Fe in the phyllosilicate reduced to Fe(II). The rate of sorption was found to correlate with the 1 fraction of Fe(II) remaining within each treated sediment phase. Pu(V) was the only oxidation state measured in the aqueous phase, irrespective of treatment, whereas Pu(IV) and much smaller amounts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were measured in the solid phase. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) occurred in treated and untreated sediment samples; Pu(V) remained on untreated sediment surface for two days before reducing to Pu(IV). Similar to the sorption kinetics, the reduction rate was correlated with sediment Fe(II) concentration. The correlation between Fe(II) concentrations and Pu(V) reduction demonstrates the potential impact of changing

  11. Tracking sources of unsaturated zone and groundwater nitrate contamination using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes at the Hanford site, Washington.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michael J; Woods, Katharine N; Conrad, Mark E; Depaolo, Donald J; Dresel, P Evan

    2005-05-15

    The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate in pore water extracts from unsaturated zone (UZ) core samples and groundwater samples indicate at least four potential sources of nitrate in groundwaters at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Natural sources of nitrate identified include microbially produced nitrate from the soil column (delta15N of 4 - 8 per thousand, delta18O of -9 to 2 per thousand) and nitrate in buried caliche layers (delta15N of 0-8 per thousand, delta 18O of -6to 42 per thousand). Isotopically distinctindustrial sources of nitrate include nitric acid in low-level disposal waters (delta15N approximately per thousand, delta 18O approximately 23%o) per thousandnd co-contaminant nitrate in high-level radioactive waste from plutonium processing (6'5delta1of 8-33 % o, per thousand18delta oO -9 to 7%0). per thousandThe isotopic compositions of nitrate from 97 groundwater wells with concentrations up to 1290 mg/L NO3- have been analyzed. Stable isotope analyses from this study site, which has natural and industrial nitrate sources, provide a tool to distinguish nitrate sources in an unconfined aquiferwhere concentrations alone do not. These data indicate that the most common sources of high nitrate concentrations in groundwater at Hanford are nitric acid and natural nitrate flushed out of the UZ during disposal of low-level wastewater. Nitrate associated with high-level radioactive UZ contamination does not appear to be a major source of groundwater nitrate at this time.

  12. EXPERIENCES IN DECONTAMINATION & DEMOLITION OF A FORMER PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY HANFORD RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    BISHOP, G.E.

    2002-06-01

    The 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility received plutonium nitrate paste from the nearby Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Facility and concentrated the plutonium for shipment to Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant. Operations ceased in 1967 and the Facility languished in a state of minimal maintenance until the mid-1990's when a decision was made to decontaminate and demolish (D&D) it. This work is being performed as a pilot project that integrates DOE nuclear safety analysis and worker safety requirements with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements under CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 1980). The pilot project is a CERCLA non-time critical removal action. Difficulties were encountered during D&D. These included conflict between the development of the safety basis as an EPA pilot project and DOE requirements for safety analysis reports, updating the safety analysis to keep it current with field conditions, and major difficulties with nondestructive assays (NDA) of the contaminated waste. No demonstrable benefit has been obtained by integrating the EPA and DOE safety methodologies.

  13. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  14. [Photodegradation of UV filter PABA in nitrate solution].

    PubMed

    Meng, Cui; Ji, Yue-Fei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Xi

    2011-09-01

    The aqueous photolysis of a UV filter p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) using Xe lamp as simulated solar irradiation source was investigated in the presence of nitrate ions. The effects of pH, concentration of nitrate ions and concentration of humic substance in natural water on the photodegradation of PABA were studied. The results showed that photodegradation of PABA in nitrate solution followed the first order kinetics. The increasing concentration of nitrate ion increased favored the photodegradaton of PABA, of which the first order constant increased from 0.002 2 min(-10 to 0.017 9 min(-1). The photodegradation of PABA promoted with the increase of pH while the increasing concentration of humic substance showed inhibiting effect. Hydroxyl radicals determined by the molecular probe method played a very importnant role in the photolysis process of PABA. Photoproducts upon irradiation of PABA in nitrate solution were isolated by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and identified by LC-MS techniques. The probable photoinduced degradation pathways in nitrate solution were proposed. PMID:22165219

  15. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  16. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  17. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Program: Can-in-Canister

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, D.T.

    1999-07-14

    'The end of the cold war brought about a potential new danger, the existence of surplus weapons grade plutonium in the U.S. and Russia. Bilateral disposition programs provide the preferred long-term solution. This paper presents an overview of the U.S. approach to plutonium immobilization using the Can-in-Canister technology.'

  19. Uses for plutonium: Weapons, reactors, and other

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    This document begins with a introduction on criticality and supercriticality. Then, types and components, design and engineering, yields, and disassembly of nuclear weapons are discussed. Plutonium is evaluated as a reactor fuel, including neutronics and chemistry considerations. Finally, other uses of plutonium are analyzed.

  20. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-04-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

  2. The effect of mass on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and neptunium.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Miller, B M; Ryan, J L

    1983-04-01

    Absorption and retention of plutonium were determined in mice after intragastric administration of either 6 X 10(-4) or 1.5 mg/kg in bicarbonate, citrate, or nitrate media. At the higher concentration, absorption of the citrate was greater than that of the nitrate; at the lower concentration, chemical form was not an important factor in absorption. Concentration and chemical form had much less influence on absorption by the neonatal (versus the adult) rat. The transfer factor (f1) for neonates was between one and two orders of magnitude higher than for adults. Absorption and retention of neptunium were determined in rats and/or mice after intragastric administration at doses ranging from 2.2 X 10(-7) to 43 mg/kg in nitrate solutions of pH 1.5. At the higher concentrations, absorption was 1.5 to 2.7%. For lower concentrations, absorption was 25 to 65 times less. In contrast to results obtained in adult animals, absorption of neptunium by neonates decreased with increasing dose. The data obtained in adult animals suggest that the f1 factor recommended by the ICRP for plutonium should be increased by a factor of 10, but the neptunium f1 factor, in contrast, should be decreased by a factor of 10.

  3. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F.

    2008-07-01

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  4. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  5. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations.

  6. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  7. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  8. Cleanup of plutonium oxide reduction black salts

    SciTech Connect

    Giebel, R.E.; Wing, R.O.

    1986-12-17

    This work describes pyrochemical processes employed to convert direc oxide reduction (DOR) black salts into discardable white salt and plutonium metal. The DOR process utilizes calcium metal as the reductant in a molten calcium chloride solvent salt to convert plutonium oxide to plutonium metal. An insoluble plutonium-rich dispersion called black salt sometimes forms between the metal phase and the salt phase. Black salts accumulated for processing were treated by one of two methods. One method utilized a scrub alloy of 70 wt % magnesium/30 wt % zinc. The other method utilized a pool of plutonium metal to agglomerate the metal phase. The two processes were similar in that calcium metal reductant and calcium chloride solvent salt were used in both cases. Four runs were performed by each method, and each method produced greater than 93% conversion of the black salt.

