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Sample records for aqueous spinach extract

  1. Effect of spinach aqueous extract on wound healing in experimental model diabetic rats with streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Rahati, Sara; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Pishva, Hamideh

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ulcer is still a serious issue for diabetic patients. Diabetes is a prevalent cause of ulcer regeneration delay and (or) disruption. Since Spinacia oleracea extract contains compounds with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, this may be effective in accelerating the healing process of ulcers, especially diabetic ulcers. Hence, this study examined the effect of Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract on ulcer regeneration in an experimental animal model. Macroscopic examination of the wounds of the control group and spinach aqueous extract group between 7 and 21 days compared with diabetic group, significant changes were observed (P < 0.05). On microscopic examination, epithelial tissue formation, formation of granulation tissue and new blood vessels in the spinach aqueous extract group and non-diabetic group compared to the diabetic group showed significant improvements (P < 0.05). Also, significant differences in vascular endothelial growth factor were observed between groups on days 3 and 7 (P < 0.05). The Spinacia oleracea aqueous extract can be effective in regenerating diabetic ulcers. It affects the speed and structure of the ulcer. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Ose, Saya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We herein report the immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract (SAE) on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. SAE significantly enhanced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by both J774.1 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. In addition, the phagocytosis activity of J774.1 cells was facilitated by SAE. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SAE activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB cascades. It was found that SAE activates macrophages through not only TLR4, but also other receptors. The production of IL-6 was significantly enhanced by peritoneal macrophages from SAE-administered BALB/c mice, suggesting that SAE has a potential to stimulate macrophage activity in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that SAE would be a beneficial functional food with immunostimulatory effects on macrophages.

  3. A comparative study of the antacid effect of raw spinach juice and spinach extract in an artificial stomach model.

    PubMed

    Panda, Vandana Sanjeev; Shinde, Priyanka Mangesh

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundSpinacia oleracea known as spinach is a green-leafy vegetable consumed by people across the globe. It is reported to possess potent medicinal properties by virtue of its numerous antioxidant phytoconstituents, together termed as the natural antioxidant mixture (NAO). The present study compares the antacid effect of raw spinach juice with an antioxidant-rich methanolic extract of spinach (NAOE) in an artificial stomach model. MethodsThe pH of NAOE at various concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) and its neutralizing effect on artificial gastric acid was determined and compared with that of raw spinach juice, water, the active control sodium bicarbonate (SB) and a marketed antacid preparation ENO. A modified model of Vatier's artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization of artificial gastric acid for the test compounds. The neutralizing capacity of test compounds was determined in vitro using the classical titration method of Fordtran. Results NAOE (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL), spinach juice, SB and ENO showed significantly better acid-neutralizing effect, consistent duration of neutralization and higher antacid capacity when compared with water. Highest antacid activity was demonstrated by ENO and SB followed by spinach juice and NAOE200. Spinach juice exhibited an effect comparable to NAOE (200 mg/mL). ConclusionsThus, it may be concluded that spinach displays significant antacid activity be it in the raw juice form or as an extract in methanol.

  4. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Enzyme-assisted extraction of stabilized chlorophyll from spinach.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Gülay; Ersus Bilek, Seda

    2015-06-01

    Zinc complex formation with chlorophyll derivatives in spinach pulp was studied by adding 300ppm Zn(2+) for production of stable food colorant, followed by the heating at 110°C for 15min. Zinc complex formation increased at pH values of 7.0 or greater. Pectinex Ultra SP-L was selected for enzyme-assisted release of zinc-chlorophyll derivatives from spinach pulp. Effect of enzyme concentration (1-9%), treatment temperature (30-60°C), and time (30-210min) on total chlorophyll content (TCC) were optimized using response surface methodology. A quadratic regression model (R(2)=0.9486) was obtained from the experimental design. Optimum treatment conditions were 8% enzyme concentration, 45°C, and 30min, which yielded a 50.747mgTCC/100g spinach pulp. Enzymatic treatment was followed by solvent extraction with ethanol at a solvent-to-sample ratio of 2.5:1 at 60°C for 45min for the highest TCC recovery. Pretreatment with enzyme and extraction in ethanol resulted in 39% increase in Zn-chlorophyll derivative yield.

  6. A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M.

    1998-10-01

    A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation. The new sample preparation technique is significantly more efficient than present methods and minimizes solvents used for extraction.

  7. Inhibitory effect of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, extracted from spinach using supercritical CO2, on mammalian DNA polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Hiroshi; Musumi, Keiichi; Hada, Takahiko; Maeda, Naoki; Yonezawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the effective extraction of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) from dried spinach (Spinacia oleracea) using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) with a modifier/entrainer. The yield of MGDG in the SC-CO(2) extract was not influenced by increasing temperature at a constant pressure, although the total extract yield was decreased. The total extract yield and MGDG yield in the extract from commercially purchased spinach (unknown subspecies), were greatly influenced by lower pressure. In a modifier (i.e., ethanol) concentration range of 2.5-20%, both the extract and MGDG yield increased as the ethanol concentration rose. The highest total extract yield (69.5 mg/g of spinach) and a good MGDG yield (16.3 mg/g of spinach) were obtained at 80 degrees C, 25 MPa, and 20% ethanol. The highest MGDG concentration (76.0% in the extract) was obtained at 80 degrees C, 25 MPa, and 2.5% ethanol, although the total extract yield under these conditions was low (5.2 mg/g of spinach). The optimal conditions for the extraction of MGDG were 80 degrees C, 20 MPa, and 10% ethanol. Of the 11 subspecies of spinach tested under these conditions, "Ujyou" had the highest concentration of MGDG. The total extract yield and MGDG concentration of Ujyou were 20.4 mg of the extract/g of spinach and 70.5%, respectively. The concentration of MGDG was higher in the SC-CO(2) extract than in the extract obtained using solvents such as methanol and n-hexane. The extract of Ujyou, which was the optimal subspecies for the extraction of MGDG, inhibited the activity of calf DNA polymerase alpha with IC(50) values of 145 microg/mL but was not effective against DNA polymerase beta.

  8. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of ultrasonicated spinach leaf extracts using RAPD markers and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Altemimi, Ammar; Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Abu-Ghazaleh, Amer; Lightfoot, David A

    2017-08-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves represent an important dietary source of nutrients, antioxidants and antimicrobials. As such, spinach leaves play an important role in health and have been used in the treatment of human diseases since ancient times. Here, the aims were to optimize the extraction methods for recovering antimicrobial substances of spinach leaves, determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antimicrobial substances against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and, finally, evaluate the effects of spinach leaves' antimicrobials on bacterial DNA using central composite face-centered methods. The effect of the extracts on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial models was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and random amplification of polymorphic (bacterial) DNA (RAPD). The optimal extraction conditions were at 45 °C, ultrasound power of 44% and an extraction time of 23 min. The spinach extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities against both bacteria with MICs in the 60-100 mg/ml range. Interestingly, SEM showed that the treated bacterial cells appear damaged with a reduction in cell number. RAPD analysis of genomic DNA showed that the number and sizes of amplicons were decreased by treatments. Based on these results, it was inferred that spinach leaf extracts exert bactericidal activities by both inducing mutations in DNA and causing cell wall disruptions.

  9. An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll A and B from Spinach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, William G.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and fast method, which resolves chlorophyll a and b from spinach leaves on analytical plates while minimizing the appearance of chlorophyll degradation products is shown. An improved mobile phase for the Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of spinach extract that allows for the complete resolution of the common plant pigments found in…

  10. An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll A and B from Spinach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, William G.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and fast method, which resolves chlorophyll a and b from spinach leaves on analytical plates while minimizing the appearance of chlorophyll degradation products is shown. An improved mobile phase for the Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of spinach extract that allows for the complete resolution of the common plant pigments found in…

  11. Employing response surface methodology for the optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach.

    PubMed

    Altemimi, Ammar; Lightfoot, David A; Kinsel, Mary; Watson, Dennis G

    2015-04-14

    The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C), extraction power (%) and extraction time (min) were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v)) as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box-Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3) and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  12. Aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1994-02-01

    The aqueous biphasic separation (ABS) process, which involves the selective partitioning of ultrafine particles or solutes between two immiscible aqueous phases, is being evaluated for removing uranium from contaminated clay soils. Goal is to remove ultrafine U from the soil, leaving residues below regulatory cleanup limits. Tests were made using U-contaminated soil near the Fernald waste incinerator; over 80% of the soil is <45 {mu}m. All the biphasic systems used polyethylene glycol in combination with inorganic salt phase. Results: U was reduced from 500--600 mg/kg to about 90 mg/kg, and in some cases even down to 15 mg/kg. However, a soil sample from the Fernald storage pad area did not give encouraging results. Selective flocculation of soil particles and dissolution of U in the salt phase occurred but were not troublesome. Scaleup tests using uncontaminated clay mineral feed were successful. Operating costs for soil remediation using ABS is estimated to be $25--50 per ton. A pilot-scale column is being installed at ANL.

  13. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, D; Mondal, B; Mukherjee, K

    2015-09-05

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm(-2) from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  14. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, D.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm-2 from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  15. Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Photosynthetic Pigments Extracted from Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Naoki; Kitagawa, Natsuko; Matsuda, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing chlorophylls in the active region, which were extracted from spinach using a chemical method. Photoluminescence (PL) cannot be observed in the thin film of the extracted chlorophylls owing to concentration quenching. To overcome the concentration quenching, a host material, poly[(m-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(2,5-dihexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] (PPV) was added in the active region. This leads to the observaton of electroluminescence (EL) signals originating from chlorophyll a. We also evaluated the lifetime of the PL and EL. Consequently, the OLEDs containing carotenoids in the active region exhibit the light-emission much longer time than that without carotenoidos. This is assigned to the antioxidant activities of carotenoids. OLEDs containing a large amount of carotenoids are resistant to the oxidation damage.

  16. Assessing the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in spinach, lettuce, parsley and chard extracts at different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Posada-Izquierdo, G; Del Rosal, S; Valero, A; Zurera, G; Sant'Ana, A S; Alvarenga, V O; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in leafy vegetable extracts at different temperature conditions. Cocktails of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 and of Salmonella enterica were used. Inoculated aqueous vegetable extracts were incubated at 8, 10, 16 and 20°C during 21 days. Microbial growth was monitored using Bioscreen C(®) . In spinach extract, results showed that for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella significant differences (P < 0·05) for μabs (maximum absorbance rate) were obtained. For both pathogens, growth in chard was slightly lower. In contrast, iceberg lettuce and parsley showed the lowest values of μabs , below 0·008 h(-1) . The coefficients of variance (CoV) calculated for the different replicates evidenced that at low temperature (8°C) a more variable behaviour of both pathogens is expected (CoV > 180%). This study provides evidence that aqueous extracts from vegetable tissues can result in distinct growth niche producing different response in various types of vegetables. Finally, these results can be used as basis to establish risk rankings of pathogens and leafy vegetable matrices with relation to their potential growth. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Clastogenic activity of pure chlorophyll and anticlastogenic effects of equivalent amounts of crude extract of Indian spinach leaf and chlorophyllin following dietary supplementation to mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, D; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1996-01-01

    Dietary consumption of green vegetables has been associated with protection against mutagenic and clastogenic activity of genotoxicants. Chlorophyll, being present in all green plants, had earlier been suggested to be the principal factor involved. Mice were administered (i) crude aqueous extract of leaf of Indian spinach, Beta vulgaris L. var.benghalensis Hort., and equivalent amounts of (ii) chlorophyll extracted from the leaf; (iii) purified chlorophyll, (iv) chlorophyllin, a sodium-copper derivative of chlorophyll; daily for 7 days. On day 7, one set of mice from each treatment was administered potassium dichromate-a known metallic clastogen. The mice were sacrificed after 24 hours. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow following the usual colchicine-air dry-Giemsa schedule. The cytogenetic endpoints scored were chromosomal aberrations and damaged cells. Crude leaf extract and chlorophyllin were nonclastogenic and reduced the clastogenic effects of potassium dichromate to the control distilled water level. Chlorophyll alone, whether extracted from the leaf or obtained in commercially purified form, was clastogenic and could reduce the effects of the chromium salt only to its own level. The protective action of the crude leaf extract may be attributed to the total effect of the interaction between the different components within the leaf extract, in which the clastogenicity of chlorophyll had been neutralized.

  18. Preparation and multiple antitumor properties of AuNRs/spinach extract/PEGDA composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Buchang; Zhu, Lin; Li, Yanjie; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2014-09-10

    In this study, a novel composite hydrogel that contains spinach extract (SE), gold nanorods (AuNRs), and poly(ethylene glycol) double acrylates (PEGDA) is prepared through a one-step in situ photopolymerization under noninvasive 660 nm laser irradiation for localized antitumor activity. SE plays a role as a photoinitiator for initiating the formation of the PEGDA hydrogel and as an excellent photosensitizer for generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) with oxygen to kill tumor cells. AuNRs can be used as a photoabsorbing agent to generate heat from optical energy. Moreover, the introduction of AuNRs is conducive to the formation of the hydrogel and accelerates the rate of (1)O2 generation. The composite hydrogel shell, which has good biocompatibility on tumor cells, can prevent the photosensitizer from migrating to normal tissue and maintains a high concentration on lesions, thereby enhancing the curative effect. The combination of NIR light-triggered mild photothermal heating of AuNRs, the photodynamic treatment using SE, and localized gelation by photopolymerization exhibits a synergistic effect for the destruction of cancer cells.

  19. The Use of Contact Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Aqueous Medium for Structural Analysis of Spinach Photosynthetic Complexes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Phuthong, Witchukorn; Huang, Zubin; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Sznee, Kinga; Heinnickel, Mark L.; Dekker, Jan P.; Frese, Raoul N.; Prinz, Fritz B.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in vascular plants at high resolution in an aqueous environment, membrane-protruding oxygen-evolving complexes (OECs) associated with photosystem II (PSII) on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grana membranes were examined using contact mode atomic force microscopy. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first use of atomic force microscopy to distinguish the putative large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP47 reaction center protein (CP47) from the putative oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins 1, 2, and 3 (PsbO, PsbP, and PsbQ) and large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein (CP43) in the PSII-OEC extrinsic domains of grana membranes under conditions resulting in the disordered arrangement of PSII-OEC particles. Moreover, we observed uncharacterized membrane particles that, based on their physical characteristics and electrophoretic analysis of the polypeptides associated with the grana samples, are hypothesized to be a domain of photosystem I that protrudes from the stromal face of single thylakoid bilayers. Our results are interpreted in the context of the results of others that were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy (and single particle analysis), negative staining and freeze-fracture electron microscopy, as well as previous atomic force microscopy studies. PMID:26220954

  20. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  1. Differential vascular reactivity responses acutely following ingestion of a nitrate rich red spinach extract.

    PubMed

    Haun, Cody T; Kephart, Wesley C; Holland, Angelia M; Mobley, Christopher B; McCloskey, Anna E; Shake, Joshua J; Pascoe, David D; Roberts, Michael D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic nitrate ingestion has been posited to affect arterial blood pressure and vascular function. We sought to determine the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE) high in inorganic nitrate on vascular reactivity 1-h after ingestion in peripheral conduit and resistance arteries. Fifteen (n = 15; males 8, females 7) apparently healthy subjects (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in this crossover design, double-blinded study. Subjects reported to the lab ≥2-h post-prandial and consumed RSE (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate) or placebo (PBO). Venipuncture was performed on three occasions: baseline, 30-min post-ingestion and between 65 to 75-min post-ingestion. Baseline vascular measurements [i.e., calf venous occlusion plethysmography, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)], 30-min of continuous blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) analysis, and follow-up vascular measurements beginning at 40-min post-ingestion were also performed. Humoral nitrate following RSE ingestion was significantly higher at 30- (+54 %; P = 0.039) and 65 to 75-min post-ingestion compared to baseline (+255 %, P < 0.001) and PBO at the same time points (P < 0.05). No significant changes in BP or HR occurred in either condition. Peak reactive hyperemia (RH) calf blood flow increased significantly (+13.7 %; P = 0.016) following RSE ingestion, whereas it decreased (-14.0 %; P = 0.008) following PBO ingestion. No significant differential FMD responses were detected (P > 0.05), though RH was decreased following the baseline measure in both conditions. RSE significantly increased plasma nitrate 30-min post-ingestion, but acute microvascular (i.e., resistance vasculature) reactivity increases were isolated to the lower limb and no appreciable change in brachial artery FMD was observed.

  2. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  3. Processing of mono-, di- and tricistronic transfer RNAs precursors in a spinach or pea chloroplast soluble extract.

    PubMed

    Marion-Poll, A; Hibbert, C S; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1988-01-01

    Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric chloroplast tRNA precursors from Euglena gracilis were synthesized by Sp6, T7 or T3 RNA polymerases using an in vitro transcription system. The length of the 3' and 5' ends of these precursors was varied to facilitate the identification of processing intermediates, and to study the effect of the structure of the tRNA precursors on the processing reactions. All the tRNA precursors studied, independent of their structure, are processed to mature tRNAs in both spinach and pea chloroplast soluble extracts. 5'-and 3' endonucleases are involved in the cleavage of 5' and 3' ends of the pre-tRNAs. These two reactions are not ordered in vitro. Other enzymatic activities can be detected in the chloroplast soluble extract including exonucleases, and CCA-adding enzyme.

  4. Extraction and characterization of mixed phase KNO2-KNO3 nanocrystals derived from flat-leaf green spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, S.; Mohanta, D.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally available green spinach, which is a rich source of potassium, was used as the key ingredient to extract mixed-phase ferroelectric crystals of nitrite and nitrate derivatives (KNO2 + KNO3). The KNO3 phase was found to be dominant for higher pH values, as revealed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. The characteristic optical absorption spectra exhibited intra-band π-π* electronic transitions, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibited characteristic N-O stretching vibrations. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a broad endothermic peak at ˜121.8 °C, highlighting a transition from phase II to I via phase III of KNO3. Obtaining nanoscale ferroelectrics via the adoption of green synthesis is economically viable for large-scale production and possible application in ferroelectric elements/devices.

  5. Pectinases in Aqueous Extracts of Ditylenchus dipsaci

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, R. M.; Mai, W. F.

    1971-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of a population of Ditylenchus dipsaci isolated from onion and maintained monoxenically on onion callus contained endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) and endo-pectinmethyltranseliminase (endo-PMTE). In viscometric tests pH 4.2 and 4.0 were optimal for degradation of sodium polypectate and pectin N.F., respectively, by endo-PG. Endo-PMTE reduced viscosity of pectin N.F. optimally at pH 8.5 or above. Activity was dependent on CaCl₂. Pectinmethylesterase activity was not detected in water, NaCl, or sucrose extracts of these nematodes. The extracts macerated potato tuber tissue, onion cotyledonary tissue, and strips of onion epidermis from the ventral surface of onion bulb scales at pH 4.2, 5.3, and 6.2. Pectin could not be localized with hydroxylamine-ferric chloride reagent in macerated tissues treated for 24 hr with active extract. PMID:19322337

  6. Mechanisms of aqueous extraction of soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K A; Glatz, C E

    2009-11-25

    Aqueous extraction processing (AEP) of soy is a promising green alternative to hexane extraction processing. To improve AEP oil yields, experiments were conducted to probe the mechanisms of oil release. Microscopy of extruded soy before and after extraction with and without protease indicated that unextracted oil is sequestered in an insoluble matrix of denatured protein and is released by proteolytic digestion of this matrix. In flour from flake, unextracted oil is contained as intact oil bodies in undisrupted cells, or as coalesced oil droplets too large to pass out of the disrupted cellular matrix. Our results suggest that emulsification is an important extraction mechanism that reduces the size of these droplets and increases yield. Protease and SDS were both successful in increasing extraction yields. We propose that this is because they disrupt a viscoelastic protein film at the droplet interface, facilitating droplet disruption. An extraction model based on oil droplet coalescence and the formation of a viscoelastic film was able to fit kinetic extraction data well.

  7. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    PubMed

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step.

  8. Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) ethanolic extract as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradana, Dimas Adhi; Pondawinata, Marizki; Widyarini, Sitarina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential activity of standardized ethanolic extract of red spinach as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. A total of 42 animals was divided into 6 groups: normal control group, negative control group, positive control group (0.9 mg/kgBW of simvastatin), first intervention group (200 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), second intervention group (400 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), and third intervention group (800 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract). From the first day up to the 66th day, all the groups, except the normal control group and negative control group, were administered simvastatin (positive control) and extract of amaranth (intervention). Then, from the eighth day until Day 66, induction of high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was given in two hours after the simvastatin and red spinach extract administration. The determination of LDL parameters was conducted on Day 0, Day 35, and Day 67. On the 67th day, the animals were dissected to examine the aortic histopathological parameters. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of red spinach with a dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW statistically demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.05). The histopathological feature of the aorta in the treatment indicated the absence of fat in the blood vessel walls or even of foam cells supporting thereby the result of LDL level. This means there was a significant effect of ethanolic extract of red spinach on the prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and the histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  9. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  10. Electrostatic spraying of food-grade organic and inorganic acids and plant extracts to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on spinach and iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Griffis, Carl L; Martin, Elizabeth M; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of foodborne illnesses is continually on rise. In the U.S.A., Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli) has been associated with several outbreaks in minimally processed foods. Spinach and lettuce pose higher food safety risks and recurring food recalls suggest the insufficiency of current disinfection strategies. We aimed at offering a natural antimicrobial alternative using organic acids (malic, tartaric, and lactic acids [MA, TA, and LA, respectively]) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a novel application method using electrostatic spraying to evenly distribute the antimicrobials onto produce. Spinach and lettuce samples were washed, sanitized with sodium hypochlorite solution (6.25 mL/L), dip inoculated in water containing E. coli (7.0 log CFU/mL) for 24 h, and rewashed with sterile water to remove nonadhered pathogens. The samples were sprayed electrostatically with MA, LA, and GSE alone and in combinations and for comparison, with phosphoric acid (PA) and pH controls with deionized water adjusted to 1.5/2.3/3.6 and stored at 4 °C. When combined with LA (3%), MA (3%) showed 2.1 to 4.0 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli between the days 1 and 14 on spinach and 1.1 to 2.5 log CFU/g reduction on lettuce. Treatment with PA (1.5%) and PA (1.5%)-GSE (2%) exhibited 1.1 to 2.1 log CFU/g inhibition of E. coli on spinach during the 14-d storage. Our findings demonstrated the efficacy of electrostatic spraying of MA, LA, and GSE on fresh produce to improve the safety and lower the public health burden linked to produce contamination. Electrostatic spraying is an emerging technique that can be adopted to improve the distribution and application of antimicrobials during fresh produce sanitation. Relatively simple and quick, the process can access most/all parts of produce surface and offer protection from food pathogens. The use of malic and lactic acids with or without grape seed extract can serve as effective antimicrobials when sprayed electrostatically, lowering

  11. PROCESS OF SEPARATING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for separating uranium values from aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions. The process consists in contacting the uramium bearing solution with an organic solvent, tributyl phosphate, preferably diluted with a less viscous organic liquida whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the organic solvent phase. The uranvl nitrate may be recovered from the solvent phase bv back extracting with an aqueous mediuin.

  12. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  13. Degradation of malathion, in aqueous extracts of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuko; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-09-22

    Malathion was incubated in water extracts of vegetables at various temperatures and pH, and the amount of malathion present over time was analyzed by a gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector. Malathion was degraded to a nondetectable level in a 1% asparagus extract incubated at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C for 4 h. Carrot extract showed the second highest rate of malathion degradation (76%), followed by kale extract (23.7%), spinach extract (9.7%), and broccoli extract (1.5%) under the same conditions. The highest degradation rates of malathion were observed at 37 degrees C, when three different temperatures were tested (5, 25, and 37 degrees C) at pH 7.4. Rate constants were 0.134 min(-)(1) from a 1% asparagus solution and 0.095 min(-)(1) from a 0.5% asparagus solution. The highest degradation rate of malathion was achieved at pH 9 among the pHs tested (pH 4, 7.4, and 9) in a 0.5% asparagus solution. The 0.5% asparagus solution degraded dicarboxylic acid esters by almost 100% for dimethyl succinate and diethyl adipate, by 64% for diethyl acetyl succinate, and 30% for diethyl benzyl malonate when incubated at pH 9 for 20 min. The results support the hypothesis that the enzyme that degrades malathion in the asparagus solutions is a carboxylesterase.

  14. Electrostatic sprays of food-grade acids and plant extracts are more effective than conventional sprays in decontaminating Salmonella Typhimurium on spinach.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Ravichandran, Madhuram; Johnson, Michael G; Griffis, Carl L; Martin, Elizabeth M; Meullenet, Jean-Francois; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-01-01

    About 40000 people fall victim to Salmonella infections every year in the United States. Recent occurrences of Salmonella contaminated spinach and its recalls have accelerated the need for efficient antimicrobials targeting these pathogens. Our study was aimed at evaluating the inhibitory properties of malic, tartaric, and lactic acids, and grape seed extract (GSE) alone and in combinations and their application methods against Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated spinach using a response surface method. Fresh spinach leaves were washed, disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (0.04% v/v), rewashed with sterile deionized (DI) water, and inoculated with a 2nd-day culture of S. Typhimurium (7.0 log CFU/mL). Adhered S. Typhimurium population on day 0 were 7.5 log CFU/g. These were treated with individual and combinations of organic acids with GSE or DI water (control) adjusted to the same pH as that of the test solutions with both the modes of application and leaves were refrigerated at 4 °C. Malic acid (2%) in combination with GSE (3%) or lactic acid (3%) sprayed electrostatically showed reductions of 2.6 to 3.3 log CFU/g compared to lower log reductions (0.0 to 0.3 log CFU/g) by day 14 if sprayed conventionally. These findings indicate that malic acid in combination with GSE/lactic acid solutions applied by electrostatic spraying exhibited higher inhibition of pathogens than conventional spraying and can be used for commercial applications to enhance food safety.

  15. Extraction of ethylene glycol from aqueous salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butyrskaya, E. V.; Belyakova, N. V.; Rozhkova, M. V.; Nechaeva, L. S.

    2012-11-01

    A method is proposed for extracting ethylene glycol from aqueous salt solutions by dialysis through ion-exchange membranes, based on the Donnan exclusion of the electrolyte. Dialysis is performed in the continuous and batch modes. It is found that the batch mode of dialysis is more effective for extracting ethylene glycol from its aqueous salt solutions. The effect of the ionic form of the membrane on ethylene glycol fluxes is explained through computer simulation.

  16. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai) Suggests Plant-Species-Specific Metabolic Responses on Exposure to Spinach and Lettuce Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Louise; Hedley, Pete E.; Morris, Jenny; Wagstaff, Carol; Andrews, Simon C.; Toth, Ian; Jackson, Robert W.; Holden, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonization. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 ‘Sakai,’ to colonize the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), vining green pea (Pisum sativum), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analyzed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce). Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant–microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonization. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 h) transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days) plant colonization or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 vs. 18°C) has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated) differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types indicate

  17. [Extraction of alpha-cypermethrin from aqueous methanol solutions].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2010-01-01

    Alpha cypermethrin was extracted from aqueous methanol solutions using hydrophobic organic solvents. The efficiency of extraction was shown to depend on the chemical nature of the solvent, the water to methanol ratio, and saturation of the aqueous methanol layer with an electrolyte. Optimal extraction of alpha-cypermethrin was achieved using toluene as the solvent under desalinization conditions. The extraction factor for the removal of the sought amount of alpha-cypermethrin from the water-methanol solution (4:1) using various solvents was calculated.

  18. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  19. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  1. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar Asl, Mina; Nazariborun, Ashraf; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7) Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9) Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s). PMID:25050273

  2. Thyroid peroxidase inhibition by Kalanchoe brasiliensis aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C; Rosenthal, D; Carvalho, D P

    2000-05-01

    Flavonoids are known inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and some are components of Kalanchoe brasiliensis, a plant used in popular medicine to treat tissue injuries, enlarged ganglia and peptic ulcer. As K. brasiliensis extract is currently used, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of K. brasiliensis aqueous extract on TPO activity. We show here that TPO iodide-oxidation activity was significantly inhibited by K. brasiliensis aqueous extract and that TPO inhibition seems to be competitive, since the enzyme V(max) was unchanged and K(m) for iodide was significantly increased in the presence of the plant extract. Furthermore, TPO inhibitory activity produced by K. brasiliensis extract was unchanged after boiling or by incubation with hepatic enzymes (activated S9 fraction), suggesting that at least the antithyroid component of this plant infusion could probably reach systemic circulation. We also report that K. brasiliensis aqueous extract is able to scavenge H(2)O(2), in vitro. As H(2)O(2) is an essential TPO cofactor, it is possible that the H(2)O(2) trapping effect of K. brasiliensis may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of the iodide-oxidation reaction catalysed by this enzyme. Thus, K. brasiliensis aqueous extract has antithyroid effects in vitro, suggesting that its chronic consumption could contribute to the development of goitre and hypothyroidism, mainly in areas of low iodine intake.

  3. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg) as an antigen. Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 - 30 mg/ml, 100 µl) was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl) as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml). In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity.

  4. Free radical scavenging activity of red ginseng aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo K; Guo, Qiong; Packer, Lester

    2002-03-20

    This study was performed to investigate the free radical scavenging activity of Panax red ginseng C.A. Meyer aqueous extract on 1,1-dipheny-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), carbon-centered radical, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometer and spin-trapping techniques. Two different Red ginseng aqueous extracts prepared by boiling water or room temperature extraction exhibited no significant difference in free radical scavenging activity. Ginseng extracts completely eliminated DPPH radical at 2 mg/ml. About 0.5 mg/ml ginseng extracts quenched 80% carbon-centered free radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical were generated by UV irradiation and trapped by 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N oxide (DMPO). Ginseng extracts scavenged 40% of hydroxyl radical at 0.1 mg/ml. Two mg/ml ginseng extracts completely scavenged superoxide radical. Ginseng extracts did not scavenge nitric oxide. The ESR data demonstrate that red ginseng aqueous extract is not a strong free radical scavenger.

  5. Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium.

    PubMed

    Mohire, N C; Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B; Yadav, A V

    2007-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium. This plant species contains 5,7,2-4 tetrahydroxy isoflavone 6-6 glucoside which are potent antioxidant and are believed to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Cardiotonic effect of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Calcium free Ringer solution was used as vehicle for administration of aqueous extract of P. marsupium as a test extract and digoxin as a standard. A significant increase in height of force of contraction (positive inotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) at a very low concentration (0.25 mg/ml) was observed with test extract as compared to the same dose of a standard digoxin. The present results indicated that a significant increase in height of force of contraction with decrease in heart rate was observed as the dose of test extract increased. The test extract produced cardiac arrest at 4 mg/ml, a higher concentration, as compared to standard, digoxin (0.5 mg/ml). Compared to digoxin, a drug with narrow therapeutic window, P. marsupium showed wide therapeutic window.

  6. Safety and tolerability of a dried aqueous spearmint extract.

    PubMed

    Lasrado, Joanne A; Nieman, Kristin M; Fonseca, Brenda A; Sanoshy, Kristen D; Schild, Arianne L; Herrlinger, Kelli A

    2017-06-01

    Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and spearmint extracts are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use as flavoring in beverages, pharmaceuticals, and confectionaries. Studies of spearmint extracts in humans and animals have reported conflicting results with respect to toxicity. Since the chemical composition of these extracts was not reported and the spearmint source material was different, the relevance of these existing data to evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of a dried aqueous spearmint extract standardized to rosmarinic acid is not clear. Hence, the safety and tolerability of the dried aqueous spearmint extract was evaluated as part of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults with age-associated memory impairment. Ingestion of both 600 and 900 mg/day for 90 days had no effect on plasma levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or thyroid stimulating hormone, or other safety parameters including vital signs, plasma chemistry or whole blood hematology values. Additionally, there were no reported severe adverse events, no significant between-group differences in the number of subjects reporting adverse effects and the adverse events reported could not be attributed to ingestion of the extract. These results therefore show that ingestion of the aqueous dried spearmint extract is safe and well-tolerated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient salt-aided aqueous extraction of bitter almond oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Lirong; Zhang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction that is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield. This study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box-Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L(-1) ; solvent-to-sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to that of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg(-1) , which was lower compared to that obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible. These results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S. M.; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Materials and Methods: Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. Results: UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols. PMID:28894626

  9. Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods on total, hcl extractable iron and in vitro availability of iron in spinach and amaranth leaves.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    2002-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracia) and amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) leaves were stored in polyethylene bags and without packing for 24 and 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C and 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun), blanched (5, 10 and 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analysed for total iron, its availability and antinutrient content. The iron content of these leaves varied from 26.54 to 34.14 mg/100 g, dry weight and its HCl-extractability and in vitro availability were 62.11-67.18% and 3.03-3.97% of total respectively. Drying and storage had no significant effect on total iron content, HCl-extractability and availability (in vitro), while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of iron availability, and a significant reduction in oxalic acid content, while only blanching significantly reduced phytic acid and polyphenol contents. Thus cooking and blanching are good ways to improve HCl-extractability and in vitro availability of iron.

  10. RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  11. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds.

  12. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    SciTech Connect

    van Eikeren, P.; Brose, D.J.; Ray, R.J.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes improvement in an organic/aqueous extraction process for the extraction of an organic solute from an organic solvent or solvent mixture with an aqueous-based extractant. The improvement comprises continuously recycling the aqueous-based extractant through a membrane separation process that selectively removes the organic solute from the aqueous-based extractant, the membrane separation process being selected from at least one of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, membrane distillation, pervaporation, membrane contactor and supported-liquid membrane.

  13. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  14. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  15. Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Calamus rotang

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    Objective: There are a number of medicinal plant products which has been used to treat various immunological diseases. Out of these medicinal plants, Calamus rotang has shown several medicinal properties including anti-viral, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects. Normally, the roots of C. rotang are used in various ailments to cure piles, burning sensation, cough, leprosy and bleeding disorder and also it was used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, our group were investigated the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of C. rotang root in human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using hepatitis B vaccine (HBsAg) as an antigen. Materials and Methods: Variable doses of root aqueous extract (0.5 – 30 mg/ml, 100 µl) was administered to human whole blood and PBMC using hepatitis B vaccine containing surface antigen (HBsAg; 20 µg/ml, 10 µl) as specific antigen in order to estimate the total blood counts in human whole blood and nitric oxide production and CD14 FITC surface marker from human PBMC. Results: Overall, the results showed that roots aqueous extract of C. rotang showed remarkable increase in the number of blood counts in human whole blood at lower doses (0.5 mg/ml). In addition, root aqueous extract of C. rotang also showed the same pattern in case of nitric oxide production and estimation of CD14 FITC surface marker in human PBMC. Conclusion: Altogether, the results suggest that root aqueous extract of C. rotang showed immunomodulatory activity. PMID:28748166

  16. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jener David G; Espeleta, Alexandre F; Branco, Alexsandro; de Assis, Sandra A

    2013-02-15

    In this work, sisal waste was used as a source of pectin. Sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibres, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal, producing more than 246,000 tonnes. However, the process of removing the fibres of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. This study investigated the effect of the liquid/solid ratio (%), time (min), and temperature (°C) on the yield of the pectin obtained from sisal waste by attractive environmentally friendly process. A statistical Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the yield of pectin, the dependent variable. Significant models were obtained. The yield of the extracted pectin ranged from 4.61 to 19.2%. The conditions that produced the highest yield (19.2%) were a temperature of 85 °C, extraction time of 60 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 2%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus.

