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Sample records for aqueous spinach extract

  1. Immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Momoko; Ose, Saya; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We herein report the immunostimulatory effect of spinach aqueous extract (SAE) on mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. SAE significantly enhanced the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α by both J774.1 cells and peritoneal macrophages by enhancing the expression levels of these cytokine genes. In addition, the phagocytosis activity of J774.1 cells was facilitated by SAE. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SAE activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB cascades. It was found that SAE activates macrophages through not only TLR4, but also other receptors. The production of IL-6 was significantly enhanced by peritoneal macrophages from SAE-administered BALB/c mice, suggesting that SAE has a potential to stimulate macrophage activity in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that SAE would be a beneficial functional food with immunostimulatory effects on macrophages.

  2. Studies of protein-protein interaction using countercurrent distribution in aqueous two-phase systems. Partition behaviour of six Calvin-cycle enzymes from a crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplast extract.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, L O; Johansson, G

    1989-01-01

    The partition behaviour of six enzymes of the Calvin cycle in extracts of chloroplasts from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) between two aqueous phases has been studied by countercurrent distribution. The enzymes showed distribution patterns which indicate heterogeneity and the presence of two or three fractions of most of the enzymes. When two of the enzymes, phosphoglycerate kinase and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, were partitioned in both purified and partially purified form, they behaved like homogeneous substances. These results indicate that countercurrent distribution of crude extracts in aqueous two-phase systems is a useful method to study protein-protein interaction. PMID:2730589

  3. Potential anticancer effect of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus) extract.

    PubMed

    Sani, Huzaimah Abdullah; Rahmat, Asmah; Ismail, Maznah; Rosli, Rozita; Endrini, Susi

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti cancer effects of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus Linn) in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro study, microtitration cytotoxic assay was done using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenil tetrazolium bromide (MTT) kit assay. Results showed that aqueous extract of A gangeticus inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The IC(50) values were 93.8 mu g/ml and 98.8 mu g/ml for HepG2 and MCF-7, respectively. The inhibitory effect was also observed in colon cancer cell line (Caco-2), but a lower percentage compared to HepG2 and MCF-7. For normal cell line (Chang Liver), there was no inhibitory effect. In the in vivo study, hepatocarcinogenesis was monitored in rats according to Solt and Farber (1976) without partial hepatectomy. Assay of tumour marker enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uridyl diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were carried out to determine the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis. The result found that supplementation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% of A. gangeticus aqueous extract to normal rats did not show any significant difference towards normal control (P <0.05). The exposure of the rats to chemical carcinogens diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) showed a significant increase in specific enzyme activity of GGT, GST, UDPGT and ALP compared to normal control (P <0.05). However, it was found that the supplementation of A. gangeticus aqueous extract in 5%, 7.5% and 10% to cancer-induced rats could inhibit the activity of all tumour marker enzymes especially at 10% (P <0.05). Supplementation of anti cancer drug glycyrrhizin at suggested dose (0.005%) did not show any suppressive effect towards cancer control (P <0.05). In conclusion, A. gangeticus showed anticancer potential in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  4. Enzyme-assisted extraction of stabilized chlorophyll from spinach.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Gülay; Ersus Bilek, Seda

    2015-06-01

    Zinc complex formation with chlorophyll derivatives in spinach pulp was studied by adding 300ppm Zn(2+) for production of stable food colorant, followed by the heating at 110°C for 15min. Zinc complex formation increased at pH values of 7.0 or greater. Pectinex Ultra SP-L was selected for enzyme-assisted release of zinc-chlorophyll derivatives from spinach pulp. Effect of enzyme concentration (1-9%), treatment temperature (30-60°C), and time (30-210min) on total chlorophyll content (TCC) were optimized using response surface methodology. A quadratic regression model (R(2)=0.9486) was obtained from the experimental design. Optimum treatment conditions were 8% enzyme concentration, 45°C, and 30min, which yielded a 50.747mgTCC/100g spinach pulp. Enzymatic treatment was followed by solvent extraction with ethanol at a solvent-to-sample ratio of 2.5:1 at 60°C for 45min for the highest TCC recovery. Pretreatment with enzyme and extraction in ethanol resulted in 39% increase in Zn-chlorophyll derivative yield.

  5. Acute Effects of a Spinach Extract Rich in Thylakoids on Satiety: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J.; Chu, Jessica; Beyl, Robbie; Edwall, Dan; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Greenway, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By retarding fat digestion, thylakoids, the internal photosynthetic membrane system of green plants, promote the release of satiety hormones. This study examined the effect of consuming a single dose of concentrated extract of thylakoids from spinach on satiety, food intake, lipids, and glucose compared to a placebo. Design: Sixty overweight and obese individuals enrolled in a double-blind randomized crossover study consumed the spinach extract or placebo in random order at least a week apart. Blood was drawn for assessments of lipids and glucose before a standard breakfast meal, followed 4 hours later by a 5 g dose of the extract and a standard lunch. Visual analog scales were administered before lunch and at intervals until an ad libitum pizza dinner served 4 hours later. Two hours after lunch a second blood draw was conducted. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes. Results: Compared to placebo, consuming the spinach extract reduced hunger (p < 0.01) and longing for food over 2 hours (p < 0.01) and increased postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (p < 0.01). There were no differences in plasma lipids and energy intake at dinner, but males showed a trend toward decreased energy intake (p = 0.08). Conclusions: At this dose, the spinach extract containing thylakoids increases satiety over a 2-hour period compared to a placebo. Thylakoid consumption may influence gender-specific food cravings. PMID:26029978

  6. An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll A and B from Spinach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, William G.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and fast method, which resolves chlorophyll a and b from spinach leaves on analytical plates while minimizing the appearance of chlorophyll degradation products is shown. An improved mobile phase for the Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of spinach extract that allows for the complete resolution of the common plant pigments found in…

  7. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in leaf extracts of tree spinach (Cnidoscolus spp.).

    PubMed

    Kuti, Joseph O; Konuru, Hima B

    2004-01-14

    Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of two tree spinach species (Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh and C. aconitifolius Miller.) were determined in raw and cooked leaf extracts. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and flavonoid glycoside composition was quantified by HPLC and identified by GC. Total phenolics and antioxidant capacity were higher in raw than in cooked leaf extracts. The ORAC values were strongly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.926) in all leaf extracts. The major flavonoids isolated from the leaf extracts were kaempferol-3-O-glycosides and quercetin-3-O-glycosides. C. aconitifolius leaves contained more varieties of the flavonoid glycosides than C. chayamansa. Cooking reduced antioxidant activity and phenolic content and resulted in losses of some kaempferol glycoside and quercetin glycoside residues in leaf extracts. The results of this study indicate that tree spinach leaves are a rich source of natural antioxidants for foods. PMID:14709023

  8. Employing response surface methodology for the optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach.

    PubMed

    Altemimi, Ammar; Lightfoot, David A; Kinsel, Mary; Watson, Dennis G

    2015-04-14

    The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C), extraction power (%) and extraction time (min) were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v)) as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box-Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3) and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  9. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, D; Mondal, B; Mukherjee, K

    2015-09-01

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm(-2) from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  10. Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, D.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-09-01

    Herein, chlorophyll and betalain dyes are extracted from fresh spinach leaves and beetroots. Fourier transform infrared spectra are used to identify the characteristic peaks of the extracted dyes. UV-vis light absorption characteristics of the dyes and their mixed counterpart are investigated by varying their pH and temperature. These dyes are used as photo sensitizer for fabrication of zinc oxide photo-anode based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo-voltaic characteristics of the developed DSSCs are measured under simulated solar light (power of incident light 100 mW cm-2 from Air Mass 1.5G). The solar to electric conversion efficiencies for the chlorophyll, betalain and mixed dye based solar cells are estimated as 0.148%, 0.197% and 0.294% respectively. The highest conversion efficiency for mixed dye based solar cell is attributed due to the absorption of wider range of solar spectrum.

  11. Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Photosynthetic Pigments Extracted from Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Naoki; Kitagawa, Natsuko; Matsuda, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing chlorophylls in the active region, which were extracted from spinach using a chemical method. Photoluminescence (PL) cannot be observed in the thin film of the extracted chlorophylls owing to concentration quenching. To overcome the concentration quenching, a host material, poly[(m-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(2,5-dihexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] (PPV) was added in the active region. This leads to the observaton of electroluminescence (EL) signals originating from chlorophyll a. We also evaluated the lifetime of the PL and EL. Consequently, the OLEDs containing carotenoids in the active region exhibit the light-emission much longer time than that without carotenoidos. This is assigned to the antioxidant activities of carotenoids. OLEDs containing a large amount of carotenoids are resistant to the oxidation damage.

  12. Glyoxal-Urea-Formaldehyde Molecularly Imprinted Resin as Pipette Tip Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbent for Selective Screening of Organochlorine Pesticides in Spinach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Lv, Tianwei; Yan, Hongyuan; Wu, Gaochan; Li, Haonan

    2015-11-01

    A new kind of glyoxal-urea-formaldehyde molecularly imprinted resin (GUF-MIR) was synthesized by a glyoxal-urea-formaldehyde (GUF) gel imprinting method with 4,4'-dichlorobenzhydrol as a dummy template. The obtained GUF-MIR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and applied as a selective adsorbent of miniaturized pipet tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the separation and extraction of three organochlorine pesticides (dicofol (DCF), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), and tetradifon) in spinach samples. The proposed pretreatment procedures of spinach samples involved only 5.0 mg of GUF-MIR, 0.7 mL of MeOH-H2O (1:1, v/v) (washing solvent), and 0.6 mL of cyclohexane-ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) (elution solvent). In comparison with other adsorbents (such as silica gel, C18, NH2-silica gel, and neutral alumina (Al2O3-N)), GUF-MIR showed higher adsorption and purification capacity for DCF, DDD, and tetradifon in aqueous solution. The average recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 89.1% to 101.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 7.1% (n = 3). The presented GUF-MIR-PT-SPE method combines the advantages of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), GUF, and PT-SPE and can be used in polar solutions with high affinity and selectivity to the analytes in complex samples.

  13. Synthesis and bioaccessibility of Fe-pheophytin derivatives from crude spinach extract.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R E; Ferruzzi, M G

    2008-06-01

    Heme iron is recognized as a highly bioavailable source of iron suitable for treatment of iron deficiency anemia. However, the animal origin of purified heme limits its broad applicability due to religious, personal, and food safety issues. Development of chlorophyll-derived heme mimetics offers opportunities to expand current iron fortification strategies. The objective of this study was the synthesis of Fe-pheophytin (FePhe) derivatives from natural chlorophyll and subsequent evaluation of their digestive behavior and bioaccessibility in vitro. FePhe a and a' were synthesized from crude spinach extracts by treatment with 1.3 M iron(II)chloride and 0.25 M Na-acetate dissolved in glacial acetic acid at 80 degrees C for 30 min. FePhe-rich extracts (approximately 1 mM) were formulated into corn starch based test meals (7.5% lipid) and subjected to a 2-step in vitro digestion designed to simulate in vivo gastric and small intestinal conditions. Recovery of FePhe following digestion and transfer of FePhe and pheophytins (Phe) from test meal matrix to mixed micelles was assessed by RP C18-HPLC to determine the digestive stability and micellarization efficiency (bioaccessibility). FePhe a and a' derivatives were moderately stable to digestive conditions with recoveries of 52.3% and 58.7%, respectively. Residual Phe a was stable to digestion. Micellarization efficiency of FePhe a (4%) and a' (3.4%) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than Phe a (25.8%) from test meals. While digestive stability and micellarization efficiency are limiting, the presence of lipophilic FePhe derivatives in mixed micelles suggests that these compounds would be available for subsequent absorption in the intestinal tract.

  14. The Use of Contact Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Aqueous Medium for Structural Analysis of Spinach Photosynthetic Complexes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Phuthong, Witchukorn; Huang, Zubin; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Sznee, Kinga; Heinnickel, Mark L.; Dekker, Jan P.; Frese, Raoul N.; Prinz, Fritz B.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in vascular plants at high resolution in an aqueous environment, membrane-protruding oxygen-evolving complexes (OECs) associated with photosystem II (PSII) on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grana membranes were examined using contact mode atomic force microscopy. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first use of atomic force microscopy to distinguish the putative large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP47 reaction center protein (CP47) from the putative oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins 1, 2, and 3 (PsbO, PsbP, and PsbQ) and large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein (CP43) in the PSII-OEC extrinsic domains of grana membranes under conditions resulting in the disordered arrangement of PSII-OEC particles. Moreover, we observed uncharacterized membrane particles that, based on their physical characteristics and electrophoretic analysis of the polypeptides associated with the grana samples, are hypothesized to be a domain of photosystem I that protrudes from the stromal face of single thylakoid bilayers. Our results are interpreted in the context of the results of others that were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy (and single particle analysis), negative staining and freeze-fracture electron microscopy, as well as previous atomic force microscopy studies. PMID:26220954

  15. The Use of Contact Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Aqueous Medium for Structural Analysis of Spinach Photosynthetic Complexes.

    PubMed

    Phuthong, Witchukorn; Huang, Zubin; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Sznee, Kinga; Heinnickel, Mark L; Dekker, Jan P; Frese, Raoul N; Prinz, Fritz B; Grossman, Arthur R

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in vascular plants at high resolution in an aqueous environment, membrane-protruding oxygen-evolving complexes (OECs) associated with photosystem II (PSII) on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) grana membranes were examined using contact mode atomic force microscopy. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first use of atomic force microscopy to distinguish the putative large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP47 reaction center protein (CP47) from the putative oxygen-evolving enhancer proteins 1, 2, and 3 (PsbO, PsbP, and PsbQ) and large extrinsic loop of Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein (CP43) in the PSII-OEC extrinsic domains of grana membranes under conditions resulting in the disordered arrangement of PSII-OEC particles. Moreover, we observed uncharacterized membrane particles that, based on their physical characteristics and electrophoretic analysis of the polypeptides associated with the grana samples, are hypothesized to be a domain of photosystem I that protrudes from the stromal face of single thylakoid bilayers. Our results are interpreted in the context of the results of others that were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy (and single particle analysis), negative staining and freeze-fracture electron microscopy, as well as previous atomic force microscopy studies.

  16. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  17. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  18. Extraction and characterization of mixed phase KNO2-KNO3 nanocrystals derived from flat-leaf green spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, S.; Mohanta, D.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally available green spinach, which is a rich source of potassium, was used as the key ingredient to extract mixed-phase ferroelectric crystals of nitrite and nitrate derivatives (KNO2 + KNO3). The KNO3 phase was found to be dominant for higher pH values, as revealed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. The characteristic optical absorption spectra exhibited intra-band π-π* electronic transitions, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibited characteristic N-O stretching vibrations. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed a broad endothermic peak at ˜121.8 °C, highlighting a transition from phase II to I via phase III of KNO3. Obtaining nanoscale ferroelectrics via the adoption of green synthesis is economically viable for large-scale production and possible application in ferroelectric elements/devices.

  19. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    PubMed

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step. PMID:27283648

  20. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    PubMed

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step.

  1. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  2. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  3. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. PMID:26471585

  4. Electrostatic sprays of food-grade acids and plant extracts are more effective than conventional sprays in decontaminating Salmonella Typhimurium on spinach.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Ravichandran, Madhuram; Johnson, Michael G; Griffis, Carl L; Martin, Elizabeth M; Meullenet, Jean-Francois; Ricke, Steven C

    2010-01-01

    About 40000 people fall victim to Salmonella infections every year in the United States. Recent occurrences of Salmonella contaminated spinach and its recalls have accelerated the need for efficient antimicrobials targeting these pathogens. Our study was aimed at evaluating the inhibitory properties of malic, tartaric, and lactic acids, and grape seed extract (GSE) alone and in combinations and their application methods against Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated spinach using a response surface method. Fresh spinach leaves were washed, disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (0.04% v/v), rewashed with sterile deionized (DI) water, and inoculated with a 2nd-day culture of S. Typhimurium (7.0 log CFU/mL). Adhered S. Typhimurium population on day 0 were 7.5 log CFU/g. These were treated with individual and combinations of organic acids with GSE or DI water (control) adjusted to the same pH as that of the test solutions with both the modes of application and leaves were refrigerated at 4 °C. Malic acid (2%) in combination with GSE (3%) or lactic acid (3%) sprayed electrostatically showed reductions of 2.6 to 3.3 log CFU/g compared to lower log reductions (0.0 to 0.3 log CFU/g) by day 14 if sprayed conventionally. These findings indicate that malic acid in combination with GSE/lactic acid solutions applied by electrostatic spraying exhibited higher inhibition of pathogens than conventional spraying and can be used for commercial applications to enhance food safety.

  5. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai) Suggests Plant-Species-Specific Metabolic Responses on Exposure to Spinach and Lettuce Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Louise; Hedley, Pete E.; Morris, Jenny; Wagstaff, Carol; Andrews, Simon C.; Toth, Ian; Jackson, Robert W.; Holden, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonization. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 ‘Sakai,’ to colonize the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), vining green pea (Pisum sativum), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analyzed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce). Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant–microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonization. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 h) transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days) plant colonization or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 vs. 18°C) has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated) differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types indicate

  6. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai) Suggests Plant-Species-Specific Metabolic Responses on Exposure to Spinach and Lettuce Extracts.

    PubMed

    Crozier, Louise; Hedley, Pete E; Morris, Jenny; Wagstaff, Carol; Andrews, Simon C; Toth, Ian; Jackson, Robert W; Holden, Nicola J

    2016-01-01

    Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonization. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 'Sakai,' to colonize the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), vining green pea (Pisum sativum), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola), a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analyzed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce). Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant-microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonization. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 h) transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days) plant colonization or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 vs. 18°C) has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated) differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types indicate

  7. [Extraction of alpha-cypermethrin from aqueous methanol solutions].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2010-01-01

    Alpha cypermethrin was extracted from aqueous methanol solutions using hydrophobic organic solvents. The efficiency of extraction was shown to depend on the chemical nature of the solvent, the water to methanol ratio, and saturation of the aqueous methanol layer with an electrolyte. Optimal extraction of alpha-cypermethrin was achieved using toluene as the solvent under desalinization conditions. The extraction factor for the removal of the sought amount of alpha-cypermethrin from the water-methanol solution (4:1) using various solvents was calculated.