  9. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.

    1959-01-13

    An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

  10. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; Silver, G.L.; Avens, L.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Espinoza, J.; Foltyn, E.M.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. The initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The notable non-actinide impurities were silicon and phosphorus, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. Among actinide impurities, uranium is of paramount concern because {sup 234}U is the daughter of {sup 2238}Pu by alpha decay, and is the largest actinide impurity. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was first dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and then the solution was filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glovebox environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup 238}Pu values.

  11. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  12. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  13. Nanocrystalline thoria powders via glycine-nitrate combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, R. D.; Saha, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thoria powders were prepared by the combustion technique using glycine as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidizer. The technique involves the exothermic decomposition of viscous liquid prepared by thermal dehydration of the aqueous solution containing thorium nitrate and glycine. Thoria powders of different crystallite sizes, surface areas and sinterabilities were prepared by starting with two different fuel-to-oxidant molar ratios. The exothermic decomposition of viscous liquid, at about 200°C, containing thorium nitrate-to-glycine in molar ratio 1:1.2 yielded the well-crystalline nano-sized ThO 2 powder. Thoria powders prepared by this technique were shown to have a higher surface area ( >50 m2/ g) and could be sintered to highly dense pellets (⩾93% th.d.) at relatively low sintering temperature of 1300°C for 3 h.

  14. Absorption spectra and speciation of plutonium(VI) with phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, H.T.; Reed, D.

    1996-02-01

    Plutonium(VI)-phosphate species in aqueous solution, at pH < 2.4, formed two species: PuO{sub 2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +} (characterized by an 835 nm absorption band) and the solid phase PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The stability constant {beta} for the PuO{sub 2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup +} species was determined to be log {beta} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 (ionic strength = 0.6--0.9 M) and log {beta}{sup T} = 2.6 {+-} 0.15 (zero ionic strength). Four Pu(VI)-phosphate species (absorption bands at 842, 846, 857, and 866 nm) formed at pH = 2.4 to 12.2 and are characterized by polynuclear behavior, the formation of precipitates, and colloidal properties. The 842 and 846 nm species are believed to be [PuO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub m}]{sub n} and [PuO{sub 2}(NaPO{sub 4}){sub m}]{sub n}. The 857 and 866 nm species area as yet unidentified. The speciation of plutonium with phosphate is of interest to radionuclide migration studies because phosphate is present in many groundwaters and may be used as an actinide getter in nuclear waste disposal. An actinide getter is a complexing agent that forms insoluble phases with actinides, thereby reducing their migration.

  15. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  16. Plutonium Uptake and Distribution in Mammalian Cells: Molecular vs Polymeric Plutonium

    PubMed Central

    ARYAL, BAIKUNTHA P.; GORMAN-LEWIS, DREW; PAUNESKU, TATJANA; WILSON, RICHARD E.; LAI, BARRY; VOGT, STEFAN; WOLOSCHAK, GAYLE E.; JENSEN, MARK P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the cellular responses to molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium using PC12 cells derived from rat adrenal glands. Materials and methods Serum starved PC12 cells were exposed to polymeric and molecular forms of plutonium for three hours. Cells were washed with 10 mM EGTA, 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.4 to remove surface sorbed plutonium. Localization of plutonium in individual cell was quantitatively analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. Results Molecular plutonium complexes introduced to cell growth media in the form of NTA, citrate, or transferrin complexes were taken up by PC12 cells, and mostly co-localized with iron within the cells. Polymeric plutonium prepared separately was not internalized by PC12 cells but it was always found on the cell surface as big agglomerates; however polymeric plutonium formed in situ was mostly found within the cells as agglomerates. Conclusions PC12 cells can differentiate molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium. Molecular plutonium is taken up by PC12 cells and mostly co-localized with iron but aged polymeric plutonium is not internalized by the cells. PMID:21770702

  17. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition.

  18. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  19. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  20. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium bearing salt baths waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-12-31

    The salt flux issuing from the electrofining of plutonium metal or alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt processes promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on an electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as Cl2 gas followed by its trapping on soda lime cartridge; a complete oxidative dissolution of refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the backend: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions.

  1. Sulfide remediation by pulsed injection of nitrate into a low temperature Canadian heavy oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A; Lambo, Adewale; Lin, Shiping; Park, Hyung Soo; Jack, Thomas R; Coombe, Dennis; Clay, Bill; Zhang, Frank; Ertmoed, Ryan; Miner, Kirk; Arensdorf, Joseph J

    2009-12-15

    Sulfide formation by oil field sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be diminished by the injection of nitrate, stimulating the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB). We monitored the field-wide injection of nitrate into a low temperature (approximately 30 degrees C) oil reservoir in western Canada by determining aqueous concentrations of sulfide, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite, as well as the activities of NRB in water samples from 3 water plants, 2 injection wells, and 15 production wells over 2 years. The injection water had a low sulfate concentration (approximately 1 mM). Nitrate (2.4 mM, 150 ppm) was added at the water plants. Its subsequent distribution to the injection wells gave losses of 5-15% in the pipeline system, indicating that most was injected. Continuous nitrate injection lowered the total aqueous sulfide output of the production wells by 70% in the first five weeks, followed by recovery. Batchwise treatment of a limited section of the reservoir with high nitrate eliminated sulfide from one production well with nitrate breakthrough. Subsequent, field-wide treatment with week-long pulses of 14 mM nitrate gave breakthrough at an additional production well. However, this trend was reversed when injection with a constant dose of 2.4 mM (150 ppm) was resumed. The results are explained by assuming growth of SRB near the injection wellbore due to sulfate limitation. Injection of a constant nitrate dose inhibits these SRB initially. However, because of the constant, low temperature of the reservoir, SRB eventually grow back in a zone further removed from the injection wellbore. The resulting zonation (NRB closest to and SRB further away from the injection wellbore) can be broken by batch-wise increases in the concentration of injected nitrate, allowing it to re-enter the SRB-dominated zone.

  2. The chemistry, waste form development, and properties of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-06-01

    A process for the conversion of alkaline, aqueous nitrate wastes to ammonia gas at low temperature, based upon the use of the active metal reductant aluminum, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process is also well suited for the removal of low-level waste (LLW) radioelements and hazardous metals which report to the solid, alumina-based by-product. ne chemistry of the interaction of aluminum powders with nitrate, and other waste stream metals is presented.

  3. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  4. Radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, Alexei K.; Shilov, Vladimir P.; Gogolev, Andrei V.

    1997-09-01

    The data on radiolytic transformations of ions of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and transcurium elements in aqueous solutions are generalised. The results of studies on the kinetics of fast reactions of these ions with primary products of water radiolysis (hydrated electron e-aq, H, OH, and O- radicals and H2O2), many inorganic (Cl2-, NO3, SO4-, CO3-, O3- etc.) and organic free radicals are analysed. The mechanism of γ- and α-radiolysis of solutions of actinide ions is discussed. The bibliography includes 183 references.