    PubMed

    Akindele, A J; Adeyemi, O O

    2007-01-01

    The antiinflammatory effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus was evaluated using the carrageenan and egg albumin induced rat paw edema, xylene induced mouse ear edema and formaldehyde induced arthritis inflammation tests. The extract administered orally at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w produced a significant (P<0.05) dose dependent inhibition of edema formation in all four methods used. The results obtained suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of B. coccineus is endowed with effective antiinflammatory activity mediated via either inhibition of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity or cyclooxygenase cascade and by blocking the release of vasoactive substances (histamine, serotonin and kinins). These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional African medicine in the treatment of inflammation, including arthritic conditions.

  18. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  19. Efficacy of an aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract against herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schneider, S; Stintzing, F C; Carle, R; Reichling, J

    2008-12-01

    The compounds of an aqueous root extract of the African medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides were analysed by LC-MS spectroscopy and the antiviral effect of this extract against herpes simplex virus was examined in cell culture. Besides predominant coumarins, simple phenolic structures as well as flavonoid and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents in the Pelargonium extract. The inhibitory activity of this extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay and exhibited high antiviral activity against both herpesviruses in viral suspension tests. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.00006% and 0.000005% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the extract, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99.9% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and a clear concentration-dependent antiviral activity against HSV could be demonstrated for this extract. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the infection cycle. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when pretreated with the plant extract or when the extract was added during the adsorption phase, whereas acyclovir demonstrated antiviral activity only intracellularly during replication of HSV. These results indicate that P. sidoides extract affected the virus before penetration into the host cell and reveals a different mode of action when compared to the classical drug acyclovir. Hence this extract is capable of exerting an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus and might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as antiviral drug both in labial and genital herpes infection.

  20. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  1. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  2. Extraction of defatted rice bran with subcritical aqueous acetone.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Neoh, Tze Loon; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Defatted rice bran extracts were obtained by subcritical treatment using aqueous acetone as extractant. Treatment with 40% (v/v) acetone at 230 °C for 5 min yielded an extract with the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (0.274 mmol of ascorbic acid/g of bran), total carbohydrate (0.188 g/g of bran), protein (0.512 g/g of bran), and total phenolic contents (88.2 mg of gallic acid/g of bran). The effect of treatment temperature (70-230 °C) was investigated using 40% (v/v) acetone, and the extract under 230 °C treatment showed the highest levels of all the determinations described above. The extracts obtained with various concentrations of aqueous acetone were subjected to UV absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, and the results showed changes in composition and polarity. Antioxidative activity evaluated against oxidation of bulk linoleic acid of the extract obtained with 80% (v/v) acetone was higher than that not only of the extract from subcritical water treatment but also of that obtained 40% (v/v) acetone treatment.

  3. Electromembrane extraction from aqueous samples containing polar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-09-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed from aqueous samples and from aqueous samples containing methanol, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile. The basic drugs pethidine, haloperidol, nortriptyline, methadone and loperamide were used as model analytes. Reversed phase (C18) HPLC with UV (235 nm) and MS detection was used for analysis of the samples. With no organic solvent in the sample, maximum recoveries were obtained after 5-10 min. The maximum recoveries ranged between 83 and 95%. With 50% (v/v) methanol, ethanol, or dimethyl sulfoxide in the sample, recoveries were comparable to those from an aqueous sample, but the time required reaching maximum recovery increased to 15-25 min. With 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the supported liquid membrane (SLM), a stable EME system was obtained for 50% (v/v) methanol, 50% (v/v) ethanol, or 75% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide in the sample solution. On the other hand, the EME system was unstable with acetonitrile in the sample, as this solvent partly dissolved the SLM. In addition, acetonitrile migrated through the SLM and caused a volume expansion of the acceptor solution. Other SLMs were also tested (ethyl nitrobenzene, isopropyl nitrobenzene, and dodecyl nitrobenzene), but were inferior to NPOE. As a practical example, EME on dried blood spot extracts (80% methanol) were tested, and proved highly successful. These observations showed that EME can be an effective way of preparing aqueous samples containing substantial amounts of an organic solvent.

  4. Immunosuppressive activity of an aqueous Viola tricolor herbal extract.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Roland; Koehbach, Johannes; Fedchuk, Halyna; Sauer, Barbara; Huber, Roman; Gruber, Christian W; Gründemann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.), a member of the Violaceae family, has a long history as a medicinal plant and has been documented in the Pharmacopoeia of Europe. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties it is regarded as a traditional remedy against skin diseases, for example for the treatment of scabs, itching, ulcers, eczema or psoriasis, and it is also used in the treatment of inflammation of the lungs and chest such as bronchitis or asthma. Because T-cells play an important role in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases we investigated the effect of an aqueous Viola extract on lymphocyte functions and explored the 'active' principle of the extract using bioactivity-guided fractionation. An aqueous Viola extract was prepared by C18 solid-phase extraction. Effects on proliferation of activated lymphocytes (using the cell membrane permeable fluorescein dye CFSE), apoptosis and necrosis (using annexin V and propidium iodide staining), interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression (using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies) and IL-2 cytokine secretion (using an ELISA-based bead array system) were measured by flow cytometry. Influence on lymphocyte polyfunctionality was characterized by Viola extract-induced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as its influence on lymphocyte degranulation activity. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract were performed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. The aqueous Viola extract inhibited proliferation of activated lymphocytes by reducing IL-2 cytokine secretion without affecting IL-2 receptor expression. Similarly, effector functions were affected as indicated by the reduction of IFN-γ and TNF-α production; degranulation capacity of activated lymphocytes remained unaffected. Bioassay-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract led to identification of circular plant peptides, so called cyclotides, as bioactive components. An aqueous Viola extract contains bioactive cyclotides, which

  5. Immunosuppressive activity of an aqueous Viola tricolor herbal extract

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Barbara; Huber, Roman; Gruber, Christian W.; Gründemann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.), a member of the Violaceae family, has a long history as a medicinal plant and has been documented in the Pharmacopoeia of Europe. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties it is regarded as a traditional remedy against skin diseases, for example for the treatment of scabs, itching, ulcers, eczema or psoriasis, and it is also used in the treatment of inflammation of the lungs and chest such as bronchitis or asthma. Because T-cells play an important role in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases we investigated the effect of an aqueous Viola extract on lymphocyte functions and explored the ‘active’ principle of the extract using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Material and Methods An aqueous Viola extract was prepared by C18 solid-phase extraction. Effects on proliferation of activated lymphocytes (using the cell membrane permeable fluorescein dye CFSE), apoptosis and necrosis (using annexin V and propidium iodide staining), interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression (using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies) and IL-2 cytokine secretion (using an ELISA-based bead array system) were measured by flow cytometry. Influence on lymphocyte polyfunctionality was characterized by Viola extract-induced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as its influence on lymphocyte degranulation activity. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract were performed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. Results The aqueous Viola extract inhibited proliferation of activated lymphocytes by reducing IL-2 cytokine secretion without affecting IL-2 receptor expression. Similarly, effector functions were affected as indicated by the reduction of IFN-γ and TNF-α production; degranulation capacity of activated lymphocytes remained unaffected. Bioassay-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract led to identification of circular plant peptides, so called cyclotides, as bioactive components

  6. Extraction of dye from aqueous solution in rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Modak, Jayant B; Bhowal, Avijit; Datta, Siddhartha

    2016-03-05

    The influence of centrifugal acceleration on mass transfer rates in liquid-liquid extraction was investigated experimentally in rotating packed bed (RPB) contactor. The extraction of methyl red using xylene was studied in the equipment. The effect of rotational speed (300-900rpm), flow rate of the aqueous (4.17-20.8×10(-6)m(3)/s), and organic phase (0.83-2.5×10(-6)m(3)/s) on the mass transfer performance was examined. The maximum stage efficiency attained was ∼0.98 at aqueous to organic flow rate ratio of 10. The results suggest that contactor volume required to carry out a given separation can be reduced by an order of magnitude with RPB in comparison to conventional extractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Taher, Yousef A

    2012-01-01

    Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema. These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  8. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Yousef A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. Methods and Results In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema. Conclusion These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever. PMID:22468149

  9. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    PubMed Central

    Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi

    2015-01-01

    Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute) and of repeated doses (sub-acute) administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female) were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control), while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity. PMID:27486360

  10. Properties of vermicompost aqueous extracts prepared under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Boucek, Jiri; Svehla, Pavel; Dreslova, Marketa; Tlustos, Pavel

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of aeration and time of extraction on the agrochemical properties of aqueous extracts from vermicomposts made from horse manure (M) and apple pomace (P) waste. There were two extract treatments: stirring without aeration (S), and stirring with aeration (A) for 48 h. Aeration significantly increased the levels of electrical conductivity (EC) and the concentration of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and macro-elements in the extracts. In the (A) treatment, the extraction efficiency of K and Mg increased twofold, and the extraction efficiency of Ca and P increased by one-third compared with the (S) treatment. Simultaneously, the extracts prepared under aeration were characteristic with a higher pH value compared with non-aerated variants. The EC and content of macro-elements in the extracts increased proportionally with time. Their highest growth was found within the first 6 h. After 48 h, the highest release of macro-elements into the extract was found in the case of the horse manure under stirring with aeration.

  11. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  12. Protective effect of chlorophyllin and lycopene from water spinach extract on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by heavy metals in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ui-Jeong; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of water spinach (EEWS) containing chlorophyll and lycopene on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in liver induced by heavy metals. The (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay were conducted to measure cytotoxicity and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Cytotoxicity was prevented at a concentration of 11.7 mg/L of EEWS. Both sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) and lycopene in EEWS were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MSn) as major components at m/z 722.64 and 535.45, respectively. The concentrations of SCC and lycopene were 0.12 and 0.04 mg from 100 g of dried powder, respectively. Approximately 99% cytotoxicity induced by Cd was inhibited by EEWS. However, the inhibitory effect attributed to generation of ROS was similar with SCC, lycopene, and EEWS. Our results indicated that EEWS was effective in reducing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress produced by heavy metals in a HepG2 cell. Data suggest that the possible mechanism underlying the preventive action of SCC might be associated with diminished absorption of metal ions by chelating and blocking metal-mediated generation of ROS, while lycopene effects may be attributed to its high number of conjugated dienes that act as most potent singlet oxygen quenchers.

  13. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    Urzêda, Márcio A.; Marcussi, Silvana; Silva Pereira, Luciana L.; França, Suzelei C.; Pereira, Ana Maria S.; Pereira, Paulo S.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Guimarães, César L. S.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2013-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes. PMID:23737820

  14. Antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence Piper betle extract.

    PubMed

    Lei, Daniel; Chan, Chiu-Po; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2003-03-26

    Piper betle, belonging to the Piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (BQ) chewers in Taiwan and many other South and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence Piper betle (IPB) toward reactive oxygen species (ROS) and platelet functions. In the present work, aqueous IPB extract was shown to be a scavenger of H(2)O(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of about 80, 28, and 73 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also prevented the hydroxyl radical induced PUC18 plasmid DNA breaks at concentrations higher than 40 microg/mL. Since ROS are crucial for platelet aggregation, we further found that IPB extract also inhibited the arachidonic acid (AA) induced and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with an IC(50) of 207 and 335 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also inhibited the AA-, collagen- (>100 microg/mL of IPB), and thrombin (>250 microg/mL of IPB)-induced thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) production by more than 90%. However, IPB extract showed little effect on thrombin-induced aggregation. These results indicated that aqueous components of IPB are potential ROS scavengers and may prevent the platelet aggregation possibly via scavenging ROS or inhibition of TXB(2) production.

  15. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  16. Characterization of technetium species induced in spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, A.V.; Krijger, G.C.; Elteren, J.T. van; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    1999-08-01

    Plants have the ability to accumulate the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc. In this work, an attempt was made to separate and characterize technetium species induced by spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown on a TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} containing nutrient solution. Combination of data obtained with selective extraction and chromatography gave us insight into Tc speciation in spinach plants. The following classes of Tc species in spinach leaf homogenate were found after an incubation period of 11 d: TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (ca. 7%), Tc{sup V}-cysteine (ca. 25%), Tc bound to insoluble cell-wall polysaccharides (ca. 17%), Tc bound to proteins (ca. 26%), and hydrophilic non-protein Tc species (ca. 25%). These results may yield a new insight into the metabolic pathways of Tc in plants.

  17. Radioprotective property of an aqueous extract from valeriana wallichii

    PubMed Central

    Katoch, Omika; Kaushik, Shikha; Kumar, Mysore Sadashiv Yogendra; Agrawala, Paban K.; Misra, Kshipra

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Preparations of herbal drugs have drawn considerable interest in scientific community in recent years for the treatment of several stress related health problems including radiation-injury. Materials and Methods: An aqueous extract from Valeriana wallichii containing hesperidin as one of its major constituent was evaluated for its ability to protect against radiation-injury in model systems like plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and cultured human fibroblast cells. Results: The extract was found to significantly counter radiation-induced free radicals at 4 h after 5 Gy irradiation, reduced prolonged oxidative stress led increase in mitochondrial mass, enhanced reproductive viability of cultured cells and protected against radiation-induced DNA damage in solution. Discussion: Further studies are required to validate the radioprotective ability of the extract and to develop a safer radioprotective agent. PMID:23248568

  18. Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of lipid from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kehong; Zhang, Qinghua; Cong, Wei

    2012-11-28

    An improved lipid extraction process has been established for microalgal using enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP), which mainly involved in sonication and enzyme treatment. As compared to cellulase, neutral protease and alkaline protease, significantly higher lipid recovery was achieved by snailase and trypsin. The highest lipid recovery of 49.82% was obtained by a combined sonication-enzyme treatment at pH 4. The enhancement mechanism of the EAEP was analyzed in terms of the particle size of cream and zeta potential. In addition, microalgal lipid recovery was also affected by lipid class composition and the type of algae. The present study demonstrates a promising alternative to conventional lipid extraction of microalgae and the quantitative information on EAEP of oleaginous alga can provide valuable data for process design at pilot and industrial scale.

  19. Effect of Fermented Spinach as Sources of Pre-Converted Nitrite on Color Development of Cured Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun

    2017-01-01

    The effect of fermented spinach extracts on color development in cured meats was investigated in this study. The pH values of raw cured meats without addition of fermented spinach extract or nitrite (negative control) were higher (p<0.05) than those added with fermented spinach extract. The pH values of raw and cooked cured meats in treatment groups were decreased with increasing addition levels of fermented spinach extract. The lightness and yellowness values of raw cured meats formulated with fermented spinach extract were higher (p<0.05) than those of the control groups (both positive and negative controls). The redness values of cooked cured meats were increased with increasing fermented spinach extract levels, whereas the yellowness values of cooked cured meats were decreased with increasing levels of fermented spinach extract. The lowest volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were observed in the positive control group with addition of nitrite. TBARS values of cured meats added with fermented spinach extract were decreased with increasing levels of fermented spinach extract and VBN values of curing meat with 30% fermented spinach extract was lower than the other treatments. Total viable bacterial counts in cured meats added with fermented spinach extract ranged from 0.34-1.01 Log CFU/g. E. coli and coliform bacteria were not observed in any of the cured meats treated with fermented spinach extracts or nitrite. Residual nitrite contents in treatment groups were increased with increasing levels of fermented spinach extract added. These results demonstrated that fermented spinach could be added to meat products to improve own curing characteristics. PMID:28316477

  20. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa MM; Mostafa, Soha SM; Shalaby, Emad A; Mahmoud, Ghada I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2′- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. PMID:23569980

  1. Protein recovery from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybean.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry A; Glatz, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous oil extraction from soybean is a "green" alternative to hexane extraction that must realize potential revenues from a value-added protein co-product. Three technologies were investigated to recover protein from the skim fraction of an aqueous extraction process. Ultrafiltration achieved overall protein yields between 60% and 64%, with solids protein content of 70%, and was effective in reducing stachyose content, with fluxes between 4 and 10 L/m(2) hr. Protein content was limited because of high retention of lipids and the loss of polypeptides below 13.6 kDa. Isoelectric precipitation was effective in recovering the minimally hydrolyzed proteins of skim, with a protein content of 70%, again limited by lipid content. However, protein recovery was only 30% because of the greater solubility of the hydrolyzed proteins. Recovery by the alternative of protein capture on dextran-grafted agarose quaternary-amine expanded bed adsorption resins decreased with decreasing polypeptide molecular weight. Proteins with molecular mass greater than 30 kDa exhibited slow adsorption rates. Expanded bed adsorption was most effective for recovery of proteins with molecular weight between 30 and 12 kDa. Overall, adsorption protein yields were between 14% and 17%.

  2. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri

    PubMed Central

    Asare, George Awuku; Addo, Phyllis; Bugyei, Kwasi; Gyan, Ben; Adjei, Samuel; Otu-Nyarko, Lydia Serwaa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Nyarko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is a plant with medicinal properties. It is often used to treat mild malaria and the elimination of renal stones. However, studies on its toxicity are scarce. The study was carried out to determine if the aqueous leaf extract of P. niruri administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats would illicit evidence of toxicity. Fifteen female rats weighing 150–200 g were divided into 3 groups. Rats in Group 1 were given a single low dose (LD) of 2000 mg/kg b.w. of the extract by oral gavage within 24 hrs. Rats in Group 2 were given a single high dose (HD) of 5000 mg/kg b.w. of the extract by oral gavage within 24 hrs. Rats in Group 3 were not given any extract but drinking water and served as the control group (C). All the rats were observed for signs of toxidromes for 14 days. On the 15th day, all the rats were sacrificed. Body organs were harvested for macroscopic examination. Urine and blood samples were drawn and analyzed. Hematological tests performed included full blood count and hemoglobin. Biochemical examinations included bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatse (ALP), γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), urea, and creatinine. The results of the three groups were not significantly different. Examination of the various body organs did not show any abnormality. Thus no toxicity was observed at the levels administered. The LD50 of the aqueous extract is>5000 mg/kg. b.w. PMID:22319255

  3. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion.

    PubMed

    He, Wen; Han, Huamin; Wang, Wei; Gao, Bin

    2011-12-14

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1). Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP) RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  4. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z F; Kong, L D; Chen, Y

    2002-11-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) is a well-known indigenous herbal medicine. The aqueous extracts, when administered orally to the mice from 140 to 560 mg/kg for 14 days, were able to elicit dose-dependent relation of immobility reduction in the tail suspension test and the forced swimming test in mice. The effects of the extracts at the dose of 560 mg/kg were more potent than that of reference antidepressant fluoxetine. The extracts, at the dose of 140 mg/kg or above for 14 days, significantly inhibited the monoamine oxidize A (MAO) activity in mouse whole brain at a dose-dependent manner, however, oral administration of the extract only at a dose of 560 mg/kg produced observable MAO B inhibitory activity in animal brain. Fluoxetine showed only a tendency to inhibit MAO A and B activity in animal brain in the study. Neither the extracts of C. longa nor fluoxetine, at the doses tested, produced significant effects on locomotor activity. These results demonstrated that C. longa had specifically antidepressant effects in vivo. The activity of C. longa in antidepression may mediated in part through MAO A inhibition in mouse brain.

  5. Simultaneous Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel by the Organic-Aqueous-Aqueous Three-Phase Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayama, Sakae; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    This research outlines an organic-aqueous-aqueous three-phase solvent extraction method and proposes its use in a new metal separation process for the recycling of manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) from used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The three-phase system was formed by mixing xylene organic solution, 50 pct polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution, and 1 mol L-1 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) aqueous solution. The xylene organic solution contained 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant for Mn ion, and the Na2SO4 aqueous solution contained 1 mol L-1 potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) as an extractant for Co ion. Concentrations of the metal ions were varied by dissolving metal sulfates in the Na2SO4 aqueous solution. As a result of the experiments, Mn, Co, and Ni ions were distributed in the xylene organic phase, PEG-rich aqueous phase, and Na2SO4-rich aqueous phase, respectively. The separation was effective when the pH value was around 4. Numerical simulation was also conducted in order to predict the distribution of metal ions after the multi-stage counter-current extractions.

  6. Teratogenic effect of Lippia citriodora leaves aqueous extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oskouei Shirvan, Zahra; Etemad, Leila; Zafari, Reza; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Safety of Lippia citriodora, as a herbal remedy, in pregnancy has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to identify the effect of L. citriodora aqueous extract on pregnancy outcome in mice. Materials and Methods: Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 0.5 g/kg/day L. citriodora aqueous extract or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout the pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Fetuses were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. Results: There were no significant differences in mean maternal weight gain during pregnancy between groups. Also, no significant differences were observed in mean number of implantation, live and resorbed fetuses between control and treated groups. The prevalence of all types of deformity was low and similar to control group (%1.11). Conclusion: The results of this study show that moderate consumption of L. citriodora as an infusion or tea appears to be safe to be used during pregnancy and does not have toxic effects on development of mouse embryo. PMID:27222830

  7. [Extraction of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol and 4-phenylphenol from aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Fursova, I A; Shormanov, V K

    2002-01-01

    The authors provide the results of extraction of 2-amino-4-nitrophenol and 4-phenilphenol from aqueous solutions by five organic soluvants. The dependence of the extraction degree on some factors (nature of extragent, pH of aqueous phase medium, extragents saturation with water) was established. Necessary extraction rate for isolation of preset quality of the test substances was calculated.

  8. Antiophidian properties of the aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, Victor A; Marcussi, Silvana; Daher, Maristela A F; Oliveira, Clayton Z; Couto, Lucélio B; Gomes, Odair A; França, Suzelei C; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira, Paulo S

    2005-12-01

    Aqueous extracts, prepared from dried or fresh roots, stems or leaves of Mikania glomerata, a plant found in Mata Atlântica in Southeastern Brazil, were able to efficiently neutralize different toxic, pharmacological, and enzymatic effects induced by venoms from Bothrops and Crotalus snakes. Phospholipase A(2) activity and the edema induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were inhibited around 100 and approximately 40%, respectively, although this inhibition was only partial for Bothrops venoms. The hemorrhagic activity of Bothrops venoms (Bothrops altenatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi, and Bothrops jararacussu) was significantly inhibited by this vegetal species, while the clotting activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops jararacussu, and Bothrops neuwiedi venoms was totally inhibited. Although, the mechanism of action of Mikania glomerata extract is still unknown, the finding that no visible change was detected in the electrophoretic pattern of snake venom after incubation with the extract excludes proteolytic degradation as a potential mechanism. Since the extract of Mikania glomerata significantly inhibited the studied snake venoms, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serumtherapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2)s, metalloproteases and serineproteases, enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  9. Vascular effects of aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile: in vitro pharmacological studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant effect of C. nobile aqueous extract. We use aortic ring isolated from Wistar rats and aqueous C. nobile extract at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml. Incubation of aqueous C. nobile extract for 30 minutes produced a significant shift of the dose-response curve to norepinephrine (NE) (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that aqueous C. nobile extract possesses in vitro vasorelaxant effect.

  10. Artemisia copa aqueous extract as vasorelaxant and hypotensive agent.

    PubMed

    Gorzalczany, Susana; Moscatelli, Valeria; Ferraro, Graciela

    2013-06-21

    Artemisia copa Phil. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine in Argentina. The vasorelaxant and hypotensive activities of the aqueous extract of Artemisia copa have been investigated. The in vitro effect of the extract and isolated compounds from Artemisia copa was investigated using isolated rat aortic rings. The acute effect caused by the intravenous (i.v.) infusion (0.1-300mg/kg) on blood pressure and heart rate was evaluated in spontaneous hypertensive rats. In addition, a phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed by HPLC. Artemisia copa had a relaxant effect in endothelium-intact aortic rings that had been pre-contracted with 10(-7)M phenylephrine (Emax=96.7±1.3%, EC50=1.1mg/ml), 10(-5)M 5-hydroxytriptamine (Emax=96.7±3.5%, EC50=1.5mg/ml) and 80mM KCl (Emax=97.9± 4.4%, EC50=1.6mg/ml). In denuded aortic rings contracted by phenylephrine, a similar pattern was observed (Emax=92.7±6.5%, EC50=1.8mg/ml). l-NAME, indomethacin, tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide were not able to block the relaxation induced by the extract. Nevertheless, the pre-treatment with Artemisia copa attenuated the CaCl2-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (Emax: 86% of inhibition for 3mg/ml and 52% de-inhibition for 1mg/ml). This pre-treatment also induced a significant attenuation of the norepinephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (Emax: 72.7% of inhibition for 3mg/ml and 27% de inhibition for 1mg/ml) in a Ca(2+) free medium. Upon analyzing the composition of the extract, the presence of p-coumaric acid, isovitexin, luteolin and chrysoeriol were found. Luteolin (CE50: 1.5μg/ml), chrysoeriol (CE50: 13.2μg/ml) and p-coumaric acid (CE50: 95.2μg/ml), isolated from the aqueous extract, caused dilatation of thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Artemisia copa administered i.v. also induced a decrease in the mean arterial pressure but did not affect the heart rate in hypertensive

  11. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges, thus the leafy-vegetable industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The lettu...

  12. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1). Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP) RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication. PMID:22168277

  13. Nitrogen Uptake in Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, J.; VanBenthem, P.

    2013-12-01

    A plant's absorption of nitrogen can be encouraged by a variety of environmental factors, especially the application of fertilizers. As a common limiting factor in plant growth, not up taking enough nitrogen can be a result of an unhealthy plant. Moreover, as farmers seek out methods to increase growth of plants, fertilizers are used as a solution to the issue of nitrogen deficiency to incorporate additional nitrogen from chemical or organic sources, by not using the right fertilizer can greatly affect the plats. The point of this research project is to determine the effect of various fertilizers on the plant growth, and to correlate the measured nitrogen, water and chlorophyll content in spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were used because they are known to quickly uptake chemicals in the environment. The spinach plants were exposed to four different growing parameters, which are referred to as control, ammonium nitrate, MiracleGro , and organic. The spinach was originally placed in nitrogen deficient soil with only 2.2x10 4 weight percent (wt. %) nitrogen. The leaves in the control group were grown in this nitrogen deficient soil without any fertilizer added. Ammomium nitrate and MiracleGro were added to the spinach in the A and MG groups, respectively, and organic chicken stool was used for the O group. By using a spectral imaging system and flame combustion techniques, the chlorophyll content can be related to the nitrogen content in the spinach leaves. In these spinach leaves, nitrogen and chlorophyll content were measured, chlorophyll is a green pigment that plays a crucial role in producing nutrients for green plants. The lack of chlorophyll will allow the plant to become susceptible to diseases, so it is extremely important that the plants have a high content of chlorophyll. The role of nitrogen in chlorophyll is very important and helps in the creation of chlorophyll; therefore it is necessary that an appropriate amount of nitrogen is added for optimal growth

  14. Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nansunga, Miriam; Barasa, Ambrose; Abimana, Justus; Alele, Paul E; Kasolo, Josephine

    2014-11-18

    Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model. Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug. The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens. The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective role of a methanolic extract of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) against Pb toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings: beneficial effects for a plant of a nutraceutical used with animals.

    PubMed

    Lamhamdi, Mostafa; Bakrim, Ahmed; Bouayad, Noureddin; Aarab, Ahmed; Lafont, René

    2013-10-01

    Spinach extracts contain powerful natural antioxidants and have been used to improve the response of animal cells to various stress factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a methanolic extract of spinach (SE) used at two concentrations (21.7 and 217 ppm) on the growth, certain enzymes and antioxidant systems in wheat seedlings under lead stress. When wheat seedlings were grown for 7 days in a solution containing Pb(NO3)2 (3 mM), germination and growth were impaired, while signs of oxidative stress were observed. SE (217 ppm) pretreatment was able to protect seedlings from Pb toxicity by both reducing Pb uptake and Pb-induced oxidative stress. As a consequence, almost normal germination, elongation, biomass and α-amylase activity were restored by SE (217 ppm) pretreatment of wheat seedlings, in spite of the presence of Pb. Our results support the protective role and the antioxidant effect of SE against Pb. These results show an amazing similarity to the effects of SE in animals, which suggests that providing "nutraceuticals" to plants could improve their "health" status.

  16. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  17. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  18. Aqueous extract of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger exerts immunostimulatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jin; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-07-21

    Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (Crassulaceae) (OJ), well-known as Wa-song in Korea is a medicinal plant with immunoregulatory, anti-febrile, antidote, and anti-cancer activities. This study was aimed at evaluating the immunostimulatory effect of O. japonicus A. Berger and its possible mechanisms of action. To evaluate the effect of OJ aqueous extract on macrophage activity, we evaluated the modulation of macrophage activation state by observing structural (phagocytic activities) and the production of nitric oxide increase. The effect of OJ aqueous extract on RAW264.7 cell viability were assessed using Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay. HPLC analysis was performed to identify potential active compounds of this extract. The biological investigations indicated that OJ aqueous extract, among others, possessed the highest macrophage activation as indicated by NO production yield. The results showed that OJ aqueous extract exhibited antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals. OJ aqueous extract increased the phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells against IgG-opsonized red blood cells (RBC). The level of phosphorylated Syk kinase was increased in OJ aqueous extract-treated group as compared to control. Phosphorylation of PLC-γ was increased in the OJ aqueous extract-treated groups. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnose and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnose was detected in OJ aqueous extract by HPLC analysis. OJ aqueous extract might play a pivotal ethnopharmacologic role as an immunostimulatory agent by promoting Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized RBCs. On the basis of our results, OJ aqueous extract can enhance innate immunity and may serve as an adjuvant for tumor treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tobacco protein separation by aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Deepa; Wilkinson, Carol; Van Cott, Kevin; Zhang, Chenming

    2003-03-07

    Tobacco has long been considered as a host to produce large quantity of high-valued recombinant proteins. However, dealing with large quantities of biomass is a challenge for downstream processing. Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) has been widely used in purifying proteins from various sources. It is a protein-friendly process and can be scaled up easily. In this paper, ATPE was studied for its applicability to recombinant protein purification from tobacco with egg white lysozyme as the model protein. Separate experiments with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-salt-tobacco extract and PEG-salt-lysozyme were carried out to determine the partition behavior of tobacco protein and lysozyme, respectively. Two-level fractional factorial designs were used to study the effects of factors such as, PEG molecular mass, PEG concentration, the concentration of phase forming salt, sodium chloride concentration and pH, on protein partitioning. The results showed that, among the studied systems, PEG-sodium sulfate system was most suitable for lysozyme purification. Detailed experiments were conducted by spiking lysozyme into the tobacco extract. The conditions with highest selectivity of lysozyme over native tobacco protein were determined using a response surface design. The purification factor was further improved by decreasing the phase ratio along the tie line corresponding to the phase compositions with the highest selectivity. Under selected conditions the lysozyme yield was predicted to be 87% with a purification factor of 4 and concentration factor of 14. From this study, ATPE was shown to be suitable for initial protein recovery and partial purification from transgenic tobacco.

  20. Induction of laccases in Trametes versicolor by aqueous wood extracts.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Tinoco, Raunel; Rojas-Trejo, Sonia; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2014-01-01

    The induction of laccase isoforms in Trametes versicolor HEMIM-9 by aqueous extracts (AE) from softwood and hardwood was studied. Samples of sawdust of Pinus sp., Cedrela sp., and Quercus sp. were boiled in water to obtain AE. Different volumes of each AE were added to fungal cultures to determine the amount of AE needed for the induction experiments. Laccase activity was assayed every 24 h for 15 days. The addition of each AE (50 to 150 μl) to the fungal cultures increased laccase production compared to the control (0.42 ± 0.01 U ml(-1)). The highest laccase activities detected were 1.92 ± 0.15 U ml(-1) (pine), 1.87 ± 0.26 U ml(-1) (cedar), and 1.56 ± 0.34 U ml(-1) (oak); laccase productivities were also significantly increased. Larger volumes of any AE inhibited mycelial growth. Electrophoretic analysis revealed two laccase bands (lcc1 and lcc2) for all the treatments. However, when lcc2 was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, inducer-dependent isoform patterns composed of three (pine AE), four (oak AE), and six laccase bands (cedar AE) were observed. Thus, AE from softwood and hardwood had induction effects in T. versicolor HEMIM-9, as indicated by the increase in laccase activity and different isoform patterns. All of the enzymatic extracts were able to decolorize the dye Orange II. Dye decolorization was mainly influenced by pH. The optimum pH for decolorization was pH 5 (85%), followed by pH 7 (50%) and pH 3 (15%). No significant differences in the dye decolorizing capacity were detected between the control and the differentially induced laccase extracts (oak, pine and cedar). This could be due to the catalytic activities of isoforms with pI 5.4 and 5.8, which were detected under all induction conditions.

  1. Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

    2014-02-14

    Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented.

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  3. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air – water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE. PMID:14734243

  4. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Almuaigel, Mohammad Faisal; Seif, Mosaad A; Albuali, Hamad Waleed; Alharbi, Omar; Alhawash, Amer

    2017-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the reduction potential of aqueous extract of casing of pods of phaseolus vulgaris in blood glucose and lipids levels among hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Oral administration of 150mg/kg of aqueous oral administration of aqueous pod extract of phaseolus vulgaris to diabetic rats for 40days resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose (p<001), cholesterol (P<0.01) and triglycerides (P<0.01). In addition, glibenclamide reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. It is concluded that both aqueous extract of casing of pods of phaseolus vulgaris and glibenclamide reduced the blood levels of glucose and lipids. In addition, aqueous extract of phaseolus vulgaris pods was more effective than glibenclamide in reducing blood glucose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of Ipomoea carnea leaf on isolated frog and mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, K V; Burande, M D; Rangari, V D; Mehta, J K

    1999-11-01

    Ipomoea carnea fam. Convolvulaceae is a poisonous plant and its toxicity is supposed to be due to the cardiac and respiratory failure. The present paper describes the cardiac effect of aqueous extract of the fresh leaves of I. carnea using mouse and frog heart. The aqueous extract produced an initial blockade of isolated frog heart for 5-10 sec followed by dose dependent increase in both amplitude and rate that lasts up to 2 min. Atropine (1 microgram/ml) blocked the initial depressant phase and potentiated the stimulant effect of the aqueous extract. The dose dependent increase in cardiac contractility of aqueous extract was not altered by propranolol or calcium channel blockers like nifedipine or diltiazem. The decrease in sodium chloride concentration or increase in potassium chloride concentration or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution inhibited the responses to aqueous extract while an increase in sodium chloride concentration or decrease in potassium chloride or calcium chloride concentration in physiological salt solution potentiated the responses to the aqueous extract of I. carnea. It may be suggested from the data that aqueous extract of I. carnea produces positive inotropic effect on isolate frog heart possibly by sodium extrusion or release of the intracellular calcium.

  6. Evaluation of aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Linn for wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rathi, B S; Bodhankar, S L; Baheti, A M

    2006-11-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of M. oleifera was investigated and rationalised for its wound healing activity. The aqueous extract was studied at dose level of 300 mg/kg body weight using resutured incision; excision and dead space wound models in rats. Significant increase in wound closure rate, skin-breaking strength, granuloma breaking strength, hydroxyproline content, granuloma dry weight and decrease in scar area was observed. The prohealing actions seem to be due to increased collagen deposition as well as better alignment and maturation. From the results obtained, it may be concluded that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera has significant wound healing property.

  7. Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Ozer, E.

    1995-03-20

    At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous extract, centrifugal clarification of the hydrolysate, and recovery of the acid by continuous ion exclusion. The cost estimate indicates operating costs on the order of $0.12 to $0.15/kg xylose, in the form of xylose-rich molasses.