  8. [Extraction of alpha-cypermethrin from aqueous methanol solutions].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2010-01-01

    Alpha cypermethrin was extracted from aqueous methanol solutions using hydrophobic organic solvents. The efficiency of extraction was shown to depend on the chemical nature of the solvent, the water to methanol ratio, and saturation of the aqueous methanol layer with an electrolyte. Optimal extraction of alpha-cypermethrin was achieved using toluene as the solvent under desalinization conditions. The extraction factor for the removal of the sought amount of alpha-cypermethrin from the water-methanol solution (4:1) using various solvents was calculated. PMID:20734789

  9. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  10. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  11. [Extraction of lambda-cyhalothrin from aqueous dioxan solutions].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2011-01-01

    The results of extraction of lambda-cigalotrin from dioxan aqueous solutions by hydrophobic organic solvents are presented. It is shown that the degree of extraction depends on the nature of the extractant, the water to dioxan ratio, and saturation of the water-dioxan layer with the electrolyte. The highest efficiency of lambda-cigalotrin extraction was achieved using chlorophorm as a solvent under desalination conditions. The extraction factor was calculated necessary to obtain the desired amount of lambda-cigalotrin from the water-dioxan solution (4:1) with the help of the extractants being used.

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  13. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jener David G; Espeleta, Alexandre F; Branco, Alexsandro; de Assis, Sandra A

    2013-02-15

    In this work, sisal waste was used as a source of pectin. Sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibres, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal, producing more than 246,000 tonnes. However, the process of removing the fibres of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. This study investigated the effect of the liquid/solid ratio (%), time (min), and temperature (°C) on the yield of the pectin obtained from sisal waste by attractive environmentally friendly process. A statistical Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the yield of pectin, the dependent variable. Significant models were obtained. The yield of the extracted pectin ranged from 4.61 to 19.2%. The conditions that produced the highest yield (19.2%) were a temperature of 85 °C, extraction time of 60 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 2%. PMID:23399250

  14. Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jener David G; Espeleta, Alexandre F; Branco, Alexsandro; de Assis, Sandra A

    2013-02-15

    In this work, sisal waste was used as a source of pectin. Sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibres, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal, producing more than 246,000 tonnes. However, the process of removing the fibres of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. This study investigated the effect of the liquid/solid ratio (%), time (min), and temperature (°C) on the yield of the pectin obtained from sisal waste by attractive environmentally friendly process. A statistical Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the yield of pectin, the dependent variable. Significant models were obtained. The yield of the extracted pectin ranged from 4.61 to 19.2%. The conditions that produced the highest yield (19.2%) were a temperature of 85 °C, extraction time of 60 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 2%.

  15. Podophyllum hexandrum aqueous extract as a potential free radical scavenger.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Amin, Shajrul; Hamid, Rabia; Hamid, Abid; Majeed, Rabiya; Qurishi, Yasrib; Zargar, Bilal A; Masood, Akbar; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of Podophyllum hexandrum against free radical-mediated damage and also explore its anticancer activity. The extract exhibited significant activity in scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radicals, (•)OH radical-mediated DNA damage, and lipid peroxide production in rat liver microsomes. The extract was also tested for its reducing abilities. The activity of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant defense enzymes in rat liver homogenate was assessed in control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated animals. It was observed that CCl(4)-induced changes viz., increases in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, a decrease in reduced glutathione as well as decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. All these parameters showed reversal when pretreated with aqueous extract of P. hexandrum. Podophylotoxin and etoposide are the two known anticancer agents derived from P. hexandrum and interestingly the aqueous extract of P. hexandrum showed a typical DNA ladder formation in HL-60 cells confirming its role as an inducer of apoptosis. The results obtained suggest that the plant extract exhibits inhibition of and free radical production and lipid peroxidation, increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, revealing its antioxidant properties, and is also able to show potent anticancer activity as depicted by its ability to cause fragmentation of DNA.

  16. RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  17. Photocatalytical oxidation of de-icing agents in aqueous solutions and aqueous extract of jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Krichevskaya, M; Malygina, T; Preis, S; Kallas, J

    2001-01-01

    Improper handling of jet fuel at abandoned military bases has resulted in heavy pollution of the soil and groundwater. Experimental research of photocatalytical oxidation (PCO) of jet fuel aqueous extract and aqueous solutions of de-icing agents was undertaken. The influence of different parameters - pH, concentration of substances to be oxidised, presence of inorganic admixtures, effect of OH. radical generators--on the PCO of solutions of de-icing agents and jet fuel aqueous extract was determined. The role of OH. radicals was found to be less important in determining the PCO rate. The PCO of organic pollutants was also investigated using a catalyst immobilised onto the surface of buoyant hollow glass microspheres. Attached titanium dioxide (TiO2) showed lower photocatalytical activity than when suspended in slurry, although it allows waters to be treated in simple shallow ponds without intensive stirring. The biodegradability of aqueous solutions of de-icing agents and jet fuel aqueous extract increased as PCO proceeded. PMID:11695445

  18. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  19. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  20. Efficacy of an aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract against herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schneider, S; Stintzing, F C; Carle, R; Reichling, J

    2008-12-01

    The compounds of an aqueous root extract of the African medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides were analysed by LC-MS spectroscopy and the antiviral effect of this extract against herpes simplex virus was examined in cell culture. Besides predominant coumarins, simple phenolic structures as well as flavonoid and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents in the Pelargonium extract. The inhibitory activity of this extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay and exhibited high antiviral activity against both herpesviruses in viral suspension tests. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.00006% and 0.000005% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the extract, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99.9% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and a clear concentration-dependent antiviral activity against HSV could be demonstrated for this extract. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the infection cycle. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when pretreated with the plant extract or when the extract was added during the adsorption phase, whereas acyclovir demonstrated antiviral activity only intracellularly during replication of HSV. These results indicate that P. sidoides extract affected the virus before penetration into the host cell and reveals a different mode of action when compared to the classical drug acyclovir. Hence this extract is capable of exerting an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus and might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as antiviral drug both in labial and genital herpes infection.

  1. Oil separation from wet milled corn germ dispersions as part of aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil was obtained from corn germ by aqueous extraction (AE). 100 g batches of germ were mixed with a buffer solution to a mass concentration of 5 to 20% germ, preheated under 2 atm. pressure (120oC), milled in a blender and then churned in an incubator/shaker to coalesce and float oil droplets. The ...

  2. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  3. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction.

    PubMed

    Barros, P S M; Padovani, C F; Silva, V V; Queiroz, L; Barros, S B M

    2003-11-01

    We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane) chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 microM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  4. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  5. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Melinda A; Widrlechner, Mark P; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Murphy, Patricia; Hauck, Cathy; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Nikolau, Basil; Maury, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Background Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) replication. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective when added during the first four h of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting the virion itself or early entry events. Further analysis revealed that the extracts did not destroy EIAV virion integrity, but prevented viral particles from binding to the surface of permissive cells. Modest levels of anti-EIAV activity were also detected when the cells were treated with the extracts prior to infection, indicating that anti-EIAV botanical constituents could interact with both viral particles and permissive cells to interfere with infectivity. Size fractionation of the extract demonstrated that eight of the nine fractions generated from aqueous extracts displayed anti-viral activity. Separation of ethanol soluble and insoluble compounds in the eight active fractions revealed that ethanol-soluble constituents were responsible for the anti-viral activity in one fraction whereas ethanol-insoluble constituents were important for the anti-viral activity in two of the other fractions. In three of the five fractions that lost activity upon sub-fractionation, anti-viral activity was restored upon reconstitution of the fractions, indicating that synergistic anti-viral activity is present in several of the fractions. Conclusion

  6. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Properties of Anacardium humile Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    Urzêda, Márcio A.; Marcussi, Silvana; Silva Pereira, Luciana L.; França, Suzelei C.; Pereira, Ana Maria S.; Pereira, Paulo S.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Guimarães, César L. S.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2013-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes. PMID:23737820

  7. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects. PMID:26892338

  8. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  9. Characterization of technetium species induced in spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, A.V.; Krijger, G.C.; Elteren, J.T. van; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    1999-08-01

    Plants have the ability to accumulate the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc. In this work, an attempt was made to separate and characterize technetium species induced by spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown on a TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} containing nutrient solution. Combination of data obtained with selective extraction and chromatography gave us insight into Tc speciation in spinach plants. The following classes of Tc species in spinach leaf homogenate were found after an incubation period of 11 d: TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (ca. 7%), Tc{sup V}-cysteine (ca. 25%), Tc bound to insoluble cell-wall polysaccharides (ca. 17%), Tc bound to proteins (ca. 26%), and hydrophilic non-protein Tc species (ca. 25%). These results may yield a new insight into the metabolic pathways of Tc in plants.

  10. Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of lipid from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kehong; Zhang, Qinghua; Cong, Wei

    2012-11-28

    An improved lipid extraction process has been established for microalgal using enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP), which mainly involved in sonication and enzyme treatment. As compared to cellulase, neutral protease and alkaline protease, significantly higher lipid recovery was achieved by snailase and trypsin. The highest lipid recovery of 49.82% was obtained by a combined sonication-enzyme treatment at pH 4. The enhancement mechanism of the EAEP was analyzed in terms of the particle size of cream and zeta potential. In addition, microalgal lipid recovery was also affected by lipid class composition and the type of algae. The present study demonstrates a promising alternative to conventional lipid extraction of microalgae and the quantitative information on EAEP of oleaginous alga can provide valuable data for process design at pilot and industrial scale.

  11. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa MM; Mostafa, Soha SM; Shalaby, Emad A; Mahmoud, Ghada I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2′- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. PMID:23569980

  12. Anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, E; Amabeoku, G J; Eagles, P K; Scott, G; Springfield, E P

    2002-04-01

    Water extract of Leonotis leonurus was tested for anticonvulsant activity against seizures produced in mice by pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin, bicuculline and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (intraperitoneal injections). L. leonurus extract in the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively protected 37.5% and 50% of animals used and significantly (p < 0.05; Student's t-test) delayed pentylenetetrazole (90 mg/kg)-induced tonic seizures. Similarly, the same doses of L. leonurus extract significantly (p < 0.05; Student's t-test) delayed the onset of tonic seizures produced by picrotoxin (8 mg/kg) and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (400 mg/kg). However, all the doses of aqueous extract of L leonurus used did not alter the seizures induced by bicuculline (20 mg/kg) to any significant extent. The data suggest that the extract of L. leonurus has anticonvulsant activity and may probably be acting through non-specific mechanisms, since it affects both gabaergic and glutaminergic systems. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and phytochemical tests carried out respectively show a spectrum profile, characteristic of L. leonurus and the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extract.

  13. In vitro and in vivo treatments of Echinococcus granulosus with Huaier aqueous extract and albendazole liposome.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hailong; Jiang, Yufeng; Liao, Min; Sun, Hongli; Zhang, Shijie; Peng, Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of chemotherapy employing albendazole liposome (L-ABZ), Huaier aqueous extract, and a Huaier aqueous extract/L-ABZ combination against Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices of E. granulosus were incubated in vitro with the two drugs, either separately or in combination, at the following final concentrations: 2 mg/mL Huaier aqueous extract, 10 μg/mL L-ABZ, and 2 mg/mL Huaier aqueous extract + 10 μg/mL L-ABZ. Huaier aqueous extract and L-ABZ displayed slower protoscolicidal activity when applied separately than when used in combination. The maximum protoscolicidal effect was found with the combination Huaier aqueous extract + L-ABZ. Despite the low Huaier aqueous extract + L-ABZ concentrations used, protoscolex viability dropped rapidly. In vivo studies were performed on mice injected with protoscolices of E. granulosus. Huaier aqueous extract and L-ABZ were administered three times a week for a period of 4 months by the oral route. Huaier aqueous extract in E. granulosus-infected mice was effective. Combined application of both drugs did increase the treatment efficacy. In conclusion, the outcomes obtained clearly demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo treatment with Huaier aqueous extract and L-ABZ is effective against E. granulosus.

  14. Teratogenic effect of Lippia citriodora leaves aqueous extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oskouei Shirvan, Zahra; Etemad, Leila; Zafari, Reza; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Safety of Lippia citriodora, as a herbal remedy, in pregnancy has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to identify the effect of L. citriodora aqueous extract on pregnancy outcome in mice. Materials and Methods: Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 0.5 g/kg/day L. citriodora aqueous extract or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout the pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Fetuses were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue. Results: There were no significant differences in mean maternal weight gain during pregnancy between groups. Also, no significant differences were observed in mean number of implantation, live and resorbed fetuses between control and treated groups. The prevalence of all types of deformity was low and similar to control group (%1.11). Conclusion: The results of this study show that moderate consumption of L. citriodora as an infusion or tea appears to be safe to be used during pregnancy and does not have toxic effects on development of mouse embryo. PMID:27222830

  15. Simultaneous Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel by the Organic-Aqueous-Aqueous Three-Phase Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayama, Sakae; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    This research outlines an organic-aqueous-aqueous three-phase solvent extraction method and proposes its use in a new metal separation process for the recycling of manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) from used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The three-phase system was formed by mixing xylene organic solution, 50 pct polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution, and 1 mol L-1 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) aqueous solution. The xylene organic solution contained 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant for Mn ion, and the Na2SO4 aqueous solution contained 1 mol L-1 potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) as an extractant for Co ion. Concentrations of the metal ions were varied by dissolving metal sulfates in the Na2SO4 aqueous solution. As a result of the experiments, Mn, Co, and Ni ions were distributed in the xylene organic phase, PEG-rich aqueous phase, and Na2SO4-rich aqueous phase, respectively. The separation was effective when the pH value was around 4. Numerical simulation was also conducted in order to predict the distribution of metal ions after the multi-stage counter-current extractions.

  16. Nitrogen Uptake in Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, J.; VanBenthem, P.

    2013-12-01

    A plant's absorption of nitrogen can be encouraged by a variety of environmental factors, especially the application of fertilizers. As a common limiting factor in plant growth, not up taking enough nitrogen can be a result of an unhealthy plant. Moreover, as farmers seek out methods to increase growth of plants, fertilizers are used as a solution to the issue of nitrogen deficiency to incorporate additional nitrogen from chemical or organic sources, by not using the right fertilizer can greatly affect the plats. The point of this research project is to determine the effect of various fertilizers on the plant growth, and to correlate the measured nitrogen, water and chlorophyll content in spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were used because they are known to quickly uptake chemicals in the environment. The spinach plants were exposed to four different growing parameters, which are referred to as control, ammonium nitrate, MiracleGro , and organic. The spinach was originally placed in nitrogen deficient soil with only 2.2x10 4 weight percent (wt. %) nitrogen. The leaves in the control group were grown in this nitrogen deficient soil without any fertilizer added. Ammomium nitrate and MiracleGro were added to the spinach in the A and MG groups, respectively, and organic chicken stool was used for the O group. By using a spectral imaging system and flame combustion techniques, the chlorophyll content can be related to the nitrogen content in the spinach leaves. In these spinach leaves, nitrogen and chlorophyll content were measured, chlorophyll is a green pigment that plays a crucial role in producing nutrients for green plants. The lack of chlorophyll will allow the plant to become susceptible to diseases, so it is extremely important that the plants have a high content of chlorophyll. The role of nitrogen in chlorophyll is very important and helps in the creation of chlorophyll; therefore it is necessary that an appropriate amount of nitrogen is added for optimal growth

  17. Extraction and precipitation chemistry for mercury recovery from aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, H.H.; Leaphart, M.; Van Brunt, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an extraction-precipitation process to recover mercuric chloride from aqueous solutions. The process is a modification of a dicarboxylic acid recovery process that exploits the enhanced solubility of mercuric chloride in organic solvents loaded with water. Mercuric chloride in ethyl acetate has a solubility enhancement of 1.34 moles mercuric chloride per mole of water added to the solvent, consistent with previously reported phase behavior. Solubility enhancement is also reported for formates, in contrast to previously reported results. For example, propyl formate showed 2.91 moles mercuric chloride per mole water enhancement. The modified process described in this paper relies on (1) favorable liquid-liquid equilibrium (mercuric chloride distribution into ethyl acetate or into propyl formate), (2) favorable liquid-solid equilibrium with enhanced solute solubility on addition of a minor constituent (water), and (3) preferential vaporization of the minor constituent from the solid slurry (relative volatility of water in mercuric chloride loaded ethyl acetate is four). Enhanced solubilities for zinc(II) chloride(3.46) and mercury(II) iodide(1.10) in isopentyl acetate indicate a potential application of the process for the recovery of other metal halides from aqueous wastes.

  18. Solvent selection for the extraction of ethanol from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Koullas, D.P.; Umealu, O.S.; Koukios, E.G.

    1999-08-01

    Several organic solvents were examined as potential separating agents for ethanol recovery from aqueous solutions by liquid-liquid extraction. Phase composition determinations for five promising ethanol-water-solvent systems at 20 and 40 C and two solvent-to-feed ratios show that isoamyl acetate (IAA) and isooctyl alcohol (IOA) along with n-butyl acetate (BA) present a greater potential than dibutyl ether and dibutyl oxalate. Tie-line liquid-liquid equilibrium data at 25 C for the three promising solvents (IAA, IOA, and BA) were collected and analyzed. Both IAA and IOA were found to be very good separating agents, exhibiting ethanol distribution coefficients greater than 1, and separation factors in Bancroft coordinates of the order of 70 and 2,000, respectively.

  19. Protective role of a methanolic extract of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) against Pb toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings: beneficial effects for a plant of a nutraceutical used with animals.

    PubMed

    Lamhamdi, Mostafa; Bakrim, Ahmed; Bouayad, Noureddin; Aarab, Ahmed; Lafont, René

    2013-10-01

    Spinach extracts contain powerful natural antioxidants and have been used to improve the response of animal cells to various stress factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a methanolic extract of spinach (SE) used at two concentrations (21.7 and 217 ppm) on the growth, certain enzymes and antioxidant systems in wheat seedlings under lead stress. When wheat seedlings were grown for 7 days in a solution containing Pb(NO3)2 (3 mM), germination and growth were impaired, while signs of oxidative stress were observed. SE (217 ppm) pretreatment was able to protect seedlings from Pb toxicity by both reducing Pb uptake and Pb-induced oxidative stress. As a consequence, almost normal germination, elongation, biomass and α-amylase activity were restored by SE (217 ppm) pretreatment of wheat seedlings, in spite of the presence of Pb. Our results support the protective role and the antioxidant effect of SE against Pb. These results show an amazing similarity to the effects of SE in animals, which suggests that providing "nutraceuticals" to plants could improve their "health" status.