  5. Glycine lithium nitrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Valenzuela, R.; Hernández-Paredes, J.; Medrano-Pesqueira, T.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Jesús-Castillo, S.; Rodriguez-Mijangos, R.; Terpugov, V. S.; Alvarez-Ramos, M. E.; Duarte-Möller, A.

    Crystals of glycine lithium nitrate with non-linear optical properties have been grown in a solution by slow evaporation at room temperature. The crystal shows a good thermal stability from room temperature to 175 °C where the crystal begins to degrade. This property is desirable for future technological applications. Also, a good performance on the second harmonic generation was found, characterizing the emitted dominant wavelength by a customized indirect procedure using luminance and chromaticity measured data based on the CIE-1931 standard. Additionally, the 532 nm signal was detected by using a variant to the Kurtz and Perry method.

  6. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  7. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  8. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  9. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  10. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  11. Volatile fluoride process for separating plutonium from other materials

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F. H.; Newton, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  12. VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  13. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996.

  14. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  16. NON-CORROSIVE PLUTONIUM FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Waber, J.T.

    1962-10-23

    An improved plutonium reactor liquid fuel is described for utilization in a nuclear reactor having a tantalum fuel containment vessel. The fuel consists of plutonium and a diluent such as iron, cobalt, nickel, cerium, cerium-- iron, cerium--cobalt, cerium--nickel, and cerium--copper, and an additive of carbon and silicon. The carbon and silicon react with the tantalum container surface to form a coating that is self-healing and prevents the corrosive action of liquid plutonium on the said tantalum container. (AEC)

  17. Removal of plutonium from hepatic tissue

    DOEpatents

    Lindenbaum, Arthur; Rosenthal, Marcia W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for removing plutonium from hepatic tissues by introducing into the body and blood stream a solution of the complexing agent DTPA and an adjunct thereto. The adjunct material induces aberrations in the hepatic tissue cells and removes intracellularly deposited plutonium which is normally unavailable for complexation with the DTPA. Once the intracellularly deposited plutonium has been removed from the cell by action of the adjunct material, it can be complexed with the DTPA present in the blood stream and subsequently removed from the body by normal excretory processes.

  18. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  19. LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS FOR THE REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF CHLORIDES AND NITRATES FROM AQUEOUS NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Savolainen, J.E.

    1963-01-29

    A method is described for reducing the chloride content of a solution derived from the dissolution of a stainless steel clad nuclear fuel element with an aqua regia dissolution medium. The solutlon is adjusted to a nitric acid concentration in the range 5 to 10 M and is countercurrently contacted at room temperature with a gaseous oxide of nitrogen selected from NO, NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ O/sub 3/, and N/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Chlo ride is recovered from the contacted solution as nitrosyl chloride. After reduction of the chloride content, the solution is then contacted with gaseous NO to reduce the nitric acid molarity to a desired level. (AEC)

  20. Regulation of Nitrate Assimilation and Nitrate Respiration in Aerobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Van 'T Riet, J.; Stouthamer, A. H.; Planta, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    The influence of growth conditions on assimilatory and respiratory nitrate reduction in Aerobacter aerogenes was studied. The level of nitrate reductase activity in cells, growing in minimal medium with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, was much lower under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. Further, the enzyme of the aerobic cultures was very sensitive to sonic disintegration, as distinct from the enzyme of anaerobic cultures. When a culture of A. aerogenes was shifted from anaerobic growth in minimal medium with nitrate and NH4+ to aerobiosis in the same medium, but without NH4+, the production of nitrite stopped instantaneously and the total activity of nitrate reductase decreased sharply. Moreover, there was a lag in growth of about 3 hr after such a shift. After resumption of growth, the total enzymatic activity increased again slowly and simultaneously became gradually sensitive to sonic disintegration. These findings show that oxygen inactivates the anaerobic nitrate reductase and represses its further formation; only after a de novo synthesis of nitrate reductase with an assimilatory function will growth be resumed. The enzyme in aerobic cultures was not significantly inactivated by air, only by pure oxygen. The formation of the assimilatory enzyme complex was repressed, however, by NH4+, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that the formation of the assimilatory enzyme complex and that of the respiratory enzyme complex are regulated differently. We suggest that both complexes have a different composition, but that the nitrate reductase in both cases is the same protein. PMID:5726295

  1. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1995-06-29

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium-239 based on the spectrum of plutonium(III) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Temer, D.J.; Walker, L.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes a spectrophotometric method for determining plutonium-239 (Pu-239) based on the spectrum of Pu(III) chloride. The authors used the sealed-reflux technique for the dissolution of plutonium oxide with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and small amounts of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. To complex the fluoride, they added zirconium, and to reduce plutonium to Pu(III), they added ascorbic acid. They then adjusted the solution to a concentration of 2 M HCl and measured the absorbances at five wavelengths of the Pu(III) chloride spectrum. This spectrophotometric determination can also be applied to samples of plutonium metal dissolved in HCl.

  3. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

  4. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Paddleford, D.F.; Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ``red oil`` explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material.

  5. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO/sub 2/ used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described.

  6. Opportunities in Plutonium Metallurgical Research

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J

    2006-12-19

    This is an exciting time to be involved in plutonium metallurgical research. Over the past few years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental materials science of this unusual metal, particularly in the areas of self-irradiation induced aging of Pu, the equilibrium phase diagram, the homogenization of {delta}-phase alloys, the crystallography and morphology of the {alpha}{prime}-phase resulting from the isothermal martensitic phase transformation, and the phonon dispersion curves, among many others. In addition, tremendous progress has been made, both experimentally and theoretically, in our understanding of the condensed matter physics and chemistry of the actinides, particularly in the area of electronic structure. Although these communities have made substantial progress, many challenges still remain. This brief overview will address a number of important challenges that we face in fully comprehending the metallurgy of Pu with a specific focus on aging and phase transformations.

  7. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact

  8. Effects of nitrate on the treatment of lead contaminated groundwater by nanoscale zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Zhou, Xuefei; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Weixian; Keller, Arturo A; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-09-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) is efficient for removing Pb(2+) and nitrate from water. However, the influence of nitrate, a common groundwater anion, on Pb(2+) removal by nZVI is not well understood. In this study, we showed that under excess Fe(0) conditions (molar ratio of Fe(0)/nitrate>4), Pb(2+) ions were immobilized more quickly (<5 min) than in nitrate-free systems (∼ 15 min) due to increasing pH. With nitrate in excess (molar ratio of Fe(0)/nitrate<4), nitrate stimulated the formation of crystal PbxFe3-xO4 (ferrite), which provided additional Pb(2+) removal. However, ∼ 7% of immobilized Pb(2+) ions were released into aqueous phase within 2h due to ferrite deformation. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values below -600 mV correlated with excess Fe(0) conditions (complete Pb(2+) immobilization), while ORP values ≥-475 mV characterized excess nitrate conditions (ferrite process and Pb(2+) release occurrence). This study indicates that ORP monitoring is important for proper management of nZVI-based remediation in the subsurface to avoid lead remobilization in the presence of nitrate.