  8. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  9. Biological activities of aqueous and organic extracts from tropical marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Sepcić, Kristina; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Turk, Tom

    2010-04-28

    We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao) and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island). Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

  10. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  11. Antigiardial effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract in children

    PubMed Central

    Sahib, Ahmed Salih; Mohammed, Imad Hashim; Sloo, Saja Akram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite of humans identified worldwide. In spite of metronidazole (Met) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans, low patient compliance and side-effects, especially in children encourage efforts to look for new and safe agent; many plants used in folk medicine thought to have antigiardial effect, Anethum graveolens (AG) (dill) is an annual herb cultivated in Iraq used both as a medicinal agent and as food spice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract (AE) of AG leave in the treatment of giardiasis, compared with that of standard drug Met. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 28 pediatric patients of both sexes with age of <1 year ranging from 3 to 11 months, who attend to outpatient private clinic in Baghdad for a period of 6 months from June 2013 to December 2013,Patients participate in this study were allocated into two groups Group A composed of 14 patients treated with Met 15 mg/kg 3 times a day for 5 days. Group B composed of 14 patients treated with AGAE 1 ml 3 times a day for 5 days. Stool samples were collected at 0 time before administration of treatment, after 5 days and after 14 days from starting the treatments to check the efficacy of treatment. Results: Administration of AGAE results in a significant decrease in incidence of G. lamblia after 5 days of treatment indicating the efficacy of AGAE in the treatment of giardiasis a result that is comparable to that of Met. Conclusion: This study showed that pediatric patients with giardiasis may benefit from 5 days treatment with AGAE administered as 1 ml 3 times daily, the improvement in the symptom with this herbal agent was comparable to the standard pharmacological agent Met; results showed that AG is safe and tolerable over treatment course. PMID:26401357

  12. Antigiardial effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract in children.

    PubMed

    Sahib, Ahmed Salih; Mohammed, Imad Hashim; Sloo, Saja Akram

    2014-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite of humans identified worldwide. In spite of metronidazole (Met) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans, low patient compliance and side-effects, especially in children encourage efforts to look for new and safe agent; many plants used in folk medicine thought to have antigiardial effect, Anethum graveolens (AG) (dill) is an annual herb cultivated in Iraq used both as a medicinal agent and as food spice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract (AE) of AG leave in the treatment of giardiasis, compared with that of standard drug Met. A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 28 pediatric patients of both sexes with age of <1 year ranging from 3 to 11 months, who attend to outpatient private clinic in Baghdad for a period of 6 months from June 2013 to December 2013,Patients participate in this study were allocated into two groups Group A composed of 14 patients treated with Met 15 mg/kg 3 times a day for 5 days. Group B composed of 14 patients treated with AGAE 1 ml 3 times a day for 5 days. Stool samples were collected at 0 time before administration of treatment, after 5 days and after 14 days from starting the treatments to check the efficacy of treatment. Administration of AGAE results in a significant decrease in incidence of G. lamblia after 5 days of treatment indicating the efficacy of AGAE in the treatment of giardiasis a result that is comparable to that of Met. This study showed that pediatric patients with giardiasis may benefit from 5 days treatment with AGAE administered as 1 ml 3 times daily, the improvement in the symptom with this herbal agent was comparable to the standard pharmacological agent Met; results showed that AG is safe and tolerable over treatment course.

  13. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on serum lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wencheng; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Chunbo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify potential genes that may be involved in lipid metabolism in rats after treatment with aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L (burdock). Methods Rats were randomly divided into six groups: (i) control (standard diet); (ii) model group (high-fat diet only); (iii) high-fat diet and low-dose aqueous burdock root extract (2 g/kg); (iv) high-fat diet and moderate-dose aqueous burdock root extract (4 g/kg); (v) high-fat diet and high-dose aqueous burdock root extract (8 g/kg); and (vi) a positive control group exposed to a high-fat diet and simvastatin (10 mg/kg). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was performed to find the potential candidate genes involved in the modulation of blood lipids by treatment with aqueous burdock root extract. Results Burdock root extract reduced body weight and cholesterol levels in rats. KEGG analysis revealed 113 genes that were involved in metabolic pathways. Of these, 27 potential genes associated with blood lipid metabolism were identified. Conclusions Aqueous extract of burdock root reduced body weight and cholesterol in rats, possibly by modulating the differential expression of genes.

  15. In vitro evidence that an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica modulates α-synuclein aggregation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Ruben; Vasudevaraju, Padmaraju; Indi, Shantinath Satappa; Sambasiva Rao, Krothapalli Raja Surya; Rao, K S

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein aggregation is one of the major etiological factors implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevention of aggregation of α-synuclein is a potential therapeutic intervention for preventing PD. The discovery of natural products as alternative drugs to treat PD and related disorders is a current trend. The aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (CA) is traditionally used as a brain tonic and CA is known to improve cognition and memory. There are limited data on the role of CA in modulating amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the brain and in Aβ aggregation. Our study focuses on CA as a modulator of the α-synuclein aggregation pattern in vitro. Our investigation is focused on: (i) whether the CA leaf aqueous extract prevents the formation of aggregates from monomers (Phase I: α-synuclein + extract co-incubation); (ii) whether the CA aqueous extract prevents the formation of fibrils from oligomers (Phase II: extract added after oligomers formation); and (iii) whether the CA aqueous extract disintegrates the pre-formed fibrils (Phase III: extract added to mature fibrils and incubated for 9 days). The aggregation kinetics are studied using a thioflavin-T assay, circular dichroism, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the CA aqueous extract completely inhibited the α-synuclein aggregation from monomers. Further, CA extract significantly inhibited the formation of oligomer to aggregates and favored the disintegration of the preformed fibrils. The study provides an insight in finding new natural products for future PD therapeutics.

  16. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of methanol and aqueous extracts of Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Hammuel, Chrinius; Yebpella, Gary G; Shallangwa, Gideon A; Magomya, Asabe M; Agbajp, Abel S

    2011-01-01

    The methanol and the aqueous extracts of the plant, Agave sisalana were prepared and evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical analysis of the preparation revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites which include: saponins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and flavonoids. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the crude methanol and aqueous extract of the Agave sisalana were investigated. The extract showed antimicrobial activities against the test organisms with different zones of inhibition ranging from 28-32 mm and 25-29 mm for methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the methanol and aqueous extract was between 10-20 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 20-40 mg/mL for both extracts. The investigation indicated that the methanol extract inhibited the growth of the microbes more than the aqueous extract. The ability of the crude extracts of A. sisalana to inhibit the growth of the microbes is an indication of its antimicrobial potential, which may be employed in the management of microbial infections.

  17. Antihypertensive properties of spinach leaf protein digests.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjun; Marczak, Ewa D; Usui, Hachiro; Kawamura, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2004-04-21

    Leaf protein containing approximately 50% rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) was obtained from fresh spinach leaf with the use of a simple extraction method. Pepsin and pepsin-pancreatin digests of spinach leaf protein have potent angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory properties with IC(50) values of 56 and 120 microg/mL, respectively. Both digests of leaf protein have antihypertensive effects after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with minimum effective doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively. The maximum antihypertensive effect for the pepsin digest was observed 4 h after oral administration, while for the pepsin-pancreatin digest, the maximum effect was observed 2 h after oral administration. Undigested spinach leaf protein did not exert any significant antihypertensive effect after oral administration to SHR at doses of 0.5 and 1 g/kg. Obtained results show that the pepsin digest of leaf protein may be useful in treatment of hypertension.

  18. Extraction and Analysis of C60, C70 and PCBM in Aqueous Suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this work is to develop sampling and analytical methodologies for extracting and quantifying fullerenes in aqueous colloidal suspensions. Sampling and analysis of colloidal suspensions pose some unique challenges not encountered when working with true solutions. For...

  19. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye

    2015-01-01

    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives.

  20. [Antipyretic effect of aqueous extract and alcaloid of Tinospora bakis (Miers) in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Zafinindra, L R; Diatta, W; Dieye, A M; Nongonierma, R; Faye, B; Bassene, E

    2003-01-01

    Lyophilised aqueous extract and alcaloidic totum (basic form) from roots of Tinospora bakis (Miers) have been tested with hyperthermic rabbits by sub-cutaneous administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixture at 2g/kg. Total aqueous extract had been orally administrated at three doses: 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg and we obtained significant antipyretic effects at 300 and 600 mg/kg. With the alcaloidic totum at 2.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg (per os) corresponding to 150 and 600 mg/kg of the aqueous extract, we have observed significant antipyretic effects as compared with those of Aspirin used as reference product. These results show that aqueous extract of Tinospora bakis (Miers) has an antipyretic effect and total alcaloids could account for this activity.

  1. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  2. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    PubMed

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+).

  3. Studies of the DOM aqueous extracts from coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariadou, F.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major exchangeable organic pool playing an outstanding role in the ocean carbon cycle. It has a complex chemical structure made up of a wide range of organic molecules. The composition of DOM depends on the sources proximity and the exposure to any sort of degradation mechanism. The coloured (or chromophoric) dissolved organic matter (CDOM), representing the optically active fraction of DOM, consists of aromatic rings able to absorb light in the visible and UV regions (Kirk, 1994) and fluorophoric molecules that emit light. The main fluorophoric moieties of CDOM are humic material with a blue fluorescence and protein material with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (Mopper and Schultz, 1993). Dissolved organic matter interacts with pollutants either by enhancing their bioavailability or by influencing their transportation to the soluble phase. In addition, DOM affects the remineralisation of carbon and its preservation in marine sediments. Referring to its origin, it can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine one. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique widely applied for the identification and characterization of organic matter, being fast, simple, non-destructive and sensitive. In addition, the fluorescence analysis for the physico-chemical characterization of organic matter requires a small amount of aqueous sample at a low concentration, in comparison with the large sample volumes needed for conventional techniques. At the present study coastal sediment samples were collected from Messiniakos gulf in the south western Peloponnese in South Greece. Messiniakos gulf has a seabed dominated by very abrupt inclinations reaching depths of more than 1000m. All samples, according to their grain size, are classified as fine clayey silt. Dissolved organic matter was extracted under gentle extraction conditions (4 mM CaCl2 solution). The various classes of organic components present at the DOM aqueous extracts were characterised by

  4. Antioxidant ability and total phenolic content of aqueous leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we carried out a systematic research on relative antioxidant activity of aqueous leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana. The DPPH activity of aqueous leaf extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 40.00-72.37% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of aqueous extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 83.45 and 26.75 μg/ml, respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 56.73 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly potent when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The aqueous extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 100.86, 98.73 and 100.86 μg/ml, respectively. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effects as shown by the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana.

  5. Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous Extract Is a Potential Biofilm Inhibitor in S. suis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jingwen; Yang, Yanbei; Wang, Shuai; Gao, Lingfei; Chen, Jianqing; Ren, Yongzhi; Ding, Wenya; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Li, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S. suis. Using iTRAQ technology, comparative proteomic analyses was performed at two conditions: 1/2 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract treated and non-treated cells. The results revealed the existence of 28 proteins of varying amounts. We found that the majority of the proteins were related to cell growth and metabolism. We also found that Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous extract affected the synthesis enzymes. In summary, Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract might be used to inhibit the biofilm formation effectively by S. suis, and the active ingredients of the Syringa oblate Lindl. aqueous extract is rutin. The content of rutin is 9.9 ± 0.089 mg/g dry weight. PMID:28194111

  6. Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous Extract Is a Potential Biofilm Inhibitor in S. suis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jingwen; Yang, Yanbei; Wang, Shuai; Gao, Lingfei; Chen, Jianqing; Ren, Yongzhi; Ding, Wenya; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Li, Yanhua

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease symptoms in pigs and humans. Syringa oblata Lindl. distributed in the middle latitudes of Eurasia and North America were proved as the most development potential of Chinese Medicine. In this study, biofilm formation by S. suis decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract and rutin against biofilm formation by S. suis. Using iTRAQ technology, comparative proteomic analyses was performed at two conditions: 1/2 MIC of Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract treated and non-treated cells. The results revealed the existence of 28 proteins of varying amounts. We found that the majority of the proteins were related to cell growth and metabolism. We also found that Syringa oblata Lindl. Aqueous extract affected the synthesis enzymes. In summary, Syringa oblata Lindl. aqueous extract might be used to inhibit the biofilm formation effectively by S. suis, and the active ingredients of the Syringa oblate Lindl. aqueous extract is rutin. The content of rutin is 9.9 ± 0.089 mg/g dry weight.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  8. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells.

  9. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Saulo M; Silva, Pâmela S; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2010-06-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa.

  10. Effect of an aqueous extract of black walnut (Juglans nigra) on isolated equine digital vessels.

    PubMed

    Galey, F D; Beasley, V R; Schaeffer, D; Davis, L E

    1990-01-01

    An aqueous extract was made from black walnut (Juglans nigra) heartwood obtained in the fall of the year. Ten hours after nasogastric administration of 5 L of the extract, a 550-kg, 13-yr-old Quarter Horse gelding experienced Obel grade-3 laminitis. The effect of aqueous extract of black walnut on vascular contractility was then tested, using isolated equine digital arteries and veins. The vessels were maintained in Krebs bicarbonate buffer with 95% oxygen at 37 C. The extract did not induce a direct contractile effect. It did, however, reversibly enhance the vasoconstriction induced in the isolated vessels by administration of epinephrine potentiated with hydrocortisone. In contrast, aqueous extracts made, using the same techniques, from the shavings of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), and pin oak (Quercus palustrus) had no effect on epinephrine-induced digital vessel contractions.

  11. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  12. [Optimize aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao formula by orthogonal experiment design].

    PubMed

    Rao, Li; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Li, Qing-Nan; Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    To determine the optimum aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao traditional Chinese medicines formula by using orthogonal experiment design. Through serum pharmacology research, L9(34) orthogonal design with single factor investigation was used to optimize the aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao formula. The effect of water extraction on activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteoblast was referred as the evaluation index for investigating four factors: water consumption (A), heating time (B), soaking time (C), and number of decocting (D), analyzing the optimum extraction conditions, and verifying the effectiveness of this process. The optimum aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao was as follows: adding 8 times water into Chinese medical materials, heating for 60 min, soaking for 30 min, and decocting for 1 time. The drug serum of this aqueous extract of Yugubao could significantly up-regulate the osteogenic genes expression. The optimum aqueous extract protocol for Yugubao formula was established in this experiment, providing evidence for the development and utilization of Yugubao traditional Chinese medicines formula. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticonvulsant and depressant effects of aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Khaloobagheri, Fatemeh; Esmaeili, Hossein

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds (CCS) were evaluated in kindling models of epilepsy. Additionally, the sedative and anxiolytic effects of the extract were assessed. For pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling, rats received a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg, ip) every second day and seizure stages were recorded. CCS aqueous extract (200, 400, or 600 mg/kg, ip) was injected 30 minutes prior to each PTZ injection. In electrical kindling, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically in the right basolateral amygdala of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After kindling, the effect of aqueous extracts of CCS (200, 400, or 600 mg/kg, ip) on afterdischarge duration, duration of rearing, forelimb clonus, and loss of equilibrium (stage 5 seizure), and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonus were measured. The sedative and the anxiolytic effects of CCS extracts were evaluated in an open-field apparatus and elevated plus maze, respectively. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of CCS have a significant anticonvulsant effect. Different doses of extract significantly delayed the incidence of every seizure stage in the PTZ model of kindling. Moreover, CCS extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, ip) suppressed afterdischarge duration, latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonus, and stage 5 seizure in the electrical kindling model. These results suggest that CCS extract has remarkable antiepileptic and central depressant effects.

  15. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  16. Extraction of metal ions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-inorganic salt two-phase systems in the presence of inorganic extractants: correlation between extraction behaviour and stability constants of extracted species.

    PubMed

    Bulgariu, Laura; Bulgariu, Dumitru

    2008-07-04

    The use of aqueous polyethylene glycol-inorganic salt two-phase systems for the extraction of metal ions has a great potential due to their durability, non-toxicity and relative low cost. The aqueous phases can be easily separated by centrifugation, and the operation is possible in a range of experimental conditions. The experimental results have shown that for a given aqueous two-phase system, the extraction behaviour of metal ions in presence of inorganic extractants is mainly dependent on the stability of extracted species. In this paper we review our results obtained at metal ion extraction using inorganic extractants and discuss three major types of extraction behaviours.

  17. Extraction of steroidal glucosiduronic acids from aqueous solutions by anionic liquid ion-exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Vernon R.; Litwiller, Robert D.; Goodrich, June E.

    1972-01-01

    A pilot study on the extraction of three steroidal glucosiduronic acids from water into organic solutions of liquid ion-exchangers is reported. A single extraction of a 0.5mm aqueous solution of either 11-deoxycorticosterone 21-glucosiduronic acid or cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid with 0.1m-tetraheptylammonium chloride in chloroform took more than 99% of the conjugate into the organic phase; under the same conditions, the very polar conjugate, β-cortol 3-glucosiduronic acid, was extracted to the extent of 43%. The presence of a small amount of chloride, acetate, or sulphate ion in the aqueous phase inhibited extraction, but making the aqueous phase 4.0m with ammonium sulphate promoted extraction strongly. An increase in the concentration of ion-exchanger in the organic phase also promoted extraction. The amount of cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid extracted by tetraheptylammonium chloride over the pH range of 3.9 to 10.7 was essentially constant. Chloroform solutions of a tertiary, a secondary, or a primary amine hydrochloride also will extract cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid from water. The various liquid ion exchangers will extract steroidal glucosiduronic acid methyl esters from water into chloroform, although less completely than the corresponding free acids. The extraction of the glucosiduronic acids from water by tetraheptylammonium chloride occurs by an ion-exchange process; extraction of the esters does not involve ion exchange. PMID:5075264

  18. Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activity of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Sargassum incisifolium Aqueous Extracts.

    PubMed

    Mmola, Mokone; Roes-Hill, Marilize Le; Durrell, Kim; Bolton, John J; Sibuyi, Nicole; Meyer, Mervin E; Beukes, Denzil R; Antunes, Edith

    2016-12-02

    A detailed, methodical approach was used to synthesise silver and gold nanoparticles using two differently prepared aqueous extracts of the brown algae Sargassum incisifolium. The efficiency of the extracts in producing nanoparticles were compared to commercially available brown algal fucoidans, a major constituent of brown algal aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles were characterised using TEM, XRD and UV/Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The rate of nanoparticle formation was assessed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and related to the size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles as revealed by TEM. The antioxidant, reducing power and total polyphenolic contents of the aqueous extracts and fucoidans were determined, revealing that the aqueous extracts with the highest contents produced smaller, spherical, more monodisperse nanoparticles at a faster rate. The nanoparticles were assessed against two gram-negative bacteria, two gram-positive bacteria and one yeast strain. In contrast to the literature, the silver nanoparticles produced using the aqueous extracts were particularly toxic to Gram-negative bacteria, while the gold nanoparticles lacked activity. The cytotoxic activity of the nanoparticles was also evaluated against cancerous (HT-29, MCF-7) and non-cancerous (MCF-12a) cell lines. The silver nanoparticles displayed selectivity, since the MCF-12a cell line was found to be resistant to the nanoparticles, while the cancerous HT-29 cell line was found to be sensitive (10% viability). The gold nanoparticles displayed negligible toxicity.

  19. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25 g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7 days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice.

  20. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  1. Mechanism of aqueous fructus aurantii immaturus extracts in neuroplexus of cathartic colons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Yi; Liu, Yan-Ping; Fan, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Lu; Cai, Li-Jun; Lv, Bin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of aqueous fructus aurantii immaturus (FAI) extracts on the intestinal plexus of cathartic colons. METHODS: Cathartic colons were induced in rats with dahuang, a laxative used in traditional Chinese medicine. Once the model was established (after approximately 12 wk), rats were administered mosapride (1.54 mg/kg) or various doses of aqueous FAI extracts (1-4 g/kg) for 14 d. Transit function was assessed using an ink propulsion test. Rats were then sacrificed, and the ultramicrostructure of colonic tissue was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The expression of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HTR4) and neurofilament-H was assessed in colon tissues using real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Mosapride and high dose (4 g/kg) of aqueous FAI extracts significantly improved the bowel movement in cathartic colons compared to untreated model colons as measured by the intestinal transit rate (70.06 ± 7.25 and 72.02 ± 8.74, respectively, vs 64.12 ± 5.19; P < 0.05 for both). Compared to controls, the ultramicrostructure of cathartic colons showed signs of neural degeneration. Treatment with mosapride and aqueous FAI extracts resulted in recovery of ultrastructural pathology. Treatment with mosapride alone upregulated the gene and protein expression of 5-HTR4 compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05 for both). Treatment with aqueous FAI extracts (≥ 2 g/kg) increased 5-HTR4 mRNA levels (P < 0.05), but no change in protein level was observed by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein levels of neurofilament-H were significantly increased with mosapride and ≥ 2 g/kg aqueous FAI extracts compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: Aqueous FAI extracts and mosapride strengthen bowel movement in cathartic colons via increasing the expression of 5-HTR4 and neurofilament-H. PMID:26309361

  2. Mechanism of aqueous fructus aurantii immaturus extracts in neuroplexus of cathartic colons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Yi; Liu, Yan-Ping; Fan, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Lu; Cai, Li-Jun; Lv, Bin

    2015-08-21

    To examine the effect of aqueous fructus aurantii immaturus (FAI) extracts on the intestinal plexus of cathartic colons. Cathartic colons were induced in rats with dahuang, a laxative used in traditional Chinese medicine. Once the model was established (after approximately 12 wk), rats were administered mosapride (1.54 mg/kg) or various doses of aqueous FAI extracts (1-4 g/kg) for 14 d. Transit function was assessed using an ink propulsion test. Rats were then sacrificed, and the ultramicrostructure of colonic tissue was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The expression of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HTR4) and neurofilament-H was assessed in colon tissues using real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Mosapride and high dose (4 g/kg) of aqueous FAI extracts significantly improved the bowel movement in cathartic colons compared to untreated model colons as measured by the intestinal transit rate (70.06 ± 7.25 and 72.02 ± 8.74, respectively, vs 64.12 ± 5.19; P < 0.05 for both). Compared to controls, the ultramicrostructure of cathartic colons showed signs of neural degeneration. Treatment with mosapride and aqueous FAI extracts resulted in recovery of ultrastructural pathology. Treatment with mosapride alone upregulated the gene and protein expression of 5-HTR4 compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05 for both). Treatment with aqueous FAI extracts (≥ 2 g/kg) increased 5-HTR4 mRNA levels (P < 0.05), but no change in protein level was observed by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein levels of neurofilament-H were significantly increased with mosapride and ≥ 2 g/kg aqueous FAI extracts compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). Aqueous FAI extracts and mosapride strengthen bowel movement in cathartic colons via increasing the expression of 5-HTR4 and neurofilament-H.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6%) and gallic acid (96%). Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24%) and Gallic (94.82%). Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:20470421

  4. Separation of chemical groups from bio-oil aqueous phase via sequential organic solvent extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2017-01-05

    Bio-oil aqueous phase contains a considerable amount of furans, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and phenolics besides the major components of organic acids and anhydrosugars. The complexity of bio-oil aqueous phase limits its efficient utilization. To improve the efficiency of bio-oil biorefinery, this study focused on the separation of chemical groups from bio-oil aqueous phase via sequential organic solvent extractions. Due to their high recoverability and low solubility in water, four solvents (hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate) with different polarities were evaluated, and the optimum process conditions for chemical extraction were determined. Chloroform had high extraction efficiency for furans, phenolics,more » and ketones. In addition to these chemical groups, ethyl acetate had high extraction efficiency for organic acids. The sequential extraction by using chloroform followed by ethyl acetate rendered that 62.2 wt.% of original furans, ketones, alcohols, and phenolics were extracted to chloroform, over 62 wt.% acetic acid was extracted to ethyl acetate, resulting in a high concentration of levoglucosan (~53.0 wt.%) in the final aqueous phase. Chemicals separated via the sequential extraction could be used as feedstocks in biorefinery using processes such as catalytic upgrading of furans and phenolics to hydrocarbons, fermentation of levoglucosan to produce alcohols and diols, and hydrogen production from organic acids via microbial electrolysis.« less

  5. Extraction of certain elements from aqueous methanol, ethanol and acetone by tridodecylamine and tributyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Khalifa, H

    1968-02-01

    The extraction of silver, mercury, selenium, zinc, cobalt and iron with tridodecylamine (TDA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) from hydrochloric acid solutions in aqueous methanol, ethanol and acetone is reported. The presence of these additives increases extraction for some elements and decreases it for others. The effect is generally greater with TDA than with TBP.

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, F.R.

    1962-07-24

    A solvent extraction process was developed for separating actinide elements including plutonium and uranium from fission products. By this method the ion content of the acidic aqueous solution is adjusted so that it contains more equivalents of total metal ions than equivalents of nitrate ions. Under these conditions the extractability of fission products is greatly decreased. (AEC)

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, H M; Ansari, S H; Ali, M; Bhat, Z A; Naved, T

    2005-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium wood was screened for hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. During both acute and sub-acute tests, the water extract, at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg, showed statistically significant hypoglycemic activity.

  8. NMR Spectroscopy of Aqueous Extracts of Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum- graecum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Matveichuk, S. V.; Karankevich, E. G.; Agabalaeva, E. D.; Reshetnikov, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The amino-acid and monosaccharide compositions of aqueous extracts of fenugreek herb were determined using PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The content of identified extract constituents was >70 mol%, of which the dominant amino acid was 4-hydroxyisoleucine (26.5 mol%); the major carbohydrate, glucose (10.1 mol%).

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  11. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting α-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  13. Aqueous two-phase assisted by ultrasound for the extraction of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr.

    PubMed

    Qin, Benlin; Liu, Xuecong; Cui, Haiming; Ma, Yue; Wang, Zimin; Han, Jing

    2017-07-14

    In this study, an efficient ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction method was used for the extraction of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. An ethanol/ammonium sulfate system was chosen for the aqueous two-phase system due to its fine partitioning and recycling behaviors. Single-factor experiments were conducted to determine the optimized composition of the system, and the response surface methodology was used for the further optimization of the ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction. The optimal conditions were as follows: a salt concentration of 20%, an ethanol concentration of 25%, an extraction time of 33.7 min, an extraction temperature of 25°C, a liquid/solid ratio of 50:1 w/w, pH value of 3.98, and an ultrasound power of 600 W. Under the above conditions, the yields of anthocyanins reached 4.71 mg/g dry sample. For the further purification, D-101 resin was used, and the purity of anthocyanins reached 25.3%. In conclusion, ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction was an efficient, ecofriendly, and economical method, and it may be a promising technique for extracting bioactive components from plants.

  14. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. (31)P NMR phospholipid profiling of soybean emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Jung, Stephanie

    2010-04-28

    The quantity and composition of phospholipids in full-fat soybean flour, flakes, and extruded flakes and in the cream fraction recovered after aqueous extraction (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAEP) of these substrates were studied with (31)P NMR. Extruded flakes had significantly more phosphatidic acid (PA) than flakes and flour prior to aqueous extraction. The PA content of the cream recovered after AEP and EAEP of extruded flakes was similar to that of the starting material, whereas the PA content of the creams from flour and flakes significantly increased. Changes in the PA content could be explained by the action of phospholipase D during the processing step and aqueous extraction. Total phospholipids in the oil recovered from the creams varied from 0.09 to 0.75%, and free oil yield, which is an indicator of cream stability, varied from 6 to 78%. Total phospholipid did not correlate with emulsion stability when it was lower than 0.20%. Inactivation of phospholipase D prior to aqueous extraction of flour resulted in a cream emulsion less stable toward enzymatic demulsification and containing less PA and total phospholipids than untreated flour. The phospholipid distributions in the cream, skim, and insolubles obtained from AEP flour were 7, 51, and 42%, respectively.

  16. Vasorelaxant action of aqueous extract of the leaves of Persea americana on isolated thoracic rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Mbang A; Jaja, Smith I; Coker, Herbert A B

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the vasorelaxant action of the aqueous leaves extract of Persea americana on isolated rat aorta. The results showed that the extract produced significant vasorelaxation and that the effect is dependent on the synthesis or release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) as well as the release of prostanoid. The extract also reduced vasoconstriction probably by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through calcium channels.

  17. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice.

    PubMed

    Adeneye, A A; Amole, O O; Adeneye, A K

    2006-12-01

    The effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extracts of Phyllanthus amarus at oral dose of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg was investigated for their antidiabetic and anti-lipidemic potentials. The extract produced a dose-dependent decrease in the fasting plasma glucose and cholesterol, and reduction in weights in treated mice. The results suggest that the extract could be enhancing peripheral utilization of glucose but the mechanisms on how this works remain unclear.

  18. Solvent extraction separation of trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions using an aqueous aminomethanediphosphonic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.

    1998-10-14

    The possibility of separating the trivalent lanthanides, represented by EU{sup 3+}, and actinides, represented by Cf{sup 3+}, using HDEHP in toluene and an aqueous phase containing N-piperidinomethane-1,1-diphosphotic acid, PMDPA, has been investigated. This modified aqueous phase offers potential advantages over the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid based TALSPEAK process because of the improved complexation properties of PMDPA in acidic solutions, and the ability to decompose PMDPA before disposal. Extraction experiments were conducted at 25 C in 2 M NaClO{sub 4} between -log [H{sup +}] 1 and 2. The studies enabled us to derive the aqueous phase speciation, the stability constants of the aqueous complexes, and the Cf/Eu separation factors. Despite the presence of an amino group in PMDPA that should favor the retention of the actinides in the aqueous phase, the Cf/Eu separation factors are near unity under the conditions studied.

  19. Hypoglycemic effect of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich.) Hochst.] [Anacardiaceae] stem-bark aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2003-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich.) Hochst.] subspecies caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro [family: Anacardiaceae] stem-bark aqueous extract in normal (normoglycemic) and in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, diabetic Wistar rats. In one set of experiments, graded doses of S. birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SB, 100-800 mg/kg p.o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, a single dose of the plant aqueous extract (SB, 800 mg/kg p.o.) was used. The hypoglycemic effect of this single dose (SB, 800 mg/kg p.o.) of S. birrea stem-bark aqueous extract was compared with that of chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) in both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of S. birrea stem-bark extract (SB, 100-800 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (P < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) also produced significant reductions (P < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of the fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Administrations of the single dose of S. birrea stem-bark aqueous extract (SB, 800 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced (P 0.01 < 0.001) the blood glucose levels of both fasted normal (normoglycemic) and fasted STZ-treated, diabetic rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that aqueous extract of Sclerocarya birrea possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lend credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some African communities.

  20. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of selected species used in livestock health management.

    PubMed

    Mudzengi, Clarice P; Murwira, Amon; Tivapasi, Musa; Murungweni, Chrispen; Burumu, Joan V; Halimani, Tinyiko

    2017-12-01

    Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae), Colophospermum mopane (J.Kirk ex Benth.) J. Léonard (Leguminosae) and Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. (Leguminosae) crude extracts are used by local farmers against many livestock infections with little or no side effects usually associated with synthetic antimicrobials. However, their efficacy has rarely been tested. These plants were tested for potential antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC33862 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the crude plant extracts were determined. Aqueous and methanol extraction of 100 g each of the bark of C. mopane, roots of D. cinerea and leaves of S. persica was done by placing the samples in 250 mL of either water or methanol. Nutrient broth was used as growth medium for the bacteria, and McFarland standard for bacterial standardization. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) was the indicator salt. Each of the aqueous and methanol extracts (100 μL) was tested. Gentamycin and ampicillin were the controls. MIC of aqueous extracts ranged from 1.03-14.6 mg/mL against S. aureus, and from 12.1-34.3 mg/mL against E. coli. Methanol extracts ranged between 5.31 and 9.64 mg/mL against S. aureus, and between 7.86 and 13.6 mg/mL against E. coli. Aqueous and methanol extracts of S. persica were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than C. mopane and D. cinerea. Colophospermum mopane, S. persica and D. cinerea exhibited antibacterial activity, with methanol extracts performing better than aqueous extracts, justifying use as ethnoveterinary medicine. Further study to isolate the active components should be pursued.

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract.

  2. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous Shallot and Garlic Extracts in Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract. PMID:18299719

  3. Proteomics analysis of MKN45 cell line before and after treatment with Lavender aqueous extract

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Heydari-Kashal, Saeid; Kalantari, Shiva; Dailian, Sona; Zali, Hakimeh

    2012-01-01

    Aim In this study the anticancer activity of Lavender aqueous extract against MKN45 cell line was evaluated. Background Plant-based drugs are regarded as promising therapies. Lavender is a plant that has been cultivated from ancient times. An aqueous extract of Lavender has shown therapeutic effects on the nervous system in the high doses based on in-vivo studies. Gastric cancer is one of the frequent cancers in Iranian population. We therefore assessed the effect of Lavender upon a gastric cancer cell line. Patients and methods The MKN45 cancer cell line was selected for treatment with aqueous extract of Lavender. Survival of MKN45 cell line was studied in the presence of various concentrations of Lavender extract by MTT assay method. Morphological studies were performed via microscopic analyses. Flow cytometry and proteomics techniques were applied to determining pharmaceutical mechanism of lavender cytotoxic effects. Results The survival and morphological studies revealed anticancer characteristics of extract. Flow cytometry findings indicate that Lavender extract had a cytotoxic effect upon the cell line. Proteomics analysis identified a significant alternation in gastric cellular proteome expression after treating with the extract. Among 1000 spots, more than 700 spots showed changes in protein expression levels by informatics analysis. Of these proteins, expression of three cancer biomarkers, Annexin1, Anolase1 and HSP70 were suppressed by extract. Conclusion This study suggests that Lavender extract is cytotoxic and alter protein expression in a gastric cancer cell line. PMID:24834196

  4. Interfacial stabilization of organic-aqueous two-phase microflows for a miniaturized DNA extraction module.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Varun; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2005-06-01

    Organic-aqueous liquid (phenol) extraction is one of many standard techniques to efficiently purify DNA directly from cells. The cell components naturally distribute themselves into the two fluid phases in order to minimize interaction energies of the biological components with the surrounding solvents. The membrane components and protein partition to the interface between the organic and aqueous phases while the DNA stays in the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is then removed with a purified DNA sample. This work studies the first steps towards miniaturizing this liquid extraction technique in a microfluidic device. The first step is to understand how the two liquid phases behave in microchannels. Due to the interfacial tension between the two liquid phases, novel approaches must be examined in order to obtain interfacial stability under flow conditions. The stability of the organic-aqueous interface is improved by reducing the interfacial tension between the two phases by incorporating a surfactant into the aqueous phase. The variation of the interfacial tension as a function of surfactant concentration is also quantified in this work. This has led to the ability to create stable stratified microflows in both a dual inlet and three inlet microfluidic systems. Also, the first step in understanding biological interactions at the organic-aqueous interface is investigated using a fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin protein.