  20. Aqueous CO{sup 2} vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO{sup 2} (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox{reg_sign} EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox{reg_sign} to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox{reg_sign}. The best correlation (r{sup 2} > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log K{sub ow} of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils.

  1. Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Nansunga, Miriam; Barasa, Ambrose; Abimana, Justus; Alele, Paul E.; Kasolo, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model. Materials and methods Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug. Results The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats. Conclusion This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens . The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model. PMID:25304198

  2. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  3. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  4. Downstream antibody purification using aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lisong Nathan; Rogers, Jameson K; Westoby, Matthew; Conley, Lynn; Pieracci, John

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of antibodies using a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was investigated. Studies using purified monoclonal antibody (mAb) identified operating ranges for successful phase formation and factors that significantly affected antibody partitioning. The separation of antibody and host cell protein (HCP) from clarified cell culture media was examined using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The partitioning of antibody was nearly complete over the entire range of the operating space examined. A model of the HCP partitioning was generated in which both NaCl and citrate concentrations were identified as significant factors. To achieve the highest purity, the partitioning of HCP from cell culture fluid into the product containing phase was minimized using a Steepest Descent algorithm. An optimal ATPS consisting of 14.0% (w/w) PEG, 8.4% (w/w) citrate, and 7.2% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.2 resulted in a product yield of 89%, an approximate 7.6-fold reduction in HCP levels relative to the clarified cell culture fluid before extraction and an overall purity of 70%. A system consisting of 15% (w/w) PEG, 8% (w/w) citrate, and 15% (w/w) NaCl at pH 5.5 reduced product-related impurities (aggregates and low molecular product fragments) from ∼40% to less than 0.5% while achieving 95% product recovery. At the experimental conditions that were optimized in the batch mode, a scale-up model for the use of counter-current extraction technology was developed to identify potential improvements in purity and recovery that could be realized in the continuous operational mode. PMID:20853347

  5. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  6. Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

    2014-02-14

    Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented.

  7. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher (P extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 mug ml(-1)). The IC(50) values of 1813 and 1331 mug ml(-1) were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann's dose response analysis). PMID:20668582

  8. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher (P extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 mug ml(-1)). The IC(50) values of 1813 and 1331 mug ml(-1) were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann's dose response analysis).

  9. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air – water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE. PMID:14734243

  10. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed.

  11. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed. PMID:26471560

  12. In vitro antileishmanial activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Jafar; Sharifi, Iraj; Sharififar, Fariba; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Pentavalent antimony compounds are expensive, toxic and drug resistance is prevalent, whereas the plant extract derivatives are safe. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the promastigotes of Leishmania major was evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of E. camaldulensis leaves were prepared. The compounds were dried and powdered. Serial dilutions of the extracts and control drugs in phosphate buffer solution were prepared. The stationary phase promastigotes of L. major were incubated to the methanolic and aqueous extractions in vitro. Tartar emetic was used as the positive control drug. After 72 h of incubation the activity of the extracts was measured, using MTT method. The IC50 values (50 % inhibitory concentration) were 586.2 ± 47.6 and 1,108.6 ± 51.9 μg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively, whereas it was 32.5 ± 6.8 μg/ml for tartar emetic. The results indicated that the methanolic extract was more effective than aqueous extract, although there was no significant difference. The extracts were less effective as compared to the control drug. Further investigation is required to evaluate these extracts on clinical stage in macrophage-amastigote model. PMID:25698853

  13. Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Ozer, E.

    1995-03-20

    At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous extract, centrifugal clarification of the hydrolysate, and recovery of the acid by continuous ion exclusion. The cost estimate indicates operating costs on the order of $0.12 to $0.15/kg xylose, in the form of xylose-rich molasses.

  14. Antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris in rats.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oludotun A; Mathew, Koyippalli T; Oriowo, Mabayoje A

    2006-04-01

    The effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris on rat blood pressure (BP) and the perfused mesenteric vascular bed were investigated. The extracts dose-dependently reduced BP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with the aqueous fraction being more potent than the methanolic fraction at all doses tested. In vitro, the methanolic but not aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent increase in perfusion pressure of the mesenteric vascular bed. When perfusion pressure was raised with phenylephrine (10(-5) M), the aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent reduction in perfusion pressure at all doses. A low dose of the methanolic extract produced a vasoconstrictor effect while higher doses produced dose-dependent reduction in perfusion pressure. L-NAME (10(-4) M) significantly reduced but did not abolish vasodilation induced by the extracts. Vasodilator responses to aqueous and methanolic fractions were significantly reduced in preparations where perfusion pressure was raised with KCl (60 mM). A combination of KCl and L-NAME abolished the vasodilator responses induced by the extracts. It was concluded that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris possess significant antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The antihypertensive effects appeared to result from a direct arterial smooth muscle relaxation possibly involving nitric oxide release and membrane hyperpolarization.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Suárez, A; Ulate, G; Ciccio, J F

    1997-01-01

    The hypotensive activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica and several fractions of the aqueous extract was observed in anaesthetized normotensive rats. General effects of the extracts and fractions were assessed through Hippocratic screening showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the aqueous extract of Pimenta dioica (30, 70, 100 mg/kg) produced a dose-related significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The ED50 was 53.94 mg/kg. The hypotensive effect of identical doses (100 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract (95% decrease) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than the effect of the ethanolic extract (67% decrease). The final aqueous fraction produced the greatest hypotensive activity compared to the other fractions of the total aqueous extract. There were no significant changes in the heart rate and no abnormalities were observed in the EKG. The mechanisms of action of the extracts have not been determined. Structural elucidation of the compounds responsible for this activity is under investigation.

  16. Antigiardial effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract in children

    PubMed Central

    Sahib, Ahmed Salih; Mohammed, Imad Hashim; Sloo, Saja Akram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite of humans identified worldwide. In spite of metronidazole (Met) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans, low patient compliance and side-effects, especially in children encourage efforts to look for new and safe agent; many plants used in folk medicine thought to have antigiardial effect, Anethum graveolens (AG) (dill) is an annual herb cultivated in Iraq used both as a medicinal agent and as food spice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract (AE) of AG leave in the treatment of giardiasis, compared with that of standard drug Met. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 28 pediatric patients of both sexes with age of <1 year ranging from 3 to 11 months, who attend to outpatient private clinic in Baghdad for a period of 6 months from June 2013 to December 2013,Patients participate in this study were allocated into two groups Group A composed of 14 patients treated with Met 15 mg/kg 3 times a day for 5 days. Group B composed of 14 patients treated with AGAE 1 ml 3 times a day for 5 days. Stool samples were collected at 0 time before administration of treatment, after 5 days and after 14 days from starting the treatments to check the efficacy of treatment. Results: Administration of AGAE results in a significant decrease in incidence of G. lamblia after 5 days of treatment indicating the efficacy of AGAE in the treatment of giardiasis a result that is comparable to that of Met. Conclusion: This study showed that pediatric patients with giardiasis may benefit from 5 days treatment with AGAE administered as 1 ml 3 times daily, the improvement in the symptom with this herbal agent was comparable to the standard pharmacological agent Met; results showed that AG is safe and tolerable over treatment course. PMID:26401357

  17. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  18. Extractive recovery of phenol and p-alkylphenols from aqueous solutions with hydrophobic ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Ya.I.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Podolina, E.A.

    1994-03-10

    Aliphatic and cyclic hydrophobic ketones were used for extractive recovery of phenol and p-alkylphenols from aqueous solutions, giving a 95-98% extraction of toxicants under the recommended conditions. The extracting agents were cyclohexanone, methylcyclohexanone, butyl methyl ketone, and isobutyl methyl ketone.

  19. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration. PMID:27593279

  20. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of methanol and aqueous extracts of Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Hammuel, Chrinius; Yebpella, Gary G; Shallangwa, Gideon A; Magomya, Asabe M; Agbajp, Abel S

    2011-01-01

    The methanol and the aqueous extracts of the plant, Agave sisalana were prepared and evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical analysis of the preparation revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites which include: saponins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and flavonoids. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the crude methanol and aqueous extract of the Agave sisalana were investigated. The extract showed antimicrobial activities against the test organisms with different zones of inhibition ranging from 28-32 mm and 25-29 mm for methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the methanol and aqueous extract was between 10-20 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 20-40 mg/mL for both extracts. The investigation indicated that the methanol extract inhibited the growth of the microbes more than the aqueous extract. The ability of the crude extracts of A. sisalana to inhibit the growth of the microbes is an indication of its antimicrobial potential, which may be employed in the management of microbial infections.

  1. Efficacy of aqueous plant extract in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Kirui, J K; Kotut, K; Okemo, P O

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the possibility of disinfecting water using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. Seven medicinal plants used by Samburu herbalists for the treatment of stomach illnesses were investigated for water disinfection. Aqueous extracts of the dried powdered plant material were directly used to treat the water samples collected. Efficacy of water treatment with medicinal plants expressed as percentage reduction in bacterial colonies revealed that Acacia nilotica extract with a mean percentage reduction of 99.86% was the most effective at reducing the number of bacterial colonies. Albizia anthelmintica extract with a mean of 9.47% was the least effective at reducing the number of bacterial colonies. The study also revealed a possible interaction between plant extracts and water source (P<0.05, df=54). The results obtained in this study point out a possibility of using aqueous extracts from A. nilotica in disinfecting water of different physicochemical properties. PMID:26322770

  2. Extraction and Analysis of C60, C70 and PCBM in Aqueous Suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this work is to develop sampling and analytical methodologies for extracting and quantifying fullerenes in aqueous colloidal suspensions. Sampling and analysis of colloidal suspensions pose some unique challenges not encountered when working with true solutions. For...

  3. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye

    2015-01-01

    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives.

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) D.C. aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, A L; Ripoll, D; Nardi, N; Bassani, V L

    1999-02-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides, prepared using heating, was investigated with a mitogen-induced cell proliferation assay and IL-2 secretion in BALB/c mice. The results showed a slightly immunosuppressive activity.

  5. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  6. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta.

    PubMed

    Loh, Daphne Sue Yen; Er, Hui Meng; Chen, Yu Sui

    2009-12-10

    Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising

  7. A mutagenicity and cytotoxicity study of limonium effusum aqueous extracts by Allium, Ames and MTT tests.

    PubMed

    Eren, Y; Ozata, A; Konuk, M; Akyil, D; Liman, R

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays plants or plant extracts have become very important for alternative medicine. Plants and their extracts have many therapeutical advantages but some of them are potentially toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Root, stem and leafparts of Limonium effusum were used in this study and this species is an endemic species for Turkey. Mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of root, stem and leaf aqueous extracts were observed with Allium, Ames and MTT tests. Allium root growth inhibition test and mitotic index studies showed that aqueous extracts have dose-dependent toxic effects. Chromosome aberration studies indicated that especially sticky chromosome, anaphase-telophase disorder and laggard chromosome anomalies were highly observed. Ames test performed with Limonium effusum root aqueous extracts, showed weak mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain with S9. MTT test based on mitochondrial activity indicated that most of the aqueous extracts have cytotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine the possible mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of L. effusum aqueous extracts by using bacterial, plant and mammalian cells. This research showed that some low concentrations of the L. effusum extracts have inhibited cytotoxic effects but high concentrations have induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand only a weak mutagenic activity was identified by Ames test with TA98 S9(+). PMID:26030975

  8. Studies of the DOM aqueous extracts from coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariadou, F.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major exchangeable organic pool playing an outstanding role in the ocean carbon cycle. It has a complex chemical structure made up of a wide range of organic molecules. The composition of DOM depends on the sources proximity and the exposure to any sort of degradation mechanism. The coloured (or chromophoric) dissolved organic matter (CDOM), representing the optically active fraction of DOM, consists of aromatic rings able to absorb light in the visible and UV regions (Kirk, 1994) and fluorophoric molecules that emit light. The main fluorophoric moieties of CDOM are humic material with a blue fluorescence and protein material with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (Mopper and Schultz, 1993). Dissolved organic matter interacts with pollutants either by enhancing their bioavailability or by influencing their transportation to the soluble phase. In addition, DOM affects the remineralisation of carbon and its preservation in marine sediments. Referring to its origin, it can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine one. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique widely applied for the identification and characterization of organic matter, being fast, simple, non-destructive and sensitive. In addition, the fluorescence analysis for the physico-chemical characterization of organic matter requires a small amount of aqueous sample at a low concentration, in comparison with the large sample volumes needed for conventional techniques. At the present study coastal sediment samples were collected from Messiniakos gulf in the south western Peloponnese in South Greece. Messiniakos gulf has a seabed dominated by very abrupt inclinations reaching depths of more than 1000m. All samples, according to their grain size, are classified as fine clayey silt. Dissolved organic matter was extracted under gentle extraction conditions (4 mM CaCl2 solution). The various classes of organic components present at the DOM aqueous extracts were characterised by

  9. Neuropharmacological characterization of the oneirogenic Mexican plant Calea zacatechichi aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, Maciej; Fichna, Jakub; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Zielińska, Marta; Kowalczuk, Anna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous extract of the Mexican plant Calea zacatechichi Schltdl., which is commonly used in folk medicine to treat cough, asthma, and gastrointestinal disorders. Moreover, it has been used for centuries in traditional rituals based on divination and is thought to possess hallucinogenic activity. To test the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous extract of C. zacatechichi we used mouse models of convulsions, an elevated plus-maze test and measured locomotor activity. We also evaluated the effect of the extract on antidepressant-like behavior in forced swim test, as well as on muscular strength in a grip test. Moreover the antinociceptive action of the extract was evaluated in the hot-plate and writhing tests. The chemical composition of the extract was evaluated using LC-MS techniques. The aqueous extract of C. zacatechichi did not affect any of the parameters measured in seizure models. It had also no influence on anxiety, exploratory behavior and muscular strength in the applied doses. On the other hand, the extract exhibited antinociceptive effect in the mouse model of abdominal pain. Chemical characterization of the extract showed the presence of chlorogenic acid, acacetin, and germacranolides. Based on this report we suggest that aqueous extract of C. zacatechichi has insignificant neuropharmacological effects in vivo and reduces abdominal pain perception. Our results, together with previous studies showing beneficial effects of the extracts obtained from C. zacatechichi suggest that these preparations may be used to treat medical conditions. PMID:26821073

  10. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  11. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Saulo M; Silva, Pâmela S; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2010-06-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous extracts (5; 10; 20 and 30 mg/mL). The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed, and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index, the seed germination and the root development of lettuce. The extracts have also induced chromosome aberrations and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa. PMID:20563411

  12. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  13. Exploitation of a single interface flow system for on-line aqueous biphasic extraction.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Cristina I C; Rodrigues, Sofia; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2010-06-15

    The exploitation of aqueous biphasic extraction is proposed for the first time in flow analysis. This extraction strategy stands out for being environmentally attractive since it is based in the utilization of two immiscible phases that are intrinsically aqueous. The organic solvents of the traditional liquid-liquid extractions are no longer used, being replaced by non-toxic, non-flammable and non-volatile ones. A single interface flow analysis (SIFA) system was implemented to carry out the extraction process due to its favourable operational characteristics that include the high automation level and simplicity of operation, the establishment of a dynamic interface where the mass transfer occurred between the two immiscible aqueous phases, and the versatile control over the extraction process namely the extraction time. The application selected to demonstrate the feasibility of SIFA to perform this aqueous biphasic extraction was the pre-concentration of lead. After extraction, lead reacted with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid and the resulting product was determined by a fluorimetric detector included in the flow manifold. Therefore, the SIFA single interface was used both as extraction (enrichment) and reaction interface.

  14. Anticonvulsant and depressant effects of aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Khaloobagheri, Fatemeh; Esmaeili, Hossein

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds (CCS) were evaluated in kindling models of epilepsy. Additionally, the sedative and anxiolytic effects of the extract were assessed. For pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling, rats received a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg, ip) every second day and seizure stages were recorded. CCS aqueous extract (200, 400, or 600 mg/kg, ip) was injected 30 minutes prior to each PTZ injection. In electrical kindling, bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically in the right basolateral amygdala of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After kindling, the effect of aqueous extracts of CCS (200, 400, or 600 mg/kg, ip) on afterdischarge duration, duration of rearing, forelimb clonus, and loss of equilibrium (stage 5 seizure), and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonus were measured. The sedative and the anxiolytic effects of CCS extracts were evaluated in an open-field apparatus and elevated plus maze, respectively. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of CCS have a significant anticonvulsant effect. Different doses of extract significantly delayed the incidence of every seizure stage in the PTZ model of kindling. Moreover, CCS extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, ip) suppressed afterdischarge duration, latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonus, and stage 5 seizure in the electrical kindling model. These results suggest that CCS extract has remarkable antiepileptic and central depressant effects.

  15. Extraction of steroidal glucosiduronic acids from aqueous solutions by anionic liquid ion-exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Vernon R.; Litwiller, Robert D.; Goodrich, June E.

    1972-01-01

    A pilot study on the extraction of three steroidal glucosiduronic acids from water into organic solutions of liquid ion-exchangers is reported. A single extraction of a 0.5mm aqueous solution of either 11-deoxycorticosterone 21-glucosiduronic acid or cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid with 0.1m-tetraheptylammonium chloride in chloroform took more than 99% of the conjugate into the organic phase; under the same conditions, the very polar conjugate, β-cortol 3-glucosiduronic acid, was extracted to the extent of 43%. The presence of a small amount of chloride, acetate, or sulphate ion in the aqueous phase inhibited extraction, but making the aqueous phase 4.0m with ammonium sulphate promoted extraction strongly. An increase in the concentration of ion-exchanger in the organic phase also promoted extraction. The amount of cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid extracted by tetraheptylammonium chloride over the pH range of 3.9 to 10.7 was essentially constant. Chloroform solutions of a tertiary, a secondary, or a primary amine hydrochloride also will extract cortisone 21-glucosiduronic acid from water. The various liquid ion exchangers will extract steroidal glucosiduronic acid methyl esters from water into chloroform, although less completely than the corresponding free acids. The extraction of the glucosiduronic acids from water by tetraheptylammonium chloride occurs by an ion-exchange process; extraction of the esters does not involve ion exchange. PMID:5075264

  16. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea pig tracheal ring contractility.