  9. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  10. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-11-29

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using

  11. Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A A

    2000-05-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process

  12. Sorption/Desorption Interactions of Plutonium with Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begg, J.; Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    first order process. Furthermore, a pH dependence was observed, with less desorbed at pH 4 compared to pH 8. We suggest the pH dependence is likely controlled by reoxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(V) and aqueous speciation. We will present models used to describe desorption behavior and discuss the implications for Pu transport. References: Kersting, A.B.; Efurd, D.W.; Finnegan, D.L.; Rokop, D.J.; Smith, D.K.; Thompson J.L. (1999) Migration of plutonium in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nature, 397, 56-59. Novikov A.P.; Kalmykov, S.N.; Utsunomiya, S.; Ewing, R.C.; Horreard, F.; Merkulov, A.; Clark, S.B.; Tkachev, V.V.; Myasoedov, B.F. (2006) Colloid transport of plutonium in the far-field of the Mayak Production Association, Russia, Science, 314, 638-641. Santschi, P.H.; Roberts, K.; Guo, L. (2002) The organic nature of colloidal actinides transported in surface water environments. Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 3711-3719. This work was funded by U. S. DOE Office of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Subsurface Biogeochemistry Research Program, and performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-570161

  13. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  14. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent.

  15. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, John T; Mason, Richard E; Freibert, Franz J; Willson, Stephen P; Veirs, Douglas K; Worl, Laura A; Archuleta, Alonso; Conger, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  16. International shipment of plutonium by air

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government`s decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method.

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Bagless Transfer Can Size Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Stokes, M.; Rogers, L.; Ward, C.

    1998-02-01

    This report identifies and documents the most appropriate bagless transfer can size to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations. Also, this report considers can diameter, can wall thickness, and can length.

  18. Comparison of plasma generated nitrogen fertilizer to conventional fertilizers ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate for pre-emergent and seedling growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andhavarapu, A.; King, W.; Lindsay, A.; Byrns, B.; Knappe, D.; Fonteno, W.; Shannon, S.

    2014-10-01

    Plasma source generated nitrogen fertilizer is compared to conventional nitrogen fertilizers in water for plant growth. Root, shoot sizes, and weights are used to examine differences between plant treatment groups. With a simple coaxial structure creating a large-volume atmospheric glow discharge, a 162 MHz generator drives the air plasma. The VHF plasma source emits a steady state glow; the high drive frequency is believed to inhibit the glow-to-arc transition for non-thermal discharge generation. To create the plasma activated water (PAW) solutions used for plant treatment, the discharge is held over distilled water until a 100 ppm nitrate aqueous concentration is achieved. The discharge is used to incorporate nitrogen species into aqueous solution, which is used to fertilize radishes, marigolds, and tomatoes. In a four week experiment, these plants are watered with four different solutions: tap water, dissolved ammonium nitrate DI water, dissolved sodium nitrate DI water, and PAW. Ammonium nitrate solution has the same amount of total nitrogen as PAW; sodium nitrate solution has the same amount of nitrate as PAW. T-tests are used to determine statistical significance in plant group growth differences. PAW fertilization chemical mechanisms are presented.

  19. Sustainable nitrate-contaminated water treatment using multi cycle ion-exchange/bioregeneration of nitrate selective resin.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-11-15

    The sustainability of ion-exchange treatment processes using high capacity single use resins to remove nitrate from contaminated drinking water can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin and reusing it multiple times. In this study, multi cycle loading and bioregeneration of tributylamine strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin was studied. After each cycle of exhaustion, biological regeneration of the resin was performed using a salt-tolerant, nitrate-perchlorate-reducing culture for 48 h. The resin was enclosed in a membrane to avoid direct contact of the resin with the culture. The results show that the culture was capable of regenerating the resin and allowing the resin to be used in multiple cycles. The concentrations of nitrate in the samples reached a peak in first 0.5-1h after placing the resin in medium because of desorption of nitrate from resin with desorption rate of 0.099 ± 0.003 hr(-1). After this time, since microorganisms began to degrade the nitrate in the aqueous phase, the nitrate concentration was generally non-detectable after 10h. The average of calculated specific degradation rate of nitrate was -0.015 mg NO3(-)/mg VSS h. Applying 6 cycles of resin exhaustion/regeneration shows resin can be used for 4 cycles without a loss of capacity, after 6 cycles only 6% of the capacity was lost. This is the first published research to examine the direct regeneration of a resin enclosed in a membrane, to allow reuse without any disinfection or cleaning procedures.

  20. Plutonium-238 processing at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Burney, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-238 is produced by irradiating NpO/sub 2/-Al cermet slugs or tubes with neutrons. The neptunium-237 is produced as a by-product when natural or enriched uranium is irradiated with neutrons. The neptunium is separated by solvent extraction and ion exchange and precipitated as neptunium oxalate. Neptunium oxalate is calcined to neptunium oxide and fabricated into targets for irradiation. The irradiation conditions are controlled to produce plutonium with 80 to 90 wt % /sup 238/Pu.

  1. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  2. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  3. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  4. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  5. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  7. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) STABILIZATION & PACKAGING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-01-14

    Fluor Hanford is pleased to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Packaging Project (SPP) for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2004. The SPP thermally stabilized and/or packaged nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials left in PFP facilities from 40 years of nuclear weapons production and experimentation. The stabilization of the plutonium-bearing materials substantially reduced the radiological risk to the environment and security concerns regarding the potential for terrorists to acquire the non-stabilized plutonium products for nefarious purposes. The work was done In older facilities which were never designed for the long-term storage of plutonium, and required working with materials that were extremely radioactive, hazardous, pyrophoric, and In some cases completely unique. I n some Instances, one-of-a-kind processes and equipment were designed, installed, and started up. The SPP was completed ahead of schedule, substantially beating all Interim progress milestone dates set by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) and in the Hanford Site's Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and finished $1-million under budget.

  8. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, , D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-12-31

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime.

  9. A DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements.

    PubMed

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-09-16

    The toxicity of heavy metals in natural waters is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides predicts the toxic effects to aquatic biota. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is largely exploited for bioavailability measurements of trace metals in waters. However, it has not been applied for plutonium speciation measurements yet. This study investigates the use of DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements in chemically different environments. We used a diffusion cell to determine the diffusion coefficients (D) of plutonium in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel and found D in the range of 2.06-2.29 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). It ranged between 1.10 and 2.03 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) in the presence of fulvic acid and in natural waters with low DOM. In the presence of 20 ppm of humic acid of an organic-rich soil, plutonium diffusion was hindered by a factor of 5, with a diffusion coefficient of 0.50 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). We also tested commercially available DGT devices with Chelex resin for plutonium bioavailability measurements in laboratory conditions and the diffusion coefficients agreed with those from the diffusion cell experiments. These findings show that the DGT methodology can be used to investigate the bioaccumulation of the labile plutonium fraction in aquatic biota.