  5. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora on candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Omran, Saeid Mahdavi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shafiee, Faranak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs activity, the research on herbal substances with antifungal activity is frequent. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a member of Verbenaceae family. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-candida activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the lemon verbena leaves and compare them with nystatin and fluconazole. Methods In this 2015 study, 15 clinical isolates and standard strain of candida albicans PTCC 5027 were used, and the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, Nystatin and Fluconazole, were evaluated using disk and well diffusion methods. Also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Five concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (156–2500 μg/ml), Nystatin (8–128 μg/ml) and Fluconazole (4–64 μg/ml) were used in disk and well diffusion methods, and nine concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (19–5000 μg/ml), Nystatin (0.5–128 μg/ml), and Fluconazole (0.25–64 μg/ml) were applied for MIC. Data were analyzed using Tukey’s post-hoc and one-way ANOVA tests. The significant level was considered p < 0.05 in the current study. Results In the well and disk diffusion techniques, limited growth inhibition halos were produced around some clinical isolates at different concentrations of ethanolic extract; however, no growth inhibitory halo was observed with any concentrations of the aqueous extract. The MIC values of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, Nystatin and Fluconazole for clinical isolated and standard strain were 833 ± 78.5and 625μg/ml; 4156 ± 67.4 and 2500 μg/ml; 10.13 ± 1.91 and 4 μg/ml; and 1.97 ± 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that the ethanolic extract was stronger than the aqueous extract of this plant, which can be used as an alternative for drugs. It is recommended that the ethanolic extract of this plant be investigated in vivo for better

  6. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora on candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Omran, Saeid Mahdavi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shafiee, Faranak

    2016-08-01

    Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs activity, the research on herbal substances with antifungal activity is frequent. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a member of Verbenaceae family. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-candida activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the lemon verbena leaves and compare them with nystatin and fluconazole. In this 2015 study, 15 clinical isolates and standard strain of candida albicans PTCC 5027 were used, and the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, Nystatin and Fluconazole, were evaluated using disk and well diffusion methods. Also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Five concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (156-2500 μg/ml), Nystatin (8-128 μg/ml) and Fluconazole (4-64 μg/ml) were used in disk and well diffusion methods, and nine concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (19-5000 μg/ml), Nystatin (0.5-128 μg/ml), and Fluconazole (0.25-64 μg/ml) were applied for MIC. Data were analyzed using Tukey's post-hoc and one-way ANOVA tests. The significant level was considered p < 0.05 in the current study. In the well and disk diffusion techniques, limited growth inhibition halos were produced around some clinical isolates at different concentrations of ethanolic extract; however, no growth inhibitory halo was observed with any concentrations of the aqueous extract. The MIC values of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, Nystatin and Fluconazole for clinical isolated and standard strain were 833 ± 78.5and 625μg/ml; 4156 ± 67.4 and 2500 μg/ml; 10.13 ± 1.91 and 4 μg/ml; and 1.97 ± 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. The results showed that the ethanolic extract was stronger than the aqueous extract of this plant, which can be used as an alternative for drugs. It is recommended that the ethanolic extract of this plant be investigated in vivo for better evaluation of its efficacy and properties.

  7. Opposite effects of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb aqueous extracts on blood coagulation function

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wufeng; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Background Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (APL) has showed anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities in some studies, whereas its actual effects on blood coagulation are still unclear. This study was designed to observe the in vitro effects of APL aqueous extracts on blood coagulation, as well as to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Studies were divided into four groups: 0, 4, 20, and 80 g/L of APL aqueous extracts mixed with plasma or whole blood samples. Clotting time of whole blood, plasma coagulation tests, activities of plasma coagulation factors, plasma calcium ion, platelet aggregation test, and platelet fibrinogen receptor as well as the blood viscosity were measured. Results It was observed that the APL aqueous extracts in 4 g/L significantly prolonged the whole blood clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time, shortened prothrombin time, decreased activities of coagulation factor VIII, IX and XI, and levels of platelet aggregation and fibrinogen receptor expression. However, coagulation factor VII activity, and blood viscosity were increased after the extracts treatment. And the effects of APL extracts were in a concentration-dependent manner (0–80 g/L). Conclusions The results suggest that APL aqueous extracts have a total anticoagulant activity, whereas they exhibit opposite effects of greater anticoagulant activity than pro-coagulant activity. PMID:28480193

  8. Evaluation of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (L.) on Fertility of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, L. Dinithi. C.; Dhanushka, M. A. T.; Jayathilake, T. A. H. D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of Cardiospermum halicacabum for 30 days produced a significant dose dependent increase in the sperm counts and sperm motility in both caput and cauda regions. Further, significant increase in serum testosterone level was evident at all applied doses. However, no significant changes in the weight of sex organs were observed. Aqueous leaf extract also increased the number of females impregnated, number of implantations, and number of viable fetuses while decreasing the total number of resorption sites in the pregnant females. However, the total cholesterol level in the serum remained unchanged and there were no records on renotoxicity; nevertheless ALE exhibited a hepatoprotective effect. It was concluded that aqueous leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum enhanced sperm concentration, motility, and testosterone, leading to positive results in fertility. PMID:26064883

  9. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks on dental plaque: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Penmatsa, Tanuja; Kumar, Alapati Kranthi; Reddy, M. Narendra; Gautam, Nalam Sai; Gautam, Nalam Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The anti-microbial efficacy of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks against different kinds of plaque bacteria in vitro was investigated. Supra-gingival plaque is cultured and subjected to the antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts of chewing sticks (Neem, Acacia, Pongamia glabra, Achyranthes aspera, Streblus asper) separately. The results of the study demonstrate that all the five chewing sticks under study possess inhibitory potential against bacteria present in dental plaque mainly on aerobes. The antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts has antibacterial effects and could be used as a therapeutic agent and therefore, it appears to be potent anti-microbial agents that could be considered as a medicinal plant. Results of this study showed chewing sticks contained antibacterial agents, but the concentration and composition of the active substances differed among the plants. PMID:25210357

  10. Aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae): assessment of antioxidant capacity and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Erika; Nigro, Marcela M López; Reides, Claudia G; Llesuy, Susana; Ricco, Rafael A; Wagner, Marcelo L; Gurni, Alberto A; Carballo, Marta A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to make a contribution to the knowledge of aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae; infusion and decoction) in relation with the establishment of its antioxidant activity and lack of DNA damage, for its potential use in therapeutics. The cytogenotoxic profile was evaluated through genotoxic biomarkers such as mitotic index, cellular proliferation kinetics, sister chromatid exchanges, single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. No statistical differences were found (P > .05) between control and exposed cultures, even between both aqueous extracts. The total antioxidant capacity was shown to be higher in the decoction than in the infusion and both aqueous extracts protected against protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, the decoction being more efficient than the infusion (P < .005). These results suggest the safe use of these medicinal plants as chemoecologic agents in therapeutics.

  11. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  12. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Evangeline E; Pulwale, Anubha V; Patil, Gauri A; Moghe, Alpana S

    2016-01-01

    Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed relatively less potential to stimulate cells but had prominent cytotoxic

  13. [Determination of uranium in spinach].

    PubMed

    Kishi, Eri; Yutani, Aiko; Ozaki, Asako; Shinya, Masanao; Katahira, Kenshi; Ooshima, Tomoko; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    After the severe accident at the Fukushima-1 Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, radioactive contamination of food has become a matter of serious concern in Japan. There is considerable information about radioactive iodine and cesium, but little is known about uranium contamination. We determined uranium content in spinach by the Japanese official method (Manual on Radiation Measurement of Food in Emergency Situations). In the preliminary study, we confirmed that the use of a microwave digestion system for preparing the test solution of spinach could shorten the testing time and give acceptable results. The manual recommends the use of two elements (Tl and Bi) as internal standards for measurement of uranium by ICP-MS. We found that Tl was more suitable than Bi to quantify trace amounts of uranium in spinach. However, it was necessary to determine Tl or Bi concentrations in the sample before analysis, since some samples of spinach contained significant amounts of these elements. The uranium contents of 9 spinach samples bought in April and May 2011 were less than 10 μg/kg, which are very low compared to the provisional regulatory limit in Japan.

  14. Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Barry, J A; Abdel-Hassan, I A; Jawad, A M; al-Hakiem, M H

    2000-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract was investigated using 20 male volunteers aged 20-30 years. They were randomly treated with either 40 mg/kg aqueous extract powder in 10 mL distilled water or 10 mL distilled water in which coffee simulated the extract. The extract significantly lowered blood glucose level by 13.4% 4 hours after ingestion. A significant change of 14.1% was observed in potassium levels. No significant alteration in serum cholesterol, total serum protein and blood urea occurred. Approximately one-third experienced feelings of hunger, frequency of micturition or dizziness during the 24 hours after ingestion. The aqueous extract effectively reduced blood glucose in normal subjects safely. Its hypokalaemic effect merits further investigation.

  15. Phytochemical properties and cytotoxicity evaluation of the aqueous extracts from Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakoush, Sumaia Mohamed Mohamed; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Adam, Jumaat; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, phytochemical properties and cytotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Rafflesia cantleyi bud parts were done. Three bud parts including disk, bract and perigone tube were extracted in water to produce crude aqueous extract. Cytotoxic activity of R. cantleyi bud parts was assessed by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against normal cells Vero, 3T3 cell lines and mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The CC50 value against Vero, 3T3 and PBMC cells were equal or more than 125 µg/ml indicating the non-cytotoxic effect of the bud parts extracts. The finding revealed that crude extracts of all the tested bud parts contained potential bioactive compounds which can be used for various biological activities and have no cytotoxicity to selected normal cells.

  16. Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk fiber aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Alviano, Daniela S; Rodrigues, Karen F; Leitão, Suzana G; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Matheus, Maria Eline; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Alviano, Celuta S

    2004-06-01

    In the current study, the analgesic and free radical scavenging properties of an aqueous extract from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) were demonstrated by the use of in vivo and in vitro models. The orally administered Cocos nucifera aqueous extract (200 or 400 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. Tail flick and hot plate assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with this plant extract at 200 mg/kg induced attenuation in the response to a heat stimulus. A LD(50) of 2.30 g/kg was obtained in acute toxicity tests. Topic treatment of rabbits with the Cocos nucifera extract indicated that it does not induce any significant dermic or ocular irritation. In vitro experiments using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) photometric assay demonstrated that this plant extract also possesses free radical scavenging properties.

  17. Aqueous Extract of Dried Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum Inhibits Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Tasleem; Shinkafi, Tijjani Salihu; Routray, Indusmitha; Mahmood, Amena; Ali, Shakir

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in acute and chronic inflammation. Inflammation was induced in rats by injecting carrageenan in hind paw or implanting cotton pellet in the axilla. Administration of the extract (1 g/kg body weight) inhibited the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and decreased granuloma in cotton pellet granuloma model. The extract, when compared with the disease control, is reported to decrease the elevated levels of succinate dehydrogenase (p<0.001), xanthine oxidase (p<0.05) and lipid peroxidation, and increase the activity of catalase (p<0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) in the two animal models. Potential role of xanthine oxidase in inflammation and the ability of the extract to alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation is discussed. The study advocates the use of aqueous extract, rather than the isolated bioactive principle for various reasons. PMID:24826043

  18. Effects of Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria) aqueous extracts on the acetylcholinesterase activity of aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Monserrat, J M; Yunes, J S; Bianchini, A

    2001-06-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts from a cyanobacteria species, Anabaena spiroides, on fish (Odontesthes argentinensis), crab (Callinectes sapidus), and purified eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were studied. In vitro concentrations of A. spiroides aqueous extract that inhibited 50% of enzyme activity (IC50) were 23.0, 17.2, and 45.0 mg/L of lyophilized cyanobacteria for eel, fish, and crab AChE, respectively. Eel AChE inhibition follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, the same expected for organophosphorus pesticides. Inhibition of purified eel AChE using mixtures of bioxidized malathion and aqueous extract of A. spiroides showed a competitive feature (p < 0.05), suggesting that the toxin(s) could be structurally similar to an organophosphorus pesticide and that toxins present in the aqueous extract inhibit the active site of the enzyme. The inhibition recovery assays using 2-PAM (0.3 mM) showed that (1) bioxidized malathion inhibited 27.0 +/- 1.1% of crab and 36.5 +/- 0.1% of eel AChE activities; (2) with bioxidized malathion + 2-PAM the registered inhibition was 13.2 +/- 2.1% and 3.7 +/- 0.5% in crab and eel AChE, respectively; (3) the aqueous extract from A. spiroides inhibited 17.4 +/- 2.2% and 59.9 +/- 0.5% of crab and eel AChE activity, respectively; and (4) aqueous extract + 2-PAM inhibited 22.3 +/- 2.6 and 61.5 +/- 0.2% of crab and eel AChEs. The absence of enzyme activity recovery after 2-PAM exposure could imply that the enzyme aging process was extremely quick.

  19. Association analysis for oxalate concentration in spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screening and breeding low-oxalate germplasm is a major objective in spinach breeding. This research aims to conduct association analysis and identify SNP markers associated with oxalate concentration in spinach germplasm. A total of 310 spinach genotypes including 300 USDA germplasm accessions and ...

  20. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Annona muricata (Annonaceae), aqueous extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Florence, Ngueguim Tsofack; Benoit, Massa Zibi; Jonas, Kouamouo; Alexandra, Tchuidjang; Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul; Pierre, Kamtchouing; Théophile, Dimo

    2014-02-03

    The leaves of Annona muricata are used in Cameroon to manage diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant activities and the potential toxicity of aqueous extract of Annona muricata in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In long term treatment, 2 weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, animals received plant extract during 28 consecutive days. For a protective effect, extract was administered 3 days prior to streptozotocin exposure and animals were observed 2 weeks without treatment. The plant extract was not effective in normal rats. In diabetic rats, single administration of the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels by 75% and 58.22% respectively at the dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg as compared to the initial value. Treatment of normal rats 3 days prior to diabetes induction showed that, Annona muricata extract has no effect within 72h following STZ injection. However, after 14 days post-treatment, the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels as compared with initial value and diabetic control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreatic β-cells of diabetic rats treated with the dose of 100mg/kg expressed strong staining for β-cell compared to diabetic control. In a long-term study daily administration of Annona muricata aqueous extract for 28 days to diabetic rats, reduced blood glucose levels, serum creatinine, MDA, AST, ALT activity, and nitrite levels LDL-cholesterol. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, SOD, and CAT activity contents were restored. These different results show that the antidiabetic activity of Annona muricata aqueous extract can be explained by its hypolipidaemic effect, its antioxidant and protective action on pancreatic β-cells, which in turn improve glucose metabolism. © 2013

  1. [Effects of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen on activity hepatic microsomal CYP450 isozymes in rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Long-Long; Tang, Xiang-Lin; Ma, Zeng-Chun; Wang, Yu-Guang; Liang, Qian-de; Tan, Hong-Ling; Xiao, Cheng-Rong; Li, Hua; Yuan, Mei; Gao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen on the activity, mRNA and protein expressions of cytochrome P450(CYP450) system in rat liver microsomes, microsomes of rat liver were prepared after the oral administration with aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen for 14 days. The enzyme activity was quantified by Cocktail method. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C11, CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in the livers were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. The result of this experiment was that aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen obviously induced the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C11, CYP2D2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A1. Low dose of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen significantly reduced the activity of CYP2D2, but the activity of CYP2D2 was significantly induced by middle dose and high dose of aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen. These subtypes were increased in a dose-dependent manner except for CYP3A1. The mRNA levels of CYP1A2, CYP2C11, CYP2D2 and CYP2E1 were also induced in rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen, but with no significant effect in CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 mRNA expressions. The protein levels of CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 were also induced in rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen, but with no significant difference. Since the enzyme activity, mRNA and protein expressions of CYP450, particularly CYP2C11and2E1subtypes, were induced or inhibited by aqueous extract of Cassiae Semen to varing degrees, suggesting the potential drug-drug interactions should be concerned. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Croton malambo bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Alírica I; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Salazar-Bookaman, Maria M; Tillett, Stephen; Delle Monache, Franco; Di Giulio, Camilo; Bruges, Gustavo

    2003-09-01

    Croton malambo (K.) bark aqueous extract, popularly known in Venezuela as "palomatias" or "torco" was tested for acute toxicity and for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects using tail flick and writhing syndrome tests models, respectively. Croton malambo aqueous extract (6.15 mg/kg i.p.) administered intraperitoneally had a significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects compared to acetylsalicylic acid (200mg/kg p.o.) and sodium diclofenac (5.64 mg/kg p.o.). Studies to determine correlation between chemical composition and pharmacological activity are underway.

  3. Phase volume changes accompanying water extraction from aqueous electrolyte solutions by 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-03-01

    The extraction of water by 1-octanol was calculated as a function of aqueous electrolyte concentration and initial O/A volume ratio for a series of representative salts, including LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaNO{sub 3}, NaClO{sub 4}, MgCl{sub 2}, and CaCl{sub 2}. These results were then used to calculate the resultant phase-volume changes and aqueous-electrolyte-concentration changes. Such corrections are necessitated for precise extraction measurements employing 1-octanol as a diluent, especially as the O/A phase ratio exceeds unity. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Study of antiviral and virucidal activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata against Herpes suis virus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina Vanesa; Domínguez, María Julia; Carbonari, José Luis; Sabini, María Carola; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Zanon, Silvia Matilde

    2011-07-01

    Baccharis articulata is native of América and traditionally used for the treatment of digestive disorders and urinary infections. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of B. articulata was investigated in Vero cells. As the maximal non cytotoxic concentration has been established, this concentration has been used to evaluate antiviral and virucidal activities against Herpes suis virus type 1, member of the same subfamily of Herpes simplex virus. Aqueous extracts of B. articulata exhibited more than 95% of virucidal activity. These findings support their potential application as a disinfectant or antiseptic with low toxicity and provide a valuable knowledge to ethnopharmacology properties of Baccharis articulata.

  5. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  6. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].

    PubMed

    Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

    2009-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P < 0.05). The ethanolic extract presented statistical difference from the negative control (diluent) (P < 0.05) for the concentrations of 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), expressed by a mortality rate of 66.67 and 76.67%, respectively. In the in vivo test, the aqueous extract of noni fruit showed 27.08% of elimination, deferring statistically from the control group. There was no statistical difference between the ethanolic extract treatments and the control (P > 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test.

  7. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    PubMed

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH4)2SO4-H2O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's leaf extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that 'avocado' leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces its anticonvulsant effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  9. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

  10. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice.

    PubMed

    Arash, Akaberi; Mohammad, Mohammad-Zadeh; Jamal, Mirmoosavi Seyed; Mohammad, Tazari Ali; Azam, Abarashi

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents.

  11. Biochemical stress response in freshwater fish Channa punctatus induced by aqueous extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli plant.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Singh, Ajay

    2006-06-01

    Piscicidal activities of aqueous extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli were very well established, but their ultimate mode of action on fish metabolism was not yet known. Exposure of fishes over 24h or 96h to sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)) of aqueous extract of E. tirucalli stem-bark and latex, significantly (P<0.05) altered the level of total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and activity of protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase enzyme in liver and muscle tissues of freshwater fish Channa punctatus. The alterations in all these biochemical parameters were significantly (P<0.05) time- and dose-dependent. After 7d of withdrawal of treatment of 80% of LC(50) of E. tirucalli extracts shows that there was a partial recovery in the levels of glycogen but nearly complete recovery in total protein, total free amino acids, pyruvate, lactate, nucleic acids level and activity of protease, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acetylcholinesterase and cytochrome oxidase enzyme in both the tissues of fish. Thus aqueous extracts of E. tirucalli adversely affect respiratory pathway of fish and cause energy crisis during stress by suppressing ATP production. The reversibility of the action of the aqueous extracts would be an additional advantage in their use.

  12. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  13. Evaluation of Bauhinia monandra aqueous and ethanol extracts in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Caio C; Marinho, Ciro M F; Moreira-Junior, Valderes F; Queiroz, Fernando M; Dantas, Gláucia L S; Macedo, Márcia F S; Oliveira, Cláudia N; Schwarz, Aline

    2010-07-01

    Bauhinia monandra Kurz. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) is a plant widely employed in Brazilian folk medicine for hypoglycemia. However, little is known about the effect of maternal exposure to this plant on fetal development. The aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. monandra dried leaves were administered to pregnant Wistar rats throughout gestation (day 1 to day 20) at 1,400 or 7,000 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group). Maternal toxicity was not observed in the dams of both groups, and was evaluated by observing body weight, water and food intake during treatment, by measuring serum biochemical levels of creatinine, urea, AST and ALT, and by studying the histopathology of liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and uterus at the end of treatment (gestation day 20). Both extracts and doses did not impair reproductive performance or delay fetal development, measured by observing implantations and reabsorptions in the uterus, by counting the number of corpora lutea in ovaries, by recording the litter weight and number of live and dead fetuses and by analyzing possible skeleton and viscera malformations in the fetuses. Also, the aqueous extract promoted decreased post-implantation loss when compared to the control group. The aqueous and ethanol extracts from B. monandra dried leaves (1,400 or 7,000 mg/kg/day) did not cause maternal or fetal toxicities and the aqueous extract promoted increased implantation and decreased post-implantation loss in the pregnant rats.

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1. PMID:21513560

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Dixit, Vinod K; Malviya, Neelesh; Ambawatia, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.

  16. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Indumathi, Parameswaran

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the fruit of Annona squamosa by means of in vitro studies involving two different solvent extracts: methanol and aqueous. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), reducing power and total antioxidant. The results showed that, compared to aqueous extract, a methanolic fruit extract of A squamosa has a higher percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity (97.99%), LPO (94.15%), NO scavenging activity (70.96%), O2(-) scavenging activity and OH(•) scavenging activity (78.68% and 85.25%, respectively), total antioxidant activity (206 μg α-tocopherol/g) and reducing power (56.0 μg of ascorbic acid/g). The results obtained in the in vitro models clearly suggest that methanol extract has higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract due to a higher presence of phenolic and flavonodal constituents in the methanol extract.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts from four plants on bacterial isolates from periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Arbia, Leila; Chikhi-Chorfi, Nassima; Betatache, Ilhem; Pham-Huy, Chuong; Zenia, Selma; Mameri, Nabil; Drouiche, Nadjib; Lounici, Hakim

    2017-04-06

    Four aqueous extracts of different plant organs are the following: Artemisia herba-alba, Opuntia ficus-indica, Camellia sinensis and Phlomis crinita were evaluated against two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which are implicated in periodontal diseases. By using a disc method, these plant extracts demonstrated powerful bacterial activity against these Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the four plant extracts varied between 0.03 and 590.82 mg/ml for the microbes. Another assay using commercial antibiotics and antibacterials as positive controls was also conducted. Values obtained after statistical analysis of inhibition diameters of all plant extracts demonstrated that for P. gingivalis, the aqueous extracts of A. herba-alba and O. ficus-indica were most effective, followed by those of C. sinensis and P. crinita. For P. intermedia, aqueous extracts of O. ficus-indica and C. sinensis appeared to be more efficient with significantly different (P > 0.05) inhibition diameters, followed by those of O. ficus-indica and P. crinita. In summary, the statistical results reveal that these plant extracts exert stronger antibacterial activity on P. intermedia germ as compared to P. gingivalis.

  18. Interactions between aqueous Hypericum perforatum extracts and drugs: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Müller, R S; Breitkreutz, J; Gröning, R

    2004-12-01

    Physico-chemical interactions between drugs and plant extracts can result in the formation of nanoparticles, microparticles and precipitates. The extraction method may have an influence on the components of the plant preparations and the interactions between drugs and plant extracts. In this study the particle formation in different drug-containing preparations of Hypericum perforatum L. was compared. The formation of nanoparticles was investigated by PCS and scanning electron microscopy. Precipitates were separated from nanoparticles by centrifugation or filtration. The particle formation in drug-containing infusions and reconstituted methanolic extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. was different. In reconstituted dry extracts 21.5% 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and 36.6% levonorgestrel was bound to precipitates, in aqueous Hypericum infusions less than 4% of the hormones was bound. In infusions containing desipramine nanoparticles were formed while the formation of nanoparticles in desipramine-containing reconstituted extracts was negligible. Up to 10% of desipramine was bound to precipitates in reconstituted extracts, but only 4% was associated with the precipitate of infusions. The interactions between extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. and drugs depended on the extraction method. Reconstituted methanolic extracts showed a more intensive binding with oral contraceptives than aqueous infusions. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prunella vulgaris has been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Various members of the mint family, including Prunella, have been reported to have antiviral activity. To characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, we tested water and ethanol extracts for their...

  20. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group's oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L.

    PubMed

    Karaman, I; Sahin, F; Güllüce, M; Ogütçü, H; Sengül, M; Adigüzel, A

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties. The plant was collected from Pelitli Village of Gebze, Kocaeli, in the Marmara region of Turkey. Juniperus oxycedrus is widely used as traditional folk medicine in Turkey for treatment of different infectious diseases. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against 143 laboratory strains belonging to 56 bacterial species, and 31 isolates of 5 fungi species were evaluated based on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The aqueous extract of J. oxycedrus had no antimicrobial effect against the test microorganisms whereas the methanol extract had inhibitory effects on the growth of 57 strains of 24 bacterial species in the genera of Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Brucella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Xanthomonas. In addition 11 Candida albicans isolates at a concentration of 31.25-250 micro g/ml were also inhibited.

  2. Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Si-Oh; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-03-01

    Inflammation of the respiratory tract is a crucial process in immune diseases, including asthma, and atopic rhinitis. To establish whether an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn (SoL) has a beneficial influence in terms of anti-asthmatic activity, we examined its effects on an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin were orally administered the SoL extract, and their lungs examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine IL-4/13 cytokine expression. The SoL extract exerted strong anti-asthmatic effects by inducing a decrease in the CD4+ cell number, IL-4/13, and other molecular markers in the lung. Our results collectively indicate that the aqueous SoL extract ameliorates asthmatic symptoms effectively in a mouse ovalbumin-challenge model.

  3. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  4. Aqueous garlic extract and its phytochemical profile; special reference to antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Rasul Suleria, Hafiz Ansar; Sadiq Butt, Masood; Muhammad Anjum, Faqir; Saeed, Farhan; Batool, Rizwana; Nisar Ahmad, Atif

    2012-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L) has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its bioactive components and is used in different diet-based therapies to cure various lifestyle-related disorders. For this purpose, characterization and extraction of garlic were carried out followed by antioxidant assays. Different solvents (50% aqueous ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol and water) at different time intervals (4, 5 and 6 h) at 60°C were used to optimize aqueous extraction efficiency of garlic. Among the solvents, water extract resulted in better extraction yield (31.85 ± 2.09 g/25 g) at 5 h. The antioxidant potential of all these solvents was estimated through in vitro studies. In this context, it was observed that higher amount of total phenolic contents was present in aqueous methanol 71.87 ± 1.69% at 45 min. Antiradical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and antioxidant activity showed that the maximum value was 73.80 ± 3.69 and 83.83 ± 0.16%, respectively, in methanolic extract at 45 min while glucose diffusion and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 97.00 ± 0.20 and 32.66 ± 0.72% at p < 0.05, respectively. Aqueous garlic extract was selected as the best treatment on the basis of percentage yield and safety modulation in human body absorption. Aqueous garlic extract was subjected to pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and colour. It was observed that the pH of aqueous garlic extract decreased with the passage of time while acidity increased. It was also concluded that storage affected the value of TSS and colour significantly. L* values for colour on 0 day were 34.18 ± 0.08, whereas those on 28th day were 38.84 ± 0.03. It was predicted that 28 days storage resulted in significant increase in L* value, while a* value decreased from 4.31 ± 0.01 to 0.32 ± 0.01 at the end of storage study.

  5. Cardiovascular effects in vitro of aqueous extract of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Mudnic, I; Modun, D; Brizic, I; Vukovic, J; Generalic, I; Katalinic, V; Bilusic, T; Ljubenkov, I; Boban, M

    2009-05-01

    In contrast to the strawberry fruits, strawberry leaves as a source of bioactive compounds with potentially beneficial biological effects have been largely overlooked. In this study we examined direct, dose-dependent effects of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves aqueous extract, in two experimental models and animal species, the isolated guinea pig hearts and rat aortic rings. Vasodilatory potential of the wild strawberry leaves extract was compared with vasodilatory activity of aqueous extract of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha, L) leaves with flowers, which can be regarded as a reference plant extract with a marked vasodilatory activity. The extracts were analysed by their "phenolic fingerprints", total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity. Their vasodilatory activity was determined and compared in the isolated aortic rings from 24 rats that were exposed to the extracts doses of 0.06, 0.6, 6, and 60 mg/100ml. Both extracts induced similar, dose-dependent vasodilation. Maximal relaxation was 72.2+/-4.4% and 81.3+/-4.5%, induced by the strawberry and hawthorn extract, respectively. To determine vasodilatory mechanisms of the wild strawberry leaves extract, endothelium-denuded and intact rings exposed to nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin were used. Removal of the endothelium prevented and exposure to L-NAME or indomethacin strongly diminished the vasodilatatory response to the extract. In the isolated hearts (n=12), the wild strawberry extract was applied at concentrations of 0.06, 0.18, 0.6, and 1.8 mg/100ml. Each dose was perfused for 3.5 min with 15 min of washout periods. Heart contractility, electrophysiological activity, coronary flow and oxygen consumption were continuously monitored. The extract did not significantly affect heart rate and contractility, main parameters of the cardiac action that determine oxygen demands, while coronary flow increased up to 45% over control value with a

  6. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mareya micrantha (Benth.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate) while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.), produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o). The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant increase (p < 0.01) of intestinal transit in comparison with castor oil (2 mL) (p < 0.01). Moreover, the extract induced a significant enteropooling and excretion of Cl-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p < 0.01). Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine. PMID:20158903

  7. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  8. Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sepehri, Z; Javadian, F; Khammari, D; Hassanshahian, M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose : In traditional medicine, herbal products still remain the principal source of pharmaceutical agents. The present study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts on C. albicans species. Materials and Methods :The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis, collected from the mountainous regions of Iran, were screened in terms of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains, using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microtitration technique. Results: Overall, the results showed that the leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis had strong antimicrobial activities. Also, based on the findings, R. officinalis leaf extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis showed good antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains. However, the aqueous extracts did not show any major activities against the tested C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts exhibited major antimicrobial properties against C. albicans strains. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration was reported in E. platyloba leaf extracts. Conclusion: The present results indicated some advantages of E. platyloba and R. officinalis leaf extracts, which could be applied for the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:28681010

  9. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Lemhadri, Ahmed; Hebi, Morad; EL Hidani, Ahmed; Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali; EL Bouhali, Bachir; Hajji, Lhoussaine; Burcelin, Remy

    2017-01-01

    Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS) possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS) diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose) to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity. Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p<0.001). The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique demonstrated that CS treatment improves insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Conclusion: We conclude that the antihyperglycemic effet CS is probably due to the inhibition of basal endogenous glucose production and the improvement of insulin sensitivity in MLDS diabetic mice. PMID:28348974

  10. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  11. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  12. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  13. Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous Extract of Pleurotus ostreatus (Cultivated Oyster Mushroom).

    PubMed

    Yim, H S; Chye, F Y; Tan, C T; Ng, Y C; Ho, C W

    2010-08-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus better known as oyster mushroom is widely cultivated and consumed as food in Malaysia. The present study aims to assess the antioxidative potential and total phenolic content of P. ostreatus aqueous extract. The antioxidant activities were evaluated against DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic content (TPC). The DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 63.20% and 87.29% respectively; antioxidant activity using FRAP at 1.45 mM FE/100g and β-carotenelinoleate bleaching assay was 83.51%, while the TPC was found to be 798.55 mg GAE/100g. These antioxidant activities were compared to synthetic antioxidant, BHA and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid showed highest scavenging effects on DPPH and ABTS radical, followed by P. ostreatus and BHA (at maximum safety limit). The ferric reducing power of P. ostreatus was significantly higher than BHA and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity as assessed in β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay was found to be higher in BHA compared to P. ostreatus. The aqueous extract of P. ostreatus was found to respond differently in antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activity of the aqueous extract of P. ostreatus correlated with its total phenolic content. Generally, the antioxidant activities of P. ostreatus' aqueous extract are comparable to that of BHA and ascorbic acid to a certain extent.

  14. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mego, W.A.

    1999-09-07

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  15. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  16. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  17. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Meteoritic Dicarboxylic Acids During Aqueous Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, M.; Huang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the extent of hydrogen-deuterium exchange on dicarboxylic acids during aqueous extraction. Deuterium enrichment was observed to be a function of diacid structure as well as delta-D. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Surfactant- and Aqueous-Foam-Driven Oil Extraction from Micropatterned Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mensire, Rémy; Wexler, Jason S; Guibaud, Augustin; Lorenceau, Elise; Stone, Howard A

    2016-12-13

    Liquid-infused surfaces are rough or patterned surfaces in which a lubricating fluid, such as oil, is infused, which exhibits various original properties (omniphobicity, biofouling, drag reduction). An outer flow in a confined geometry can entrain the oil trapped between the pattern of the surfaces by shearing the oil-water interface and cause the loss of the omniphobic properties of the interface. Starting from the theoretical analysis of Wexler et al. (Shear-driven failure of liquid-infused surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2015, 114, 168301), where a pure aqueous solution is the outer phase, we extend the predictions by introducing an extraction efficiency parameter α and by accounting for new dynamical effects induced by surfactants and aqueous foams. For surfactant solutions, decreasing the oil-water interfacial tension (γow) not only enhances oil extraction as expected but also modifies the dynamics of the receding oil-water interface through the variations of the receding contact angle (θ) with the capillary number (Ca), which is the ratio between the viscous and the capillary forces at the oil-water interface. For aqueous foams, the extraction dynamics are also influenced by the foam flow: oil is sheared by the thin film between the bubbles and the lubricating layer, which imposes a stronger interfacial shear compared to pure aqueous solutions. In both surfactant and foam cases, the experimental observations show the existence of nonuniform extraction dynamics related to the surfactant-induced instability of a two-fluid shear flow.

  19. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  20. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  1. Extraction of biomolecules using phosphonium-based ionic liquids + K(3)PO(4) aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Louros, Cláudia L S; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Neves, Catarina M S S; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A P

    2010-04-15

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K(3)PO(4) solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K(3)PO(4) at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS.

  2. C. zeylanicum aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1).

    PubMed

    Assadollahi, V; Gholami, M; Zendedel, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C. zeylanicum aqueous extract on cell growth in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Today, application of Cinnamon for treatment of cancer investigates extensively. Cinnamon has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. In this experimental study, THP-1 was incubated in 2, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml C. zeylanicum solutions for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell cycle was assessed with flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells were identified by Hoechst 33342 staining. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTT assay. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analytical tests. Samples that supplemented with 0.1 mg/ml C. zeylanicum aqueous extract enhanced induction of apoptosis in THP-1 cell line compared to samples that supplemented with 2, 1 and 0.01 mg/ml. According to flow cytometry analysis, after 24 and 72 hours of incubation in 0.1 and 2 mg/ml C. zeylanicum aqueous extract, respectively, the amount of cells in apoptosis phase was higher than that in the control sample. Supplemented C. zeylanicum aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (Fig. 4, Ref. 20).

  3. Antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous--ethanol extract from Acantholippia deserticola.

    PubMed

    Morales, Glauco; Paredes, Adrián; Sierra, Patricia; Loyola, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant properties oí Acantholippia deserticola, a herb used in traditional northern Chilean medicine was studied using free radical-generating systems. The 50% aqueous-ethanol extract oí Acantholippia deserticola protected against non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat, induced by an Fe++-ascorbate system and measured spectrophotometrically by the TBARS test, and had strong free radical scavenging capacities on stable ABTS and DPPH radicals. The results shows that the IC50 value of the 50% aqueous-ethanolic extract of A.deserticola is 18 +/- 0.5 microg/mL in DPPH radical-scavenging, 15 +/- 0.8 microg/mL in lipid peroxidation , Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA) is 0.95 mM of Trolox per mg/mL of extract. The total phenolics content of extract is 725 +/- 12 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g of dried extract. The results indicate that the 50% aqueous-ethanol extract of Acantholippia deserticola clearly has antioxidant properties.

  4. The effect of aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriyanti, Niken; Garmana, Afrillia Nuryanti; Setiawan, Finna; Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Adnyana, I. Ketut

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves had immunosupressant effect on lupus nephritis model. When it combined with methylprednisolone, there is a risk of interaction. In this study rats divided into two groups, a group that received methylprednisolone (MP) (0.72 mg/kgBW) and a group that received MP in combination with extract (0.36 mg/kg BW MP and 140 mg/kg BW extract). These treatment were given everyday for 4 weeks. Methylprednisolone concentration in rats serum was measured using HPLC with extraction method according to Lawson method (1985). The column used was Inertsil C-18 using mobile phase KH2PO4 : metanol (15:85) buffer, flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes, UV detector (λ = 230 nm) and pressure 1319 psi. The result showed that there was an interaction occurred. The combination of MP and aqueous extract of K. pinnata leaves showed interaction which causing methylprednisolone level comparable with methylprednisolone level in MP group. Mean of decreasing MP level in serum was 0.285 ppm. It means that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium could elevate methylprednisolone concentration in plasma. Adjustment of the dose must be considered in this combination.