    PubMed

    Ozolua, Raymond I; Eboka, Chuks J; Duru, Comfort N; Uwaya, Dickson O

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam (Crassulaceae) is used as a cough remedy and for the prophylaxis of asthma. Since drugs used for the prophylaxis of asthma may be acting on airway smooth muscles, we investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of the plant on the contractile responses of isolated tracheal rings. Guinea pigs were grouped into non-sensitized, ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized, OA-sensitized but 200 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated, and OA-sensitized but 400 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated. The extract was administered orally. Tracheal rings obtained from the four groups were mounted in organ baths and used to test spasmolytic and antispasmodic effects of the extract on histamine or carbachol-induced contractions. Concentrations of 0.125-1.0 mg/ml of the extract did not relax histamine or carbachol-induced precontractions. The presence of 0.25-1.0 mg/ml of the extract in organ baths significantly reduced the maximal contractile responses (Emax) to cumulative concentrations of histamine or carbachol irrespective of the experimental group. pD2 values were significantly reduced for histamine and carbachol in rings obtained from 400 mg/kg/day x 21 extract-treated group. It is concluded that aqueous leaf extract of B. pinnatum possesses antispasmodic effects on the guinea pig tracheal rings. The results lend credence to the use of the extract for the prophylaxis of asthma in ethnomedicine. PMID:22314954

  17. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6%) and gallic acid (96%). Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24%) and Gallic (94.82%). Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:20470421

  18. NMR Spectroscopy of Aqueous Extracts of Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum- graecum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Matveichuk, S. V.; Karankevich, E. G.; Agabalaeva, E. D.; Reshetnikov, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The amino-acid and monosaccharide compositions of aqueous extracts of fenugreek herb were determined using PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The content of identified extract constituents was >70 mol%, of which the dominant amino acid was 4-hydroxyisoleucine (26.5 mol%); the major carbohydrate, glucose (10.1 mol%).

  19. Antifertility and fetotoxic activities of Acanthus montanus aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Asongalem, Emmanuel Acha; Nana, Paulin; Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pièrre

    2008-09-01

    Acanthus montanus T. Anderson (Acanthaceae) possesses several medicinal properties; it is used in Cameroon as a folk medicine to treat pain, inflammation and threatened abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of A. montanus aqueous extract on the estrous cycle pre- and postimplantation in rats and its mechanism of action. The estrous cycles of Wistar rats were monitored before, during and after oral administration of distilled water (control) or aqueous extract (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg/day). Furthermore, pregnant rats received the above doses of aqueous extract on days 1-6 (preimplantation) or 6-15 (postimplantation) of gestation and were sacrificed on day 8 or 20 of pregnancy, respectively. Moreover, aqueous extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) was given to ovariectomized rats in the presence or absence of exogenously administered estrogen and/or progesterone and uterine weight and deciduoma count were evaluated. The extract, irrespective of dose, reversibly prolonged the metestrous and occasionally the diestrous stages of the estrous cycle. The extract did not alter the uterine wet weight or deciduoma count, suggesting a lack of estrogenic and progestational effects. At 1000 mg/kg/day, the extract caused appreciable preimplantation losses of 36.8 +/- 6.5% (P < 0.05), while none of the doses caused postimplantation losses. The extract also caused delayed fetal growth. PMID:18985180

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  1. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts.

  2. Cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant paico (chenopodium multifidum L.).

    PubMed

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; Nigro López, M; López, P; Gratti, A; van Baren, C; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2000-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium multifidum L. (Paico) were determined by addition of the extracts and fractions to human lymphocyte cultures. Toxicity was evaluated by analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic (MI) and replication (RI) indexes. The results showed an increase in CA frequency in cultures exposed to infusion decoction, no modification in the CPK values either in the decoction or in the infusion, and a decrease in the MI of lymphocyte cultures exposed to the decoction. These results suggested genotoxic effects of "Paico" aqueous extracts. PMID:21214432

  3. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. PMID:17450508

  4. Salt effects in extraction of ethanol, 1-butanol and acetone from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, J.J.; Daugulis, A.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Experimental studies were performed to assess the effect of salt addition on the extraction of 1-butanol, ethanol and acetone from dilute aqueous solutions using cyclopentanol, n-valeraldehyde, tert-amyl alcohol, and Adol 85NF as extractants. The liquid-liquid partitioning was examined for a few strong electrolytes in a broad range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that the distribution coefficient and selectivity in systems with reduced water activity resulting from salt addition were markedly increased. These observations can be qualitatively explained on the basis of the hydration theory. It was also determined that strong electrolytes added to the aqueous feed reduced extractant solubility in the aqueous phase, thus contributing to lower solvent losses. The results showed that the extraction efficiency was not significantly affected by increasing salt content beyond a level that reduces the water activity to a value of 0.92.

  5. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Cochlospermum tinctorium (A. Rich) Possess Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, TS; Magaji, MG; Yaro, AH; Musa, AM; Adamu, AK

    2011-01-01

    Cochlopermum tinctorium A. Rich. (Cochlospermaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in the West Africa sub-region for the management of various conditions including pain and inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we report the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous methanol leaf (20–80 mg/kg), root (7.5–30 mg/kg), and root bark (20–80 mg/kg) extracts of the plant. The analgesic potentials of the extracts were studied using acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.The extracts significantly and dose dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. However, the highest protection against writhing was produced by aqueous methanol leaf extract at the dose of 80 mg/kg (96.65%) which even was greater than that of the standard agent, ketoprofen (82.30%). The extracts did not significantly increase mean latency of response in the hot plate test. However, aqueous methanol root bark extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean latency of pain response. While the extracts of the root and root bark extracts of the plant afforded non dose-dependent protection against carrageenan-induced edema, the aqueous methanol leaf extract significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced hind paw edema at the end of the third hour.The present study suggests that the aqueous methanol leaf, root, and root bark extracts of Cochlopermum tinctorium possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities which lend some credence to the ethnomedical claim of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. PMID:21897665

  7. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting α-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract.

  9. Proteomics analysis of MKN45 cell line before and after treatment with Lavender aqueous extract

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Heydari-Kashal, Saeid; Kalantari, Shiva; Dailian, Sona; Zali, Hakimeh

    2012-01-01

    Aim In this study the anticancer activity of Lavender aqueous extract against MKN45 cell line was evaluated. Background Plant-based drugs are regarded as promising therapies. Lavender is a plant that has been cultivated from ancient times. An aqueous extract of Lavender has shown therapeutic effects on the nervous system in the high doses based on in-vivo studies. Gastric cancer is one of the frequent cancers in Iranian population. We therefore assessed the effect of Lavender upon a gastric cancer cell line. Patients and methods The MKN45 cancer cell line was selected for treatment with aqueous extract of Lavender. Survival of MKN45 cell line was studied in the presence of various concentrations of Lavender extract by MTT assay method. Morphological studies were performed via microscopic analyses. Flow cytometry and proteomics techniques were applied to determining pharmaceutical mechanism of lavender cytotoxic effects. Results The survival and morphological studies revealed anticancer characteristics of extract. Flow cytometry findings indicate that Lavender extract had a cytotoxic effect upon the cell line. Proteomics analysis identified a significant alternation in gastric cellular proteome expression after treating with the extract. Among 1000 spots, more than 700 spots showed changes in protein expression levels by informatics analysis. Of these proteins, expression of three cancer biomarkers, Annexin1, Anolase1 and HSP70 were suppressed by extract. Conclusion This study suggests that Lavender extract is cytotoxic and alter protein expression in a gastric cancer cell line. PMID:24834196

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous shallot and garlic extracts in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Razieh; Bagheri, Sayyed Majid; Moghimi, Ali; Rasuli, Morteza Behnam

    2007-11-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract. PMID:18299719

  11. Low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction of phenols from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic mixtures of extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, O. B.; Khorokhordina, E. A.; Preobrazhenskii, M. A.; Rudakova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The volume ratios in acetonitrile-ethyl acetate (90 : 10, 95 : 5), acetonitrile-isopropanol-ethyl acetate (70 : 15 : 15, 80 : 5 : 15), and isopropanol-1-butanol (50 : 50) mixtures were determined. Their mixing with water (1 : 1) and storage at-10°C led to partitioning into two immiscible liquid phases without formation of the ice phase. The mixtures were shown to be useful as hydrophilic extractants in low-temperature liquidliquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions.

  12. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora on candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Omran, Saeid Mahdavi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shafiee, Faranak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs activity, the research on herbal substances with antifungal activity is frequent. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a member of Verbenaceae family. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-candida activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the lemon verbena leaves and compare them with nystatin and fluconazole. Methods In this 2015 study, 15 clinical isolates and standard strain of candida albicans PTCC 5027 were used, and the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, Nystatin and Fluconazole, were evaluated using disk and well diffusion methods. Also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Five concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (156–2500 μg/ml), Nystatin (8–128 μg/ml) and Fluconazole (4–64 μg/ml) were used in disk and well diffusion methods, and nine concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (19–5000 μg/ml), Nystatin (0.5–128 μg/ml), and Fluconazole (0.25–64 μg/ml) were applied for MIC. Data were analyzed using Tukey’s post-hoc and one-way ANOVA tests. The significant level was considered p < 0.05 in the current study. Results In the well and disk diffusion techniques, limited growth inhibition halos were produced around some clinical isolates at different concentrations of ethanolic extract; however, no growth inhibitory halo was observed with any concentrations of the aqueous extract. The MIC values of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, Nystatin and Fluconazole for clinical isolated and standard strain were 833 ± 78.5and 625μg/ml; 4156 ± 67.4 and 2500 μg/ml; 10.13 ± 1.91 and 4 μg/ml; and 1.97 ± 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that the ethanolic extract was stronger than the aqueous extract of this plant, which can be used as an alternative for drugs. It is recommended that the ethanolic extract of this plant be investigated in vivo for better

  13. Evaluation of antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from Achyrocline satureioides against Western equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Sabini, María Carola; Escobar, Franco Matías; Tonn, Carlos Eugenio; Zanon, Silvia Matilde; Contigiani, Marta Silvia; Sabini, Liliana Inés

    2012-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Argentina for the treatment of intestinal infections and various digestive disorders. Its infusion is widely utilised for respiratory problems and viral infections. The objective of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity, virucidal and antiviral properties of the cold aqueous extract (CAE) and hot aqueous extract (HAE) of this plant against Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV). Cytotoxicity in Vero cells was evaluated by maximum non-cytotoxic concentration (MNCC), neutral red (NR) uptake and MTT reduction methods. To study the antiviral activity of aqueous extracts, plaque reduction assay was performed after pre-treatment of host cells, adsorption, penetration and post-penetration of the virus. Extracellular virus inactivation was also analysed by the same method. Extracts showed strong inhibitory activity after virus penetration with selective index values of 32 (NR) and 63.3 (MTT) for the CAE, and 16.2 (NR) and 24.3 (MTT) for the HAE. Both extracts exhibited virucidal action with lower efficacy than their antiviral properties. The present results demonstrate that aqueous extracts of A. satureioides are active against WEEV. Further studies are needed in order to identify which compounds could be responsible for this effect, and how they exert antiviral action.

  14. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  15. Probing Regenerative Potential of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts Using In vitro Cellular Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Evangeline E.; Pulwale, Anubha V.; Patil, Gauri A.; Moghe, Alpana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Molecules stimulating regeneration and proliferation of cells are of significance in combating ailments caused due to tissue injury, inflammation, and degenerative disorders. Moringa oleifera is one of the most valued food plants having the profile of important nutrients and impressive range of medicinal uses. Objective: To evaluate the potential of M. oleifera aqueous leaf and flower extracts to promote the proliferation of cells and explore their effect on cancer cell lines for assessment of safety. Materials and Methods: Aqueous leaf and flower extracts of M. oleifera were investigated for effect on rat-derived primary fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cancer cell lines using cell proliferation assay. They were also tested and compared for wound healing, angiogenesis, and hepatoprotective effect using in vitro assays. Results: Statistically significant increase in the proliferation of primary rat fibroblast, MSCs, and angiogenesis was observed after treatment with aqueous flower extract. The aqueous leaf extract determined a comparatively moderate increment in the proliferation of MSCs and angiogenesis. It however showed prominent cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines and a significant hepatoprotective effect. Conclusion: A very clear difference in response of the two extracts to different types of cells was detected in this study. The aqueous flower extract exhibited a higher potential to stimulate cell proliferation while not exerting the same effect on cancer cell lines. The leaf extract on the other hand, had a prominent antitumor and hepatoptotective effects. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera flower extract showed significant ability to promote proliferation of rat fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cells. The extract also had prominent angiogenic and hepatoprotective effects.The extract did not influence proliferation of cancer cell lines indicating its safety for human consumption and use in pharmaceuticals.The Moringa oleifera leaf extract

  16. Evaluation of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (L.) on Fertility of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, L. Dinithi. C.; Dhanushka, M. A. T.; Jayathilake, T. A. H. D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of Cardiospermum halicacabum for 30 days produced a significant dose dependent increase in the sperm counts and sperm motility in both caput and cauda regions. Further, significant increase in serum testosterone level was evident at all applied doses. However, no significant changes in the weight of sex organs were observed. Aqueous leaf extract also increased the number of females impregnated, number of implantations, and number of viable fetuses while decreasing the total number of resorption sites in the pregnant females. However, the total cholesterol level in the serum remained unchanged and there were no records on renotoxicity; nevertheless ALE exhibited a hepatoprotective effect. It was concluded that aqueous leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum enhanced sperm concentration, motility, and testosterone, leading to positive results in fertility. PMID:26064883

  17. Aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae): assessment of antioxidant capacity and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Portmann, Erika; Nigro, Marcela M López; Reides, Claudia G; Llesuy, Susana; Ricco, Rafael A; Wagner, Marcelo L; Gurni, Alberto A; Carballo, Marta A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to make a contribution to the knowledge of aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae; infusion and decoction) in relation with the establishment of its antioxidant activity and lack of DNA damage, for its potential use in therapeutics. The cytogenotoxic profile was evaluated through genotoxic biomarkers such as mitotic index, cellular proliferation kinetics, sister chromatid exchanges, single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. No statistical differences were found (P > .05) between control and exposed cultures, even between both aqueous extracts. The total antioxidant capacity was shown to be higher in the decoction than in the infusion and both aqueous extracts protected against protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, the decoction being more efficient than the infusion (P < .005). These results suggest the safe use of these medicinal plants as chemoecologic agents in therapeutics. PMID:22427199

  18. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Artocarpus takoocha Roxb on tegumental surface of Haplorchis taichui.

    PubMed

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Luangphai, Passapan; Kumchoo, Kanda

    2005-01-01

    The tegumental surface of the adult intestinal fluke, Haplorchis taichui, after in vitro incubation in Tyrode's solution containing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of aqueous extract of Artocarpus takoocha for 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours, was monitored by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effect on worm motility was studied in contemporizing period. The adult worms stopped their motility immediately after being incubated with 25, 50, 75 and 100% of aqueous extract of A. takoocha. Observed under a light microscope, most worms showed bubbling from the oral sucker, ventral sucker and excretory pore. After exposure to the solution, SEM observation showed large blebs protruding from the oral sucker, ventral sucker and excretory pore. The surface damage was composed of numerous small blebs, followed later by the disruption of tegument. The severity of damage increased due to the increasing of aqueous extract of A. takoocha and incubation periods.

  19. Aqueous Extract of Dried Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum Inhibits Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Tasleem; Shinkafi, Tijjani Salihu; Routray, Indusmitha; Mahmood, Amena; Ali, Shakir

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in acute and chronic inflammation. Inflammation was induced in rats by injecting carrageenan in hind paw or implanting cotton pellet in the axilla. Administration of the extract (1 g/kg body weight) inhibited the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and decreased granuloma in cotton pellet granuloma model. The extract, when compared with the disease control, is reported to decrease the elevated levels of succinate dehydrogenase (p<0.001), xanthine oxidase (p<0.05) and lipid peroxidation, and increase the activity of catalase (p<0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) in the two animal models. Potential role of xanthine oxidase in inflammation and the ability of the extract to alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation is discussed. The study advocates the use of aqueous extract, rather than the isolated bioactive principle for various reasons. PMID:24826043

  20. Phytochemical properties and cytotoxicity evaluation of the aqueous extracts from Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakoush, Sumaia Mohamed Mohamed; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Adam, Jumaat; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, phytochemical properties and cytotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Rafflesia cantleyi bud parts were done. Three bud parts including disk, bract and perigone tube were extracted in water to produce crude aqueous extract. Cytotoxic activity of R. cantleyi bud parts was assessed by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against normal cells Vero, 3T3 cell lines and mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The CC50 value against Vero, 3T3 and PBMC cells were equal or more than 125 µg/ml indicating the non-cytotoxic effect of the bud parts extracts. The finding revealed that crude extracts of all the tested bud parts contained potential bioactive compounds which can be used for various biological activities and have no cytotoxicity to selected normal cells.

  1. Study of extraction of cyclohexanone and ethyl acetate from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vozin, V.G.; Diyarov, I.N.; Gainullin, I.F.; Gur'yanov, A.I.

    1986-01-10

    For evaluation of their extractive properties, the authors studied liquid-liquid equilibria in water-cyclohexanone (CH), ethyl acetate (EA) extraction systems. With the use of toluene as the extractant, the CH and EA contents in both coexisting phases, extract (C /SUB e/ ) and aqueous (C /SUB w/ ), were determined chromatographically. In systems with diesel fuel, the CH and EA contents in the extract phase were calculated from thier concentrations in the aqueous phase, determined chromatographically. Technical and economic calculations show that the energy costs for purification of water and recovery of CH and EA by the proposed method are lower by a factor of 1.8-2.0 than by the use of azeotropic distillation.

  2. Association analysis for oxalate concentration in spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening and breeding low-oxalate germplasm is a major objective in spinach breeding. This research aims to conduct association analysis and identify SNP markers associated with oxalate concentration in spinach germplasm. A total of 310 spinach genotypes including 300 USDA germplasm accessions and ...