  10. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  11. Method for dissolving plutonium oxide with HI and separating plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Vondra, Benedict L.; Tallent, Othar K.; Mailen, James C.

    1979-01-01

    PuO.sub.2 -containing solids, particularly residues from incomplete HNO.sub.3 dissolution of irradiated nuclear fuels, are dissolved in aqueous HI. The resulting solution is evaporated to dryness and the solids are dissolved in HNO.sub.3 for further chemical reprocessing. Alternatively, the HI solution containing dissolved Pu values, can be contacted with a cation exchange resin causing the Pu values to load the resin. The Pu values are selectively eluted from the resin with more concentrated HI.

  12. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-08-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  13. Nitrate Transport System in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Schloemer, Robert H.; Garrett, Reginald H.

    1974-01-01

    Nitrate uptake in Neurospora crassa has been investigated under various conditions of nitrogen nutrition by measuring the rate of disappearance of nitrate from the medium and by determining mycelial nitrate accumulation. The nitrate transport system is induced by either nitrate or nitrite, but is not present in mycelia grown on ammonia or Casamino Acids. The appearance of nitrate uptake activity is prevented by cycloheximide, puromycin, or 6-methyl purine. The induced nitrate transport system displays a Km for nitrate of 0.25 mM. Nitrate uptake is inhibited by metabolic poisons such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and antimycin A. Furthermore, mycelia can concentrate nitrate 50-fold. Ammonia and nitrite are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to nitrate, with Ki values of 0.13 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Ammonia does not repress the formation of the nitrate transport system. In contrast, the nitrate uptake system is repressed by Casamino Acids. All amino acids individually prevent nitrate accumulation, with the exception of methionine, glutamine, and alanine. The influence of nitrate reduction and the nitrate reductase protein on nitrate transport was investigated in wild-type Neurospora lacking a functional nitrate reductase and in nitrate non-utilizing mutants, nit-1, nit-2, and nit-3. These mycelia contain an inducible nitrate transport system which displays the same characteristics as those found in the wild-type mycelia having the functional nitrate reductase. These findings suggest that nitrate transport is not dependent upon nitrate reduction and that these two processes are separate events in the assimilation of nitrate. PMID:4274457

  14. Observed changes in the mechanism and rates of Pu(V) reduction on hematite as a function of total plutonium concentration.

    PubMed

    Hixon, Amy E; Powell, Brian A

    2014-08-19

    Changes in aqueous- and solid-phase plutonium oxidation states were monitored as a function of time and plutonium concentration in hematite (α-Fe2O3) suspensions containing initially Pu(V). Batch kinetic experiments were conducted at plutonium concentrations between 10(-8) and 10(-6) M at pH 5 and 0.3 g/L (9.3 m(2)/L) hematite. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) was observed under all conditions studied. However, differences in the reaction kinetics demonstrate that the mechanism of Pu(V) reduction changes as a function of plutonium concentration. Adsorption of Pu(V) was found to be the rate-limiting step at plutonium concentrations less than approximately 10(-7) M Pu(V). Plutonium reduction in these systems was attributed to trace amounts of Fe(II) in the hematite structure. Reduction of Pu(V) was found to be the rate-limiting step at concentrations higher than approximately 10(-6) M Pu(V) and is attributed to the formation of PuO(2+x)·nH2O nanoparticles and the Nernstian favorability of Pu(IV) surface complexes. The reaction order with respect to plutonium concentration was found to be -0.68 ± 0.09, indicating that there is a concentration dependence in these systems. This work strongly suggests that the kinetics of experiments carried out under high plutonium concentrations (i.e., >10(-7) M Pu) cannot be directly extrapolated to environmental concentrations of plutonium.

  15. Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Nitrate to Distinguish Contaminant Sources in Hanford Soil and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark; Bill, Markus

    2008-08-01

    The nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) and oxygen ({delta}{sup 18}O) isotopic compositions of nitrate in the environment are primarily a function of the source of the nitrate. The ranges of isotopic compositions for nitrate resulting from common sources are outlined in Figure 1 from Kendall (1998). As noted on Figure 1, processes such as microbial metabolism can modify the isotopic compositions of the nitrate, but the effects of these processes are generally predictable. At Hanford, nitrate and other nitrogenous compounds were significant components of most of the chemical processes used at the site. Most of the oxygen in nitrate chemicals (e.g., nitric acid) is derived from atmospheric oxygen, giving it a significantly higher {delta}{sup 18}O value (+23.5{per_thousand}) than naturally occurring nitrate that obtains most of its oxygen from water (the {delta}{sup 18}O of Hanford groundwater ranges from -14{per_thousand} to -18{per_thousand}). This makes it possible to differentiate nitrate from Hanford site activities from background nitrate at the site (including most fertilizers that might have been used prior to the Department of Energy plutonium production activities at the site). In addition, the extreme thermal and chemical conditions that occurred during some of the waste processing procedures and subsequent waste storage in select single-shell tanks resulted in unique nitrate isotopic compositions that can be used to identify those waste streams in soil and groundwater at the site (Singleton et al., 2005; Christensen et al., 2007). This report presents nitrate isotope data for soil and groundwater samples from the Hanford 200 Areas and discusses the implications of that data for potential sources of groundwater contamination.

  16. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

    1958-10-01

    A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

  17. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  18. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  19. Nonreversible immobilization of water-borne plutonium onto self-assembled adlayers of silanized humic materials.

    PubMed

    Shcherbina, Natalia S; Kalmykov, Stepan S; Karpiouk, Leonid A; Ponomarenko, Sergey A; Hatfield, Kirk; Haire, Richard; Perminova, Irina V

    2014-02-18

    The objective was to study plutonium partitioning between immobile and mobile humic materials at the water-solid interfaces. Immobilization of the humic materials on solid supports was performed in situ using self-adhesive silanized humic derivatives. The presence of the humic adlayers on solid supports was shown to significantly enhance Pu sorption and its retention under both steady state and dynamic conditions. While plutonium may exist in multiple oxidations states plus colloidal forms, the major thrust in this work was to study the behavior of most mobile--the PuO2(+) form in dilute solutions. The values of the plutonium partition coefficients (Kd) between water and humics-coated silica gels after 10 days exposure reached 1.6 × 10(4) L · kg(-1) at pH 7.5 under anaerobic conditions with a total plutonium concentration of 1.2 × 10(-8) M exceeding those for the uncoated SiO2 (6.3 × 10(2) L · kg(-1)). Column tests showed substantial sequestration of water-borne plutonium (up to 73%) on the humics-coated silica gels. Remobilization experiments conducted under batch conditions at different pH values (3.5, 4.5, 7.5) showed that no more than 3% of the sequestered Pu was remobilized from the humics-coated silica gels by treatment with dissolved humic materials at environmentally relevant pH of 7.5. Consequently, silanized humic materialas can be seen as both molecular probes and as potent candidate materials for scavenging mobile Pu from an aqueous phase.