  5. Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells) against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway. PMID:26649061

  6. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

  7. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) leaf aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O

    2005-05-13

    In order to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves, the present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in experimental animal models. The antinociceptive effect of the herb's leaf extract was evaluated by the 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the plant's extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus. Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf aqueous extract (BPE, 25-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced significant (P<0.05-0.001) antinociceptive effects against thermally- and chemically-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. The plant extract (BPE, 25-800 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) also significantly (P<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation and caused significant (P<0.05-0.001) hypoglycaemia in rats. The results of this experimental animal study suggest that Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf aqueous extract possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. The different flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenoids and other chemical constituents of the herb are speculated to account for the observed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties of the plant.

  8. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  9. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2013-04-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X 1 : 99.5-290.5 min) and temperature (X 2 : 30.1-54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were: 290.5 min and 35.7 °C (DPPH(•) scavenging ability); 180.7 min and 41.7 °C (ABTS(•+) inhibition ability); 185.2 min and 42.4 °C (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP); 290.5 min and 40.3 °C (TPC). These optimum conditions yielded 85.10%; 94.31%; 0.74 mM Fe(2+) equivalent/100 g; 635.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, respectively. The yields of antioxidant activities and TPC obtained experimentally were close to its predicted values. The establishment of such model provides a good experimental basis employing RSM for optimizing the extraction time and temperature on antioxidants from S. commune aqueous extract.

  10. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  11. The Protective Action of the Aqueous Extract of Auricularia polytricha in Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Dinesh K; Ganasen, Sivamalar; Batumalai, Shaminiswary; Candasamy, Mayuren; Krishnappa, Purushotham; Dua, Kamal; Chellian, Jestin; Gupta, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver injuries considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Auricularia polytricha has been used as food or medicine due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of 2g/kg paracetamol on the 15th day after the administration of aqueous extract and silymarin 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of A. polytricha was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses, daily for a period of 14 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP), Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol were measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage. The patent on Auricularia Polytricha (EP0413052A1) assisted in selecting the extraction procedure. The study also included histopathological examination of liver sections to assess hepatoprotective activity. Paracetamol significantly (P<0.001) increased the serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and decreased TP levels. Extract treatment significantly (P<0.001 to P<0.05) attenuated the paracetamol induced increase in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increased the diminished TP in a dose dependent manner. The standard drug, silymarin produced significant (P<0.001) decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increase in TP. Histopathological examination of animals treated with paracetamol showed large areas of centrilobular necrosis with congestion and dilatation in both central and portal veins. These results indicate that the aqueous extract of A. polytricha has significant protective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity

  12. Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2006-09-01

    In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. (c) 2006 Prous Science. All rights

  13. Thin extractive membrane for monitoring actinides in aqueous streams.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Vivek; Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kalsi, P C; Goswami, A

    2013-09-15

    Alpha spectrometry and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are used for monitoring ultra-trace amount of alpha emitting actinides in different aqueous streams. However, these techniques have limitations i.e. alpha spectrometry requires a preconcentration step and SSNTDs are not chemically selective. Therefore, a thin polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) supported on silanized glass was developed for preconcentraion and determination of ultra-trace concentration of actinides by α-spectrometry and SSNTDs. PIMs were formed by spin coating on hydrophobic glass slide or solvent casting to form thin and self-supported membranes, respectively. Sorption experiments indicated that uptakes of actinides in the PIM were highly dependent on acidity of solution i.e. Am(III) sorbed up to 0.1 molL(-1) HNO₃, U(VI) up to 0.5 molL(-1) HNO₃ and Pu(IV) from HNO₃ concentration as high as 4 molL(-1). A scheme was developed for selective sorption of target actinide in the PIM by adjusting acidity and oxidation state of actinide. The actinides sorbed in PIMs were quantified by alpha spectrometry and SSNTDs. For SSNTDs, neutron induced fission-fragment tracks and α-particle tracks were registered in Garware polyester and CR-39 for quantifications of natural uranium and α-emitting actinides ((241)Am/(239)Pu/(233)U), respectively. Finally, the membranes were tested to quantify Pu in 4 molL(-1) HNO3 solutions and synthetic urine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Cistus aqueous extracts as botanical fungicides in the control of Citrus sour rot.

    PubMed

    Karim, H; Boubaker, H; Askarne, L; Cherifi, K; Lakhtar, H; Msanda, F; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of aqueous extracts obtained from eight Cistus plant species against the development of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. The results demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of all tested Cistus species aqueous extracts against G. citri-aurantii, the inhibition of mycelial growth ranged between 80 and 100%. Furthermore, Cistus aqueous extracts totally inhibited germination of G. citri-aurantii arthrospores at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Among the plant species tested, C. laurifolius, C. salviifolius, C. monspeliensis, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius displayed the best fungistatic activity since the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was <0.625 mg/mL. Under in vivo conditions, incidence of sour rot was lowered to 8.33% when fruits were treated with aqueous extracts of C. populifolius and C. creticus compared to 100% in the control. Disease severity was lowered to 3.74, 4.47 and 5.13% when fruits were treated with C. creticus, C. ladanifer and C. populifolius aqueous extracts, respectively. Using such these biopesticides in a replacement for synthetic fungicides or in combination with other established disease management practices could help control citrus postharvest decay in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analgesic and anticonvulsant properties of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) (Fabaceae) fruit aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that the fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) (family: Fabaceae) is widely used in African traditional medicine for the management and/or control of an array of human ailments, including schistosomiasis, asthma, epilepsy, hypertension and so on. The present study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) fruit aqueous extract (TTE) in mice. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), phenobarbitone (20 mg/kg i.p.) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) were used, respectively, as reference analgesic and anticonvulsant agents for comparison. T. tetraptera fruit aqueous extract (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced pain in mice. Like the standard anticonvulsant agents (phenobarbitone and diazepam) used, T. tetraptera fruit aqueous extract (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Aqueous extract of the fruit (TTE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only partially and weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) fruit aqueous extract (TTE) possesses analgesic and anticonvulsant properties. These findings lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant's fruit in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions, as well as for the management and/or control of epilepsy and childhood convulsions in some tropical African countries. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  17. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-07

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L(-1)-μg L(-1)), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed Central

    Cariddi, L. N.; Sabini, M. C.; Escobar, F. M.; Bacchetti, R.; Montironi, I.; Merckis, C.; Reinoso, E. B.; Núñez Montoya, S.; Zanon, S. M.; Comini, L. R.; Sabini, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE) evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653 μg/mL) and MTT (CC50 = 588 μg/mL) assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage. PMID:26078941

  19. Phyllanthus orbicularis aqueous extract: cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antimutagenic effects in the CHO cell line.

    PubMed

    Sànchez-Lamar, A; Fiore, M; Cundari, E; Ricordy, R; Cozzi, R; De Salvia, R

    1999-12-15

    The present work evaluates the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antimutagenic effects of Phyllanthus orbicularis (plant of genus Phyllantus) aqueous extract in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. P. orbicularis aqueous extracts are used in Cuban traditional medicine for their antiviral activity against Hepatitis B virus and A and B flu virus. The cytotoxicity of the extract was tested by means of colony-forming ability and growth-inhibition assays as well as by measuring the mitotic index. Apoptosis induction and cell-cycle kinetics were analyzed by cytofluorimetric methods. Chromosome aberration assays were performed to study the genotoxic and antimutagenic activity of the extract. Results show that doses of up to 100 microg/ml of the extract did not induce any cytotoxic effects. Cell survival and mitotic index decreased significantly at doses higher than 100 microg/ml as a function of dose as well as of treatment time. Moreover, continuous treatments of up to 18 h induced the appearance of a significant number of apoptotic cells. Following a 3-h exposure to a dose of 750 microg/ml, cells accumulated significantly in G(2)-M phase and remained blocked in G(1-) and G(2)-M phases after several posttreatments in fresh growth medium. The aqueous extract alone did not induce chromosome aberrations but, in combined treatment with H(2)O(2), significantly reduced H(2)O(2)-induced chromosome aberrations. Flow cytometric analysis of DCFH intracellular oxidation showed that the extract decreased the oxidizing power of H(2)O(2.) This ability could possibly explain the extract's antigenotoxic activity. Absence of cytotoxicity at the lower tested doses and the antimutagenic properties of the extract stimulate the interest in studying possible new pharmaceutical uses of P. orbicularis.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and alkaline extracts from mushrooms (Agaricus blazei Murill).

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marina M; Avila, Ana A L; Sousa, Pergentino J C; Cardoso, Luis Gustavo V; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aqueous and alkaline extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, an edible mushroom used as folk medicine in Brazil, Japan, and China to treat several illnesses, were investigated on the basis of the inflammatory process induced by different agents. Oral administration of A. blazei extracts marginally inhibited the edema induced by nystatin. In contrast, when complete Freund's adjuvant was used as the inflammatory stimulus, both extracts were able to inhibit this process significantly (P < .05, analysis of variance followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc test), although it inhibited the granulomatous tissue induction moderately. These extracts were able to decrease the ulcer wounds induced by stress. Also, administration of extracts inhibited neutrophil migration to the exudates present in the peritoneal cavity after carrageenin injection. Therefore, it is possible that A. blazei extracts can be useful in inflammatory diseases because of activation of the immune system and its cells induced by the presence of polysaccharides such as beta-glucans.

  1. Effect of aqueous extract and fractions of Fagonia arabica on in vitro anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Sweta R; Kashyap, Rajpal Singh; Deopujari, Jayant Y; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

    2014-11-01

    Fagonia arabica (FA) is a deobstruent and blood purifier, which possesses thrombolytic and antioxidant activities. In this study, the anticoagulant effects of FA and its derived fractions were evaluated. Plasma recalcification was performed with multisolvent extracts of FA and then with extracts prepared successively with increasing polarity of the solvents. Aqueous extract was the most potent anticoagulant extract, which was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography. Five fractions collected were checked for their anticoagulation effect. The most potent fraction was screened for phytoconstituents. Aqueous extract of FA is the most active anticoagulant (31 minutes). Results were statistically significant when compared to heparin (38 minutes) and saline (4.04 minutes; P > .001). The Fifth fraction (FA5), the most potent fraction (27 minutes), was found positive for flavonoids, saponin, tannin, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, and monosaccharides. Aqueous FA and fraction FA5 were most active in in vitro anticoagulation, and any of the phytochemicals identified could be considered the active component. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively.

  3. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Abu Adakole; Nwocha, Uchendu Chukwuka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05) in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05) compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats. PMID:26396567

  4. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.

  6. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  7. The green synthesis of fine particles of gold using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Natasha; Khan, Abbas; Shah, Mohib; Azam, Andaleeb; Zaman, Khair; Parven, Zahida

    2016-12-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and physicochemical investigation of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.). On the treatment of aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid with the plant extract, gold nanoparticles were rapidly fabricated. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of AuNPs was confirmed by noting the change in color through visual observations as well as via UV-Vis spectroscopy. UV‒Vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing gold nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 540 nm. FTIR was used to identify the chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and Au-capped plant extract. The presence of elemental gold was also confirmed through EDX analysis. SEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 70-78 nm. This green system showed to be better capping and stabilizing agent for the fine particles. Further, the antioxidant activity of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.) extract and Au-capped with the plant extract was also evaluated using FeCl3/K3[Fe(CN)]6 in vitro assay.

  8. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  9. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties.

  10. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of aqueous extract of miswak on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    al-Bagieh, N H; Idowu, A; Salako, N O

    1994-01-01

    Chewing sticks (miswak) which are the roots of Salvadora persica plant have been used for centuries as oral hygiene tools in many parts of the world particularly in Saudi Arabia. Many studies have demonstrated the antiplaque, antiperiopathic, anticaries and antibacterial effect of these sticks. This study was designed to investigate the antimycotic effect, if any, of the aqueous extract of the plant roots. Various concentrations of aqueous extract of miswak prepared with Sabouraud medium were inoculated with Candida albicans (oral isolate). These were incubated at 37 degrees C and the turbidity was determined by OD at 600 nm wavelength measured at specific intervals over a period of 48 h. Data show that the extract at a concentration of 15% and above, has a fungistatic effect for up to 48 h. This antimycotic effect was probably due to one or more of the root contents which included chlorine, trimethylamine, and alkaloid resin, and sulphur compounds.

  12. Integrated extraction and purification of soy isoflavones by using aqueous micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Cordisco, Estefanía; Haidar, Carla N; Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Nerli, Bibiana B; Malpiedi, Luciana P

    2016-12-15

    In this work, an integration of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems was evaluated as potential tool to purify soy isoflavones. Additionally, the proposed methodology aimed to preserve the protein content of the processed soy flour. The extractive assays were performed in AMTPS formed by Triton X-114 and sodium tartrate. In order to optimize the purification process, temperature and time were evaluated as independent variables. Under optimal working conditions, i.e. 100min and 33°C of incubation, IF were purified with a recovery percentage of 93 and a purification factor of almost 10. More importantly, the obtained sample presented an aglycone proportion superior to the reported by other methodologies. These results open perspectives to the use of aqueous micellar two-phase systems as an integrative methodology to extract, concentrate and purify isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of low levels of perchlorate in lettuce and spinach using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Parker, David R

    2006-03-22

    A sample preparation method was developed to quantify environmentally relevant (low micrograms per liter) concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in leafy vegetables using IC-ESI-MS. Lettuce and spinach were macerated, centrifuged, and filtered, and the aqueous extracts were rendered water-clear using a one-step solid-phase extraction method. Total time for extraction and sample preparation was 6 h. Ion suppression was demonstrated and was likely due to unknown organics still present in the extract solution after cleanup. However, this interference was readily eliminated using a Cl(18)O4(-) internal standard at 1 microg/L in all standards and samples. Hydroponically grown perchlorate-free butterhead lettuce was spiked to either 10.3 or 37.7 microg/kg of fresh weight (FW), and recoveries were between 91 and 98% and between 93 and 101%, respectively. Five types of lettuce and spinach from a local grocery store were then analyzed; they contained from 0.6 to 6.4 microg/kg of FW. Spike recoveries using the store-bought samples ranged from 89 to 100%. The method detection limit for perchlorate in plant extracts is 40 ng/L, and the corresponding minimum reporting limit is 200 ng/L or 0.8 microg/kg of FW.

  14. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  15. Phytochemical Screening and Polyphenolic Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Crude Leaf Extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum

    PubMed Central

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of the aqueous crude leaf extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum. The scavenging activity on superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS; and the reducing power were determined, as well as the flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract. The extract exhibited scavenging activity towards all radicals tested due to the presence of relatively high total phenol and flavonoids contents. Our findings suggest that H. pedunculatum is endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and could serve as a base for future drugs. PMID:20087473

  16. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of aqueous extracts from dried viscum album on bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hunziker-Basler, N; Zuzak, T J; Eggenschwiler, J; Rist, L; Simões-Wüst, A P; Viviani, A

    2007-03-01

    Aqueous extracts from whole dried mistletoe (Viscum album L., Iscucin) are often used in anti-cancer treatment. We studied the effect of extracts obtained from mistletoe bushes that grew on different host trees on bladder cancer cells by means of MTT-colorimetric cell proliferation/survival assays. The extracts possessed concentration-dependent cytotoxic properties whose extent varied with the host tree, but did not always correlate with the corresponding mistletoe lectin content. A 2-hours treatment of bladder cancer cells triggered a later, strong cytotoxic effect. This prolonged effect suggests that instillation with Iscucin has therapeutic potential for bladder cancer patients.

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Antidepressant and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens L. From Southeast of Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Mansouri, Latifa; Bousta, Dalila; El Youbi-El Hamsas, Amal; Boukhira, Smahane; Akdime, Hassane

    This study aims to investigate the antidepressant and analgesic properties of the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens L. from South of Morocco (Rissani-Errachidia region). Extract of plant is obtained by aqueous decoction and administered to Wistar rats orally. The extract has a significant antidepressant and analgesic effects compared with the drug references (sertraline and tramadol) without any adverse effects. The dose of 250 mg/kg, body weight shows the best antidepressant and analgesic effects than 1 g/kg, body weight. Phytochemical study of the aqueous extract of the plant has to show its highlight in polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins.

  18. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  19. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  20. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Rheum Spiciformis against Pathogenic Bacterial and Fungal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Khalid Bashir; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Amin, Shajrul; Anees, Suhail; Masood, Akbar; Zargar, Mohammed Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheum spiciformis is a newly identified edible medicinal plant of genus Rheum. The plant is used to treat various diseases on traditional levels in Kashmir Valley, India. Aim To evaluate the phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Rheum spiciformis, a traditionally used edible medicinal plant. Materials and Methods Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum spiciformis were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli and four fungal strains Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility of microbial strains to the two extracts was determined using agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening was carried out by using various standard procedures. Results Methanolic extract showed potent antimicrobial activity as compared to aqueous extract at the concentrations of 10, 30, 50, 80 and 100mg/ml. The most susceptible bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition (25±0.10mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (23±0.25mm), Proteus vulgaris (22±0.10mm) at the concentration of 100mg/ml. Aqueous extracts at the higher concentration were found effective against Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis with zone of inhibition (17±0.24mm) and (17±0.10mm), respectively. Among fungal strains the most susceptible were Aspergillus fumigatus (21±0.10mm), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20±0.20mm) and Penicillium Chrysogenum (17±0.15mm) at the concentration of 100mg/ml methanol extract. The zone of inhibition for aqueous extract against fungal strains ranged between 14±0.13mm to 16±0.19mm at the highest concentration of plant extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites like flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils, phenols, steroids

  1. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of a Saudi medicinal plant: Rumex nervosus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdul Rahman K.; Siddiqui, Yunus M.; Athar, Md. Tanwir; Al-Buraidi, Ahmed; Al-Eid, A. S.; Horaib, Ghalib B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The antimicrobial effect of aerial part of Rumex nervosus obtained from the Southern region of Saudi Arabia was evaluated on bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, and fungal strain Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The solvents used for the extraction were aqueous, hexane, and methanol. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion and disk diffusion methods and the confirmation of this activity was done by the enumeration of colony forming units (CFU). Results: The aqueous extract showed the growth inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria while the Gram-negative P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism as determined by the agar diffusion technique. Surprisingly, the extract showed little antibacterial activity on other Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) by this technique. Ethanolic extract was also found to be inhibitory to the growth of microorganisms. Hexane extract was relatively low in antimicrobial activity on Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while both the organic extracts were inhibitory to the growth of the fungus, C. albicans. Hexane gave no conclusive results with agar or disk diffusion methods, but showed the microbial growth inhibition in CFU enumeration. The antibacterial activity of active extracts was compared with vancomycin while antifungal activity of was compared with amphotericin B. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that R. nervosus showed a marked antimicrobial activity with the test organisms. PMID:26681888

  2. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  3. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Zan, Meriele A; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Richter, Marc F; Picada, Jaqueline N; de Andrade, Heloisa H R; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael R; Nunes, Emilene; Semedo, Juliane; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-02-01

    The Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is widely consumed as tea or food and shows important therapeutic properties. However, few studies have assessed the possible toxic effects of artichoke extracts. This study evaluates genotoxic and mutagenic activities of artichoke leaf aqueous extract in mice using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Leaf extracts were given by gavage (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Extract composition was investigated using phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, antioxidant capacity was analyzed through the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase assay. Phytochemical screening detected the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercetrin, and rutin. Extracts showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect of DPPH and an inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase. The genotoxic results showed that leaf extracts did not increase micronuclei in peripheral blood cells. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in comet assay values was observed only in bone marrow of group treated with 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. This is the first report of in vivo mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation with C. scolymus. The present study revealed leaf aqueous extract from artichoke shows lack of mutagenicity in vivo, and low genotoxicity and antioxidant activity; indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Vasorelaxant effect of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Lyoussi, Badiaâ; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ex vivo and in vitro vascular activity of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) in normotensive Wistar rats. Chronic oral administration of the extract of Ajuga iva did not significantly affect the systolic blood pressure. In aorta isolated from Ajuga iva-treated rats, the contractile response to noradrenaline was depressed compared to the responses obtained in aorta from untreated rats but the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by acetylcholine was not affected. In vitro, Ajuga iva extract inhibited the contraction evoked by noradrenaline. The addition of Ajuga iva extract during the plateau phase of noradrenaline-evoked contraction produced a relaxation that was sensitive to N-nitro-L-arginine. After pre-incubation of the artery in the presence of the plant extract, vasorelaxant effect was markedly less pronounced. The endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was concentration-dependently blunted in the presence of Ajuga iva extract in the bathing solution. This study indicates that the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva possesses NO-mediated and NO-independent vasorelaxing properties in vitro while only the endothelium-independent effect was observed ex vivo.

  5. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  6. [Betamethasone and aqueous extract of Arctium lappa for treating angiostrongyliasis].

    PubMed

    Fante, Camila Argenta; Dieterish, Solange; Rodriguez, Rubens

    2008-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasite that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in humans. The treatment for it includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, despite the lack of studies to justify this approach. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and Arctium lappa on the evolution of intestinal lesions induced by this parasite. Adult male Swiss mice were used, distributed into four groups: infected and treated with betamethasone; infected and treated with Arctium lappa; infected and not treated; and control group. The treatments were started on the 15th day after infection and continued for 15 days. The presence of eosinophilic infiltration and granuloma was evaluated (1-mild; 2-moderate; 3-severe). Betamethasone allowed the lesions to evolve into more severe forms, while the extract did not interfere with disease progression. The substances applied were ineffective for protection against the lesions induced by Angiostrongylus costaricensis in mice. These findings discourage the use of betamethasone and Arctium lappa for humans affected by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.

  7. Phenolic composition and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile, the Oriental Herb Medicine, in human fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Bum; Shin, Tai-Sun; Seo, Hye Kyoung; Je, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile, which is widely used as a folk medicine in Korea, were determined. Phenolic composition profile revealed that the aqueous extract is rich in sinapic acid (13.14 mg/100 g extract), catechin (9.88 mg/100 g extract), neohesperidin (7.38 mg/100 g extract), and chlorogenic acid (3.64 mg/100 g extract). The aqueous extract effectively scavenged toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (90.63%), hydrogen peroxide (98.13%), and hydroxyl radical (59.62%) at 2.0 mg/mL, and also showed high reducing power. In cytotoxic evaluation, the aqueous extract exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in human fibroblast, and it also exhibited appreciable suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. In addition, the aqueous extract upregulated the level of glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile could be considered as a potential natural source that may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  8. A real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae in spinach seed.

    PubMed

    Duressa, Dechassa; Rauscher, Gilda; Koike, Steven T; Mou, Beiquan; Hayes, Ryan J; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V; Klosterman, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes Verticillium wilt on multiple crops in central coastal California. Although spinach crops grown in this region for fresh and processing commercial production do not display Verticillium wilt symptoms, spinach seeds produced in the United States or Europe are commonly infected with V. dahliae. Planting of the infected seed increases the soil inoculum density and may introduce exotic strains that contribute to Verticillium wilt epidemics on lettuce and other crops grown in rotation with spinach. A sensitive, rapid, and reliable method for quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed may help identify highly infected lots, curtail their planting, and minimize the spread of exotic strains via spinach seed. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was optimized and employed for detection and quantification of V. dahliae in spinach germplasm and 15 commercial spinach seed lots. The assay used a previously reported V. dahliae-specific primer pair (VertBt-F and VertBt-R) and an analytical mill for grinding tough spinach seed for DNA extraction. The assay enabled reliable quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed, with a sensitivity limit of ≈1 infected seed per 100 (1.3% infection in a seed lot). The quantification was highly reproducible between replicate samples of a seed lot and in different real-time PCR instruments. When tested on commercial seed lots, a pathogen DNA content corresponding to a quantification cycle value of ≥31 corresponded with a percent seed infection of ≤1.3%. The assay is useful in qualitatively assessing seed lots for V. dahliae infection levels, and the results of the assay can be helpful to guide decisions on whether to apply seed treatments.

  9. Aqueous root extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. Has antioxidant activity in D-galactose-induced aging mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linghua; Chen, Yanhua; Ou, Lijun; Xu, Yinglong; Yu, Xiaoying

    2017-09-25

    Extracts of plants have been considered as sources of natural antioxidant agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous root extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. Using vitamin C (Vc) as a positive control, we analyzed the aqueous root extract of A. cochinchinensis free radical scavenging ability in vitro. We also established a mouse aging model using D-galactose and then treated it with aqueous root extract or Vc. The blood cell count and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents were measured; pathological examination of tissues was performed; and SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and NOS expression levels in the serum, liver, and brain tissues were investigated. In vitro, compared with the antioxidant Vc, the aqueous root extract showed similar 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic·scavenging activities and even significantly increased superoxide anion (p < 0.05) and hydroxyl radical (OH) (p < 0.01) scavenging activities. The aqueous extract significantly increased the white blood cell count as well as enhanced SOD, CAT, and NOS activities (p < 0.01) in aging mice. In addition, the aqueous extract increased the NO content (p < 0.05) and reduced the MDA content (p < 0.05). The aqueous root extract of A. cochinchinensis showed as strong antioxidant ability as Vc and might prevent aging by reducing radicals.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Vuda, Madhusudanarao; D'Souza, Roshan; Upadhya, Suhas; Kumar, Vijay; Rao, Namita; Kumar, Vasanth; Boillat, Colette; Mungli, Prakash

    2012-11-01

    The hepatoprotective, curative and anti-oxidant properties of aqueous extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Violaceae) used against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats were investigated in the present study. Liver damage was induced by CCl4 (1 ml/kg i.p.), and silymarin was used as a standard drug to compare hepatoprotective, curative and antioxidant effects of the extract. Rats were treated with aqueous extract of H. enneaspermus at a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg after division into pre-treatment (once daily for 14 days before CCl4 intoxication) and post-treatment (2, 6, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication) groups. Pre-treatment and post-treatment with aqueous extract of H. enneaspermus showed significant hepatoprotection by reducing the aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activities and total bilirubin levels which had been raised by CCl4 administration. Pre- and post-treatment with aqueous extract significantly decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation as well as producing a corresponding increase in tissue total thiols. Post-treatment with aqueous extract improved ceruloplasmin levels. The histopathological examination of rat liver sections treated with aqueous extract confirms the serum biochemical observations. The present study results demonstrate the protective, curative and anti-oxidant effects of H. enneaspermus aqueous extract used against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, and suggest a potential therapeutic use of H. enneaspermus as an alternative for patients with acute liver diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Huaier Aqueous Extract Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Arrest in S Phase via JNK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Jialin; Li, Xin; Sun, Ning; Yu, Rui; Zhao, Bochao; Yu, Dongyang; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Huaier aqueous extract, the main active constituent of Huaier proteoglycan, has antihepatocarcinoma activity in experimental and clinical settings. However, the potential and associated antihepatoma mechanisms of Huaier extract are not yet fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the inhibitory proliferation effect of Huaier extract on apoptosis and cycle of HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells. Our data demonstrated that incubation with Huaier extract resulted in a marked decrease in cell viability dose-dependently. Flow cytometric analysis showed that a 48 h treatment of Huaier extract caused cell apoptosis. Typical apoptotic nucleus alterations were observed with fluorescence microscope after Hoechst staining. Immunoblot analysis further demonstrated that Huaier extract activated caspase 3 and PARP. Additionally, Huaier extract inhibited the activity of p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK in terms of MAPK. Furthermore, Huaier extract induced HCC cells arrest in S phase and decreased the cycle related protein expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1. Studies with JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125, showed that Huaier extract induced S phase arrest and decreased β-catenin and cyclin D1 expression via JNK signaling pathway. In conclusion, we verify that Huaier extract causes cell apoptosis and induces hepatocellular carcinoma cells arrest in S phase via JNK pathway, which advances our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of Huaier extract in hepatocarcinoma management. PMID:26229542

  12. Lunasin and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor concentrations of protein extracts from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Leite Nobrega de Moura, Juliana Maria; Hernandez-Ledesma, Blanca; de Almeida, Neiva Maria; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; de Lumen, Ben O; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2011-07-13

    Lunasin and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) are two soybean peptides to which health-promoting properties have been attributed. Concentrations of these peptides were determined in skim fractions produced by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded full-fat soybean flakes (an alternative to extracting oil from soybeans with hexane) and compared with similar extracts from hexane-defatted soybean meal. Oil and protein were extracted by using countercurrent two-stage EAEP of soybeans at 1:6 solids-to-liquid ratio, 50 °C, pH 9.0, and 120 rpm for 1 h. Protein-rich skim fractions were produced from extruded full-fat soybean flakes using different enzyme strategies in EAEP: 0.5% protease (wt/g extruded flakes) used in both extraction stages; 0.5% protease used only in the second extraction stage; no enzyme used in either extraction stage. Countercurrent two-stage protein extraction of air-desolventized, hexane-defatted soybean flakes was used as a control. Protein extraction yields increased from 66% to 89-96% when using countercurrent two-stage EAEP with extruded full-fat flakes compared to 85% when using countercurrent two-stage protein extraction of air-desolventized, hexane-defatted soybean flakes. Extruding full-fat soybean flakes reduced BBI activity. Enzymatic hydrolysis reduced BBI contents of EAEP skims. Lunasin, however, was more resistant to both enzymatic hydrolysis and heat denaturation. Although using enzymes in both EAEP extraction stages yielded the highest protein and oil extractions, reducing enzyme use to only the second stage preserved much of the BBI and Lunasin.

  13. Assessment of dermal safety of Scutellaria baicalensis aqueous extract topical application on skin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Song, In-Bae; Lee, Hong-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Ham, Seoung-Ho; Cho, Jung-Hee; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2013-07-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for bronchitis, hepatitis, and allergic diseases. The root of Scutellaria baicalensis contains active flavonoid components, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and wogonin, which have pharmaceutical properties. In the present study, the antiallergic properties of a standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis were evaluated, and the skin toxicity of its dermal application was also determined. The in vivo and in vitro assays were performed by using the β-hexosaminidase assay in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) and cutaneous skin reaction in BALB/c mice, respectively. In addition, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion test was carried out in New Zealand white rabbits, and the skin sensitization test was conducted by Buhler's method in Hartley guinea pigs to estimate the safety of the standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis for topical application. β-Hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 was markedly decreased following treatment with the standardized aqueous extract of S. baicalensis. It also ameliorated antigen-induced ear swelling compared with the control group in BALB/c mice. In the toxicological studies, it did not induce any dermal irritation/corrosion in rabbits or skin sensitization in guinea pigs. Although still limited, these results concerning the toxicological effects of S. baicalensis could be an initial step toward the topical application of S. baicalensis extracts on hypersensitive skin.

  14. Aqueous extract of Saussurea lappa root ameliorate oxidative myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Saleem, T S Mohamed; Lokanath, N; Prasanthi, A; Madhavi, M; Mallika, G; Vishnu, M N

    2013-04-01

    Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae), is commonly known as Kushta. In Ayurvedha, it is mentioned that the aqueous extract of the root S. lappa was used for treatment of angina pectoris. The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of root of S. lappa against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Myocardial injury in rat was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85 mg/kg, i.p., The rats were pretreated with the aqueous extract of S. lappa (AESL) in three different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) through the oral route. Isoproterenol alone-treated rats showed increased serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase (CK), and aspartate transaminase (AST), increased myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and decreased myocardial glutathione (GSH) level due to myocardial damage produced by isoproterenol. This is further conformed by histopathological changes. Chronic oral administration of AESL in three different doses significantly restored the level of myocardial LDH, CK, AST, TBARS, and GSH. The extract effect was compared with the reference standard α-tocopherol which also offered similar protection in biochemical and histopathological changes. The overall beneficial effect which was observed with the dose of 200 mg/kg indicated that AESL produced significant dose-dependent activity against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.

  15. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Burnett, W.C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  16. Aqueous extract of Saussurea lappa root ameliorate oxidative myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, T. S. Mohamed; Lokanath, N.; Prasanthi, A.; Madhavi, M.; Mallika, G.; Vishnu, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae), is commonly known as Kushta. In Ayurvedha, it is mentioned that the aqueous extract of the root S. lappa was used for treatment of angina pectoris. The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of root of S. lappa against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Myocardial injury in rat was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85 mg/kg, i.p., The rats were pretreated with the aqueous extract of S. lappa (AESL) in three different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) through the oral route. Isoproterenol alone-treated rats showed increased serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase (CK), and aspartate transaminase (AST), increased myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and decreased myocardial glutathione (GSH) level due to myocardial damage produced by isoproterenol. This is further conformed by histopathological changes. Chronic oral administration of AESL in three different doses significantly restored the level of myocardial LDH, CK, AST, TBARS, and GSH. The extract effect was compared with the reference standard α-tocopherol which also offered similar protection in biochemical and histopathological changes. The overall beneficial effect which was observed with the dose of 200 mg/kg indicated that AESL produced significant dose-dependent activity against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. PMID:23833749

  17. Antinociceptive effects of the aqueous extract of Brugmansia suaveolens flowers in mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alexander Garcia; Peraza, Gianni Goulart; Sena, Janaina; Silva, Eli Sinnott; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Vaz, Marta Regina Cezar; Furlong, Eliana Badiale; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza

    2007-01-01

    The infusion of Brugmansia suaveolens, popularly known as trombeteira or cartucheira, has been used to treat pain in Brazil. The present study was conducted to test for its antinociceptive effects using the abdominal-writhing, formalin, tail-flick, and hot-plate tests in mice. The aqueous extract from B. suaveolens flowers administered intraperitoneally at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions. An increase in hot-plate latency was also observed in animals receiving both doses (100 and 300 mg/kg). In the formalin test, both doses from the aqueous extract inhibited the first (0-5 min) and second phase (20-25 min). Tail-flick assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with plant extract induced attenuation of the response. These results suggest that the aqueous extract from B. suaveolens flowers produced antinociceptive effects, as demonstrated in the experimental models of nociception in mice. This supports popular medicinal uses of this plant as an analgesic.

  18. Effects of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata aqueous extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, M C; Grondona, E; Zunino, P M; Ponce, A A

    2010-07-01

    Our studies were performed to investigate the effects of the aqueous extracts of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata. These plants are used in folkloric medicine in infusion and were administered orally (0.76 g/kg) to male Albino Swiss mice for 16 days, on drink intake, organ weight/body weight (OW/BW x 100) ratio, histology, broqueoalveolar fluid (BALF) and elevated plus-maze (EPM). Feeding as well as body weight were unaffected by the consumption of these extracts. There were no signs of toxicity in BALF, morbidity or mortality during the study. C. pachystachya caused an increase in relative kidney OW/BW (p aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of C. pachystachya and L. divaricata in EPM was observed. We conclude that the crude aqueous extracts of leaves tested on mice orally did not produce signs of toxicity or behavioral changes in routine histological and clinical evaluation. However, knowledge of the biological activity of many herbal medicine used in Latin American is still deficient and more studies will be needed to elucidate the possible toxic effects.

  19. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest.

  20. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg-1 body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg-1 body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg-1) or leaves (4.60 g kg-1) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  1. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  2. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property.