  3. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhanwra, S; Singh, J; Khosla, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) was evaluated in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver necrosis was produced by administering single dose of paracetamol (2 g/kg, p.o.). The liver damage was evidenced by elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and by histopathological observations of liver sections. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced these elevated levels of AST, ALT and gamma-GT. Paracetamol induced liver necrosis was also found to be reduced as observed macroscopically and histologically. PMID:10919097

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Beta Vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Swati; Garg, Vipin Kumar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of phytochemically evaluated aqueous extract of leaves of Beta vulgaris for its anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma method for chronic inflammation. The standard drug used was indomethacin (10 mg/kg) for both the models. In both methods, aqueous extract at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg has shown significant activity which is comparable to that of the standard PMID:24826006

  5. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  6. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Anethum graveolens Leaves on Seizure Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ARASH, Akaberi; MOHAMMAD, Mohammad-Zadeh; JAMAL, Mirmoosavi Seyed; MOHAMMAD, Tazari Ali; AZAM, Abarashi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill) leaves was studied for its effects on treating convulsions and epilepsy, by using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. The evaluated plant has a traditional medical reputation for profound anticonvulsant activities, additionally, dill has been claimed to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Methods: For the PTZ kindling induction, mice were given a dose of PTZ (37 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) every other day, and seizure stages were precisely recorded. During and after kindling, the effects of the non-toxic doses of the aqueous extracts (100, 250, and 400 mg/kg) on seizure latency in stage 2 (S2L), seizure latency in stage 4 (S4L), and seizure duration in stage 5 (S5D) were measured. Results: The aqueous extract of dill leaves had a noticeable anticonvulsant effect. The 400 mg/kg dose of the extract sample decreased with S5D (P < 0.05), and increased with S2L and S4L significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The obtained data shows that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity against seizure induced by PTZ. The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in this medicinal herb suggests further activity and guided fractionation studies in order to introduce this plant as a valuable source of anticonvulsant agents. PMID:24643194

  7. Aqueous Extract of Lavender Angustifolia Inhibits Lymphocytes Proliferation of Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dalilan, Sona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Heidari-Keshel, Saeed; Zamanian Azodi, Mona; Zali, Hakimeh

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several types of cancer, which cause millions of deaths worldwide every year. Many studies have confirmed that plants are adequate natural sources to be examined as anti-cancer drugs with fewer side effects than chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study the anti-cancer properties of Lavender aqueous extract on lymphocytes derived from patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma has been studied. Methods In order to determine the cytotoxic effects of the extract on lymphocytes of patients in stages III and IV of Hodgkin's lymphoma and two different cell lines in the presence of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Lavender, MTT colorimetric assay and flow cytometry analysis were used. Results Findings indicated that Lavender inhibited cell proliferation in both lymphocytes and cell lines with different effects. The effective concentration of Lavender that decreased viability of Hodgkin's lymphoma cells below Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) value was 100 µg/ml and this was half of the therapeutic dose. In addition, apoptosis was the main mechanism the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell encountered when exposed to the aqueous extract of Lavender. Conclusion This experiment proposes that aqueous Lavender extract can be regarded as a potential anti-cancer agent in future studies. PMID:25250135

  8. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1. PMID:21513560

  9. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Indumathi, Parameswaran

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the fruit of Annona squamosa by means of in vitro studies involving two different solvent extracts: methanol and aqueous. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), reducing power and total antioxidant. The results showed that, compared to aqueous extract, a methanolic fruit extract of A squamosa has a higher percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity (97.99%), LPO (94.15%), NO scavenging activity (70.96%), O2(-) scavenging activity and OH(•) scavenging activity (78.68% and 85.25%, respectively), total antioxidant activity (206 μg α-tocopherol/g) and reducing power (56.0 μg of ascorbic acid/g). The results obtained in the in vitro models clearly suggest that methanol extract has higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract due to a higher presence of phenolic and flavonodal constituents in the methanol extract. PMID:23787283

  10. Toxicological studies of the aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC (Marcela).

    PubMed

    Rivera, F; Gervaz, E; Sere, C; Dajas, F

    2004-12-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC (Marcela) is known to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological, medicinal and therapeutic properties. Previous studies have demonstrated various protective abilities of the marcela extracts against various pathological conditions. However, no extensive safety studies have been conducted on these extracts to date. In this paper, we evaluated the acute toxicity (dose levels of 30-300 mg/kg) of an aqueous extract of marcela, administered intraperitoneally and orally in mice and rats. The acute oral maximun tolerable dose in repeated administration during 4 h (1, 3 until 5 g/kg) was also studied in rats. The extract had low acute toxicity when administered intraperitoneally and no toxicity upon oral administration. The LD(50) of aqueous extracts of marcela was found to be greater than 5 g/kg when administered once via gastric intubation to rats. Weight gain, toxicity signs, enzymatic studies (transaminases and phosphatases) and histological evaluation of several organs indicated that the extract was devoid of acute toxicity. These acute studies demonstrated that an aqueous extract of marcela obtained after a 2% infusion is safe and did not cause any detrimental effects in vivo under the conditions investigated in this study.

  11. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Dixit, Vinod K; Malviya, Neelesh; Ambawatia, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:19702175

  12. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Nandhakumar, Elumalai; Indumathi, Parameswaran

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of the fruit of Annona squamosa by means of in vitro studies involving two different solvent extracts: methanol and aqueous. The antioxidant properties of the extract were determined by scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), reducing power and total antioxidant. The results showed that, compared to aqueous extract, a methanolic fruit extract of A squamosa has a higher percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity (97.99%), LPO (94.15%), NO scavenging activity (70.96%), O2(-) scavenging activity and OH(•) scavenging activity (78.68% and 85.25%, respectively), total antioxidant activity (206 μg α-tocopherol/g) and reducing power (56.0 μg of ascorbic acid/g). The results obtained in the in vitro models clearly suggest that methanol extract has higher antioxidant activity than the aqueous extract due to a higher presence of phenolic and flavonodal constituents in the methanol extract.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group's oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  14. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  15. New crystallization of fatty acids from aqueous ethanol solution combined with liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kouji; Nomura, Yoshihisa; Tai, Kimihiko; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Keisuke; Hirota, Syouji

    1999-06-01

    A new separation process of saturated fatty acids (lauric acid-myristic acid) using crystallization from an aqueous ethanol solution has been examined. There were two vessels in this separation process: an extraction vessel and a crystallization vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were first extracted from their organic phase (melt) in the extraction vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were continuously introduced to the crystallization vessel, and then the fatty acids were crystallized there. The crystals of the fatty acids were collected continuously above the aqueous phase in the crystallization vessel. In this process, the yield and the purity of the crystals over time were measured, and it was found that the purity of lauric acid increased unsteadily up to 0.98 mole fraction of lauric acid with an increase in the yield of the low yield range. The mole fraction of ethanol in the aqueous phase could be significant to control the relationship between the yield and the purity of the crystals. Three different mole fractions of lauric acid in the organic phase were used to be separated in this process. Moreover, the authors have considered the effective separations of this process, and the maximum yield and purity of the crystals have been estimated by a simple mass balance.

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. leaves in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyedemi, S O; Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2010-05-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br. at the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was investigated for toxicity in male rats following administration on daily basis for 21 days. The extract did not significantly (p > .05) alter the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, basophils, total protein, phosphorus, calcium and chloride ions of the animals. Whereas the levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, albumin as well as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase activity were decreased by the extract, those of neutrophil, magnesium, total and conjugated bilirubin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as liver and kidney body weight ratios increased. There was decrease in the mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cholesterol only at the 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, whereas the large unstained cells, sodium ions, white blood cells and uric acid increased only at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. The urea, creatinine and potassium increased only at 125 mg/kg body weight of the extract while the globulin content was elevated only at 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The doses did not produce any definite pattern of effect on the red blood cells and platelets. These alterations by the aqueous extract of L. leonurus leaves on the haematological together with the liver and kidney functional indices suggests parameter and dose-selective effects of the extract and will have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the blood system, kidney and liver of the animals. The extract is also unlikely to predispose the animals to cardiovascular risk when repeatedly consumed on daily basis at the doses investigated for 21 days. Therefore, the aqueous extract of L. leonurus

  17. Statistical optimization of aqueous extraction of pectin from waste durian rinds.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this present study was to investigate and optimize the aqueous extraction conditions such as solid-liquid (SL) ratio (1:5-1:15 g/ml), pH (2-3), extraction time (20-60 min) and extraction temperature (75-95 °C) on maximum extraction of pectin from durian rinds using four factors, three levels Box-Behnken response design. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum extraction condition was found to be as follows: SL ratio of 1:10 g/ml, pH of 2.8, extraction time of 43 min and extraction temperature of 86 °C respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental pectin yield (9.1%) was well correlated with predicted yield (9.3%).

  18. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  19. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  20. The effect of aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriyanti, Niken; Garmana, Afrillia Nuryanti; Setiawan, Finna; Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Adnyana, I. Ketut

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves had immunosupressant effect on lupus nephritis model. When it combined with methylprednisolone, there is a risk of interaction. In this study rats divided into two groups, a group that received methylprednisolone (MP) (0.72 mg/kgBW) and a group that received MP in combination with extract (0.36 mg/kg BW MP and 140 mg/kg BW extract). These treatment were given everyday for 4 weeks. Methylprednisolone concentration in rats serum was measured using HPLC with extraction method according to Lawson method (1985). The column used was Inertsil C-18 using mobile phase KH2PO4 : metanol (15:85) buffer, flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes, UV detector (λ = 230 nm) and pressure 1319 psi. The result showed that there was an interaction occurred. The combination of MP and aqueous extract of K. pinnata leaves showed interaction which causing methylprednisolone level comparable with methylprednisolone level in MP group. Mean of decreasing MP level in serum was 0.285 ppm. It means that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium could elevate methylprednisolone concentration in plasma. Adjustment of the dose must be considered in this combination.

  1. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  2. Quantification of Coumarins in Aqueous Extract of Pterocaulon balansae (Asteraceae) and Characterization of a New Compound.

    PubMed

    Medeiros-Neves, Bruna; de Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the genus Pterocaulon are popularly used as antifungal and wound-healing agents. Such activities have been related to coumarins, which are abundant in those plants. Coumarins are soluble in organic solvents, such as hexane and dichloromethane, and some of them are also soluble in hot water. Considering that infusion and decoctions of these plants are used in traditional medicine, the aim of this study was to identify and quantify the coumarins in the aqueous extract of Pterocaulon balansae. The aqueous extract was obtained by dynamic maceration and the compounds were characterized by UPLC-UV-MS analysis. A new coumarin and 5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, used for validation of the analytical HPLC method were obtained by partition of the aqueous extract with n-hexane. The HPLC method validated was linear, specific, and precise. Seven coumarins were characterized in the aqueous extract in a range of 0.584-54 mg/g of dry plant material. The main compound, 5,6-dimethoxy-7-(3'-methyl-2',3'-dihydroxybutyloxy)coumarin, is described for the first time in P. balansae together with a new compound, 5,6-dimethoxy-7-(2',3'-epoxy-3'-methylbutyloxy)coumarin.

  3. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  4. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  5. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  6. [Absorption of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by everted intestinal sac method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Xue-lin; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Hong-min; Liu, Xiao-qian; Zhu, Jing-jing; Wang, Zhi-min

    2015-08-01

    To study the absorptive characteristics of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by in vitro rat everted intestinal sac model. Three representative ingredients in aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizome--protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), posmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB), were selected as the study objects. An UPLC method was established to determine and measure their cumulative absorption amount, in order to explain the absorption characteristics of ingredients in different intestinal sections. According to the experimental result, RA and SAB showed the passive absorption in ileum, which conformed to the first-order absorption rate; with low and medium doses, they showed a zero-order absorption rate in jejunum, which was reflected in the coexistence of both positive and passive absorptions; PAL showed a passive absorption manner both in ileum and jejunum. According to the experiment for absorption in different intestinal sections, RA and SAB were mainly absorbed in jejunum, while PAL was absorbed mainly in ileum. All of the three ingredients in aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et rhizome--PAL, RA and SAB could be absorbed in intestines, but with differences in the absorption rate and mechanism, which indicated that the intestinal absorption of aqueous extracts from Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et rhizome was selectivity, instead of a simple semi-permeable membrane penetration process.

  7. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  8. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  9. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  10. Thin extractive membrane for monitoring actinides in aqueous streams.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Vivek; Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kalsi, P C; Goswami, A

    2013-09-15

    Alpha spectrometry and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are used for monitoring ultra-trace amount of alpha emitting actinides in different aqueous streams. However, these techniques have limitations i.e. alpha spectrometry requires a preconcentration step and SSNTDs are not chemically selective. Therefore, a thin polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) supported on silanized glass was developed for preconcentraion and determination of ultra-trace concentration of actinides by α-spectrometry and SSNTDs. PIMs were formed by spin coating on hydrophobic glass slide or solvent casting to form thin and self-supported membranes, respectively. Sorption experiments indicated that uptakes of actinides in the PIM were highly dependent on acidity of solution i.e. Am(III) sorbed up to 0.1 molL(-1) HNO₃, U(VI) up to 0.5 molL(-1) HNO₃ and Pu(IV) from HNO₃ concentration as high as 4 molL(-1). A scheme was developed for selective sorption of target actinide in the PIM by adjusting acidity and oxidation state of actinide. The actinides sorbed in PIMs were quantified by alpha spectrometry and SSNTDs. For SSNTDs, neutron induced fission-fragment tracks and α-particle tracks were registered in Garware polyester and CR-39 for quantifications of natural uranium and α-emitting actinides ((241)Am/(239)Pu/(233)U), respectively. Finally, the membranes were tested to quantify Pu in 4 molL(-1) HNO3 solutions and synthetic urine samples.

  11. COX-2 and sPLA2 inhibitory activity of aqueous extract and polyphenols of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove).

    PubMed

    Marrero, Evangelina; Sánchez, Janet; de Armas, Elizabeth; Escobar, Arturo; Melchor, Gleiby; Abad, M J; Bermejo, Paulina; Villar, Angel M; Megías, J; Alcaraz, Maria J

    2006-06-01

    The aqueous extract of Rhizophora mangle bark and its polyphenolic fractions showed remarkable in vitro antiinflammatory activity in a preliminary study. The low molecular weight fraction exhibited cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity while the total aqueous extract and the low molecular weight fraction showed secretory phospholipase A(2) inhibitory activity. PMID:16698195

  12. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  13. Hemolytic activity of aqueous extract of Livistona chinensis fruits.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Kaur, G

    2008-02-01

    Livistona chinensis is used as an anticancer agent in traditional Chinese medicine. In vitro, the extracts of fruits and seeds of L. chinensis are known to possess antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities. Here we report the presence of phenolic compounds in L. chinensis fruits which show hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of phenolics is limited to an acid-precipitable fraction. Further, presence of proteins and lipids abrogated the hemolytic activity indicating astringent and membrane damaging activities as mechanisms of hemolysis. In conclusion, the hemolytic activity of phenolics in L. chinensis fruits is due to astringent and membrane damaging activities. PMID:17949877

  14. Anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens DC [Pedaliaceae] secondary root aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2006-03-15

    Harpagophytum procumbens DC [family: Pedaliaceae] is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments. In the present study, we have examined the anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (P<0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's extract (HPE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only partially and weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) produces its anticonvulsant activity by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or facilitating GABAergic action in the brain. In general, the average onset of convulsion was delayed, while the average duration of convulsion was markedly reduced. The plant's extract also depressed the central nervous system (CNS). It is, therefore, thought that the anticonvulsant property of the herb may be linked, at least in part, to its ability to depress the central nervous system. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant's extract in the treatment, management and/or control of epilepsy and childhood convulsions in some rural communities of South Africa. PMID:16464685

  15. The Protective Action of the Aqueous Extract of Auricularia polytricha in Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chellappan, Dinesh K; Ganasen, Sivamalar; Batumalai, Shaminiswary; Candasamy, Mayuren; Krishnappa, Purushotham; Dua, Kamal; Chellian, Jestin; Gupta, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver injuries considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Auricularia polytricha has been used as food or medicine due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of the fruiting bodies of A. polytricha against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral administration of 2g/kg paracetamol on the 15th day after the administration of aqueous extract and silymarin 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of A. polytricha was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses, daily for a period of 14 days. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP), Triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol were measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage. The patent on Auricularia Polytricha (EP0413052A1) assisted in selecting the extraction procedure. The study also included histopathological examination of liver sections to assess hepatoprotective activity. Paracetamol significantly (P<0.001) increased the serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and decreased TP levels. Extract treatment significantly (P<0.001 to P<0.05) attenuated the paracetamol induced increase in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increased the diminished TP in a dose dependent manner. The standard drug, silymarin produced significant (P<0.001) decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, TB, TG and cholesterol and increase in TP. Histopathological examination of animals treated with paracetamol showed large areas of centrilobular necrosis with congestion and dilatation in both central and portal veins. These results indicate that the aqueous extract of A. polytricha has significant protective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens DC [Pedaliaceae] secondary root aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2006-03-15

    Harpagophytum procumbens DC [family: Pedaliaceae] is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments. In the present study, we have examined the anticonvulsant activity of Harpagophytum procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (P<0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's extract (HPE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only partially and weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) produces its anticonvulsant activity by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or facilitating GABAergic action in the brain. In general, the average onset of convulsion was delayed, while the average duration of convulsion was markedly reduced. The plant's extract also depressed the central nervous system (CNS). It is, therefore, thought that the anticonvulsant property of the herb may be linked, at least in part, to its ability to depress the central nervous system. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the suggested folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant's extract in the treatment, management and/or control of epilepsy and childhood convulsions in some rural communities of South Africa.

  17. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems†

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Hugo F. D.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L−1–μg L−1), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms.

  18. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm(3)) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed

    Cariddi, L N; Sabini, M C; Escobar, F M; Bacchetti, R; Montironi, I; Merckis, C; Reinoso, E B; Núñez Montoya, S; Zanon, S M; Comini, L R; Sabini, L I

    2015-01-01

    In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE) evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653 μg/mL) and MTT (CC50 = 588 μg/mL) assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.