  20. Thorium plutonium (TREX) fuel for weapons-grade plutonium disposition in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Comfort, C.; Ferguson, C.; Klima, S.; Lilly, D.E.; Rahnema, F.

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this study was to create a pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor assembly (17 x 17) that would burn weapons-grade plutonium (WGP). Current designs of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels combine WGP with uranium as the fuel. MOX fuel assemblies will destroy plutonium, but only 40 to 50% of the plutonium present in the fuel. This percentage is limited by the presence of {sup 238}U in the core, which becomes {sup 239}Pu by absorption and decay. The production of plutonium counteracts the disposition of WGP in current MOX fuel designs. This problem can be overcome by replacing the uranium in a MOX design with thorium. This loss of uranium (primarily {sup 238}U) halts the production of {sup 239}Pu in the thorium plutonium (TREX) fuel. The absence of {sup 239}Pu production allows the TREX design to burn up to 85 wt% of the {sup 239}Pu, originally loaded in the fuel.

  1. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment.

  3. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment. PMID:26406569

  4. ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VI, JEFF-3.1, AND JENDL-3.3 RESULTS FOR UNREFLECTED PLUTONIUM SOLUTIONS AND MOX LATTICES (U)

    SciTech Connect

    MOSTELLER, RUSSELL D.

    2007-02-09

    Previous studies have indicated that ENDF/B-VII preliminary releases {beta}-2 and {beta}-3, predecessors to the recent initial release of ENDF/B-VII.0, produce significantly better overall agreement with criticality benchmarks than does ENDF/B-VI. However, one of those studies also suggests that improvements still may be needed for thermal plutonium cross sections. The current study substantiates that concern by examining criticality benchmarks for unreflected spheres of plutonium-nitrate solutions and for slightly and heavily borated mixed-oxide (MOX) lattices. Results are presented for the JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data libraries as well as ENDF/B-VII.0 and ENDF/B-VI. It is shown that ENDF/B-VII.0 tends to overpredict reactivity for thermal plutonium benchmarks over at least a portion of the thermal range. In addition, it is found that additional benchmark data are needed for the deep thermal range.

  5. Photoemission Spectroscopy of Delta- Plutonium: Experimental Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, J. G.

    2002-03-01

    The electronic structure of Plutonium, particularly delta- Plutonium, remains ill defined and without direct experimental verification. Recently, we have embarked upon a program of study of alpha- and delta- Plutonium, using synchrotron radiation from the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, USA [1]. This work is set within the context of Plutonium Aging [2] and the complexities of Plutonium Science [3]. The resonant photoemission of delta-plutonium is in partial agreement with an atomic, localized model of resonant photoemission, which would be consistent with a correlated electronic structure. The results of our synchrotron- based studies will be compared with those of recent laboratory- based works [4,5,6]. The talk will conclude with a brief discussion of our plans for the future, such as the performance of spin-resolving and dichroic photoemission measurements of Plutonium [7] and the development of single crystal ultrathin films of Plutonium. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. J. Terry, R.K. Schulze, J.D. Farr, T. Zocco, K. Heinzelman, E. Rotenberg, D.K. Shuh, G. van der Laan, D.A. Arena, and J.G. Tobin, “5f Resonant Photoemission from Plutonium”, UCRL-JC-140782, Surf. Sci. Lett., accepted October 2001. 2. B.D. Wirth, A.J. Schwartz, M.J. Fluss, M.J. Caturla, M.A. Wall, and W.G. Wolfer, MRS Bulletin 26, 679 (2001). 3. S.S. Hecker, MRS Bulletin 26, 667 (2001). 4. T. Gouder, L. Havela, F. Wastin, and J. Rebizant, Europhys. Lett. 55, 705 (2001); MRS Bulletin 26, 684 (2001); Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3378 (2000). 5. A.J. Arko, J.J. Joyce, L. Morales, J. Wills, J. Lashley, F. Wastin, and J. Rebizant, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1773 (2000). 6. L.E. Cox, O. Eriksson, and B.R. Cooper, Phys. Rev. B 46, 13571 (1992). 7. J. Tobin, D.A. Arena, B. Chung, P. Roussel, J. Terry, R.K. Schulze, J.D. Farr, T. Zocco, K. Heinzelman, E

  6. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs.

  7. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  8. 69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH DOOR-WAY INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  9. 71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE ROOM SHOWING CUBICLES FOR STORAGE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  10. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides by hydrothermal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Anderson, G.; Archuleta, F.; Atencio, J.; Breshears, D.; Brewer, R.; Eaton, H.; McFarland, R.; McInroy, R.; Reynolds, T.; Sedillo, M.; Wilmanns, E.; Buelow, S.J.

    1993-03-01

    This work targets the remediation of the aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington via hydrothermal processing. The feasibility of destroying the nitrate, organic, and ferrocyanide components of the wastes under supercritical and near critical conditions (623 {degree}K to 873{degree}K, 22.1 MPa to 103.4 MPa) is addressed. A novel method was developed for determining the solubility of nitrate salts in supercritical water solutions at pressures ranging from 24.8 MPa to 30.3 MPa (3600 psi to 4400 psi) and temperatures from 723 {degree}K to 798 {degree}K. Sodium nitrate solubilities ranged from 293 mg/kg at 24.8 MPa and 798 {degree}K to 1963 mg/kg at 30.3 MPa and 723{degree}K. Solubility was found to vary directly with pressure, and inversely with temperature. An empirical relationship was developed for the estimation of sodium nitrate solubility at water densities between 0.08 and 0.16 kg/L and temperatures between 723{degree}K and 798{degree}K. A small volume batch reactor equipped with optical diagnostics was used to monitor the phase behavior of a diluted variant of a tank 101-SY simulant. Preliminary results suggest that a single phase is formed at 83 MPa at 773 {degree}K.