  3. Relaxant effect of aqueous extract of Cistus ladaniferus on rodent intestinal contractions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mohammed; Tab, Naoual; Karim, Ahmed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohamed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Melhaoui, Ahmed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq

    2006-09-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Cistus ladaniferus leaves and stems were studied on the rodent isolated jejunum. The extract produced a reversible concentration dose-dependent (0.1-3 mg/ml) inhibition of the spontaneous motility of the rabbit jejunum. The inhibitory effects of the extract were not affected by pretreatment with the inhibitors of the alpha and beta adrenergic receptors yohimbine, prazosin or propranolol. The extract also inhibited K(+)-induced contractions in rabbit and rat jejunum at a similar concentration range. This result suggests that the antispasmodic action of the extract is mediated through calcium channel blockade. The results confirm the traditional use of C. ladaniferus in treating intestinal ache.

  4. Assessment of total arsenic and arsenic species stability in alga samples and their aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    García Salgado, S; Quijano Nieto, M A; Bonilla Simón, M M

    2008-05-30

    In order to achieve reliable information on speciation analysis, it is necessary to assess previously the species stability in the sample to analyse. Furthermore, in those cases where the sample treatment for species extraction is time-consuming, an assessment of the species integrity in the extracts is of paramount importance. Thus, the present paper reports total arsenic and arsenic species stability in alga samples (Sargassum fulvellum and Hizikia fusiformis), as well as in their aqueous extracts, which were stored in amber glass and polystyrene containers at different temperatures. Total arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), after sample acid digestion in a microwave oven, while arsenic speciation was conducted by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled to ICP-AES, with and without sample introduction by hydride generation (HPLC-ICP-AES and HPLC-HG-ICP-AES), after aqueous microwave-assisted extraction. The results obtained for solid alga samples showed that total arsenic (for Hijiki alga) and arsenic species present (As(V) for Hijiki and NIES No. 9 Sargasso) are stable for at least 12 months when samples are stored in polystyrene containers at +20 degrees C. On the other hand, a different behaviour was observed in the stability of total arsenic and As(V) species in aqueous extracts for both samples, being the best storage conditions for Sargasso extracts a temperature of -18 degrees C and polystyrene containers, under which they are stable for at least 15 days, while Hijiki extracts must be stored in polystyrene containers at +4 degrees C in order to ensure the stability for 10 days.

  5. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (Loranthaceae) aqueous leaf extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewole, S O

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of some mistletoes, specifically Loranthus micranthus Linn, Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser and Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (family: Loranthaceae), are used traditionally in Nigerian folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of Globimetula species, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata aqueous leaf extract (GCE, 50-800 mg/kg po) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal (normoglycaemic) and diabetic (hyperglycaemic) rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model. Normotensive Wistar and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Metformin (MFM, 500 mg/kg po) was used as the reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of G cupulata aqueous leaf extract (GCE, 50-800 mg/kg po) caused dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycaemia in normal and STZ-treated diabetic rats. Furthermore, acute intravenous administrations of GCE (50-800 mg/kg iv) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of the normotensive and hypertensive rats used. Although the exact hypoglycaemic and hypotensive mechanisms of action of the plant extract still remain speculative, it is unlikely that the extract induced hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiovascular effects were resistant to atropine pretreatment. However, the findings of this experimental study indicated that Globimetula cupulata aqueous leaf extract possesses hypoglycaemic and hypotensive properties. This therefore lends pharmacological support to the folkloric

  6. Rapid aqueous sample extraction of volatile organic compounds: effect of sample matrix and analyte properties.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M J; Gress, M F; Borgerding, A J

    2001-10-31

    Studies have been done using a rapid aqueous sample extraction (RASE) system to characterize the effects of chemical properties on the time required for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the gas phase. These analyses include determinations of the effects that different analytes, and modifications to the matrix, have on extraction time. Experiments were performed to determine the distinct contributions of analyte removal from water and gas-phase transport to the duration of the extracted pulse of analytes. These measured durations were correlated with known values of Henry's law constants (K(H)), boiling points, relative volatilities from modified matrixes, and aqueous diffusion coefficients for cyclohexane, toluene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene (IPB), and o-dichlorobenzene. Transport time, which was the most significant contributor to the overall duration, correlated well with analyte boiling point. Analyte removal from water correlated better with a modified relative volatility measurement than either K(H) or D(L). IPB extraction was studied in a number of modified matrixes. A 0.1% methanol in water matrix resulted in a 35% decrease in the extraction time of IPB relative to pure water. Extraction time decreased by 22% with the addition of 0.1% NaCl to the aqueous matrix. The addition of 0.01% sodium dodecyl sulfate to the matrix resulted in a 13% increase in the extraction time of IPB relative to water. The RASE system was directly interfaced to a cryofocussing high-speed gas chromatography system to analyze VOCs in wastewater at the low mug l(-1) level.

  7. Pain management in mice using the aqueous and ethanol extracts of four medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Debella, A; Makonnen, E; Abebe, D; Teka, F; Kidanemariam, A T

    2003-08-01

    There are many traditionally used analgesic plants in Ethiopia. They, however, have not been subject to scientific investigation for their efficacy and safety. To evaluate both prophylactic and relieving effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of four traditionally used medicinal plants in Ethiopia. An experimental design in which five group of albino mice weighing 30-35 grams representing positive and negative control, and extract treated groups respectively. The extracts, standard drugs and normal saline were administered into GIT by gavage to evaluate the analgesic effect. Department of Drug Research at Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute and Department of Pharmacology at Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa university. Analgesic effects of water and ethanol extracts of four plants were evaluated against distilled water and standard analgesics (morphine and acetylsalicylic acid) with acetic acid induced writhing tests in mice. The four plants used for this screening were Ocimum sauve, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia adoensis and Ajuga remota. All extracts of the four plant materials were observed to possess both inhibiting and treatment activities against acetic acid induced pain. Dose related analgesic effect was also observed with all extracts of all plants with different potencies. Ethanol extracts of all the four plant materials were more potent than their water extracts at all dose levels except O. sauve, and L. adoensis whose water extracts seem to be a bit more potent at low dose. The analgesic potencies of both extracts of all the four plants were shown to be less than those of the standard analgesics. Of all the extracts, the ethanol extract of O. lamiifolium was found to be the most potent, while its water extract was the least. Acetic acid induced writhing was relieved with medium dose of both extracts in most cases and with low dose in few. Hundred percent relief was achieved with both standard analgesics at a very low dose. The present study

  8. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by an aqueous extract from leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees.

    PubMed

    Vijayanandraj, S; Brinda, R; Kannan, K; Adhithya, R; Vinothini, S; Senthil, K; Chinta, Ramakoteswara Rao; Paranidharan, V; Velazhahan, R

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of aqueous extracts of various medicinal plants in detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was tested in vitro by thin-layer chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the different plant extracts, the leaf extract of Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees) showed the maximum degradation of AFB1 (≥ 98%) after incubation for 24h at 37 °C. The aflatoxin detoxifying activity of the A. vasica leaf extract was significantly reduced by heating to 100 °C for 10 min or autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. Dialysis had no effect on aflatoxin detoxifying ability of A. vasica extract and the dialyzed extract showed similar level of detoxification of AFB1 as that of the untreated extract. A time course study of aflatoxin detoxification by A. vasica extract showed that 69% of the toxin was degraded within 6h and ≥ 95% degradation was observed after 24h of incubation. Detoxification of AFB1 by A. vasica extract was further confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids in methanolic extract of A. vasica leaves. A partially purified alkaloid from A. vasica leaves by preparative TLC exhibited strong AFB1 detoxification activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiresponse Optimization and Prediction of Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Ginger Extract

    PubMed Central

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe; Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade

    2016-01-01

    The influence of extraction temperature, powder concentration, and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of aqueous ginger extract was investigated. The possibility of estimating the antioxidant properties of the extract from its absorbance and colour properties was also investigated. Results indicated that powder concentration was the most significant factor to consider in optimizing antioxidant extraction. However, temperature and time still influenced the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity while extraction temperature influenced the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the extract. Using the total phenol content, total flavonoid content, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract, the multiresponse optimization condition for extraction of antioxidant based on the experimental range studied is 96°C, 2.10 g/100 mL, and 90 min. The absorbance of the ginger extract at 610 nm could be exploited for rapid estimation of its total flavonoid and polyphenol with a R2 of 0.713 and 0.753, respectively. PMID:28078258

  10. Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, M; Amara, A; Aboul-Enein, A; Helmi, S; Ballot, A; Schnitzler, P

    2013-05-01

    Natural substances offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development with regard to broad spectrum antiviral properties and novel modes of action. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital herpetic infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug-resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. A nontoxic cyanobacterium Arthrospira strain from Chad has been characterized by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the phycocyanin gene. This cyanobacterium was identified as Arthrospira fusiformis by phylogenetic tree analysis. The antiherpetic activity of crude aqueous extracts from the Chad A. fusiformis isolate was determined. Antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex virus of cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract was assessed in plaque reduction assays and their mode of antiherpetic action was analysed. In virus suspension assays, cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract inhibited virus infectivity by 54.9%, 64.6%, and 99.8%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of cyanobacterial extracts separately at different time periods during the viral infection cycle. Extracts of A. fusiformis strain clearly inhibited herpesvirus multiplication before and during virus infection of host cells. The phosphate buffer extract of the A. fusiformis strain affected free herpes simplex virus prior to infection of host cells and inhibited intracellular viral replication. It is concluded, that Arthrospira compounds warrant further investigation to examine their potential role in the treatment of herpetic infections.

  11. A method for red-violet pigments extraction from fruits of Malabar spinach (Basella rubra) with enhanced antioxidant potential under fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sravan Kumar, S; Manoj, P; Giridhar, P

    2015-05-01

    Basella rubra fruit juice with a total soluble solids content of 5 to 9 (0)Brix was fermented using the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An 87.5 % of conversion of fermentable sugar was achieved. The TSS ((0)Brix) reduced from 0.60 (0)Brix to 0.17 (0)Brix (71.67 % decrease in TSS) upon performing fermentation of fruit juice water extract with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2. There was 8 folds reduction in pigment quality as evidenced from fermentation. Besides, the potential increase of phenolics, thanks to a higher content of total betalains in general and betacyanins in particular when fermentation was carried out with S. cerevisiae strain 3. The DPPH (2, 2 -diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate) free radical scavenging potential (IC50) of fermented juice (1.9 mg.ml(-1)) was significant over control (2.4 mg.ml(-1)) extracts of B. rubra. The reducing power of fermented extracts was significantly high compared to control samples. The multiple antioxidant activity of fermented extract was also evident by significant reducing power assay when compared to its control samples.

  12. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Methanol and Aqueous Extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, methanol and aqueous extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. leaves were prepared and analyzed for phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential in different in vitro assays. Antioxidant activity was studied using DPPH, CUPRAC, reducing power assay, deoxyribose degradation (site and nonsite specific), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), ferric thiocyanate (FTC), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and molybdate ion reduction, respectively. The total phenolic contents of the methanol and aqueous leaf extract were 39 mg GAE/g and 38 mg GAE/g, whereas flavonoid contents of these extracts were found to be 0.013 mg RE/g and 0.006 mg RE/g, respectively. From the two extracts, the methanol extract shows maximum inhibition (%) of 57.82%, 71.23%, 48.26%, 69.85%, and 52.78% in DPPH, nonsite- and site-specific, FTC, and TBA assays and absorbance of 0.669 and 0.241 in reducing power and CUPRAC assays at the highest concentration tested. UPLC analysis was done to determine the presence of various types of polyphenols present in plant extracts. PMID:24348173

  13. The effects of aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in experimental liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ljubuncic, Predrag; Song, Hui; Cogan, Uri; Azaizeh, Hassan; Bomzon, Arieh

    2005-08-22

    In a previous study, we identified Pistacia lentiscus was worthy for further laboratory evaluation because an aqueous extract of the plant suppressed iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates without affecting mitochondrial respiration in cultured HepG2 and PC12 cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aqueous extract prepared from the dried leaves of Pistacia lentiscus in a rat model of hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. We assessed the impact of daily dosing on biochemical and morphological indices and the extent of oxidative stress in the livers of healthy and thioacetamide-treated rats. In healthy rats, long-term administration of the extract induced hepatic fibrosis and an inflammatory response, mild cholestasis and depletion of reduced glutathione associated with an increase in its oxidized form. In thioacetamide-treated rats, long-term administration of extract aggravated the inflammatory and fibrotic and glutathione depleting responses without affecting the extent of lipid peroxidation. Although our previous in vitro study established that extracts prepared from the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus had antioxidant activity, this in vivo study establishes these extracts also contains hepatotoxins whose identity may be quite different from those compounds with antioxidant properties. The results of this study suggest complementing in vitro experiments with those involving animals are essential steps in establishing the safety of medicinal plants. Furthermore, these data confirm that complete reliance on data obtained using in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions pertaining to the safety of phytopharmaceuticals.

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  15. Aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; González, Roxana Elizabeth; Renna, Nicolás Federico; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2010-06-09

    The organosulfur profile and the effect on oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed rats (FFR) were evaluated in Fuego INTA and Morado INTA garlic cultivars. Wistar rats were fed either normal rat chow (control) or the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. During the last 6 weeks of a 12 week period of the corresponding diet, a subgroup of control and FFR received an aqueous extract of Fuego INTA and Morado INTA. Fuego INTA showed higher levels of total thiosulfinates, allicin, and pungency than Morado INTA. FFR showed an increase of systolic blood pressure, aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and vascular remodeling that was significantly reduced after both garlic administrations. The beneficial effect was slightly higher when Fuego INTA was administered. Both aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in rats with metabolic syndrome, suggesting the existence of slight differences among cultivars.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the hydrogen peroxide formed in aqueous cigarette tar extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. )

    1989-01-01

    We have established, for the first time, a reliable method to quantitate hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generated in aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke tar. The aqueous tar extract was passed through a short reverse-phase column and its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration determined by differential pulse polarography using an automatic reference subtraction system. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increased with aging, pH and temperature; the presence of superoxide dismutase lead to lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. This method was applied to many kinds of research and commercial cigarettes. With a few exceptions, the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed after a fixed time from each cigarette smoke was proportional to its tar yield.

  17. Biosynthesis of iron and silver nanoparticles at room temperature using aqueous sorghum bran extracts.

    PubMed

    Njagi, Eric C; Huang, Hui; Stafford, Lisa; Genuino, Homer; Galindo, Hugo M; Collins, John B; Hoag, George E; Suib, Steven L

    2011-01-04

    Iron and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous sorghum extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by the aqueous sorghum bran extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm. The diffraction peaks were indexed to the face-centered cubic (fcc) phase of silver. The absorption spectra of colloidal silver nanoparticles showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak centered at a wavelength of 390 nm. Amorphous iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50 nm were formed instantaneously under ambient conditions. The reactivity of iron nanoparticles was tested by the H(2)O(2)-catalyzed degradation of bromothymol blue as a model organic contaminant.

  18. Protective Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum Aqueous Extract on Thioacetamide-induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Won; Park, Sang-Jin; Song, In-Bae; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Cho, Eun-Sang; Son, Hwa-Young; Lee, Sang-Wook; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum (BC703) on thioacetamide (TA)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We found that BC703 significantly decreased mortality and the change in serum transaminase following TA administration. The group treated with BC703 at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg produced significant hepatoprotective effects against TA-induced liver damage by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in dose-dependent manners. Histopathological studies further substantiated the protective effect of BC703. These results show the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum on thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:22319234

  19. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  20. Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extract of Acanthus montanus leaf against strongylid nematodes of small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Adamu, M; Oshadu, O D; Ogbaje, C I

    2010-01-01

    The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude aqueous extract of Acanthus montanus (Nees) T. Anders (Acanthaceae) against strongylid nematodes of small ruminants was investigated using the in-vitro egg hatch and larval growth inhibition assays. Faecal samples collected per rectum from sheep and goats were subjected to parasitological examination using the McMaster counting technique with a yield of 700 eggs per gram (E.P.G.) of faeces. Crude aqueous leaf extract of Acanthus montanus was extracted using cold water extraction with a yield of 13.01% w/w. Egg hatch assay revealed a 91.75% reduction in egg hatch at concentration of 25 mg/ml of the extract. The extract had a 100% inhibition, at 200mg/ml concentration which was equivalent to the activity of 3.125 mg/ml albendazole. The distilled water control however, showed a 0% inhibition. Larval growth inhibition assay results showed the extract on Day 1 at 25 mg/ml and 200mg/ml concentrations yielded 67.02% and 85.26% larval inhibition. On Day 2, 100% inhibition was obtained on all concentrations of the extract except for 25 mg/ml that yielded 88.30%. Albendazole however, had a 100% larval inhibition for all concentrations on Day 2. A 100% larval inhibition was recorded on Day 3 from the 25 mg/ml concentrations. The mean percentage larval inhibition of the extract at 200mg/ml (92.63%) was comparable to the standard anthelminthic (albendazole) at 12.50mg/ml (92.28%). These findings showed that there is a pharmacological basis for the folkloric claim of the anthelminthic effect of Acanthus montanus.

  1. Evaluation of topical formulations of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on open wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Sunilkumar; Parameshwaraiah, S; Shivakumar, H G

    1998-06-01

    Formulations (ointment, cream and gel) of aqueous extract of C. asiatica, when applied topically, thrice daily for 24 days on the open wounds in rats increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in collagen content and tensile strength. The treated wounds epithelialised faster and the rate of wound contraction was higher as compared to control wounds. The process of healing was better with gel formulation when compared to other two formulations.

  2. Extraction of cerium-group lanthanide (III) nitrates from concentrated aqueous salt solutions by tributyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium for a hypothetical standard, designated as 1 M aqueous solution of Ln(III) nitrate and the state of the pure components in organic phase with a mole fraction of 1 have been determined assuming formation of tri- and tetrasolvates of the metal(III) nitrates in organic phase. The excessive thermodynamic functions of mixing tri-n-butyl phosphate with solutions of Ln(III) nitrate trisolvates are presented.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae).

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Oreagba, Ibrahim Adekunle; Odoma, Saidi; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Osunkalu, Vincent Oluseye

    2012-01-31

    The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. However, over the past decade, several news-catching episodes in developed communities indicated adverse effects, sometimes life-threatening, allegedly arising as a consequence to taking herbal products or traditional medicines from various ethnic groups. Despite the popular use of Moringa oleifera for treating various disorders, there is limited or no scientific data available regarding safety aspects of this remedy, nor are there any documented toxicological studies that can be used to ascertain the safety index of its herbal preparation. Therefore, this present study aimed to carry out extensive toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera. In an acute toxicity test, male Wistar albino mice were orally administered an aqueous extract up to 6400 mg/kg and intraperitoneally up to 2000 mg/kg. A sub-chronic toxicity test was performed by daily administration with the extract at 250, 500 and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days. Control rats received distilled water. Sperm quality was analyzed, haematological and biochemical (liver enzymes, urea and creatinine) parameters were determined and a histopathological examination was carried out. The LD(50) was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. The extract did not elicit any significant difference (P≥0.05) in sperm quality, haematological and biochemical parameters in the treated rats compared to the control. Moreover, there was no significant difference in weight gain of the control and treated animals although there was a dose-dependent reduction in food consumption of the animals treated with 250 to 1500 mg/kg extract. Results obtained in this study suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is relatively safe when administered orally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  5. Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z A; Singh, P; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S

    2011-07-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 μg/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 μg/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results

  6. Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Z. A.; Singh, P.; Bhujbal, S. S.; Deoda, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. Objective: To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Materials and Methods: We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 μg/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Results: Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 μg/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Ho, Wan-Yong; Beh, Boon-Kee; Long, Kamariah; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  8. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  9. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Miao, Miao; Xia, Hui; Yang, Li-Gang; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scavenging superoxide anion radical capacity (SSARC). Subsequently, the potential antioxidant effects on rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (rCMEC) treated with hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet were also evaluated. The highest TAC, ORAC, SHRC and SSARC were Lonicera japonica Thunb., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Chrysanthemum indicum L. and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. Most aqueous extracts of edible flowers exhibited good antioxidant effects on injury of rCMEC induced by hypoxia-re-oxygenation. In addition, the aqueous extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Carthamus tinctorius L., Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. could suppress the build-up of oxidative stress by increasing serum superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, and reducing malonaldehyde concentration in hyperlipidemia rats. These findings provided scientific support for screening edible flowers as natural antioxidants and preventative treatments for oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:28326000

  10. [Neurotoxic effect of aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus) in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Mendoza-Quispe, Daniel Enrique; Moreno-Rumay, Edwin Luis; Gonzales-Medina, Carlos Alejandro; Remuzgo-Artezano, Fany; Morales-Ipanaqué, Luis Alexander; Monje-Nolasco, Roberto Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To assess the neurotoxic effect of the aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus) in an experimental model. 20 male Holtzman rats of 250 ± 15 g were randomized into four groups: the negative control received saline solution (SS) orally (PO), the positive control received 6-hydroxydopamine intracranially (IC) and SS by PO. Experimental group 1 received aqueous extract of boldo (AEB) by PO, and experimental group 2 received 6-hydroxydopamine intracranially and AEB by PO. The experiment lasted 21 days. A neurological assessment was performed which had three components: a) clinical, evaluated with the rotarod test, b) biochemical, by measuring serum levels of uric acid, and c) histopathology, by immunohistochemistry for substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. The Kruskal Wallis test and the Dunn test were used to assess differences between groups. A significant decrease was found in the latency time of the rotarod test between the negative and positive control group (p<0.01), negative control and experimental 1 (p=0.09), negative control and experimental 2 (p<0.01), positive control and experimental 1 (p=0.04), and experimental 1 and 2 (p=0.09). There was no significant intergroup difference in the identification of uric acid. There was a depletion of the total dopaminergic neurons in the neuronal count, without intergroup difference. A neurotoxic effect of aqueous extract of boldo was recognized at a clinical level in Holtzman male rats.

  11. Accumulation of yellow Monascus pigments by extractive fermentation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xu; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Zhilong

    2015-02-01

    Monascus species can produce various secondary metabolites of polyketide structure. In the current study, it is found that an interesting phenomenon, i.e., submerged culture of Monascus species in an aqueous solution majorly accumulated intracellular orange Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 470 nm with absorbance of 32 OD while extractive fermentation in a nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution produced extracellular and intracellular yellow Monascus pigments exhibiting one peak at 410 nm with absorbance 30 OD and 12 OD, respectively. The spectrum profiles of both intracellular and extracellular Monascus pigments were affected by surfactant loading, extractive fermentation time, and surfactant adding time. Meanwhile, the instability of orange Monascus pigments in the extracellular nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution was also confirmed experimentally. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is attributed to the export of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth by extractive fermentation. The transferring of intracellular yellow Monascus pigments into its broth blocks yellow Monascus pigments from further enzymatic conversion or eliminates the feedback inhibition of yellow Monascus pigments based on the biosynthetic pathway of Monascus pigments.

  12. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  13. Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica promotes corneal epithelium wound healing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Manan, Nur Azeanty Bt Abdul; Fong, Ooi Sew; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2012-03-27

    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing. This study was done to evaluate the effects of Centella asiatica on the proliferation and migration of rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells in the in vitro wound healing model. RCE cells were cultured with or without supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract. Viability and proliferation of the RCE cells was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro re-epithelization was studied by scratch assay and migration rate was evaluated quantitatively by image analyzer. Expression of corneal specific differentiation markers, CK12 and connexin 43, were studied via RT-PCR. It was found that supplementation of Centella asiatica did not show any significant effect on the RCE cells proliferation at the concentration up to 500ppm, while at the concentration of 1000ppm significantly inhibited RCE cells proliferation (p<0.05). However, at the concentration up to 62.5ppm, RCE cells shows significant enhancement of migration rate compared to the control group (p<0.05). It was also found that the supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract did not alter the expression of differentiation markers and cell cycle. In conclusion, supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract at low concentrations could be useful to promote corneal epithelium wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  15. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat

    PubMed Central

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Shoeibi, Shahram; Sani, Moslem Jaferi; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Ali; Mehdizade, Abbas; Dadgarnejad, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW) and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally), a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines. PMID:24696813

  16. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

    2012-04-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

  17. Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata Lemos; Melo, Gustavo Barreto de; Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão de; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Michellone, Paulo Roberto Teixeira; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Picinato, Maria Aparecida Neves Cardoso; Franco, Clarice Fleury Fina; Mota, Gustavo de Assis; Silva, Orlando de Castro e

    2006-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human diseases has increased worldwide. Many of them are used by oral administration and, after absorption, may affect many organs. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the effects of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia leaves, popularly known in Brazil as "malva-branca", on liver regeneration. Twenty rats were divided into four groups: control, Sida100, Sida200 and Sida400 groups. All animals were submitted to oral administration of distilled water, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia, respectively. Immediately after this, they underwent 67% partial hepatectomy. Twenty four hours later, their livers were removed. Hepatic regeneration was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) using the PC-10 monoclonal antibody. Sida100 and Sida200 groups disclosed higher liver regeneration indices than control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). The aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia stimulates liver regeneration after 67% partial hepatectomy in rats.

  18. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Simão, Anderson A; Marques, Tamara R; Marcussi, Silvana; Corrêa, Angelita D

    2017-06-29

    Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  19. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  20. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Shoeibi, Shahram; Sani, Moslem Jaferi; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Ali; Mehdizade, Abbas; Dadgarnejad, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW) and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally), a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  1. An aqueous extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) decreases platelet thromboxane synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S P; D'Amico, E A; Chamone, D A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) on rabbit platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis were examined. The guaraná extract (100 mg/ml) and fractions separated by TLC (origin and xanthines) decreased platelet aggregation (37, 27 and 31% of control values, respectively) and platelet thromboxane formation from [14C]-arachidonic acid (78, 70 and 50% of control values, respectively). The decreased thromboxane synthesis could be responsible, at least in part, for the antiaggregatory action of guaraná.

  2. Preliminary studies of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia dillenii aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Loro, J F; del Rio, I; Pérez-Santana, L

    1999-11-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw is a cactus that belongs to the family Opuntiae. Lyophilized aqueous extract of the fruits of the plant, used in Canarian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal and bronchial troubles, was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in rats and mice. The Opuntia dillenii extract (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited, in a dose-related manner, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg.

  3. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    PubMed

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns.

  4. [Study on effect and mechanism of Huaier aqueous extract on growth and invasion of human prostate cancer PC3 cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ai-Lin; Hu, Zhong-Dong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Huaier aqueous extracton growth and invasion of human prostate cancer PC3 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Huaier aqueous extract on proliferation of PC3 cells. The effects of Huaier aqueous extract on cell cycle and apoptosis of PC3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, wound healing assay and Transwell assay were performed to determine the effect of Huaier aqueous extract on invasion and migration abilities of PC3 cells. PC3 cells treated with Huaier aqueous extract were subjected to western blotting for protein levels of EMT markers and phosphorylation levels of key proteins in MAPK pathway. Results revealed that Huaier aqueous extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Huaier aqueous extract dramatically increased the apoptosis rate and induced S-phase arrest in PC3 cells.Furthermore, Huaier suppressed invasion and migration abilities of PC3 cells, and facilitated MET process of PC3 cells via down-regulation of N-cadherin and TCF8/ZEB1 and up-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, Huaier reduced the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK. Therefore, the regulatory effects of Huaier on EMT and MAPK pathway may be responsible for the suppressive effect of Huaier on growth and invasion of PC3 cells. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of a monoclonal antibody from cell supernatant.

    PubMed

    Muendges, Jan; Zalesko, Alexej; Górak, Andrzej; Zeiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of continuous multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of an immunoglobulin G1 from cell supernatant in a mixer-settler unit. An aqueous two-phase system consisting of polyethylene glycol 2000, phosphate salt, and water was applied without and with sodium chloride (NaCl). Influences of different parameters such as throughput, phase ratio, and stage number on the extraction performance were analyzed. For systems without NaCl, the extraction was carried out as a washing step. An increase of stage number from one to five stages enabled to increase the immunoglobulin G1 purity from 11.8 to 32.6% at a yield of nearly 90%. Furthermore, a reduction of product phase volume due to a higher phase ratio led to an increase of purity from 20.8 to 29.6% in a three-stage countercurrent extraction. For experiments with NaCl moderate partitioning conditions were adjusted by adding 8 wt% NaCl. In that case, the extraction was carried out as a stripping step.

  6. Prospecting nanomaterials in aqueous environments by cloud-point extraction coupled with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Reed, Robert; Schoepf, Jared; Hristovski, Kiril; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-04-15

    Increasing application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in industry and consumer products inevitably lead to their release into and impact on aquatic environments. To characterize the NMs efficiently in surface water, a fast and simple method is needed to separate and concentrate nanomaterials from the aqueous matrix without altering their shape and size. Applying cloud-point extraction (CPE) using the surfactant Triton 114 to an array of NMs (titanium dioxide, gold, silver, and silicon dioxide) with different sizes or capping agents in nanopure water resulted in extraction efficiency of 83%-107%. Additional CPE experiments were conducted to extract NMs from surface, potable, and sewage waters, and NMs enriched in the surfactant phase were characterized using transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The most abundant nanoparticles identified in surface water were silica, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide with 4-99nm diameter. The extraction efficiencies of CPE for silicon, titanium, and iron elements from environmental water samples were 51%, 15%, and 99%, respectively. This study applied CPE with TEM to enrich and analyze popular nanoparticles such as SiO2 and TiO2 from natural waters, which has not been well addressed by previous researches. Overall, CPE coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be an effective method to characterize NMs in aqueous water samples, and further optimization will increase the extraction efficiency of NMs in complicated surface water matrix.

  7. Genotoxicity evaluation of hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of Dorema aucheri by the comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Etebari, Mahmoud; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Nazmakanipour, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dorema aucheri is a plant of Apiaceae family which is used widely in some states of Iran. Different extracts and essential oil of Dorema species contain flavonoids and cumarin compounds which have anti-hypertensive, cholesterol- and triglycerides-lowering properties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic properties of hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of D. aucheri on human hepatoma cells using the comet assay method for safety evaluation. Materials and Methods: In this method, after incubation of cells with different concentrations of extracts, cell suspensions were added to pre-coated normal agarose slides. After lysis, electrophoresis and neutralization process, staining was done by ethidium bromide and comets were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Tail length, percentage of DNA in tail and tail moment parameters were measured. Results: Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that concentrations more than 500 μg/ml of hydroalcoholic and aqueous extract of D. aucheri were genotoxic. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results that taking the concentrations less than these dosages of extracts are safe but more studies are required to determine genotoxic mechanisms of this plant. PMID:28217637

  8. Anticancer potential of aqueous extract of alocasia macrorrhiza against hepatic cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shengtao; Lin, Caiyu; Zhang, Quanbo; Wang, Li; Lin, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiujie

    2012-06-14

    Alocasia macrorrhiza has been used as a folk medicine for cancer treatment in the Southwest of China. The purpose of this study is to confirm the anticancer activity of aqueous extract of alocasia macrorrhiza against hepatic cancer and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Human normal liver cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, EdU incorporation, AO/EB staining apoptotic cells, apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and cell cycle distribution in response to alocasia macrorrhiza extract. The mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, Cyclin D1, Rb, P21, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected through RT-PCR and Western blotting; the tumor growth inhibition in vivo was tested by oral administration of the extract. Alocasia macrorrhiza aqueous extract exhibited proliferation inhibition and apoptosis effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro, inhibited hepatoma growth in vivo. Alocasia macrorrhiza extract has potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and inhibits hepatoma growth in vivo, its mechanism of action might be associated with the inhibition of DNA synthesis, cell cycle (G(0)/G(1)) arrest, apoptosis induction through up-regulation the mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, Rb, Bax and capase-3genes and down-regulation of the expressions of Cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarahroodi, S; Jafari-Najafi, R; Nasri, S; Rohampour, K; Maleki-Jamshid, A; Esmaeili, S

    2012-11-15

    There are several evidences that plants and vegetables with antioxidant activity can reduce oxidative damages in brain and improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was evaluation of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, mice were classified, coded, weighted and grouped (n = 8) as follow as: control group (Only electric shock), blank group (electric shock plus normal saline) and test groups (electric shock plus Nepeta menthoides extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Delay time of leaving the platform was measured for retention and retrieval test of memory in all mentioned groups. In retention test, plant extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock while it was administered 24 h after receiving electric shock in retrieval. The results revealed that Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract significantly (p<0.05) increased memory retention and retrieval. The best response for memory retention and retrieval was achieved with 800 mg kg(-1) of Nepeta extract. In conclusion, enhancement of memory retention and retrieval by Nepeta menthoides could be cause of antioxidant activity of its components such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and phenolic acids.

  10. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Bail Decreases Local Effects Induced by Bothropic Venom

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Jacyra Antunes dos Santos; Geraldo Amaral, Juliano; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Tabosa do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Maria Zucolotto, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, about 90% of accidents are attributed to snakes from the Bothrops genus. The specific treatment consists of antivenom serum therapy, which has some limitations such as inability to neutralize local effects, difficult access in some regions, risk of immunological reactions, and high cost. Thus, the search for alternative therapies to treat snakebites is relevant. Jatropha mollissima (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used in folk medicine as an antiophidic remedy. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of the aqueous leaf extract from J. mollissima on local effects induced by Bothrops venoms. High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection analysis and Mass Spectrometry analysis of aqueous leaf extract confirmed the presence of the flavonoids isoschaftoside, schaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This extract, at 50–200 mg/kg doses administered by intraperitoneal route, showed significant inhibitory potential against local effects induced by Bothrops erythromelas and Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Local skin hemorrhage, local edema, leukocyte migration, and myotoxicity were significantly inhibited by the extract. These results demonstrate that J. mollissima extract possesses inhibitory potential, especially against bothropic venoms, suggesting its potential as an adjuvant in treatment of snakebites. PMID:27847818

  11. Evaluation of the toxicity and hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extracts of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl

    PubMed Central

    Lira, S.M.; Canabrava, N.V.; Benjamin, S.R.; Silva, J.Y.G.; Viana, D.A.; Lima, C.L.S.; Paredes, P.F.M.; Marques, M.M.M.; Pereira, E.O.; Queiroz, E.A.M.; Guedes, M.I.F.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic degenerative diseases, and it is estimated to increase worldwide to around 415 million and to impact 642 million in 2040. Research shows that some plants are sources of bioactive compounds against diabetes. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oral toxicity and the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl. Diabetes was induced in Swiss mice with streptozotocin and the mice were treated with an aqueous extract of C. quercifolius leaves for a period of 30 days. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, catechins and triterpenoid, which did not show any mortality and behavioral alterations in mice treated with 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 14 days. Histopathological analysis of organs (kidney, pancreas, liver) from mice treated with the 2000 mg/kg extract revealed no architectural change. In the present study, we found a 29% reduction in glucose levels in animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight. These results are very promising because they showed that C. quercifolius had a hypoglycemic effect and did not present oral toxicity, thus being a new source of compounds for the control of diabetes. PMID:28876366

  12. Evaluation of the toxicity and hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extracts of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl.

    PubMed

    Lira, S M; Canabrava, N V; Benjamin, S R; Silva, J Y G; Viana, D A; Lima, C L S; Paredes, P F M; Marques, M M M; Pereira, E O; Queiroz, E A M; Guedes, M I F

    2017-08-31

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic degenerative diseases, and it is estimated to increase worldwide to around 415 million and to impact 642 million in 2040. Research shows that some plants are sources of bioactive compounds against diabetes. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the oral toxicity and the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl. Diabetes was induced in Swiss mice with streptozotocin and the mice were treated with an aqueous extract of C. quercifolius leaves for a period of 30 days. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, catechins and triterpenoid, which did not show any mortality and behavioral alterations in mice treated with 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 14 days. Histopathological analysis of organs (kidney, pancreas, liver) from mice treated with the 2000 mg/kg extract revealed no architectural change. In the present study, we found a 29% reduction in glucose levels in animals receiving 200 mg/kg body weight. These results are very promising because they showed that C. quercifolius had a hypoglycemic effect and did not present oral toxicity, thus being a new source of compounds for the control of diabetes.