    PubMed Central

    Cariddi, L. N.; Sabini, M. C.; Escobar, F. M.; Bacchetti, R.; Montironi, I.; Merckis, C.; Reinoso, E. B.; Núñez Montoya, S.; Zanon, S. M.; Comini, L. R.; Sabini, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we extend the toxicological studies of hot aqueous extract of A. satureioides (As-HAE) evaluating cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also determine genotoxic action of this extract in vivo. In addition, the extract was chemically characterized. Finally, we established a comparison with previous data of cold aqueous extract. The As-HAE induced cytotoxicity on PBMCs determined by trypan blue dye exclusion (CC50 = 653 μg/mL) and MTT (CC50 = 588 μg/mL) assays being more toxic than cold extract. However, As-HAE as well as cold extract did not induce apoptosis measured by Hoechst 33258 staining, TUNEL assay, and DNA fragmentation analysis. The in vivo micronucleus test showed that As-HAE exerted cytogenotoxic effects on bone marrow of mice, contrary to what was observed with cold extract. The chemical study of As-HAE allowed identifying the flavonoids found in cold extract: luteolin, quercetin, and 3-O-methylquercetin, but at higher concentrations. We suggest that toxic effects induced by As-HAE could be due to high concentrations of these flavonoids. Given that As-HAE is the most used in folkloric medicine, its administration should be controlled in order to prevent potential cell damage. PMID:26078941

  1. Improved extraction of fluoroquinolones with recyclable ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems†

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Hugo F. D.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the improvement of advanced analytical tools allowed to confirm the presence of trace amounts of metabolized and unchanged active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in freshwater surfaces. It is known that the continuous contact with APIs, even at very low concentrations (ng L−1–μg L−1), leads to serious human health problems. In this context, this work shows the feasibility of using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) in the extraction of quinolones present in aqueous media. In particular, ABS composed of imidazolium- and phosphonium-based ILs and aluminium-based salts (already used in water treatment plants) were evaluated in one-step extractions of six fluoroquinolones (FQs), namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and sarafloxacin, and extraction efficiencies up to 98% were obtained. Despite the large interest devoted to IL-based ABS as extractive systems of outstanding performance, their recyclability/reusability has seldomly been studied. An efficient extraction/cleaning process of the IL-rich phase is here proposed by FQs induced precipitation. The recycling of the IL and its further reuse without losses in the ABS extractive performance for FQs were established, as confirmed by the four consecutive removal/extraction cycles evaluated. This novel recycling strategy supports IL-based ABS as sustainable and cost-efficient extraction platforms. PMID:27642262

  2. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  3. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  4. Effect of aqueous extract and fractions of Fagonia arabica on in vitro anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Sweta R; Kashyap, Rajpal Singh; Deopujari, Jayant Y; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

    2014-11-01

    Fagonia arabica (FA) is a deobstruent and blood purifier, which possesses thrombolytic and antioxidant activities. In this study, the anticoagulant effects of FA and its derived fractions were evaluated. Plasma recalcification was performed with multisolvent extracts of FA and then with extracts prepared successively with increasing polarity of the solvents. Aqueous extract was the most potent anticoagulant extract, which was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography. Five fractions collected were checked for their anticoagulation effect. The most potent fraction was screened for phytoconstituents. Aqueous extract of FA is the most active anticoagulant (31 minutes). Results were statistically significant when compared to heparin (38 minutes) and saline (4.04 minutes; P > .001). The Fifth fraction (FA5), the most potent fraction (27 minutes), was found positive for flavonoids, saponin, tannin, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, and monosaccharides. Aqueous FA and fraction FA5 were most active in in vitro anticoagulation, and any of the phytochemicals identified could be considered the active component. PMID:23814169

  5. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively.

  6. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.

  7. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  8. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Abu Adakole; Nwocha, Uchendu Chukwuka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05) in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05) compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats. PMID:26396567

  9. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

  10. Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Indica Choisy Restores Glutathione in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kirana, H; Srinivasan, BP

    2010-01-01

    Significant depletion of glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was observed in type 2 diabetes due to oxidative stress. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate a drug which restores GSH along with its anti-diabetic activity. Aqueous extract of Garcinia indica at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg was given orally to streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. At the end, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and GSH in blood were analyzed. Aqueous extract of G. indica significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract also restored the erythrocyte GSH in type 2 diabetic rats. Drug at higher dose, i.e. 200 mg/kg, had a more pronounced effect. Restoring the erythrocyte GSH, an intracellular anti-oxidant in diabetes, will be beneficial specially by preventing the risk of developing complications. PMID:21042483

  11. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  12. Integrated extraction and purification of soy isoflavones by using aqueous micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Cordisco, Estefanía; Haidar, Carla N; Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Nerli, Bibiana B; Malpiedi, Luciana P

    2016-12-15

    In this work, an integration of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems was evaluated as potential tool to purify soy isoflavones. Additionally, the proposed methodology aimed to preserve the protein content of the processed soy flour. The extractive assays were performed in AMTPS formed by Triton X-114 and sodium tartrate. In order to optimize the purification process, temperature and time were evaluated as independent variables. Under optimal working conditions, i.e. 100min and 33°C of incubation, IF were purified with a recovery percentage of 93 and a purification factor of almost 10. More importantly, the obtained sample presented an aglycone proportion superior to the reported by other methodologies. These results open perspectives to the use of aqueous micellar two-phase systems as an integrative methodology to extract, concentrate and purify isoflavones. PMID:27451211

  13. Comparisons of alum-precipitated and unprecipitated aqueous ragweed pollen extracts in the treatment of hay fever.

    PubMed

    Norman, P S; Lichtenstein, L M

    1978-06-01

    In 1969 and 1970, groups of patients with ragweed hay fever never before treated were started on preseasonal course of immunization with an alum precipitate of aqueous ragweed extract. A comparison between these two groups of patients and a similar group of patients treated with unprecipitated aqueous extract in 1968 shows that treatment with alum precipitate was safely initiated with fever injections even though a higher dose was administered. The larger cumulative dose appeared to give better IgG antibody responses and greater relief of symptoms. A repeat preseasonal course the next year again required fewer injections of the alum-precipitated extract than a repeat course of aqueous extract.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek L.; Bhot, Meeta A.; Chandra, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bryophyllum pinnatum is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Tropical America and China for treatment of various diseases. B. pinnatum contains different groups of phytoconstituents viz., flavonoid, terpenoids, alkaloid, phenolic compounds. Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. pinnatum whole plant aqueous extract, and mucilage (MUC) isolated from the whole plant against ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract at dose level of 500 and 750 mg/kg b.w., MUC at 500 mg/kg dose level and standard drug Rabeprazole at dose level of 20 mg/kg b.w. where given for 7 days. Results: The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg p.o. and MUC at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in ethanol induced ulcer rats. In ethanol induced ulcer rats, there was a decrease in the gastric volume, free and total acidity and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. Total carbohydrate content was found to be an increase as compare to control the group. The aqueous whole plant extract of B. pinnatum at dose of 750 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug rabeprazole (20 mg/kg). B. pinnatum extract and MUC showed protection index 72.69 and 69.65% respectively, whereas standard drug rabeprazole showed protection index 75.49%. Conclusions: Whole plant extracts of B. pinnatum and MUC has potent gastroprotective effect which can be further clinically studied for new drug development. PMID:25593406

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  16. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Rheum Spiciformis against Pathogenic Bacterial and Fungal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Khalid Bashir; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Amin, Shajrul; Anees, Suhail; Masood, Akbar; Zargar, Mohammed Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rheum spiciformis is a newly identified edible medicinal plant of genus Rheum. The plant is used to treat various diseases on traditional levels in Kashmir Valley, India. Aim To evaluate the phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Rheum spiciformis, a traditionally used edible medicinal plant. Materials and Methods Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum spiciformis were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli and four fungal strains Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility of microbial strains to the two extracts was determined using agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening was carried out by using various standard procedures. Results Methanolic extract showed potent antimicrobial activity as compared to aqueous extract at the concentrations of 10, 30, 50, 80 and 100mg/ml. The most susceptible bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition (25±0.10mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (23±0.25mm), Proteus vulgaris (22±0.10mm) at the concentration of 100mg/ml. Aqueous extracts at the higher concentration were found effective against Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis with zone of inhibition (17±0.24mm) and (17±0.10mm), respectively. Among fungal strains the most susceptible were Aspergillus fumigatus (21±0.10mm), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (20±0.20mm) and Penicillium Chrysogenum (17±0.15mm) at the concentration of 100mg/ml methanol extract. The zone of inhibition for aqueous extract against fungal strains ranged between 14±0.13mm to 16±0.19mm at the highest concentration of plant extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites like flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils, phenols, steroids

  17. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  18. [Betamethasone and aqueous extract of Arctium lappa for treating angiostrongyliasis].

    PubMed

    Fante, Camila Argenta; Dieterish, Solange; Rodriguez, Rubens

    2008-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasite that causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in humans. The treatment for it includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, despite the lack of studies to justify this approach. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and Arctium lappa on the evolution of intestinal lesions induced by this parasite. Adult male Swiss mice were used, distributed into four groups: infected and treated with betamethasone; infected and treated with Arctium lappa; infected and not treated; and control group. The treatments were started on the 15th day after infection and continued for 15 days. The presence of eosinophilic infiltration and granuloma was evaluated (1-mild; 2-moderate; 3-severe). Betamethasone allowed the lesions to evolve into more severe forms, while the extract did not interfere with disease progression. The substances applied were ineffective for protection against the lesions induced by Angiostrongylus costaricensis in mice. These findings discourage the use of betamethasone and Arctium lappa for humans affected by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.

  19. A real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae in spinach seed.

    PubMed

    Duressa, Dechassa; Rauscher, Gilda; Koike, Steven T; Mou, Beiquan; Hayes, Ryan J; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V; Klosterman, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes Verticillium wilt on multiple crops in central coastal California. Although spinach crops grown in this region for fresh and processing commercial production do not display Verticillium wilt symptoms, spinach seeds produced in the United States or Europe are commonly infected with V. dahliae. Planting of the infected seed increases the soil inoculum density and may introduce exotic strains that contribute to Verticillium wilt epidemics on lettuce and other crops grown in rotation with spinach. A sensitive, rapid, and reliable method for quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed may help identify highly infected lots, curtail their planting, and minimize the spread of exotic strains via spinach seed. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was optimized and employed for detection and quantification of V. dahliae in spinach germplasm and 15 commercial spinach seed lots. The assay used a previously reported V. dahliae-specific primer pair (VertBt-F and VertBt-R) and an analytical mill for grinding tough spinach seed for DNA extraction. The assay enabled reliable quantification of V. dahliae in spinach seed, with a sensitivity limit of ≈1 infected seed per 100 (1.3% infection in a seed lot). The quantification was highly reproducible between replicate samples of a seed lot and in different real-time PCR instruments. When tested on commercial seed lots, a pathogen DNA content corresponding to a quantification cycle value of ≥31 corresponded with a percent seed infection of ≤1.3%. The assay is useful in qualitatively assessing seed lots for V. dahliae infection levels, and the results of the assay can be helpful to guide decisions on whether to apply seed treatments.

  20. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Burnett, W.C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  1. Effects of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata aqueous extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, M C; Grondona, E; Zunino, P M; Ponce, A A

    2010-07-01

    Our studies were performed to investigate the effects of the aqueous extracts of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata. These plants are used in folkloric medicine in infusion and were administered orally (0.76 g/kg) to male Albino Swiss mice for 16 days, on drink intake, organ weight/body weight (OW/BW x 100) ratio, histology, broqueoalveolar fluid (BALF) and elevated plus-maze (EPM). Feeding as well as body weight were unaffected by the consumption of these extracts. There were no signs of toxicity in BALF, morbidity or mortality during the study. C. pachystachya caused an increase in relative kidney OW/BW (p aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of C. pachystachya and L. divaricata in EPM was observed. We conclude that the crude aqueous extracts of leaves tested on mice orally did not produce signs of toxicity or behavioral changes in routine histological and clinical evaluation. However, knowledge of the biological activity of many herbal medicine used in Latin American is still deficient and more studies will be needed to elucidate the possible toxic effects. PMID:20051458

  2. Effects of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata aqueous extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, M C; Grondona, E; Zunino, P M; Ponce, A A

    2010-07-01

    Our studies were performed to investigate the effects of the aqueous extracts of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata. These plants are used in folkloric medicine in infusion and were administered orally (0.76 g/kg) to male Albino Swiss mice for 16 days, on drink intake, organ weight/body weight (OW/BW x 100) ratio, histology, broqueoalveolar fluid (BALF) and elevated plus-maze (EPM). Feeding as well as body weight were unaffected by the consumption of these extracts. There were no signs of toxicity in BALF, morbidity or mortality during the study. C. pachystachya caused an increase in relative kidney OW/BW (p aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of C. pachystachya and L. divaricata in EPM was observed. We conclude that the crude aqueous extracts of leaves tested on mice orally did not produce signs of toxicity or behavioral changes in routine histological and clinical evaluation. However, knowledge of the biological activity of many herbal medicine used in Latin American is still deficient and more studies will be needed to elucidate the possible toxic effects.

  3. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  4. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest.

  5. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg-1 body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg-1 body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg-1) or leaves (4.60 g kg-1) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  6. Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, M; Amara, A; Aboul-Enein, A; Helmi, S; Ballot, A; Schnitzler, P

    2013-05-01

    Natural substances offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development with regard to broad spectrum antiviral properties and novel modes of action. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital herpetic infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug-resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. A nontoxic cyanobacterium Arthrospira strain from Chad has been characterized by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the phycocyanin gene. This cyanobacterium was identified as Arthrospira fusiformis by phylogenetic tree analysis. The antiherpetic activity of crude aqueous extracts from the Chad A. fusiformis isolate was determined. Antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex virus of cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract was assessed in plaque reduction assays and their mode of antiherpetic action was analysed. In virus suspension assays, cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract inhibited virus infectivity by 54.9%, 64.6%, and 99.8%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of cyanobacterial extracts separately at different time periods during the viral infection cycle. Extracts of A. fusiformis strain clearly inhibited herpesvirus multiplication before and during virus infection of host cells. The phosphate buffer extract of the A. fusiformis strain affected free herpes simplex virus prior to infection of host cells and inhibited intracellular viral replication. It is concluded, that Arthrospira compounds warrant further investigation to examine their potential role in the treatment of herpetic infections.

  7. Assessment of total arsenic and arsenic species stability in alga samples and their aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    García Salgado, S; Quijano Nieto, M A; Bonilla Simón, M M

    2008-05-30

    In order to achieve reliable information on speciation analysis, it is necessary to assess previously the species stability in the sample to analyse. Furthermore, in those cases where the sample treatment for species extraction is time-consuming, an assessment of the species integrity in the extracts is of paramount importance. Thus, the present paper reports total arsenic and arsenic species stability in alga samples (Sargassum fulvellum and Hizikia fusiformis), as well as in their aqueous extracts, which were stored in amber glass and polystyrene containers at different temperatures. Total arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), after sample acid digestion in a microwave oven, while arsenic speciation was conducted by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled to ICP-AES, with and without sample introduction by hydride generation (HPLC-ICP-AES and HPLC-HG-ICP-AES), after aqueous microwave-assisted extraction. The results obtained for solid alga samples showed that total arsenic (for Hijiki alga) and arsenic species present (As(V) for Hijiki and NIES No. 9 Sargasso) are stable for at least 12 months when samples are stored in polystyrene containers at +20 degrees C. On the other hand, a different behaviour was observed in the stability of total arsenic and As(V) species in aqueous extracts for both samples, being the best storage conditions for Sargasso extracts a temperature of -18 degrees C and polystyrene containers, under which they are stable for at least 15 days, while Hijiki extracts must be stored in polystyrene containers at +4 degrees C in order to ensure the stability for 10 days.

  8. Assessment of total arsenic and arsenic species stability in alga samples and their aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    García Salgado, S; Quijano Nieto, M A; Bonilla Simón, M M

    2008-05-30

    In order to achieve reliable information on speciation analysis, it is necessary to assess previously the species stability in the sample to analyse. Furthermore, in those cases where the sample treatment for species extraction is time-consuming, an assessment of the species integrity in the extracts is of paramount importance. Thus, the present paper reports total arsenic and arsenic species stability in alga samples (Sargassum fulvellum and Hizikia fusiformis), as well as in their aqueous extracts, which were stored in amber glass and polystyrene containers at different temperatures. Total arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), after sample acid digestion in a microwave oven, while arsenic speciation was conducted by anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled to ICP-AES, with and without sample introduction by hydride generation (HPLC-ICP-AES and HPLC-HG-ICP-AES), after aqueous microwave-assisted extraction. The results obtained for solid alga samples showed that total arsenic (for Hijiki alga) and arsenic species present (As(V) for Hijiki and NIES No. 9 Sargasso) are stable for at least 12 months when samples are stored in polystyrene containers at +20 degrees C. On the other hand, a different behaviour was observed in the stability of total arsenic and As(V) species in aqueous extracts for both samples, being the best storage conditions for Sargasso extracts a temperature of -18 degrees C and polystyrene containers, under which they are stable for at least 15 days, while Hijiki extracts must be stored in polystyrene containers at +4 degrees C in order to ensure the stability for 10 days. PMID:18585162

  9. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extract leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Djedouboum Abakar; Kom, Blaise; Nana, Paulin; Bonabe, Christian; Maguirgue Kakesse; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to validate the use of F. glumosa extract as a diuretic in the treatment of hypertension as claimed by traditional healers. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as check (Furosemide and Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide). The aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. The single dose treatment of the aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa has significantly increased urine volume 24 h after administration of the extract. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and the increased clearance of free water in the animals receiving the extract show that increased diuresis and natriuresis moderate elevation are tubular in origin. The increase in Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine and showed a strong inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. These observations confirm the traditional use in the treatment of hypertension and support the importance of the conservation of local knowledge as well as the conservation of Cameroonian biodiversity.