  12. Destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides by hydrothermal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Anderson, G.; Archuleta, F.; Atencio, J.; Breshears, D.; Brewer, R.; Eaton, H.; McFarland, R.; McInroy, R.; Reynolds, T.; Sedillo, M.; Wilmanns, E.; Buelow, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This work targets the remediation of the aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington via hydrothermal processing. The feasibility of destroying the nitrate, organic, and ferrocyanide components of the wastes under supercritical and near critical conditions (623 [degree]K to 873[degree]K, 22.1 MPa to 103.4 MPa) is addressed. A novel method was developed for determining the solubility of nitrate salts in supercritical water solutions at pressures ranging from 24.8 MPa to 30.3 MPa (3600 psi to 4400 psi) and temperatures from 723 [degree]K to 798 [degree]K. Sodium nitrate solubilities ranged from 293 mg/kg at 24.8 MPa and 798 [degree]K to 1963 mg/kg at 30.3 MPa and 723[degree]K. Solubility was found to vary directly with pressure, and inversely with temperature. An empirical relationship was developed for the estimation of sodium nitrate solubility at water densities between 0.08 and 0.16 kg/L and temperatures between 723[degree]K and 798[degree]K. A small volume batch reactor equipped with optical diagnostics was used to monitor the phase behavior of a diluted variant of a tank 101-SY simulant. Preliminary results suggest that a single phase is formed at 83 MPa at 773 [degree]K.

  13. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  14. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil.

    PubMed

    Tarkin, Jason M; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Nitrates have been used to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina for over 135 years. These drugs are known to activate nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophasphate (cGMP) signaling pathways underlying vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation, albeit many questions relating to how nitrates work at the cellular level remain unanswered. Physiologically, the anti-angina effects of nitrates are mostly due to peripheral venous dilatation leading to reduction in preload and therefore left ventricular wall stress, and, to a lesser extent, epicardial coronary artery dilatation and lowering of systemic blood pressure. By counteracting ischemic mechanisms, short-acting nitrates offer rapid relief following an angina attack. Long-acting nitrates, used commonly for angina prophylaxis are recommended second-line, after beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Nicorandil is a balanced vasodilator that acts as both NO donor and arterial K(+) ATP channel opener. Nicorandil might also exhibit cardioprotective properties via mitochondrial ischemic preconditioning. While nitrates and nicorandil are effective pharmacological agents for prevention of angina symptoms, when prescribing these drugs it is important to consider that unwanted and poorly tolerated hemodynamic side-effects such as headache and orthostatic hypotension can often occur owing to systemic vasodilatation. It is also necessary to ensure that a dosing regime is followed that avoids nitrate tolerance, which not only results in loss of drug efficacy, but might also cause endothelial dysfunction and increase long-term cardiovascular risk. Here we provide an update on the pharmacological management of chronic stable angina using nitrates and nicorandil.

  15. Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using nZVI@MWCNTs composite: synthesis, kinetics and mechanism of reduction.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Ali Akbar; Azari, Ali; Kalantary, Roshanak Rezaei; Kakavandi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Herein, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the carrier of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) particles to fabricate a composite known as nZVI@MWCNTs. The composite was then characterized and applied in the nitrate removal process in a batch system under anoxic conditions. The influential parameters such as pH, various concentrations of nitrate and composite were investigated within 240 min of the reaction. The mechanism, kinetics and end-products of nitrate reduction were also evaluated. Results revealed that the removal nitrate percentage for nZVI@MWCNTs composite was higher than that of nZVI and MWCNTs alone. Experimental data from nitrate reduction were fitted to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The values of observed rate constant (kobs) decreased with increasing the initial concentration of nitrate. Our experiments proved that the nitrate removal efficiency was favorable once both high amounts of nZVI@MWCNTs and low concentrations of nitrate were applied. The predominant end-products of the nitrate reduction were ammonium (84%) and nitrogen gas (15%). Our findings also revealed that ZVI@MWCNTs is potentially a good composite for removal/reduction of nitrate from aqueous solutions. PMID:26606093

  16. COLUMBIC OXIDE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for separating plutonium ions from a solution of neutron irradiated uranium in which columbic oxide is used as an adsorbert. According to the invention the plutonium ion is selectively adsorbed by Passing a solution containing the plutonium in a valence state not higher than 4 through a porous bed or column of granules of hydrated columbic oxide. The adsorbed plutonium is then desorbed by elution with 3 N nitric acid.

  17. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool.

  18. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  19. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  20. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  1. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  2. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs. PMID:23458827

  3. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs.

  4. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  5. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate utilization has been characterized in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. In order to separate nitrate uptake from nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase activity was suppressed with tungstate. Neither nitrite nor the presence of amino acids in the external medium or darkness affects nitrate uptake kinetics. Ammonium strongly inhibits carrier-mediated nitrate uptake, without affecting diffusion transfer. A model is proposed for the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in S. costatum and their regulation by ammonium ions. PMID:16660653

  6. Characterization of Delta Phase Plutonium Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2000-09-21

    The FB-Line facility has developed the capability to recast plutonium metal using an M-18 reduction furnace with a new casting chamber. Plutonium metal is recast by charging a standard FB-Line magnesia crucible and placing the charge in the casting chamber. The loaded casting chamber is raised into the M-18 reduction furnace and sealed against the furnace head using a copper gasket following the same procedure used for a bomb reduction run. The interior volume of the chamber is evacuated and backfilled with argon gas. The M-18 motor-generator set is used to heat the surface of the casting chamber to nominally 750 Degrees C. Within about 2 hr, the plutonium metal reaches its melting temperature of approximately 640 Degrees C.

  7. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  8. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  9. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  10. Interaction of divalent plutonium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Rumer, I.A.

    1988-11-01

    It has been established that at plutonium concentrations ranging from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/ mole % the oxidation potentials of the Pu/sup 3 +//Pu/sup 2 +/ and Cm/sup 3 +//Cm/sup 2 +/ pairs increased by 0.15-0.2 V due to the dimerization of Pu/sup 2 +/ and the formation of mixed dimers of plutonium and curium. Promethium(2+) does not have a similar ability to form mixed dimers owing to the fact that Pm/sup 2 +/ does not have a free d electron. The oxidation potential of the Pm/sup 3 +//Pm/sup 2 +/ pair does not vary in the presence of massive quantities of plutonium

  11. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance.

  12. Preparation of a glovebox for casting enriched plutonium.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronquillo, R. D.; Trujillo, C. M.; Trujillo, C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Prepare existing glovebox for casting, heat treating and storing enriched plutonium, Upgrade seismic systems to reduce dispersion hazard, Upgrade atmospheric systems to reduce oxidation of plutonium, Upgrade vacuum system to prevent oxidation, InstalI/upgrade induction heating systems to melt plutonium and heat mold

  13. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING 559. THE LABORATORY WAS USED TO ANALYZE THE PURITY OF PLUTONIUM. PLUTONIUM SAMPLES WERE CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES - Rocky Flats Plant, Chemical Analytical Laboratory, North-central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  15. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  16. 15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS FROM THE INSIDE OF AN INPUT-OUTPUT STATION. INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM ARE STORED IN THE WATER-FILLED, DOUBLE-WALLED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES THAT ARE WELDED ONTO THE PALLETS. (12/3/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  18. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  19. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-12-05

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements.