  13. The cytogenetic effects of the aqueous extracts of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Incekara, Umit; Güner, Adem; Aydın, Elanur; Dirican, Ebubekir; Togar, Başak

    2014-04-01

    One of the useful and most commonly cultivated commercially species, migratory locust (Locusta migratoria; Orthoptera), was investigated in light of genotoxic damage potentials. For this aim, we evaluated the genotoxic potentials of water soluble extracts of L. migratoria on cultured human blood cells. The micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange and structural chromosome aberration assays were applied to assess DNA and chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. The extracts were added to the cultures at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. Our results indicated that these extracts did not exhibit genotoxicity at tested concentrations. We conclude that this in vitro approach for biomonitoring genotoxicity assessment is useful for comparing the potential health risks of edible insects.

  14. Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

    2009-01-01

    Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Methanolic, Hexanic and Aqueous Extracts from Adiantum caudatum Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Dildar; Khan, Muhammad Mehboob; Saeed, Ramsha

    2015-01-01

    In the quest for new medicines, the methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts of Adiantum caudatum leaves, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, were analyzed for phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. TPCs (total phenolic content) of the methanolic, aqueous and hexanic extracts were 27.7, 21.1, and 16.7 μg of gallic acid equivalents per mL, respectively, while TFCs (total flavonoid content) were 13.2, 11.6, and 10.0 μg of rutin equivalents per mL, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts in reducing power, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), phosphomolybdate and ABTS assays follow the same order of methanolic ˃ aqueous ˃ hexanic. In the DPPH assay, however, the aqueous extract exhibited a slightly higher antioxidant activity than the methanolic one. Methanol is therefore a better solvent to extract most of the antioxidant components from A. caudatum leaves. In lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the extracts showed almost similar behavior and their activity decreased gradually with time. The aqueous extract was the strongest inhibitor after two days, but the hexanic became the most potent after about three days. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was determined against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Towards all the microbes, the aqueous extract was the most potent and the hexanic the least. P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible strain, while the aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited a slightly higher efficacy against this pathogen than the drug amoxicillin. In conclusion, A. caudatum can potentially provide a remedy against disorders caused by oxidative stress and infections. PMID:26783712

  16. Studies on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the mechanism of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiali; Zhang, Xuemei; Chen, Xiu; Sun, Yong; Dai, Yaolan; Chen, Chang; Zhang, Tiane; Yan, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Usnea is a lichen of Usnea diffracta Vain and Usnea longissima Ach, which belongs to the genus Usnea Adans of Usneaceae. Usnea exerts numerous pharmacological activities, while its lipid regulatory activities remain unreported. This study aims to evaluate the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea on the regulation of lipid metabolism and to explore the possible mechanism. Hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding with high-fat diet for 45days. Therapy rats were intragastrically administered with simvastatin (0.004g/kg/d), Usnea aqueous extract (2.766g/kg/d), or Usnea ethanol extract (2.766g/kg/d) for 20days. Pharmacodynamic effects, including body weight, serum and liver lipid levels, total bile acid (TBA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver index, and hepatic morphological changes were evaluated. To explore the mechanisms, the lipase activities and protein expressions related to lipid metabolism were detected. Compared with the model group, aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea can slow down the weight gain of rats, significantly reduce the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the liver contents of TG, LDL-C, as well as significantly increase the contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. In addition, aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea can significantly reduce the serum contents of AST and ALT. Furthermore, ethanol extract of Usnea can also significantly reduce the TBA content in serum and liver index. Liver tissue pathological observation showed that aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea can improve cell degeneration to a certain extent. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Usnea can significantly reduce sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1c, and liver X receptor α (LXR-α) protein expressions. Furthermore, aqueous extract of Usnea can significantly increase hepatic lipase activity and promote apoprotein A5 (ApoA5

  17. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    PubMed

    Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Mohammadi, Avid; Safiallahy, Sohayla; Faradmal, Javad; Azizi, Mona; Ahmadvand, Zohreh

    2014-07-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) resistance to drugs and the side effects of drugs have drawn the attention of investigators to herbal plants. The main aim of the current research was to investigate the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice root) on HSV-1. One of the objectives of the current research was to determine the efficacy and the effect of the elapsed incubation time of treating the Vero cells infected with HSV-1 by G. glabra. In addition, the effect of cells pretreatment with licorice root extract, preincubation of virus with licorice root extract, and the antiviral activity were assessed. Vero cells were incubated after adding different concentrations of aqueous extracts of G. glabra. The cells were incubated during various time courses. Cytotoxicity assay, determining the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), and incubation of HSV-1 with licorice root extract prior to viral infection were performed. Internal association among different experiment groups showed the significant difference in the efficacy of the extract with regard to incubation period between one and four hours, one and eight hours, four and 12 hours, and eight and 12 hours. Moreover, there was a significant difference with regard to efficacy among the pretreatment of cells with extract for two hours, incubation of virus with extract for one hour, incubation of virus with extract for two hours. G. glabra showed the characteristics of a novel antiviral medication; however, more in vitro experiments are needed to determine the antiherpetic activities of the G. glabra.

  18. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins.

  19. Aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction of eight ginsenosides from ginseng root.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Yonggang; Han, Mei; Yang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    We developed an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the eight ginsenosides (ginsenoside-Rg1, -Re, -Rf, -Rb1, -Rc, -Rb2, -Rb3 and -Rd) from ginseng root. A series of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids differing in composition of anions and cations were evaluated for extraction efficiency. The results indicated that the ILUAE method has a remarkable ability to improve the extraction efficiency of ginsenosides. In addition, the ILUAE procedure was also optimized on some ultrasonic parameters, such as the IL concentration, solvent to solid ratio and extraction time. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.3M [C(3)MIM]Br, solvent to solid ratio of 10:1 and extraction time of 20min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of total ginsenosides 17.81±0.47mg/g. Compared with the regular UAE, the proposed approach exhibited 3.16 times higher efficiency and 33% shorter extraction time, which indicated that ILUAE has a broad prospect for sample preparation of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly

  1. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    PubMed

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products.

  2. A new extraction method for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous two-phase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voshkin, A. A.; Shkinev, V. M.; Zakhodyaeva, Yu. A.

    2017-02-01

    An extraction method was suggested for the preparation of differently shaped nano- and micrometer- sized zinc oxide particles at the interface boundary of aqueous two-phase systems based on polyethylene glycol (polyethylene oxide) and sodium sulfate using NaOH and aqueous ammonia as precipitating agents.

  3. Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of vernonia amygdalina on plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rat models.

    PubMed

    Nwanjo, H U

    2005-01-01

    Many minor components of foods, such as secondary plant metabolites, have been shown to posses antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress on diabetes and other disease conditions. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed that the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as was shown by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehyde levels) present in the plasma. The aqueous extract of V. amygdalina leaves possessed antioxidant activity as shown by decreases in malondialdehyde levels. High values of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels, which are typical of the diabetic condition, were also found in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract also significantly reduced triglyceride levels and normalized cholesterol concentrations. This shows that the aqueous extract of V. amygdalina leaves have both hypolipidaemic and antioxidant properties.

  4. Carcinogenicity of betel quid ingredients: feeding mice with aqueous extract and the polyphenol fraction of betel nut.

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, S. V.; Shivapurkar, N. M.; Gothoskar, S. V.; Ranadive, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Male mice of inbred strains Swiss and C17 were fed daily 5 times a week by intragastric tube 0.1 ml of betel-nut aqueous extract, betel-leaf aqueous extract and the polyphenol fraction of betel nut. Male mice of corresponding strains fed 0.1 ml of distilled water served as controls. Treated and control mice were kept under observation and killed when moribund. Betel-nut aqueous extract induced tumours of the gastrointestinal tract in 58% Swiss mice and 25% C17 mice. The polyphenol fraction by the same route induced tumours at other sites in 17% of the mice. Betel-leaf aqueous extract failed to induce any tumour in the treated mice, which supports an earlier report of the lack of any carcinogenic principle in betel leaf, an essential constituent of betel quid. Results are discussed in relation to the relevant literature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:526433

  5. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p < 0.05) apoptotic cell death due to DPPH and ABTS by 4 to 5-fold although the activity was less than vitamin C. Based on the DPPH assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals

  6. Choline Synthesis in Spinach in Relation to Salt Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, P. S.; Weretilnyk, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Choline metabolism was examined in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants growing under nonsaline and saline conditions. In spinach, choline is required for phosphatidylcholine synthesis and as a precursor for the compatible osmolyte glycine betaine (betaine). When control (nonsalinized) leaf discs were incubated for up to 2 h with [1,2-14C]ethanolamine, label appeared in the N-methylated derivatives of phosphoethanolamine including phosphomono-, phosphodi-, and phosphotri- (i.e. phosphocholine) methyl-ethanolamine, as well as in choline and betaine, whereas no radioactivity could be detected in the mono- and dimethylated derivatives of the free base ethanolamine. Leaf discs from salinized plants showed the same pattern of labeling, although the proportion of label that accumulated in betaine was almost 3-fold higher in the salinized leaf discs. Enzymes involved in choline metabolism were assayed in crude leaf extracts of plants. The activites of ethanolamine kinase and of the three S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-base N-methyltransferase enzymes responsible for N-methylating phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine were all higher in extracts of plants salinized step-wise to 100, 200, or 300 mM NaCI compared with controls. In contrast, choline kinase, phosphocholine phosphatase, and cytidine 5[prime]-triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activities showed little variation with salt stress. Thus, the increased diversion of choline to betaine in salt-stressed spinach appears to be mediated by the increased activity of several key enzymes involved in choline biosynthesis. PMID:12232019

  7. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of aqueous extracts from Thymelaea hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Azza, Zora; Oudghiri, Mounia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta (TH) are used as a decoction in the treatment of different pathologies in folk medicine in Morocco. Objective: The aqueous extracts were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity and in inhibition of adjuvant induction arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, and the antiarthritic activity was carried out using complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: The plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight) exhibited significant activity in acute inflammation produced 60% of inhibition after 4 h as compared with that of the standard anti-inflammatory drug, the diclofenac (100 mg/kg) which showed 40% of inhibition. In arthritis model, the extract produced 85% inhibition after 18 days when compared with the diclofenac (10 mg/kg; 72%). Conclusion: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of TH had an anti-inflammatory activity and inhibited the induction of adjuvant arthritis in male Wistar rats. PMID:25829798

  8. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-09

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  9. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  10. Entomocidal activity of microwave energy & some aqueous plant extracts against Tribolium castaneum Herbst & Trogoderma granarium Everts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, W. N. A.; Amin, A. H.; Khidr, S. K.; Ismail, A. Y.

    2017-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of microwave radiation and aqueous plant extracts against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum & khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. The larvae stage with dried fruits (black raisin, red raisin, fig and apricot) were subjected to microwave radiation at different power levels (280,560 and 840) watt for three exposure times (10, 30 and 50) seconds. Mortalities increased with an increase of concentration or exposure time or both. Thus, highest mortality 90% was achieved at 840 watt power output and exposure time 50 second for both aforementioned species. Likewise, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, mint Mentha canadensis and myrtle Myrtus communis were studied for their toxicity effect on mortality of larval stage at three dosages (12500, 25000 and 50000) ppm for different exposure times (1, 2, 3 and 7) days. The larvae of khapra beetle were more resistant to the insecticidal activity of plant extracts in comparison with red flour beetle larvae. The LC50 values were varied in accordance to plant extracts types and concentrations within the four interval times of exposure. The LC50 values for both khapra & red flour beetles were (47234.07 & 5760.90) ppm respectively on black raisin after 7 days exposure to eucalyptus aqueous extract.

  11. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Radosław; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-08

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects.

  12. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available.

  13. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa.

    PubMed

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-02-05

    The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21 nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques.

  15. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T W; Dumont, J N; Clark, B R; Buchanan, M V

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator were tested for its toxic and teratogenic potential in vitro on embryos of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The 96-h LC50 and EC50 were determined to be 0.83% and 0.48%, respectively. The developmental stage of normal-appearing exposed embryos is not affected by increasing concentrations of the extract. Embryo growth, however, is significantly reduced at concentrations as low as 0.25%. Motility and pigmentation were effectively reduced relative to controls by extract concentrations of 0.5% and greater. Exposed embryos are shorter and stockier than controls. Malformations of head, eyes, viscera, and spine are common, and cartilage formation is abnormal. The epidermis is often hyperplastic, and large blisters occur over the somatic surface. The severity of abnormal development is directly related to the concentration of the toxicant to which the embryos are exposed. Chemical analysis shows that the aqueous extracts contain phenols, furans, monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons, and mono- and diazaarenes and/or monoaromatic amines.

  17. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  18. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Melastoma malabathricum leaves aqueous extract in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Z A; Raden Mohd Nor, R N S; Hanan Kumar, G; Abdul Ghani, Z D F; Sulaiman, M R; Rathna Devi, G; Mat Jais, A M; Somchit, M N; Fatimah, C A

    2006-12-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of the aqueous extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using abdominal constriction, hot-plate, and formalin tests, whereas the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities were measured using carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. The extract, which was obtained after soaking the air-dried leaves in distilled water for 72 h and then preparing in concentrations of 10%, 50%, and 100% (v/v), was administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. At all concentrations tested, the extract was found to exhibit significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities in a concentration-independent manner. Our findings that the aqueous extract of M. malabathricum possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities supports previous claims on its traditional uses to treat various ailments.

  19. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  20. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent.

  1. Comparison between supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and aqueous surfactant washing of an oily machining waste.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Matthews, M A

    1999-06-11

    Mathematical models are developed to compare aqueous surfactant washing to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction. These two cleaning processes are potentially competitive technologies which can be used to remove oily contaminants from a solid waste. In both processes, the cleaning efficiency for a batch of waste is evaluated by quantifying the residual oil content in the treated sample. A mass transfer model is used to simulate a semi-continuous washing process, and the experimental data, obtained in a batch operation, are used to estimate the equilibrium parameters in the model. For SCCO2 extraction, a linear desorption model is used to describe the supercritical desorption of oil from the solid phase into the CO2 phase and the simulated results agreed very well with the experimental data. The oil removal in aqueous surfactant washing is viewed to be controlled primarily by the diffusional transport of oil from the interiors of the waste elements to the surface, thus, it can be significantly affected by the size of the particles. A pre-cleaning pulverization is then recommended to improve the cleaning efficiency without increasing any other operation costs. In SCCO2 extraction, the desorption of oil from the solid waste is the controlling step and consequently, the solvent flow rate has no influence on oil removal. Our theoretical studies show that the difference between the cleaning efficiencies of these two technologies is not significant, with the oil concentration in the washing products approximately 5% lower than that in the extraction products.

  2. Aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Barberry root extract contains various alkaloids that are considered as antioxidants. Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBIR) was evaluated for renal function in diabetic rats induced by STZ. Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg bw) to rats, after 15 h of fasting. Diabetic rats were randomly grouped and treated daily with AEBIR and glibenclamide by gavage for 42 days. After 6 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and some biochemical parameters of serum and urine were measured and their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: Streptozotocin induced a significant rise in fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine glucose, urine protein, urine albumin, and water intake and a significant decrease in body weight, serum protein, urine urea, and urine creatinine. There was a significant restoration of these parameters to near normal after administration of the AEBIR and also by glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw). The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg in all parameters except blood glucose and urine glucose was more than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggested that aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through controlling blood glucose and renal protective effects. PMID:25050261

  3. Antifungal activity of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis against Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Filip, Rosana; Davicino, Roberto; Anesini, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Malassezia furfur is a lipodependent, dimorphic and saprophyte fungus which causes pityriasis versicolor, dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis in humans. The drugs available to treat this fungal infection are few. These drugs are highly toxic and are costly when used in prolonged treatments. For these reasons, it is necessary to find new compounds to treat these infections. Ilex paraguariensis St Hilaire is a plant that grows in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis on the growth of M. furfur. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and isolate compounds of I. paraguariensis and the agar-well diffusion method was used to assess the antifungal activity of the extract. The fungicidal/fungistatic effect was evaluated by the modified Thompson assay. The results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis (1000 mg/ml) possesses inhibitory activity against M. furfur. This antimalassezial activity was equivalent to 2.7 microg/ml of ketoconazole. Therefore, the topical use of Ilex paraguariensis extract as alternative antifungal agent can be suggested.

  4. Optimized aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon for production of a saponin-enriched bitter melon powder.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing P; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Bitter melon, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), aqueous extracts are proposed to have health-promoting properties due to their content of saponins and their antioxidant activity. However, the optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon and the effects of spray drying have not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the aqueous extraction of the saponins from bitter melon, using response surface methodology, prepare a powder using spray drying, and compare the powder's physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity with aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and a commercial powder. The optimal aqueous extraction conditions were determined to be 40 °C for 15 min and the water-to-sample ratio was chosen to be 20:1 mL/g. For many of its physical properties, components, and antioxidant capacity, the aqueous spray-dried powder was comparable to the aqueous and ethanol freeze-dried bitter melon powders and the commercial powder. The optimal conditions for the aqueous extraction of saponins from bitter melon followed by spray drying gave a high quality powder in terms of saponins and antioxidant activity. This study highlights that bitter melon is a rich source of saponin compounds and their associated antioxidant activities, which may provide health benefits. The findings of the current study will help with the development of extraction and drying technologies for the preparation of a saponin-enriched powdered extract from bitter melon. The powdered extract may have potential as a nutraceutical supplement or as a value-added ingredient for incorporation into functional foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Application of hydrophobic extractant in aqueous two-phase systems for selective extraction of cobalt, nickel and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias; de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; da Silva, Maria C Hespanhol

    2013-03-01

    This work developed a new and efficient method of extracting and separating Co(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) composed of triblock copolymer (L64)+Na(2)C(4)H(4)O(6)+water and L64+Li(2)SO(4)+water using the hydrophobic extractant 1-nitroso-2-naphtol, which complexes the metal ions and partitions in the triblock copolymer micelles in the ATPS top phase. Metal extraction from the salt-rich phase to the copolymer - rich phase is strongly affected by the fine-tuning of the following parameters: amount of added extractant, type of electrolyte, pH, and tie-line length. Excellent separation factors (S(i,j)) between the metals were obtained at pH=3.00 (S(Co,Cd)=1550 and S(Ni,Cd)=16,700) and pH=1.00 (S(Co,Ni)=826). In the interference study, Co(II) was selectivity extracted in the top phase in the presence of Ni(II) and Cd(II) in a concentration of up to 20 times the cobalt level in the system.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS, ETHANOLIC AND METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS FROM ACACIA SPP. AND Eucalyptus nicholii.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ermelinda; Fernandes, Sara; Bacelar, Eunice; Sampaio, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, Acacia and Eucalyptus, originate large amounts of biomass, due to their need by industries and other biological control, that can be used to extract antimicrobial substances. Foliar aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Acacia baileyana (Cootamundra wattle), Acacia dealbata (silver wattle), Acacia melanoxylon (black wattle) and Eucalyptus nicholii (narrow-leaved black peppermint) were assessed for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, using the disc diffusion method. Ethanolic extracts from A. baileyana and A. dealbata showed significant (P< 0.05) antimicrobial activity. Concerning the microbial species tested, differences were found in A. baileyana (P< 0.01) and E. nicholii (P< 0.0001) extracts. These two extracts were effective mostly against B. cereus, followed by C. parapsilosis. According to the antimicrobial activity classification, eucalypt and Cootamundra and silver wattles extracts (both water and ethanol) presented good efficacy against B. cereus, a food poisoning agent, and moderate efficacy against the remaining microorganisms. E. coli, a Gram negative, exhibited low sensibility to all foliar extracts. A. baileyana, E. nicholii and A. dealbata foliar biomass could be used to develop alternative substances in microbial control.

  7. Antiviral activity obtained from aqueous extracts of the Chilean soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina).

    PubMed

    Roner, Michael R; Sprayberry, Jennifer; Spinks, Matthew; Dhanji, Salima

    2007-01-01

    Natural, aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponaria, the Chilean soapbark tree, contain several physiologically active triterpenoid saponins that display strong adjuvant activity when used in either human or animal vaccines. In this paper, we describe studies that demonstrate a novel antiviral activity of Quillaja extracts against six viruses: vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, varicella zoster virus, human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) and reovirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent each of the six viruses tested from infecting their host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block virus infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture medium. We demonstrate that a Quillaja extract possesses strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 100-fold lower than concentrations that exhibit cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 100 microg ml(-1) are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 0.1 microg ml(-1) are able to block HIV-1 and HIV-2 virus attachment and infection.

  8. Huaier aqueous extract induces apoptosis of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Meng, Hongmei; Liu, Weidong; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingpeng

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, aqueous extract of Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been frequently used in China for complementary cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying its anticancer effects have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of Huaier extract to inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis and suppress mobility in the fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in vitro. The cells were treated with gradient doses of Huaier extract at concentrations of 0, 4, 8 or 16 mg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 h. The cell viability and motility were measured in vitro using MTT, invasive, migration and scratch assays. The distribution of the cell cycle and the extent of cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic pathways were detected using a mitochondrial membrane potential transition assay and western blotting. The results revealed that the cellular viability decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of Huaier extract. In addition, cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. It was demonstrated that Huaier extract induced G2 cell-cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 and pro-caspase-3, and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 suggested that Huaier extract induced the apoptosis of HT1080 cells through the mitochondrial pathway. The results of the present study indicate that Huaier extract is a potential complementary agent for the treatment of fibrosarcoma.

  9. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles from Manilkara zapota against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2012-08-01

    Traditional parasite control is primarily based on the use of chemical acaricides, which unfortunately have many negative side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Manilkara zapota to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 421 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of AgNPs. SEM supports the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. Acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of M. zapota and synthesized AgNPs were carried out against R. (B.) microplus and the results showed the LC(50) values of 16.72 and 3.44 mg/L; r(2)=0.856 and 0.783), respectively.

  10. Extraction of aqueous minerals on Mars using CRISM based Targeted Reduced Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunadham, R.; Kumar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Many scientific studies have been carried out to extract the aqueous mineral signatures on the surface of Mars, which has a record of all minerals such as silicates form by magmatic processes and aqueous minerals in the presence of watery environment. To observe these watery conditions, a visible/shortwave infrared mineral mapping camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) called Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is used. The aim of this research is to extract the aqueous minerals on Mars using CRISM sensor. Gale Crater is selected for this study because of its past liquid water history.Gale is ~154 km in diameter and centered near 5.3° S, 138° E. Gale Crater has an interior mound named as "Aeolis Mons", which is nearly 100 km wide and 5 km high, consisting of layered sulfates and phyllosilicates. The CRISM reflectance (I/F) targeted reduced data records data of Gale crater, FRT000233AC, centred at 4°25' S and 137°20' E with high spatial (18 m, 35 m / pixel) and spectral resolution (362-1020 nm (VNIR), 1002-3920 nm (IR), 655 nm / channel) with 545 bands is acquired for this study. The detection and quantification of minerals has been carried out by using a model called modified Gaussian model (MGM). MGM is an approach that uses modified Gaussians in wave number space to model absorption shapes and fits them to a reflectance spectrum.

  11. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Esume, Celestine

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies in standard laboratories have indicated that a typical mango stem bark aqueous extract (Magnifera indica Linn) possess anti-malaria and anti-fever properties. Recent information also exists in the literature, suggesting its potency as a very effective anti-inflammatory plant extract. This study will therefore contribute immensely to the systemic search for a useful, less toxic and natural bioactive medicinal compound. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (MI) in a carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model of acute inflammation. Rats (n=5) were treated orally with MI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or distilled water (3 mL). Thirty minutes later, acute inflammation was induced with a sub-plantar injection of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenin solution into the right hind paw of the rats. The paw oedema sizes were measured with the aid of a Vernier calliper over a period of 3 hours. The aqueous extract of MI (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the acute inflammation induced by the carrageenin in rats when compared with controls. The percentage inhibition of oedema formation produced by MI (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to that elicited by acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that MI contains active compounds with an anti-inflammatory activity. However, more detailed studies using additional models are necessary to further characterise the effects of MI in inflammatory disorders.

  13. Aqueous extract of dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris L. in acne vulgaris, a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Rohollah F

    2012-12-01

    Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry) is a very well-known herb in traditional medicine. Apart from its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the antilipogenic effect of barberry on the sebaceous glands in animals may further suggest it could be employed as an anti-acne agent. This study examined the effect of oral aqueous extract of barberry on acne vulgaris. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were randomly given oral gelatin capsules containing either aqueous extract of dried barberry (600 mg daily for 4 weeks, n = 25) or placebo (n = 24). Counts of facial noninflamed, inflamed, and total acne lesions, as well as the Michaelson's acne severity score were documented at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Both groups were comparable in terms of the patients' characteristics and baseline variables. After 4 weeks, the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions as well as mean Michaelson's acne severity score declined significantly by 43.25 ± 10.88% (median: 42.11%), 44.53 ± 11.78% (median: 45.45%), 44.64 ± 8.46% (median: 46.15%), and 44.38 ± 8.25% (median: 44.07%), respectively, among the extract receivers (p <.001 for all the changes). Similar changes were not significant in the placebo group. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to barberry. In conclusion, oral aqueous extract of dried barberry is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in teenagers with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

  14. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Roach, Paul D

    2015-09-09

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R² > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4%) and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4%) and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying.

  15. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Kha, Tuyen Chan; Parks, Sophie; Stathopoulos, Costas; Roach, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2% ± 9.4%) and high retention (>79.5% ± 8.4%) and the quality of the powder was high. Therefore, the bitter melon extract was well encapsulated into a powder using MD/GA and spray-drying. PMID:28231214

  16. Effect of foliar application of selenium on the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of selenium-enriched rice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2004-03-24

    Selenium fertilizer was foliar applied to determine the effects of antioxidant activity of selenium-enriched rice assessed by alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method. Results showed that selenium concentration in rice was significantly enhanced dose dependently. Aqueous or ethanolic extracts of rice displayed significantly higher antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation. The activities of aqueous extracts were significantly higher than those of ethanolic extracts and increased with the increasing selenium concentration in rice. The DPPH assay showed that the kinetic behaviors of aqueous extracts were complex and slow, while ethanolic extracts reacted quickly with DPPH radical. Aqueous extracts of rice exhibited higher antiradical efficiencies than ethanolic extracts, and rice (1.275 mg Se kg(-)(1)) presented the lowest EC(50) values of 533.46 +/- 0.58 microg mL(-)(1). As compared to rice extracts, all of the reference antioxidants showed more than 4-fold antiradical efficiencies than rice extracts. This radical scavenging activity was significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in rice (R = 0.862, p < 0.05), while ethanolic extracts were inversely correlated with selenium concentration in rice.

  17. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V.; Chalmers, Anita C.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  18. Extraction of aflatoxins B1 and G1 from maize by using aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens produced by certain Aspergillus fungi. The aflatoxins were first discovered in the 1960s, and since then have been found to be distributed worldwide in a variety of commodities, foods, and feeds. Many of the early techniques for detecting aflatoxins involved extraction with halogenated solvents. With the increased availability and use of reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridges and the availability of immunoaffinity columns, aqueous mixtures of nonhalogenated solvents have been frequently used. To further reduce the need for solvents, we examined the effects of eliminating solvents during the extraction of maize, using aqueous mixtures of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. After extraction and filtration, aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and G1 (AFG1) were isolated by using commercially available immunoaffinity columns. The isolated AFB1 and AFG1 were derivatized with trifluoroacetic acid before separation by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In spiked maize, the limits of detection were 0.5 and 1 ng/g for AFB1 and AFG1, respectively. Recoveries of AFB1 from maize spiked at 1-20 ng/g averaged 87.5% (range, 76.3-99.0%), with an average repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) of 4.0%. Recoveries of AFG1 from maize spiked at 2-20 ng/g averaged 80.4% (range, 70.3-85.8%), with an average RSDr of 3.5%. This is the first reported demonstration of an effective solvent-free extraction of aflatoxins from maize at ambient pressure, and this extraction procedure may serve to help reduce solvent consumption during aflatoxin analysis.

  19. Safety assessment of aqueous olive pulp extract as an antioxidant or antimicrobial agent in foods.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; Burdock, G A; Christian, M S; Bitler, C M; Crea, R

    2006-07-01

    The olive fruit, its oil and the leaves of the olive tree have a rich history of nutritional, medicinal and ceremonial uses. Olive oil, table olives and olive products are an important part of the Mediterranean diet, the greatest value of which may be due to olive polyphenols that contribute to the modulation of the oxidative balance in vivo. The objective of this review is to examine the available safety/toxicity literature on olive polyphenols, particularly hydroxytyrosol, to determine the safety-in-use of a standardized aqueous olive pulp extract (HIDROX). Among the polyphenols found in the extract, the major constituent of biological significance is hydroxytyrosol (50-70%). In oral bioavailability studies, urinary excretion of hydroxytyrosol and its glucuronide was found to be associated with the intake of hydroxytyrosol. Oral bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol in olive oil and in an aqueous solution was reported as 99% and 75%, respectively. In comparative studies, urinary excretion of hydroxytyrosol was greater in humans than in rats. The LD(50) of the extract and hydroxytyrosol was reported to be greater than 2000 mg/kg. In a subchronic study, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the extract in rats was found to be 2000 mg/kg/day. In developmental and reproductive toxicity studies, HIDROX did not cause toxicity at levels up to 2000 mg/kg/day. In an in vivo micronucleus assay, oral exposure of rats to HIDROX at dose levels up to 5000 mg/kg/day for 29 days did not induce increases in polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow. Based on the available studies of the extract and polyphenols, and a history of exposure and use of components of the extract through table olives, olive products and olive oil, the consumption of HIDROX is considered safe at levels up to 20 mg/kg/day.

  20. Extraction of Oil from an Aqueous Emulsion by Coupling Thermal Swing with a Capillary Pump.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saheli; Caram, Hugo; Gupta, Ramesh; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2016-10-11

    Separation of oil from water is an area of increasing interest because of the ever-increasing emphasis on reducing discharge of oily wastewater streams and for managing accidental oil spills. While several methods to separate oil from water are available, the current methods often require elaborate processing steps and/or have low extraction rates. Here, we report two simple and potentially inexpensive methods of separating oil from aqueous emulsions. The first method employs hydrophobized glass wool in a pressure-driven capillary pump, while the second method employs novel zeolite pellets the exterior surface of which is hydrophobic. These pellets selectively absorb oil from an aqueous emulsion, which can subsequently be recovered using thermal swing with hot fluid at a temperature far below the boiling point of the oil. Separation of oil with a very high yield (ca. 97%) appears possible using a combination of the two methods.

  1. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chikhi, Ilyas; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Medjdoub, Houria; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic effect of A. halimus leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The aqueous extract of the plant leaf was tested for its efficacy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extract was evaluated for its acute and short term general toxicity in male mice and for its antihyperglycemic activity using glucose tolerance test in rats. The aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and determination of total phenolic contents. Results The statistical data indicated the significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the blood glucose and hepatic levels. The total protein level was significantly increased when treated with the extract. Conclusions These results suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of A. halimus has beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and hepatic levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Determination of selenium content in aqueous extract of medicinal plants used as herbal supplement for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Afridi, H I; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q; Shah, F; Baig, J A; Sirajuddin

    2010-12-01

    The chemical constituents in medicinal plants (MPs), including elements, are partially responsible for their medicinal and nutritional properties as well as toxic effects. This research aimed to monitor selenium (Se) contents in aqueous extract of MPs used for treatment of cancer and different diseases. In present work the Se in MPs was extracted in aqueous media by microwave-assisted (ME) and conventional extraction (CE) methods. The total and residual Se in MPs were determined, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The Se in aqueous extracts and digests were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum extractable Se in MPs were obtained by ME and CE, required 2 and 40 min, respectively. Precision and accuracy of the methodologies were checked by standard addition method. The Se contents in aqueous extract of MPs were found in the range of 1.09-2.23 μg/g corresponding to 21-33% of total Se contents. The daily intake of Se from aqueous extract of MPs as recommended by herbalist (10 g of plant material) was found in the range of 20-40% of daily requirement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aphrodisiac properties of Montanoa tomentosa aqueous crude extract in male rats.

    PubMed

    Carro-Juárez, M; Cervantes, E; Cervantes-Méndez, M; Rodríguez-Manzo, G

    2004-05-01

    Cihuapatli, the Mexican zoapatle (Montanoa tomentosa) has an extensive ethnomedical history of use as a traditional remedy for reproductive impairments. During the study of the ejaculatory function in rats and by testing a set of Mexican plants with medicinal properties, we observed that crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitated ejaculation. Thus, we decided to analyze the possibility that this plant possessed sexual stimulant properties. To that aim, copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats receiving doses of 38, 75 and 150 mg/kg of the aqueous crude extract of M. tomentosa, as it is prepared in traditional medicine, was assessed. In addition, we evaluated the effect of the 75-mg/kg dose of the extract on males with anesthetization of the genital area and on sexual behavior of sexually inactive male rats (noncopulators). Results showed that acute oral administration of crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitates expression of sexual behavior in sexually active male rats, significantly increases mounting behavior in genitally anesthetized animals and induces the expression of sexual behavior in noncopulating males. Altogether, these data reveal a facilitatory action of this extract on sexual activity and particularly on sexual arousal. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract preparation of M. tomentosa, used as a traditional remedy, possesses aphrodisiac properties.

  4. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  5. Genotoxicity testing of Persicariae Rhizoma (Persicaria tinctoria H. Gross) aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Ho; Choi, Seong Hun; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2016-07-01

    Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification agent in Korea, and contains the biologically active dyes purple indirubin and blue indigo. Despite synthetic indigo showing genotoxic potential, thorough studies have not been carried out on the genotoxicity of PR. The potential genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of PR containing indigo (0.043%) and indirubin (0.009%) was evaluated using a standard battery of tests for safety assessment. The PR extract did not induce any genotoxic effects under the conditions of this study. The results of a reverse mutation assay in four Salmonella typhimurium strains and one Escherichia coli strain indicated that PR extract did not increase the frequency of revertant colonies in any strain, regardless of whether S9 mix was present or not. The PR extract also did not increase chromosomal aberrations in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Although slight signs of diarrhea were restrictedly detected in the mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg PR extract, no noteworthy changes in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were observed at doses ≤2,000 mg/kg in a bone marrow micronucleus test. These results indicate the potential safety of the PR extract, particularly if it is consumed in small amounts compared with the quantities used in the genotoxicity tests.

  6. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28 days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500 μg/mg of the extract for 48 h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Naghibi, Sayede Maryam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khani, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Motahare; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Aghaie, Azita

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1) control, (2) morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3–5) three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7) the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01). Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01). The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment. PMID:23091484

  8. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Naghibi, Sayede Maryam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khani, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Motahare; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Aghaie, Azita

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1) control, (2) morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3-5) three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7) the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01). Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01). The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  9. Wound healing activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Plagiochila beddomei Steph. thallus in rat model.

    PubMed

    Manoj, G S; Murugan, K

    2012-08-01

    Wound healing occurs as a fundamental response to tissue injury. Polyphenols are considered to be principle constituent to promote wound healing. Plagiochila beddomei was applied clinically by Paliyar tribes of Madurai district to treat intractable wounds. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from P. beddomei on wound healing as well as angiogenesis was studied. 7th day and 10th day after excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of the extracts group was higher than that of Madecassol (reference drug) group. On 3rd, 7th and 10th day after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of the extracts group was better than that of Madecassol group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On 3rd day after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of methanolic extracts group was higher than that of Madecassol group. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. The results show that P. beddomei extract has potent wound healing property probably resulting from the remarkable angiogenic activity.