  10. Aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root induce redox imbalance in male rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, T O; Salau, A K; Yakubu, M T; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A; Okogun, J I

    2010-08-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root on redox homeostasis in male rat liver and kidney was investigated. Rats were grouped into four: A, B, C and D, where A (the control) received orally 1 mL of distilled water; B, C and D (test groups) received orally 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 28 days. Extract administration significantly reduced (p < .05) alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver and kidney with corresponding increases in the serum. Acid phosphatase activity increased significantly (p < .05) in the liver and kidney, while there was no significant change (p > .05) in the serum acid phosphatase activity. There was also significant decrease (p < .05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the liver and kidney. Liver and kidney levels of GSH, vitamins C and E were also significantly reduced (p < .05). Serum malonidialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide increased significantly (p < .05) in all the extract-treated groups. The available data from this study revealed that aqueous extract of S. longepedunculata root exerted its toxicity in the animals by depleting the antioxidant systems. This may consequently expose the cells and cellular macromolecules to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species generated either from the metabolism of the extract or other in vivo means. PMID:20144964

  11. Diuretic Activity of the Aqueous Extract Leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Djedouboum Abakar; Kom, Blaise; Bonabe, Christian; Maguirgue Kakesse; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to validate the use of F. glumosa extract as a diuretic in the treatment of hypertension as claimed by traditional healers. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as check (Furosemide and Amiloride hydrochlorothiazide). The aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid. At the maximum of diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly when compared with controls. The single dose treatment of the aqueous extract leaves of F. glumosa has significantly increased urine volume 24 h after administration of the extract. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and the increased clearance of free water in the animals receiving the extract show that increased diuresis and natriuresis moderate elevation are tubular in origin. The increase in Na+, K+, and Cl− induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine and showed a strong inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. These observations confirm the traditional use in the treatment of hypertension and support the importance of the conservation of local knowledge as well as the conservation of Cameroonian biodiversity. PMID:25383375

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  13. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles.

  14. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  15. Quantitative analysis of the hydrogen peroxide formed in aqueous cigarette tar extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. )

    1989-01-01

    We have established, for the first time, a reliable method to quantitate hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generated in aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke tar. The aqueous tar extract was passed through a short reverse-phase column and its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration determined by differential pulse polarography using an automatic reference subtraction system. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increased with aging, pH and temperature; the presence of superoxide dismutase lead to lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations. This method was applied to many kinds of research and commercial cigarettes. With a few exceptions, the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed after a fixed time from each cigarette smoke was proportional to its tar yield.

  16. Aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; González, Roxana Elizabeth; Renna, Nicolás Federico; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2010-06-01

    The organosulfur profile and the effect on oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed rats (FFR) were evaluated in Fuego INTA and Morado INTA garlic cultivars. Wistar rats were fed either normal rat chow (control) or the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. During the last 6 weeks of a 12 week period of the corresponding diet, a subgroup of control and FFR received an aqueous extract of Fuego INTA and Morado INTA. Fuego INTA showed higher levels of total thiosulfinates, allicin, and pungency than Morado INTA. FFR showed an increase of systolic blood pressure, aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and vascular remodeling that was significantly reduced after both garlic administrations. The beneficial effect was slightly higher when Fuego INTA was administered. Both aqueous garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress and vascular remodeling in rats with metabolic syndrome, suggesting the existence of slight differences among cultivars.

  17. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic properties of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2004-12-01

    South Africa is blessed with a rich floral biodiversity of medicinally useful plants. One such plant is Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Family: Pedaliaceae). H. procumbens is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments. In the present study, the analgesic effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract was evaluated in mice, using the 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' test methods; while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the plant's secondary root extract were investigated in rats. Fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus were used as experimental test models of inflammation and diabetes Diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.) was used as a reference analgesic and antiinflammatory agent for comparison. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) was used as a reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. H. procumbens root aqueous extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. H. procumbens root extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also produced dose-related, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw oedema. Furthermore, the plant extract (HPE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the blood glucose concentrations of both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that H. procumbens root aqueous extract possesses analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties, and lend pharmacological support to the suggested folklore uses of Harpagophytum procumbens root in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as for adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

  18. Synergistic Effects Induced by Combined Treatments of Aqueous Extract of Propolis and Venom

    PubMed Central

    DRIGLA, FLAVIU; BALACESCU, OVIDIU; VISAN, SIMONA; BISBOACA, SIMONA ELENA; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; MARGHITAS, LIVIU ALEXANDRU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered to be one of the most aggressive breast neoplasia due to failure of chemotherapy response. Thus, there is an urgent need of finding alternative therapies for TNBC. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic effect induced by propolis and bee venom on luminal (MCF-7) and TNBC (Hs578T) cell lines. Methods In order to evaluate the synergistic effect of aqueous extract of propolis and bee venom, we treated in combination two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7(luminal subtype) and Hs578T (TNBC subtype). Results Our results indicate that both cell lines exhibited similar sensitivity to the aqueous extract of propolis at a dilution of 0.072–0.09 mg/ml. The results concerning IC50 for bee venom on MCF-7 cells was 1 mg/ml, 20 times higher than 0.05 mg/ml in Hs578T cells. By combining the aqueous extract of propolis with bee venom, we obtained synergistic effects at a higher concentration, which was 5 and 2 times stronger than the two treatments alone. Conclusion Overall, the results from our study indicated that the combination of aqueous extract of propolis and bee venom treatments induced synergistic antiproliferative effects in a concentration-dependent manner in breast cancer cells. Thus we can hypothesize that the combination of honeybee propolis and venom might be involved in signaling pathways that could overcome cells resistance to therapy. PMID:27004032

  19. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  20. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  1. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    PubMed

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  2. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats.

  3. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  4. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

    2012-04-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

  5. Evaluation of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii in unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Punuru, Priyanka; Sujatha, D.; Kumari, B. Pushpa; Charisma, V. V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aqueous extract of leaves of Murraya koenigii was studied for its renoprotective potential against unilateral renal ischemia reperfusion (RIR) injury in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8) and were treated with 200 mg/kg., p.o. of aqueous extract of M. koenigii (AEMK) for 30 days to assess both preventive and curative effects of AEMK. Except Group I, RIR was induced to all the groups by clamping the left renal artery using artery clamp for 1 h followed by reperfusion by removing the clamp. Groups II and III underwent RIR at 30th day whereas RIR was induced in Groups IV and V at 1st day of treatment schedule. Biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and serum Na+), urinary parameters (urine output, urinary creatinine, urinary urea, urinary total protein, urinary Na+), in vivo anti-oxidants, renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathology of kidneys were monitored. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Rats were treated with AEMK significantly (P < 0.05) restored the serum and urinary parameters with significant (P < 0.05) improvement in endogenous anti-oxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and decreased levels of malondialdehyde and renal MPO when compared with the control groups. Histopathological examination also supported the biochemical and urinary tests. Conclusions: Aqueous extract of M. koenigii possesses both preventive and curative effects against RIR injury. PMID:24741188

  6. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  7. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Shoeibi, Shahram; Sani, Moslem Jaferi; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Ali; Mehdizade, Abbas; Dadgarnejad, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW) and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally), a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  8. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  9. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum sims grown in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Berhow, Mark A; Affum, Andrews Obeng; Gyan, Ben A

    2012-07-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important antioxidant polyphenol that is found in a variety of spices and herbs, including Ocimum canum Sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical thin-layer chromatography was used to examine the composition of the polyphenols in leaf extracts. The polyphenol content in the aqueous and methanol extracts from the leaf, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, were 314 and 315 mg gallic acid equivalent/g leaf sample, respectively. The total flavonoid concentration as determined by the aluminum(III) chloride method was 135 mg catechin equivalent/g leaf sample. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was also used to determine the polyphenol fingerprint profile in the leaf extracts of O. canum. Although the average RA concentration in the O. canum leaf extracts from Ghana was 1.69 mg/g dry weight (reported values range from 0.01 to 99.62 mg/g dry weight), this polyphenol was still a prominent peak in addition to caffeic acid derivatives.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mukinda, J T; Syce, J A

    2007-05-30

    Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), "African Wormwood" is widely used traditionally in South Africa with no literature evidence substantiating its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra by determining its pharmaco-toxicological effects after acute and chronic administration in mice and rats, respectively. The aqueous extract mimicked the traditional decoction dosage form of Artemisia afra. In mice, single intraperitoneal injections of Artemisia afra-extract (1.5-5.5g/kg) induced a regular dose-dependent increase in the death rate and incidence of general behaviour adverse effects, while with single oral doses (2-24g/kg) the increases in incidence of general behaviour adverse effects and mortality rate were dose-independent. The LD(50s) after acute intraperitoneal and oral doses were 2.45 and 8.96g/kg, respectively. Rats given oral doses of Artemisia afra-extract (0.1 or 1g/kg/day) survived the 3 months of dosing (i.e. LD(50) much higher than 1g/kg), experienced no significant changes in general behaviour and haematological and biochemical parameters, except for transient decrease in AST activity. No significant changes were observed in organ weights, and histopathological results showed normal profile suggesting no morphological alterations. Collectively, the results indicate that Artemisia afra-extract is non-toxic when given acutely, has low chronic toxicity potential and, in high doses, may have a hepatoprotective effect.

  11. Effects of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarahroodi, S; Jafari-Najafi, R; Nasri, S; Rohampour, K; Maleki-Jamshid, A; Esmaeili, S

    2012-11-15

    There are several evidences that plants and vegetables with antioxidant activity can reduce oxidative damages in brain and improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was evaluation of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, mice were classified, coded, weighted and grouped (n = 8) as follow as: control group (Only electric shock), blank group (electric shock plus normal saline) and test groups (electric shock plus Nepeta menthoides extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Delay time of leaving the platform was measured for retention and retrieval test of memory in all mentioned groups. In retention test, plant extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock while it was administered 24 h after receiving electric shock in retrieval. The results revealed that Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract significantly (p<0.05) increased memory retention and retrieval. The best response for memory retention and retrieval was achieved with 800 mg kg(-1) of Nepeta extract. In conclusion, enhancement of memory retention and retrieval by Nepeta menthoides could be cause of antioxidant activity of its components such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and phenolic acids.

  12. Effects of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarahroodi, S; Jafari-Najafi, R; Nasri, S; Rohampour, K; Maleki-Jamshid, A; Esmaeili, S

    2012-11-15

    There are several evidences that plants and vegetables with antioxidant activity can reduce oxidative damages in brain and improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was evaluation of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, mice were classified, coded, weighted and grouped (n = 8) as follow as: control group (Only electric shock), blank group (electric shock plus normal saline) and test groups (electric shock plus Nepeta menthoides extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Delay time of leaving the platform was measured for retention and retrieval test of memory in all mentioned groups. In retention test, plant extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock while it was administered 24 h after receiving electric shock in retrieval. The results revealed that Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract significantly (p<0.05) increased memory retention and retrieval. The best response for memory retention and retrieval was achieved with 800 mg kg(-1) of Nepeta extract. In conclusion, enhancement of memory retention and retrieval by Nepeta menthoides could be cause of antioxidant activity of its components such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and phenolic acids. PMID:24261125

  13. Protective efficacy of Psidium cattleianum and Myracrodruon urundeuva aqueous extracts against caries development in rats.

    PubMed

    Crivelaro de Menezes, Taís Elisabete; Botazzo Delbem, Alberto Carlos; Lourenção Brighenti, Fernanda; Cláudia Okamoto, Ana; Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae) and Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae) aqueous extracts on S. mutans counts and dental enamel micro-hardness of rats submitted to a cariogenic challenge. Sixty Wistar rats were distributed in three groups and received water (control) or aqueous extracts of Psidium cattleianum or Myracrodruon urundeuva as hydration solution. Initially the animals had their sublingual and submandibular salivary glands surgically removed and the parotid ducts ligated. Then the rats were inoculated with 10(6) CFU of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668 and were fed with a cariogenic diet. To detect and quantify the presence of S. mutans, oral biofilms were sampled and microbial DNA was extracted and submitted to amplification by means of real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). After seven weeks the animals were sacrificed and enamel demineralization was analyzed by cross-sectional micro-hardness. Both extracts produced a significant reduction on S. mutans counts and decreased the enamel demineralization. It can be concluded that the extracts tested had a significant effect on S. mutans in oral biofilm of the rats, decreasing S. mutans accumulation and enamel demineralization.

  14. Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

    2009-01-01

    Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation.

  16. Activity antifungal of the essential oils; aqueous and ethanol extracts from Citrus aurantium L.

    PubMed

    Metoui, N; Gargouri, S; Amri, I; Fezzani, T; Jamoussi, B; Hamrouni, L

    2015-01-01

    Our study is about the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. in Tunisia and its plant extract. The yield of this essential oil is 0, 56% but the yield of the extract of plant was 17.1% for the aqueous extract ant 18.3% for the ethanolic extract. The analysis of chemical composition by using GC and GC/MS showed the essential oil of C. aurantium L. species to be rich in monoterpenes such as α-terpineol, lianolyl acetate, linalool and limonene. The antifungal activity of this oil showed us an inhibition of the germination of mushrooms, in the same way we could note that the biologic activities are generally assigned to the chemotypes high content in oxygenated monoterpene. PMID:26207731

  17. Aqueous acetonitrile extraction for pesticide residue analysis in agricultural products with HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiki; Kobara, Yuso; Baba, Koji; Eun, Heesoo

    2014-07-01

    To reduce hazardous organic solvent consumption during sample preparation procedures as much as possible, an extraction method of smallest feasible sample volume (5g) using aqueous acetonitrile (MeCN) was developed to extract pesticide residues from agricultural samples prior to HPLC-DAD determination. Extraction with MeCN/water (1:1, v/v), and adjustment of the MeCN concentration by diluting with water after extraction recovered successfully most pesticides showing various physicochemical properties. The matrix effects of tested samples on the proposed method developed herein were generally negligibly-small. The average recoveries were in the range 70-120% for all pesticides with the coefficient of variation values below 20%. The reduction rate of organic solvents used for the proposed sample preparation method was up to approximately 60% compared with the Japanese authorised official method for pesticide residue analyses. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for pesticides with diverse properties.

  18. Aqueous extracts of Tulbaghia violacea inhibit germination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus conidia.

    PubMed

    Somai, Benesh Munilal; Belewa, Vuyokazi

    2011-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are important plant pathogens and causal agents of pre- and postharvest rots of corn, peanuts, and tree nuts. These fungal pathogens cause significant crop losses and produce aflatoxins, which contaminate many food products and contribute to liver cancer worldwide. Aqueous preparations of Tulbaghia violacea (wild garlic) were antifungal and at 10 mg/ml resulted in sustained growth inhibition of greater than 50% for both A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Light microscopy revealed that the plant extract inhibited conidial germination in a dose-dependent manner. When exposed to T. violacea extract concentrations of 10 mg/ml and above, A. parasiticus conidia began germinating earlier and germination was completed before that of A. flavus, indicating that A. parasiticus conidia were more resistant to the antifungal effects of T. violacea than were A. flavus conidia. At a subinhibitory extract dose of 15 mg/ml, hyphae of both fungal species exhibited increased granulation and vesicle formation, possibly due to increased reactivity between hyphal cellular components and T. violacea extract. These hyphal changes were not seen when hyphae were formed in the absence of the extract. Transmission electron microscopy revealed thickening of conidial cell walls in both fungal species when grown in the presence of the plant extract. Cell walls of A. flavus also became considerably thicker than those of A. parasiticus, indicating differential response to the extract. Aqueous preparations of T. violacea can be used as antifungal treatments for the control of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Because the extract exhibited a more pronounced effect on A. flavus than on A. parasiticus, higher doses may be needed for control of A. parasiticus infections. PMID:21669082

  19. Aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum Sweet inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents.

    PubMed

    Krisanapun, Chutwadee; Peungvicha, Penchom; Temsiririrkkul, Rungravi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract derived from the Thai Abutilon indicum Sweet plant and to explore its effects on intestinal glucose absorption and insulin secretion. The authors hypothesized that the plasma glucose level could be reduced through the inhibition of glucose absorption and/or the enhancement of insulin secretion. Administration of the extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) in an oral glucose tolerance test led to a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in 30 minutes after the administration in moderately diabetic rats, as compared with untreated rats (P < .05), and this was at a faster rate than the use of an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. The inhibition of glucose absorption through the small intestine was investigated using an everted intestinal sac. The results showed that the extract at concentrations of 0.156 to 5 mg/mL caused a reduction of glucose absorption in a dose response manner. The maximum response was noted at a dose of 2.5 mg/mL. The promotion of the extract on insulin secretion was confirmed by incubating beta cell of pancreatic islets and INS-1E insulinoma cells with the extract at 1 to 1000 microg/mL. These observations suggest that the aqueous extract from the A indicum plant has antidiabetic properties, which inhibited glucose absorption and stimulated insulin secretion. Phytochemical screening also revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins that could account for the observed pharmacologic effects of the plant extract. PMID:19761892

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 attached to spinach harvester blade using bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia; Calaway, Todd; Singh, Manpreet

    2011-04-01

    Outbreaks associated with leafy greens have focused attention on the transfer of human pathogens to these commodities during harvest with commercial equipment. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on new or rusty spinach harvester blades immersed in spinach extract or 10% tryptic soy broth (TSB) was investigated. Bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7 were evaluated to kill cells attached to blade. A cocktail of five nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 isolates was transferred to 25 mL of spinach extract or 10% TSB. A piece of sterilized spinach harvester blade (2×1") was placed in above spinach extract or 10% TSB and incubated at room (22 °C) or dynamic (30 °C day, 20 °C night) temperatures. E. coli O157:H7 populations attached to blade during incubation in spinach extract or 10% TSB were determined. When inoculated at 1 log CFU/mL, E. coli O157:H7 attachment to blades after 24 and 48 h incubation at dynamic temperature (6.09 and 6.37 log CFU/mL) was significantly higher than when incubated at 22 °C (4.84 and 5.68 log CFU/mL), respectively. After 48 h incubation, two blades were sprayed on each side with a cocktail of E. coli O157-specific bacteriophages before scraping the blade, and subsequent plating on Sorbitol MacConkey media-nalidixic acid. Application of bacteriophages reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 4.5 log CFU on blades after 2 h of phage treatment. Our study demonstrates that E. coli O157:H7 can attach to and proliferate on spinach harvester blades under static and dynamic temperature conditions, and bacteriophages are able to reduce E. coli O157:H7 populations adhered to blades. PMID:21453119

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 attached to spinach harvester blade using bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia; Calaway, Todd; Singh, Manpreet

    2011-04-01

    Outbreaks associated with leafy greens have focused attention on the transfer of human pathogens to these commodities during harvest with commercial equipment. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on new or rusty spinach harvester blades immersed in spinach extract or 10% tryptic soy broth (TSB) was investigated. Bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7 were evaluated to kill cells attached to blade. A cocktail of five nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 isolates was transferred to 25 mL of spinach extract or 10% TSB. A piece of sterilized spinach harvester blade (2×1") was placed in above spinach extract or 10% TSB and incubated at room (22 °C) or dynamic (30 °C day, 20 °C night) temperatures. E. coli O157:H7 populations attached to blade during incubation in spinach extract or 10% TSB were determined. When inoculated at 1 log CFU/mL, E. coli O157:H7 attachment to blades after 24 and 48 h incubation at dynamic temperature (6.09 and 6.37 log CFU/mL) was significantly higher than when incubated at 22 °C (4.84 and 5.68 log CFU/mL), respectively. After 48 h incubation, two blades were sprayed on each side with a cocktail of E. coli O157-specific bacteriophages before scraping the blade, and subsequent plating on Sorbitol MacConkey media-nalidixic acid. Application of bacteriophages reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 4.5 log CFU on blades after 2 h of phage treatment. Our study demonstrates that E. coli O157:H7 can attach to and proliferate on spinach harvester blades under static and dynamic temperature conditions, and bacteriophages are able to reduce E. coli O157:H7 populations adhered to blades.