  20. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  1. Hydroxylamine nitrate self-catalytic kinetics study with adiabatic calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Wei, Chunyang; Guo, Yuyan; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M

    2009-03-15

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is an important member of the hydroxylamine compound family with applications that include equipment decontamination in the nuclear industry and aqueous or solid propellants. Due to its instability and autocatalytic behavior, HAN has been involved in several incidents at the Hanford and Savannah River Site (SRS) [Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate, US Department of Energy, 1998]. Much research has been conducted on HAN in different areas, such as combustion mechanism, decomposition mechanism, and runaway behavior. However, the autocatalytic decomposition behavior of HAN at runaway stage has not been fully addressed due to its highly exothermic and rapid decomposition behavior. This work is focused on extracting HAN autocatalytic kinetics and analyzing HAN critical behavior from adiabatic calorimetry measurements. A lumped autocatalytic kinetic model for HAN and associated model parameters are determined. Also the storage and handling critical conditions of diluted HAN solution without metal presence are quantified.

  2. Study of the formation, prevention, and recovery of plutonium from plutonium esters in the Purex process

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L. W.; Burney, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses the basic Purex process to separate /sup 239/Pu from /sup 238/U and fission products. Dark-brown, dense solids containing up to 30% Pu have previously occurred in rotameters in the plutonium finishing operations. The kinetics of formation of this mixture of DBP- and MBP-Pu esters suggest two methods to prevent the formation of the solids. A selective dissolution method using NaOH metathesis has been developed to separate the phosphate ester from the plutonium before dissolution of the residual plutonium hydroxide in a HNO/sub 3/-HF medium.

  3. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, R.O.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1962-07-10

    A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 deg C, cooling to room temperature, and subjecting the alloy to a pressure which produces a rapid increase in density with a negligible increase in pressure. The pressure required to cause this rapid change in density or transformation ranges from about 800 to 2400 atmospheres, and is dependent on the alloying element. (AEC)

  4. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today`s laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  5. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc Ta

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  6. Waste measurements at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator's perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

  7. Surface Nanobubbles in Nonaqueous Media: Looking for Nanobubbles in DMSO, Formamide, Propylene Carbonate, Ethylammonium Nitrate, and Propylammonium Nitrate.

    PubMed

    An, Hongjie; Liu, Guangming; Atkin, Rob; Craig, Vincent S J

    2015-07-28

    Surface nanobubbles produced by supersaturation during the exchange of ethanol for water are routinely observed on hydrophobic surfaces, are stable for days, and have contact angles that are very much greater than observed macroscopically. Here, we test the hypothesis that nanobubbles can also be observed in nonaqueous solvents in order to ascertain if their anomalous lifetimes and contact angles are related to properties of the solvent. Nanobubbles were seen in the protic solvents formamide, ethylammonium nitrate, and propylammonium nitrate, but not in propylene carbonate or dimethyl sulfoxide. Solvents in which nanobubbles were observed exhibit a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network. Like in aqueous systems, the nanobubbles were stable for days and exhibited high contact angles (∼165°). PMID:26153620

  8. Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

    2004-07-02

    Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

  9. Extended testing of a modified 18B plutonium nitrate shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Pope, R.B.; Leisher, W.B.; Joseph, B.J.; Schulz-Forberg, B.; Hubner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    The container damage observed as the result of the high-speed pulldown impact test was more severe than that of either the 185-m free-fall drop of a prototype container onto a semirigid surface or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-tonne block onto a modified container resting on an unyielding surface. In comparison to the extended tests, the 9-m regulatory drop test onto an unyielding surface of the prototype packaging in its most damaging orientation produced the least amount of damage. Very little deformation in the overpack was observed, and there was no influence on the fire resistivity and leaktightness of the containment vessel. The 128 m/s impact test produced a leak in the container. It appears that the 18B packaging, designed to withstand the environments specified in IAEA Safety Series No. 6, can withstand extended environments including longer duration fires and higher velocity impacts on yielding targets. When modified with ring stiffeners, the packaging withstood a dynamic crush test, but did not survive the high speed impact onto an unyielding surface as specified in NUREG 0360.

  10. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  11. Plutonium dispersal in fires: Summary of what is known

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-07-01

    In view of the great public apprehension about plutonium and nuclear weapons we should explore ways to prevent, limit, or mitigate possible plutonium dispersals. This review is primarily a tutorial on what is known about plutonium dispersal in fires. It concludes that in most types of fires involving plutonium the amount released will not be an immediate danger to life. Indeed, in many cases very few personnel will receive more than the lung burden allowed by current regulations for plutonium workers. However, the dangers may be significant in special situations, unusual terrains, certain meteorological conditions, and very high burn temperatures.

  12. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  13. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mielke, Charles H.; Zapf, Vivien; Baiardo, Joseph P.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Mun, Eun D.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  14. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S.; Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude – apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix – constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  15. Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study

  16. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin Koo; Barua, Sumitra; Reed, SB; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrikson, JK; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  17. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  18. Crevice Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in High-Nitrate Dust Deliquescence Type Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T; Gdowski, G E; Hailey, P D; Rebak, R B

    2007-02-08

    The nitrate ion (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) is an inhibitor for crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 (N06022) in chloride (Cl{sup -}) aqueous solutions. Naturally formed electrolytes may contain both chloride and nitrate ions. The higher the ratio R = [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] in the solution the stronger the inhibition of crevice corrosion. Atmospheric desert dust contains both chloride and nitrate salts, generally based on sodium (Na{sup +}) and potassium (K{sup +}). Some of these salts may deliquescence at relatively low humidity at temperatures on the order of 150 C and higher. The resulting deliquescent brines are highly concentrated and especially rich in nitrate. Electrochemical tests have been performed to explore the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in high chloride high nitrate electrolytes at temperatures as high as 150 C at ambient atmospheres. Naturally formed brines at temperatures higher than 120 C do not induce crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 because they contain high levels of nitrate. The inhibitive effect of nitrate on crevice corrosion is still active for temperatures higher than 100 C.

  19. Effect of surface property of activated carbon on adsorption of nitrate ion.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tatsuya; Amano, Yoshimasa; Machida, Motoi; Imazeki, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the removal of acidic functional groups and introduction of basic groups/sites on activated carbons (ACs) by outgassing and ammonia gas treatment were respectively carried out to enhance the nitrate ion adsorption in aqueous solution. Then, the relationships between nitrate ion adsorption and solution pH as well as surface charge of AC were investigated to understand the basic mechanisms of nitrate ion adsorption by AC. The result showed that the nitrate ion adsorption depended on the equilibrium solution pH (pHe) and the adsorption amount was promoted with decreasing pHe. The ACs treated by outgassing and ammonia gas treatment showed larger amount of nitrate ion adsorption than that by untreated AC. These results indicated that, since basic groups/sites could adsorb protons in the solution, the AC surface would be charged positively, and that the nitrate ion would be electrically interacted with positively charged carbon surface. Accordingly, it was concluded that basic groups/sites on the surface of AC could promote nitrate ion adsorption.

  20. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.