  10. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation.

  11. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Nchegang, B; Mezui, C; Longo, F; Nkwengoua, Z E; Amang, A P; Tan, P V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1-14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period.

  12. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofik O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract. PMID:23861717

  13. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  14. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nchegang, B.; Mezui, C.; Nkwengoua, Z. E.; Amang, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1–14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period. PMID:27525283

  15. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Nyadjeu, Paulin; Dongmo, Alain; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît; Kamanyi, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume stem bark aqueous extract in rats. The in vivo activities of the extract were evaluated on normotensive and three rat models of hypertension while the in vitro tests were assayed on rat isolated aorta rings. Acute intravenous injection of the extract (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) induced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetised normotensive Wistar rats, salt-loaded hypertensive, L-NAME hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pre-treatment of rats with either propranolol or atropine significantly inhibited the hypotensive effects of the plant extract suggesting its possible action through the interferences with both cholinergic and sympathetic transmissions. Moreover, pre-treatment of rats with L-NAME inhibited the sustained plant antihypertensive effects, suggesting a possible active vasodilatation, which might be partly mediated by an endothelial l-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (60mM), the extract exhibited cumulative vasodilating effects, which were attenuated with either L-NAME, vascular endothelium removal or both tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide pre-treatments. The vasorelaxant effects may be involved in the extract antihypertensive mechanism, partially by increasing the endothelial nitric oxide and by activating the KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle.

  16. Genotoxicity testing of Persicariae Rhizoma (Persicaria tinctoria H. Gross) aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    LEE, WON HO; CHOI, SEONG HUN; KANG, SU JIN; SONG, CHANG HYUN; PARK, SOO JIN; LEE, YOUNG JOON; KU, SAE KWANG

    2016-01-01

    Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification agent in Korea, and contains the biologically active dyes purple indirubin and blue indigo. Despite synthetic indigo showing genotoxic potential, thorough studies have not been carried out on the genotoxicity of PR. The potential genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of PR containing indigo (0.043%) and indirubin (0.009%) was evaluated using a standard battery of tests for safety assessment. The PR extract did not induce any genotoxic effects under the conditions of this study. The results of a reverse mutation assay in four Salmonella typhimurium strains and one Escherichia coli strain indicated that PR extract did not increase the frequency of revertant colonies in any strain, regardless of whether S9 mix was present or not. The PR extract also did not increase chromosomal aberrations in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Although slight signs of diarrhea were restrictedly detected in the mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg PR extract, no noteworthy changes in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were observed at doses ≤2,000 mg/kg in a bone marrow micronucleus test. These results indicate the potential safety of the PR extract, particularly if it is consumed in small amounts compared with the quantities used in the genotoxicity tests. PMID:27347027

  17. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGES

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  18. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jain, Avnish; Jain, Sourabh; Gurjar, Rajenda

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits rind was investigated. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and also exhibited an immense reducing ability. The total content of phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds was estimated as 63.81 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material, 21.34 mg of rutin equivalents/g of dry material and 17.11 mg of total tannin equivalent /g of dry material, respectively. IC50 values for different antioxidant model were calculated as 128.86 microg/mL for DPPH radicals, 97.65 microg/mL for O2*-, 148.32 microg/mL for H2O2 and 123.01 microg/mL for NO, respectively. Reducing power and inhibition of *OH radical-induced BSA oxidation were also determined. The data obtained in the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruit rind have significant antioxidant activity against free radicals.

  19. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    PubMed Central

    Solís, A.; Perea, F.; Solís, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Pérez, H. I.; Cassani, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  20. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimalarial Activity Aqueous Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Root

    PubMed Central

    Nafiu, Mikhail Olugbemiro; Abdulsalam, Taoheed Adedeji; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Root aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides was evaluated for antimalarial activity and analyzed for its phytochemical constituents. Twenty-four (24) albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups of 3 mice each. Group 1 served as the control while groups II–IV were orally administered 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weights of extract. Groups 5 and 6 received 1.75 and 5 mg/kg of artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids (2.37%), saponin (0.336), tannin (0.012 per cent), phenol (0.008 per cent), and anthraquinone (0.002 per cent). There was 100 per cent parasite inhibition in the chloroquine group and 70 per cent in the 50 mg/kg body weight on day 12, respectively. The mean survival time (MST), for the control group was 14 days, artesunate 16 days, and chloroquine 30 days, while the groups that received 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight recorded similar MST of 17 days and the 150 mg/kg body weight group recorded 19 days. The results obtained indicated that the aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides may provide an alternative antimalarial. PMID:23983718

  1. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract.

    PubMed

    Zahra, Armand; Gholamreza, Najafi; Farokhi, Farah; Shalizar Jalali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immuno suppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity. In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont) group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr) group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software package for Windows. Cs treatment caused a signiifcant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deifciency of the sperm cells. We observed signiifcant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters. Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  2. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

  3. Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2013-02-01

    There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents.

  4. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  5. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Armand; Gholamreza, Najafi; Farokhi, Farah; Shalizar Jalali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immuno suppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont) group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr) group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software package for Windows. Results: Cs treatment caused a signiifcant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deifciency of the sperm cells. We observed signiifcant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters. Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model PMID:24027659

  6. The hypoglycemic effect of Juglans regia leaves aqueous extract in diabetic patients: A first human trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Juglans regia L. (J. regia ) is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Iranian medicine. The effect of this plant has already been investigated on animal models; however, this is the first study conducted on human subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of J. regia leaves aqueous extract in type 2 diabetes patients. Fifty eight Iranian male and female patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One group (n = 30) received J. regia leaves extract while the other group (n = 28) received placebo. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after two months for determination of HbA1c and blood glucose level as a main outcome and insulin, SGOT, SGPT, and ALP level as secondary outcome. Results Our analysis showed that serum fasting HbA1C and blood glucose levels were significantly decreased and the insulin level was increased in patients in the J. regia arm. Conclusions The results indicate that J. regia aqueous extract favorably affects blood levels of glucose, insulin and HbA1C in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24447826

  7. Biobased green method to synthesise palladium and iron nanoparticles using Terminalia chebula aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Sreedhara Reddy, Pamanji; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2013-02-01

    There are many methods to synthesise metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) using different reducing agents which are hazardous in nature. Although some researchers have used biobased materials for synthesis of these NPs, further research is needed in this area. To explore the scope of bio-extract for the synthesis of transition metal NPs, the present paper synthesises metal NPs replacing hazardous traditional reducing agents. This paper reports the synthesis of palladium and iron NPs, using aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit. Reduction potential of aqueous extract of polyphenolic rich T. chebula was 0.63 V vs. SCE by cyclic voltammetry study which makes it a good green reducing agent. This helps to reduce palladium and iron salts to palladium and iron NPs respectively. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses revealed that amorphous iron NPs were within the size less than 80 nm and cubic palladium NPs were within the size less than 100 nm. The synthesised nanomaterials were remarkably stable for a long period and synthesis of stable metal NPs will need to be explored using biobased materials as reducing agents.

  8. Encapsulation of thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) aqueous extract in calcium alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Radoslava; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Manojlovic, Verica; Komes, Drazenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2012-02-01

    Encapsulation of Thymus serpyllum L. aqueous extract within calcium alginate beads was studied in order to produce dosage formulations containing polyphenolic compounds. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for encapsulation of thyme aqueous extract in alginate gel beads. In addition to hydrogel beads, heat-dried and freeze-dried forms of beads were examined. Encapsulation systems were examined and compared in order to choose the optimal one with respect to entrapment efficiency, preservation of antioxidant activity and thermal behaviour under heating conditions simulating the usual food processing. The beads obtained with approximately 2 mg g⁻¹ of gallic acid equivalents encapsulated in 0.015 g mL⁻¹ of alginate were spheres of a uniform size of about 730 µm. Encapsulation efficiency varied in the range 50-80% depending on the encapsulation method. Besides, the analysis reveals that the encapsulation process and the material used did not degrade the bioactive compounds, as the total antioxidant content remained unchanged. This was verified by Fourier transform infrared analysis, which proved the absence of chemical interactions between extracted compounds and alginate. Addition of a filler substance, such as sucrose and inulin, in the dried product reduced its collapse and roundness distortion during drying process. This study demonstrates the potential of using hydrogel material for encapsulation of plant poplyphenols to improve their functionality and stability in food products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Lia; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. PMID:24455668

  10. Aqueous extract of Annona macroprophyllata: a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Trujano, M E; González-Andrade, M; Aguirre-Hernández, E; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α -glucosidase with an IC₅₀ = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K(i) = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K(i) = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.

  11. Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower grown in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

    2011-03-01

    Althaea officinalis Linn. (Malvaideae) flower is commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighboring countries. Although most of the studies have been conducted on the mucilage-rich roots, little is known about the flower. This study investigates the potential role of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower in lipemia, gastric ulcer, inflammation, and platelet aggregation using the rat model. Blood lipid profile and liver function were assessed after 1 month of extract intake via drinking water. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested against acute and chronic inflammation induced by carrageenan and formalin, respectively. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Antiplatelet activity was investigated in vitro using the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation bioassay. The 50 mg/kg body weight dose resulted in significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol level with no effects on stool cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Increasing the dose to 500 mg/kg body weight caused a significant decrease in stool water content. No adverse effect on liver enzymes was observed. Significant anti-inflammatory (acute and chronic inflammation) and antiulcerogenic activities were observed at all used doses (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg body). Time-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation was demonstrated at 500 µg/ml concentration. The aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower demonstrated potential benefits in lipemia, inflammation, gastric ulcer, and platelet aggregation with no visible adverse effect.

  12. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

  13. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K i = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K i = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  14. Identification of aqueous pollen extracts using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Stephan; Merk, Virginia; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous pollen extracts of varying taxonomic relations were analyzed with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by using gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions as SERS substrate. This enables a selective vibrational characterization of the pollen water soluble fraction (mostly cellular components) devoid of the spectral contributions from the insoluble sporopollenin outer layer. The spectra of the pollen extracts are species-specific, and the chemical fingerprints can be exploited to achieve a classification that can distinguish between different species of the same genus. In the simple experimental procedure, several thousands of spectra per species are generated. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), it is demonstrated that analysis of the intrinsic biochemical information of the pollen cells in the SERS data enables the identification of pollen from different plant species at high accuracy. The ANN extracts the taxonomically-relevant information from the data in spite of high intra-species spectral variation caused by signal fluctuations and preparation specifics. The results show that SERS can be used for the reliable characterization and identification of pollen samples. They have implications for improved investigation of pollen physiology and for allergy warning.

  15. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra. PMID:22701375

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit on experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani Natanzi, Mahboobeh; Pasalar, Parvin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi, Roya; Ghanadian, Naghmeh; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Gerayesh-Nejad, Siavash

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the histological changes and wound healing effect of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the back of 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats they were randomly divided into three groups. Treated group received the extract, positive control group were treated with mupirocin ointment 2% and control group did not receive any treatment. Wound healing rates were calculated on days 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 15 post-wounding and the wound tissues were harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days for histological analysis and hydroxyproline content measurement. The results indicated a significant increase in the percentage of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the treated group comparing to the control and positive control groups. A significant increase in the assigned histological scores was observed at 10 and 15 days in the treated and positive control groups compared to the control group. The results demonstrate that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia accelerates cutaneous wound healing, and its effect may be due to the increased re-epithelialization and collagen deposition in wound and so it can be considered as a therapeutic agent for wound healing.

  17. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  18. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  19. Ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction of phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma stems.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beitao; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Qingsheng; Feng, Qingming; Liu, Boyan; Guo, Yuanheng; Zhao, Bing

    2015-04-01

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction and enrichment process for phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma stems was developed in this work. An ethanol/ammonium sulfate system was chosen for the aqueous two-phase system due to its fine partitioning and recycling behaviors. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were used to optimize the process parameters of the ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction. The optimal conditions were as follows: a salt concentration of 23.5%, an ethanol concentration of 20%, an extraction time of 37 min, an extraction temperature of 30°C, a liquid/solid ratio of 30:1 w/w, and an ultrasound power of 300 W. Under the above conditions, the extraction yields of echinacoside and acteoside (the main components of phenylethanoid glycosides) reached 5.35 and 6.22 mg/g dry material weight, respectively. The contents of echinacoside and acteoside in the extracts reached 27.56 and 30.23 mg/g, respectively, which were 2.46- and 2.58-fold higher than the amounts obtained in ultrasound-assisted extraction. In conclusion, ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction was an efficient, ecofriendly, and economical method, and it may be a promising technique for extracting and enriching bioactive components from plants. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of single or combined chemical and natural antimicrobial interventions on Escherichia coli O157:H7, total microbiota and color of packaged spinach and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mitsi, Christina; Tarantilis, Petros A; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-03-02

    Aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (oregano), sodium hypochlorite (60 and 300 ppm of free chlorine), Citrox® (containing citric acid and phenolic compounds [bioflavonoids] as active ingredients), vinegar, lactic acid, and double combinations of Citrox, lactic acid and oregano were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total mesophilic microbiota on fresh-cut spinach and lettuce and for their impact on color of treated vegetables. Spinach and lettuce leaves were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to a level of 5-6 log CFU/g and immersed in washing solutions for 2 or 5 min at 20 °C, followed by rinsing with ice water (30s). Bacterial populations on vegetables were enumerated immediately after washing and after storage of the samples at 5 °C for 7 days under 20% CO2: 80% N2. No significant post-washing microbial reductions were achieved by chlorinated water, whereas after storage total microbiota was increased by 2.4 log CFU/g on lettuce. Vinegar wash was the most effective treatment causing E. coli O157:H7 reductions of 1.8-4.3 log CFU/g. During storage, pathogen was further decreased to below the detection limit level (<2 log CFU/g) and total microbiota exhibited the highest reductions compared to other treatments. Lactic acid reduced pathogen by 1.6-3.7 log CFU/g after washing; however levels of total microbiota increased by up to 2 log CFU/g on packaged lettuce during storage. Washing lettuce samples with oregano for 2 min resulted in 2.1 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. When Citrox was combined with oregano, 3.7-4.0 log CFU/g reduction was achieved on spinach and lettuce samples, with no significant effect on color parameters. Additionally, rinsing with ice water after decontamination treatments contributed to maintenance of color of the treated vegetables. In conclusion, the results indicated that vinegar, lactic acid or oregano aqueous extract alone or in combination, as alternative washing solutions to chlorine, may be effectively used to

  1. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  2. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-induced rat liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Zarei, Sanaz

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Salep on Paraquat-mediated liver injury. METHODS In this experimental study, 56 adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly to 7 groups as control, sham, and 5 experimental groups. In control group, rats did not receive any substance during experiment. In Sham group, rats were given distilled water according to their body weight and in experimental groups, Paraquat alone and with different doses of Salep aqueous extract (40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneal daily for 14 d. After that, liver biochemical parameter and histologic changes were analyzed and compared in different groups. RESULTS Paraquat compared to control and sham groups, significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant capacity (TOC); while level of total protein, albumin and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were remarkably decreased by Paraquat. Salep at doses of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg significantly decreased serum level of ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, MDA and TOC and significantly increased total protein, albumin and TAC level as compared to Paraquat exposed group in dose dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Salep at doses of 40 mg/kg made no significant changes in serum level of mentioned biochemical parameters. Liver microscopic observation revealed that Paraquat could cause hepatocyte necrosis, degenerative changes, proliferation and activation of Kupffer cells (sporadically) which were reduced by Salep treatment. CONCLUSION Salep possesses remarkable hepatoprotection activity against Paraquat-induced hepatic injury by having antioxidant activity and reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:28217258

  3. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications.

  4. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  5. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  6. Influence of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petal on cadmium toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Asagba, S O; Adaikpoh, M A; Kadiri, H; Obi, F O

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on some selected biochemical parameters, as well as the possible protective role of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L petal were studied in 12-wk-old male Wistar albino rats. Exposure to Cd caused a significant increase in plasma Lalanine aminotransferases (ALT) only but with a corresponding decrease in liver L-alanine and L-aspartate aminotransferases (L-ALT, L-AST) when compared to the Cd-free control. Total superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the liver, testis, and prostate of Cd-exposed rats, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased relative to the Cd-free control. The metal significantly increased prostatic acid phosphatase activity in the prostate, but decreased the body weight gain of the rats and organ/body weight ratio for prostate and testis compared to the Cd-free control. Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa resulted in significantly less hepatotoxicity than with Cd alone as measured by plasma ALT and liver ALT and AST activities. The extract also protected the rats against Cd-induced liver, prostate, and testis lipoperoxidation as evidenced by significantly reduced MDA values in these organs, as well as reduced prostatic acid phosphatase activity in the prostate, when compared to the Cd-only exposed rats. Also, when compared to the organ/body weight ratios obtained from rats exposed to Cd alone the prostate and testis were protected by the extract as shown by enhanced prostate/body weight and testis/body weight ratios of Cd- and extract-treated rats. These data suggest that H. sabdarrifa L might be protective in Cd toxicity.

  7. Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn].

    PubMed

    Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P; Pandya, Tarulata N; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B

    2012-10-01

    Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana.

  8. Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S. S.; Deoda, R. S.; Mudgade, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity. PMID:21808549

  9. Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S S; Deoda, R S; Mudgade, S C

    2010-03-01

    Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity.

  10. Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Pandya, Tarulata N.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana. PMID:23723676

  11. Different types of aqueous two-phase systems for biomolecule and bioparticle extraction and purification.

    PubMed

    Molino, João Vitor Dutra; Viana Marques, Daniela de Araújo; Júnior, Adalberto Pessoa; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari

    2013-01-01

    Upstream improvements have led to significant advances in the productivity of biomolecules and bioparticles. Today, downstream processes are the bottleneck in the production of some biopharmaceuticals, a change from previous years. Current purification platforms will reach their physical limits at some point, indicating the need for new approaches. This article reviews an alternative method to extract and purify biomolecules/bioparticles named aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Biocompatibility and readiness to scale up are some of the ATPS characteristics. We also discuss some of ATPS applications in the biotechnology field.

  12. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma.

  13. Antineoplasic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus Amboinicus in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandao, Eduardo M.; Brandão, Paulo H. D. M.; Souza, Ivone A.; Paiva, Gerson S.; de C. Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  14. Phyto-reduction of graphene oxide using the aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdhouse, M. Jannathul; Lalitha, P.

    2014-10-01

    The aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes was used as reductant to produce graphene from graphene oxide by refluxing method. The complete reduction of graphene oxide was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Characterization of graphene was made through FTIR, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The stability of graphene was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurements. The nature and surface morphology of the synthesized graphene was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The production of graphene using phytoextract as reductant emphasizes on the facile method of synthesis and greener nanotechnology.

  15. Hypotensive effect of Chamaemelum nobile aqueous extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali; Moufid, Abderahman; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the hypotensive effect of Chamaemelum nobile aqueous extract (CNAE) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Single oral administration of CNAE (140 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after 24 h of the administration. Daily oral administration of CNAE (140 mg/kg) during 3 weeks produced a significant reduction in SBP in the day 8 (p < 0.01) of treatment. Furthermore, CNAE produced a significant increase in urinary output and electrolytes excretion (p < 0.01) from the day 8 to the end of treatment. We conclude that CNAE possesses a hypotensive and diuretic effect in SHR.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Asmaa A; Raafat, Dina; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing threat of microbial resistance against traditional antibiotics has prompted the development of several antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs), including silver NPs (AgNPs). In this article, a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using the cranberry powder aqueous extract is reported. Materials and methods Cranberry powder aqueous extracts (0.2%, 0.5%, and 0.8% w/v) were allowed to interact for 24 hours with a silver nitrate solution (10 mM) at 30°C at a ratio of 1:10. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared NPs were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, measurement of ζ-potential, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties of AgNPs were then investigated against several microbial strains. Finally, in vivo appraisal of both wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of either plain AgNPs (prepared using 0.2% extract) or AgNP-Pluronic F-127 gel was conducted in a rat model after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P wound infection. Results The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, where a surface-plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed between 432 and 438 nm. Both size and concentration of the formed AgNPs increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The developed NPs were stable, almost spherical, and polydisperse, with a size range of 1.4–8.6 nm. The negative ζ-potential values, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, indicated the presence of a capping agent adsorbed onto the surface of the particles. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation revealed a size-dependent activity of the AgNPs against the tested organisms. Finally, AgNPs prepared using 0.2% extract exhibited a substantial in vivo healing potential for full-thickness excision wounds in rats. Conclusion AgNPs were

  17. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic properties of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2004-12-01

    South Africa is blessed with a rich floral biodiversity of medicinally useful plants. One such plant is Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Family: Pedaliaceae). H. procumbens is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments. In the present study, the analgesic effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract was evaluated in mice, using the 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' test methods; while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the plant's secondary root extract were investigated in rats. Fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus were used as experimental test models of inflammation and diabetes Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.) was used as a reference analgesic and antiinflammatory agent for comparison. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. H. procumbens root aqueous extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. H. procumbens root extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also produced dose-related, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw oedema. Furthermore, the plant extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that H. procumbens root aqueous extract possesses analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties, and lend pharmacological support to the suggested folklore uses of Harpagophytum procumbens root in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as for adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa. 2004 John Wiley

  18. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in 4T1 cells and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whereas the methanol extract did not show any notable anti-proliferative effect in these cell lines, at any of the concentrations tested. Under the sub-optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in NIH/3T3 cells, whilst the methanol extract showed a significant (p<0.05) anti-proliferative effect at 200 microg/mL and 300 microg/mL in both cell lines. An upward trend of apoptosis was observed in both 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells treated with increasing concentrations of the aqueous extract. The level of apoptosis observed at all the concentrations of the aqueous extract tested was consistently higher than necrosis. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of necrosis observed in the 4T1 cells treated with 300 microg/mL of the methanol extract. Generally, the level of necrosis was noted to be higher than that of apoptosis in the methanol extract-treated cells. The mutagenicity assay performed showed that in the absence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the extract was not mutagenic up to the concentration of 165 microg/mL . However, in the presence of S-9 liver metabolic activation, the aqueous extract was mutagenic at all the concentrations tested. This study shows that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on

  19. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  20. Preliminary studies on antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Anand, Prachi; Murali, K Y; Tandon, Vibha; Chandra, Ramesh; Murthy, P S

    2007-08-01

    In the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated separately with aqueous, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts of the seeds of B. nigra, the increase in serum glucose value between 0 and 1 hr of glucose tolerance test (GTT) was the least (29 mg/dl) in aqueous extract treated animals while it was 54, 44 and 44 mg/dl with chloroform, acetone and ethanol extracts respectively. In further studies carried out with aqueous extract, the effective dose was found to be 200 mg/kg body weight in GTT. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract to diabetic animals daily once for one month brought down fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels while in the untreated group FSG remained at a higher value. In the treated animals the increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids was much less when compared with the levels in untreated diabetic controls. These findings suggest that further studies with the aqueous extract of B. nigra seeds on its antidiabetic activity would be useful.

  1. The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Mohammadi, Avid; Safiallahy, Sohayla; Faradmal, Javad; Azizi, Mona; Ahmadvand, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) resistance to drugs and the side effects of drugs have drawn the attention of investigators to herbal plants. Objectives: The main aim of the current research was to investigate the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice root) on HSV-1. One of the objectives of the current research was to determine the efficacy and the effect of the elapsed incubation time of treating the Vero cells infected with HSV-1 by G. glabra. In addition, the effect of cells pretreatment with licorice root extract, preincubation of virus with licorice root extract, and the antiviral activity were assessed. Patients and Methods: Vero cells were incubated after adding different concentrations of aqueous extracts of G. glabra. The cells were incubated during various time courses. Cytotoxicity assay, determining the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), and incubation of HSV-1 with licorice root extract prior to viral infection were performed. Results: Internal association among different experiment groups showed the significant difference in the efficacy of the extract with regard to incubation period between one and four hours, one and eight hours, four and 12 hours, and eight and 12 hours. Moreover, there was a significant difference with regard to efficacy among the pretreatment of cells with extract for two hours, incubation of virus with extract for one hour, incubation of virus with extract for two hours. Conclusions: G. glabra showed the characteristics of a novel antiviral medication; however, more in vitro experiments are needed to determine the antiherpetic activities of the G. glabra. PMID:25368801

  2. Anticonvulsant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and Aqueous Fraction of Ebenus stellata in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khodaparast, Ayeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Sardari, Soroush

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be considered as an advantage and can favor them in search for safe and antiepileptic medicines. The effects of Fabacea family plants including Ebenus stellata (E. stellata), Sophora alopecuroides and Caesalpinia gilliiesii were evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Materials and Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by percolation of 100 g aerial parts of each plant in 900 ml ethanol 80%. Acute toxicity of the extracts was assessed. Non-toxic doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50 Hz, 1 sec), were monitored up to 30 min after each administration. The anticonvulsant extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and water. Phytochemical screening of the effective extract was also carried out by thin layer chromatography to verify active constituents. Results Among the extracts used, only E. stellata had no toxicity and inhibited clonic seizures in a significant and dose-dependent (3-7 g/kg) manner with ED50 of 4 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract resulted in dose-dependent (1-5 g/kg) anticonvulsant activity, which was observed in aqueous fraction with ED50 of 1.74 g/kg. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpens/sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin and saponins in the extract. Conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in E. stellata suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:23493240

  3. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Sanaa; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2007-04-04

    In the Moroccan traditional medicine, the ripe fruits of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/Compositae), two widely available plant materials, are used as diuretics. Since, the diuretic activity of these substances has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (caraway) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Water extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare (100 mg/kg) or the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. After single doses of the extracts of both caraway seeds and tansy leaves, urine output was significantly increased at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was similar for the plant extracts and furosemide. Both extracts increased urinary levels of Na(+) and K(+), to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na(+) and decreased urinary K(+). Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were not affected by any of the three substances. In the 8-day sub-chronic study, all three substances induced significant diuresis and natriuresis; only tansy increased urinary potassium excretion. The plant extracts did not appear to have renal toxicity or any other adverse effects during the study period. In conclusion, water extracts of both Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare have strong diuretic action confirming their ethnopharmacological use. From the pattern of excretion of water, sodium and potassium, it may be deduced that there are atleast two types of active principals present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity.

  4. Diuretic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of leaves of Vepris heterophylla (Engl.) R. Let (Rutaceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Bonabe, Christian; Kemeta Azambou, David Romain; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile

    2016-12-13

    Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant used empirically in African traditional medicine for many clinical conditions including edematous disorders and hypertension. V. heterophylla aqueous extract has been used in northern part of Cameroon by traditional healers for the treatment of arterial hypertension. The study aim was to assess the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of V. heterophylla leaves aqueous extract. Adult rats were administered with V. heterophylla leaves aqueous extract acutely (24 h) at doses 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg (per os). The two positive control groups received the diuretic drugs furosemide (5 mg/kg) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 10 mg/kg), while negative control group received only an equivalent volume of distilled water. Urinary elimination of electrolytes in response to treatments was evaluated, together with changes in concentrations of creatinine, urea, aldosterone, glucose and albumin in urine and plasma. Various urinary indicators of kidney function and plasmatic markers of oxidative stress were also assessed. The findings indicated that the aqueous extract of V. heterophylla at doses ranging from 150 to 250 mg/kg caused a significant and dose-dependent increase of urinary water and electrolytes excretion in normal rats. The aqueous extract of the leaves of V. heterophylla accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. Oral administration of aqueous extract at different doses produced a significant diuresis and slight increase in electrolytes (Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion. The results obtained were compared with standard drug-furosemide (5 mg/kg) and hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg). These effects were observed predominantly at 250 mg/kg dose. Our findings strongly suggest that V. heterophylla aqueous extract has diuretic and antioxidant activities, and deserves further studies

  5. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice.

    PubMed

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum ) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression.

  6. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  7. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. Results: All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression. PMID:27462555

  8. On-chip aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formation, consequential self-mixing, and their influence on drop-to-drop aqueous two-phase extraction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijethunga, Pavithra A. L.; Moon, Hyejin

    2015-09-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) allow an advantageous aqueous two-phase extraction process (ATPE), a special type of liquid-liquid extraction. Compared with conventional liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous/organic extraction media, ATPE is known to provide relatively easy mass transfer and a gentle environment for biological separation applications. Considering the recent interest in microscale ATPE, we aimed to study (i) the potential of preparing ATPS droplets on a digital microfluidic device, and (ii) the influence of the fluidic dynamics created during the formation of ATPS, with the goal of enhancing on-chip ATPE process. On-chip ATPS formation was evaluated by preparing a series of ATPSs on electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidic chips and comparing their characteristics with the same ATPSs prepared at macroscale using conventional procedures. An enhanced on-chip drop-to-drop ATPE process was achieved by incorporating a self-mixing condition created during ATPSformation. Results indicate a successful on-chip ATPS preparation as well as enhanced extraction performance by self-mixing in the absence of forced mixing. Findings of this research suggest an alternative, simple, yet adequate technique to provide mixing for on-chip applications, such as sample preparation in portable microfluidics, for which it is unfavorable to implement complicated mixing sequences or complex device geometries.

  9. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  10. ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF COMBINED AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA AND METFORMIN IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Michael, U. Adikwu; David, B. Uzuegbu; Theophine, C. Okoye; Philip, F. Uzor; Ogochukwu, Adibe Maxwell; Benson, V. Amadi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the antidiabetic activity of the various combinations (ratios) of metformin (50 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (100 mg/kg). The ratios of Extract to Metformin were 1:1, 2 1, and 2:1 and distilled water (control, p.o.) were given to both normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats. Blood was withdrawn and tested at 0, 1, 3 and 6 hours. Results showed that the combinations of the extract and metformin caused more reduction in glycemia compared to any of the agents acting alone in either of the two categories of animals. The ratio of 1:2 caused the most significant (p%0.05) reduction in blood sugar (-66.07%) compared to distilled water (-7.2%). However, the ratio of metformin: extract (2:1) caused a reduction of -62.66% but was found a better combination considering the safety of the drugs. The combination of Vernonia amygdalina with metformin for the management of diabetes should be highly encouraged with a reduction in the dose of metformin and an increase in the dose of the plant extract to guarantee efficacy and safety PMID:24825988

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  12. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus shoots in rats.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, V; Masika, Pj; Adedapo, Aa

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous extract from Leonotis leonurus (L) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) shoots was evaluated in female rats for its acute, sub acute, and chronic toxicity together with hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes. In the acute toxicity test, the extract caused death in animals receiving 3200 mg/kg dose. The extract also caused significant (P < 0.05) changes in red blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelets, white blood cells and its differentials at doses of 1600 mg/kg in sub-acute toxicity and in as low as 200 mg/kg in chronic toxicity. In biochemical parameters, the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the levels of urea and creatinine at 1600 mg/kg dose and a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in urea, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, glutamine transference gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alanine transminase in the 400 mg/kg dose in chronic toxicity. Changes were also noted in body weights, but no significant changes were observed in the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride). Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress, and mortality were recorded. The extract also caused various histopathological changes in the organs. The study concluded that farmers need to exercise caution in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes.

  13. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Agwaya, Moses Solomon; Vuzi, Peter California; Nandutu, Agnes Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p = 0.27), implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L.) leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Mansouri, Esrafil; Meamar, Zakieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery) has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001), and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05). Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters. PMID:25949952

  15. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Agwaya, Moses Solomon; Vuzi, Peter California; Nandutu, Agnes Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p = 0.27), implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage. PMID:27069932

  16. Response surface methodology to optimize enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of maize germ oil.

    PubMed

    Shende, Deepika; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed at optimizing the enzyme assisted aqueous extraction (EAAE) process for extraction of maize germ oil. The different EAAE process parameter viz., pH of the slurry, seed to water ratio, the temperature of incubation and time of hydrolysis were optimized for improving oil recovery and oil quality. The combined effect of independent variables on recovery of oil, time taken for oil extraction and various quality parameters were studied using response surface methodology. The designed experimental runs were conducted to obtain the optimal conditions as 5.85 pH of slurry, 1:6.92 seed to water ratio, 45.12 °C temperature of incubation and 1 h time of hydrolysis. Oil extracted under these conditions was light yellowish in color and had a pleasant nutty taste, with maximum oil recovery of 70 %. The extraction variables viz., pH of slurry, seed to water ratio, the temperature of incubation had a significant effect on recovery of oil and various quality characteristics, however the time of hydrolysis had a non significant effect.

  17. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Achyranthes aspera by In Vitro and In Vivo Method.

    PubMed

    Rajpal Deshmukh, Gajanan; Hema Kumar, Kuntrapakam; Suresh Reddy, Poojari Venkata; Srinivasa Rao, Boddapati; Venkata Satish Kumar, Chirumamilla

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to investigate the eye irritation potential of aqueous leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera by in vitro, Hen's Egg Chorioallantoic Membrane Test (HET-CAM) and in vivo acute eye irritation test in rabbits. The irritation score (IS) obtained after treatment of the extract on HET-CAM is 0.07 and that of in rabbits is 0.55, Which does not comes under either category 1 or 2 as per the harmonized integrated classification system. The aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera showed no eye irritation properties both in vitro and in vivo methods when compared with negative control whereas positive controls showed eye irritation potential.

  18. Investigation of extractive microbial transformation in nonionic surfactant micelle aqueous solution using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingying; Qian, Chen; Wang, Zhilong; Xu, Jian-He; Yang, Rude; Qi, Hanshi

    2010-01-01

    Extractive microbial transformation of L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) in nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution was investigated by response surface methodology. Based on the Box-Behnken design, a mathematical model was developed for the predication of mutual interactions between benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose on L-PAC production. It indicated that the negative or positive effect of nonionic surfactant strongly depended on the substrate concentration. The model predicted that the optimal concentration of benzaldehyde, Triton X-100, and glucose was 1.2 ml, 15 g, and 2.76 g per 100 ml, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the maximum L-PAC production was 27.6 mM, which was verified by a time course of extractive microbial transformation. A discrete fed-batch process for verification of cell activity was also presented.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  20. Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of cold aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides by Allium cepa L test.

    PubMed

    Sabini, María C; Cariddi, Laura N; Escobara, Franco M; Bachetti, Romina A; Sutil, Sonia B; Contigiani, Marta S; Zanon, Silvia M; Sabini, Liliana I

    2011-07-01

    Achyrocline satureioides ("marcela del campo") is native to America. Numerous investigations have reported several bioactive properties such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antiviral. Nowadays, few medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated to test its safety, efficacy and potential benefits, despite the great public interest in these herbs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of cold aqueous extract obtained from A. satureioides using Allium cepa L test. The results demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of the extract. Only higher concentrations induced cytotoxicity but interestingly this effect was reversible and was not associated with mutagenicity. The contribution of this research provides assurance of safety in the application of Achyrocline satureioides in treatment of microbial diseases and other pathologies helping to define selective toxicity.

  1. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  2. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Ramkumar, R; Rajthilak, C; Perumal, P

    2014-01-24

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  3. Green synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using Graptophyllum pictum leaf aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, I. P.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) attracted the attention of many researchers due to their unique properties. In this research, nanoscale magnetite particles have been successfully synthesized through an environmentally friendly method using aqueous extract of Graptophyllum pictum leaf (GPLE). In MNPs formation, GPLE acted as a base source and capping agent. Alkaloids in GPLE were hydrolyzed in water and hydroxilated Fe2+ to form Fe3O4 nanoparticles powder through calcination. After the addition of leaf extract, MNPs formation was observed by color change from pale yellow to dark brown. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results confirmed that MNPs formation indicated the surface plasmon resonance at a maximum wavelength, λmax 291 nm. The average crystallite size is 23.17 nm. The formed MNPs through green synthesis method promise in various medical applications such as drug carrier and targeted therapy.

  4. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the p