  2. Aqueous extraction kinetics of soluble solids, phenolics and flavonoids from sage (Salvia fruticosa Miller) leaves.

    PubMed

    Torun, Mehmet; Dincer, Cuneyt; Topuz, Ayhan; Sahin-Nadeem, Hilal; Ozdemir, Feramuz

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, aqueous extraction kinetics of total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) from Salvia fruticosa leaves were investigated throughout 150 min. of extraction period against temperature (60-80 °C), particle size (2-8 mm) and loading percentage (1-4 %). The extract yielded 25 g/100 g TSS which contained 30 g/100 g TPC and 25 g/100 g TFC. The extraction data in time course fit with reversible first order kinetic model. All tested variables showed significant effect on the estimated kinetic parameters except equilibrium concentration. Increasing the extraction temperature resulted high extraction rate constants and equilibrium concentrations of the tested variables notably above 70 °C. By using the Arrhenius relationship, activation energy of the TSS, TPC and TFC were determined as 46.11 ± 5.61, 36.80 ± 3.12 and 33.52 ± 2.23 kj/mol, respectively. By decreasing the particle size, the extraction rate constants and diffusion coefficients exponentially increased whereas equilibrium concentrations did not change significantly. The equilibrium concentrations of the tested parameters showed linear behavior with increasing the loading percentage of the sage, however; the change in extraction rates did not show linear behavior due to submerging effect of 4 % loading.

  3. Parameters affecting enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded sunflower meal.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry A; Vaca-Medina, Guadalupe; Glatz, Charles E; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that emulsification of oil and alteration of the geometry of the confining cellular matrix were important mechanisms for improving yields. Protease and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction mixture did not have significant effects, indicating key differences with previously established soy oil extraction mechanisms. Maximum yields attained for oil and protein extraction were 39% and 90%, respectively, with the aid of a surfactant.

  4. Aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction of eight ginsenosides from ginseng root.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Yonggang; Han, Mei; Yang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    We developed an aqueous ionic liquid based ultrasonic assisted extraction (ILUAE) method for the extraction of the eight ginsenosides (ginsenoside-Rg1, -Re, -Rf, -Rb1, -Rc, -Rb2, -Rb3 and -Rd) from ginseng root. A series of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids differing in composition of anions and cations were evaluated for extraction efficiency. The results indicated that the ILUAE method has a remarkable ability to improve the extraction efficiency of ginsenosides. In addition, the ILUAE procedure was also optimized on some ultrasonic parameters, such as the IL concentration, solvent to solid ratio and extraction time. Under these optimal conditions (e.g., with 0.3M [C(3)MIM]Br, solvent to solid ratio of 10:1 and extraction time of 20min), this approach gained the highest extraction yields of total ginsenosides 17.81±0.47mg/g. Compared with the regular UAE, the proposed approach exhibited 3.16 times higher efficiency and 33% shorter extraction time, which indicated that ILUAE has a broad prospect for sample preparation of medicinal plants.

  5. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    PubMed

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products.

  6. Calcium-Alginate-Inulin Microbeads as Carriers for Aqueous Carqueja Extract.

    PubMed

    Balanč, Bojana; Kalušević, Ana; Drvenica, Ivana; Coelho, Maria Teresa; Djordjević, Verica; Alves, Vitor D; Sousa, Isabel; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Rakić, Vesna; Nedović, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Carqueja (Pterospartum tridentatum) is an endemic species and various bioactive compounds have been identified in its aqueous extract. The aim of this study was to protect the natural antioxidants from the aqueous extract of carqueja by encapsulation in Ca-alginate microbeads and Ca-alginate microbeads containing 10% and 20% (w/v) of inulin. The microbeads produced by electrostatic extrusion technique had an average diameter from 625 μm to 830 μm depending on the portion of inulin. The sphericity factor of the hydrogel microbeads had values between 0.014 and 0.026, while freeze dried microbeads had irregular shape, especially those with no excipient. The reduction in microbeads size after freeze drying process (expressed as shrinkage factor) ranged from 0.338 (alginate microbeads with 20% (w/v) of inulin) to 0.523 (plain alginate microbeads). The expressed radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals was found to be between 30% and 40% for encapsulated extract, while the fresh extract showed around 47% and 57% of radical scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were found to be positive (in both assay methods, DPPH and ABTS), which indicate that the addition of inulin didn't have influence on antioxidant activity. The presence of inulin reduced stiffness of the hydrogel, and protected bead structure from collapse upon freeze-drying. Alginate-inulin beads are envisaged to be used for delivery of aqueous P. tridentatum extract in functional food products. PMID:26613390

  7. Reactive Nitrogen Species Scavenging Capacity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata Herbs.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Marta; Srecec, Sinisa; Bazylko, Agnieszka

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the scavenging capacity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts derived from the herb of two species of Galinsoga against NO and ONOO-. In both tests the aqueous extracts of both Galinsoga species were more active than the ethanolic extracts. The highest scavenging activity against NO, and also against ONOO- was shown by G. quadriradiata aqueous extract (SC50 ± SD = 1.54 ± 0.32, and 2.10 ± 1.98, respectively). The study showed that the activity of the extracts from both Galinsoga species is related not only to the presence of flavonoids but also to caffeic acid derivatives and caffeic acid. The results of this study partly explain the beneficial effects of Galinsoga herb extracts in the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26749807

  8. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p < 0.05) apoptotic cell death due to DPPH and ABTS by 4 to 5-fold although the activity was less than vitamin C. Based on the DPPH assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals

  9. Effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.).

    PubMed

    Charchafchi, Fawzia Al; Al-Nabhani, Iman; Al-Kharousi, Hanan; Al-Quraini, Fatma; Al-Hanai, Amal

    2007-11-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic effect of leaves aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Different methods were used to preparing leaves aqueous extract. Germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata significantly decreased gradually as the concentration of the aqueous leaves extracts of A. indica increased in comparison with water control. Severe toxicity was observed at high concentrations and moderate toxicity at low concentrations in comparison with water control. Aqueous leaves extract significantly inhibited root length more than shoot. These results indicated that some kind of inhibitor(s) was the responsible agent for the phytotoxic effect of A. indica on germination and seedling growth of V. radiata. PMID:19090247

  10. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21 nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques.

  11. Comparative Study of the Biological Activity of Allantoin and Aqueous Extract of the Comfrey Root.

    PubMed

    Savić, Vesna Lj; Nikolić, Vesna D; Arsić, Ivana A; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Najman, Stevo J; Stojanović, Sanja; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of both cell lines at concentrations 40 and 100 µg/ml, but more pronounced on MDCK cells. Aqueous extract of the comfrey root effect on cell proliferation in concentrations higher than 40 µg/ml was significantly stimulatory for L929 but inhibitory for MDCK cells. Pharmaceutical preparations that contained AECR showed better anti-irritant potential compared with PA. Creams showed better effect on hydration and EI compared with the gels that contained the same components. Our results indicate that the biological activity of the comfrey root extract cannot be attributed only to allantoin but is also likely the result of the interaction of different compounds present in AECR. Topical preparations that contain comfrey extract may have a great application in the treatment of skin irritation. PMID:25880800

  12. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Radosław; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects.

  13. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  14. Aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid; Ilkhanipoor, Minoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Barberry root extract contains various alkaloids that are considered as antioxidants. Beneficial effect of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root (AEBIR) was evaluated for renal function in diabetic rats induced by STZ. Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg bw) to rats, after 15 h of fasting. Diabetic rats were randomly grouped and treated daily with AEBIR and glibenclamide by gavage for 42 days. After 6 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and some biochemical parameters of serum and urine were measured and their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: Streptozotocin induced a significant rise in fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine glucose, urine protein, urine albumin, and water intake and a significant decrease in body weight, serum protein, urine urea, and urine creatinine. There was a significant restoration of these parameters to near normal after administration of the AEBIR and also by glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw). The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg in all parameters except blood glucose and urine glucose was more than that of the standard drug, glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg, p.o.). Histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggested that aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root improves renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through controlling blood glucose and renal protective effects. PMID:25050261

  15. Comparative Study of the Biological Activity of Allantoin and Aqueous Extract of the Comfrey Root.

    PubMed

    Savić, Vesna Lj; Nikolić, Vesna D; Arsić, Ivana A; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Najman, Stevo J; Stojanović, Sanja; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of both cell lines at concentrations 40 and 100 µg/ml, but more pronounced on MDCK cells. Aqueous extract of the comfrey root effect on cell proliferation in concentrations higher than 40 µg/ml was significantly stimulatory for L929 but inhibitory for MDCK cells. Pharmaceutical preparations that contained AECR showed better anti-irritant potential compared with PA. Creams showed better effect on hydration and EI compared with the gels that contained the same components. Our results indicate that the biological activity of the comfrey root extract cannot be attributed only to allantoin but is also likely the result of the interaction of different compounds present in AECR. Topical preparations that contain comfrey extract may have a great application in the treatment of skin irritation.

  16. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-01

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  17. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T W; Dumont, J N; Clark, B R; Buchanan, M V

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of tar from a coal gasification electrostatic precipitator were tested for its toxic and teratogenic potential in vitro on embryos of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The 96-h LC50 and EC50 were determined to be 0.83% and 0.48%, respectively. The developmental stage of normal-appearing exposed embryos is not affected by increasing concentrations of the extract. Embryo growth, however, is significantly reduced at concentrations as low as 0.25%. Motility and pigmentation were effectively reduced relative to controls by extract concentrations of 0.5% and greater. Exposed embryos are shorter and stockier than controls. Malformations of head, eyes, viscera, and spine are common, and cartilage formation is abnormal. The epidermis is often hyperplastic, and large blisters occur over the somatic surface. The severity of abnormal development is directly related to the concentration of the toxicant to which the embryos are exposed. Chemical analysis shows that the aqueous extracts contain phenols, furans, monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons, and mono- and diazaarenes and/or monoaromatic amines.

  18. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of aqueous extracts from Thymelaea hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Azza, Zora; Oudghiri, Mounia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta (TH) are used as a decoction in the treatment of different pathologies in folk medicine in Morocco. Objective: The aqueous extracts were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity and in inhibition of adjuvant induction arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, and the antiarthritic activity was carried out using complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: The plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight) exhibited significant activity in acute inflammation produced 60% of inhibition after 4 h as compared with that of the standard anti-inflammatory drug, the diclofenac (100 mg/kg) which showed 40% of inhibition. In arthritis model, the extract produced 85% inhibition after 18 days when compared with the diclofenac (10 mg/kg; 72%). Conclusion: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of TH had an anti-inflammatory activity and inhibited the induction of adjuvant arthritis in male Wistar rats. PMID:25829798

  19. Anticonvulsant Effect of Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. (Moraceae) Aqueous Extract in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Adongo, Donatus Wewura; Kukuia, Kennedy Kwami Edem; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori

    2013-01-01

    Antiaris toxicaria (Moraceae) was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in rodents. Animal models used include maximal electroshock test (MEST); pentylenetetrazole-induced (PTZ) convulsions; picrotoxin-induced (PCT) convulsions; strychnine- (STR-) and 4-aminopyridine-induced convulsions. Increase in latency to seizures as well as reduction in duration and frequency of seizures indicated anticonvulsant activity. The extract was more effective in all models used except the maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions. Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract (200, 400, and 800 mg kg−1) significantly (P < 0.05 − 0.01) shortened the duration of convulsions in PTZ- and PCT-induced seizures. Delay in the onset of convulsions in the two tests was significant (P < 0.001). Reduction in the frequency of seizures was also significant (P < 0.05 − 0.001) in both tests. Antiaris further delayed the onset of seizures in 4-aminopyridine model while producing 75% protection against death in mice. Diazepam (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg kg−1), carbamazepine (3, 10, and 30 mg kg−1), and sodium valproate (100–400 mg kg−1) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for various models. Flumazenil blocked the effect of the extract in the PTZ test significantly suggesting that Antiaris toxicaria may be acting by enhancing the effects of the GABAergic system. Antiaris toxicaria aqueous extract therefore possesses anticonvulsant activity. PMID:24167736

  20. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  1. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  2. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  3. Antifungal activity of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis against Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Filip, Rosana; Davicino, Roberto; Anesini, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Malassezia furfur is a lipodependent, dimorphic and saprophyte fungus which causes pityriasis versicolor, dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis in humans. The drugs available to treat this fungal infection are few. These drugs are highly toxic and are costly when used in prolonged treatments. For these reasons, it is necessary to find new compounds to treat these infections. Ilex paraguariensis St Hilaire is a plant that grows in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis on the growth of M. furfur. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and isolate compounds of I. paraguariensis and the agar-well diffusion method was used to assess the antifungal activity of the extract. The fungicidal/fungistatic effect was evaluated by the modified Thompson assay. The results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis (1000 mg/ml) possesses inhibitory activity against M. furfur. This antimalassezial activity was equivalent to 2.7 microg/ml of ketoconazole. Therefore, the topical use of Ilex paraguariensis extract as alternative antifungal agent can be suggested. PMID:19827026

  4. Determination of diethylhexyladipate and acetyltributylcitrate in aqueous extracts after cloud point extraction coupled with microwave assisted back extraction and gas chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Zygoura, Panagiota D; Paleologos, Evangelos K; Riganakos, Kyriakos A; Kontominas, Michael G

    2005-11-01

    The determination of commercial plasticizers (di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC)) in aqueous solutions is described. The newly proposed technique of applying microwaves to cloud point extracts in order to enable combination with gas chromatographic analysis has been used for this purpose. Both plasticizers were entrapped in the micelles of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 and removed from the bulk phase by centrifugation. Micellization was enhanced by increasing the ionic strength of the solution with concentrated NaCl. Extraction recoveries of the proposed method were over 95% for water and 3% (w/v) aqueous acetic acid and over 85% for 10% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, respectively. The calibration curves obtained, following the proposed methodology have a linear range between 50 and 2000 microg/L for each analyte while the detection limits were as low as 15 and 19 microg/L for DEHA and ATBC, respectively, with an RSD below 5% even for low concentrations. As an analytical demonstration the proposed methodology was applied for the determination of the migration levels of the selected plasticizers from a PVC food packaging film into aqueous simulants.

  5. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevents carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and renal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2006-01-01

    Background Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of the bark of Termnalia arjuna (TA), an important Indian medicinal plant widely used in the preparation of ayurvedic formulations, on CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in the livers and kidneys of mice. Methods Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of TA (50 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days. Serum marker enzymes, namely, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in the sera of all study groups. Antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); as well as by determining the levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined from its DPPH radical quenching ability. Results Results showed that CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of GPT and ALP. TBARS level was also increased significantly whereas GSH, SOD, CAT and GST levels were decreased in the liver and kidney tissue homogenates of CCl4 treated mice. Aqueous extract of TA successfully prevented the alterations of these effects in the experimental animals. Data also showed that the extract possessed strong free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of vitamin C. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the aqueous extract of the bark of TA could protect the liver and kidney tissues against CCl4

  6. The amoebicidal aqueous extract from Castela texana possesses antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties.

    PubMed

    Reyes-López, M; Villa-Treviño, S; Arriaga-Alba, M; Alemán-Lazarini, L; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; Fattel-Fazenda, S; de la Garza, M

    2005-02-01

    Due to long-term treatment toxicity and clinical resistance to drugs commonly used against E. histolytica, new drugs against amoebiasis are urgently needed. Castela texana ("chaparro amargo") is a shrub taken traditionally in teas and capsules of dry plant to treat intestinal amoebic infections. An aqueous extract was prepared and its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxicity properties were evaluated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. This extract was neither mutagenic when evaluated with the Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, nor genotoxic in unscheduled DNA synthesis in hepatocyte cultures, even at the highest concentrations tested. In fact, C. texana extract showed antimutagenic activity on S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 in the Ames test. Furthermore, it was capable of protecting liver cell cultures against unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene at a concentration of 6.77 microg/ml. A free-radical scavenging test was used in order to explore the antioxidant capacity of C. texana extract with S. typhimurium strain TA102 pretreated with norfloxacin, a free radical producer. This extract showed a free radical withdrawal effect. The effective chemoprotective activity of this extract could be due to the antioxidant capacity of the C. texana extract components. In this paper it is shown that the antiamoebic natural product, C. texana, is also antimutagenic and protects against induction of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver. These results justify further studies to extend it use to human beings.

  7. Extraction of Co(II) from aqueous solution using emulsion liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Gasser, M S; El-Hefny, N E; Daoud, J A

    2008-03-01

    The extraction equilibrium of Co(II) from thiocyanate medium by CYANEX 923 (mixture of straight chain alkylated phosphine oxides) in cyclohexane was studied. The stoichiometry of the extraction reaction was postulated based on slope analysis method and the extraction constant Kex was calculated. The stripping percentage of Co(II) with sulphuric acid from the loaded CYANEX 923 was found to increase with the increase in acid concentration. The extraction of Co(II) from aqueous thiocyanate medium into emulsion liquid membrane using CYANEX 923 extractant was also studied. The influence of different parameters such as stirring speed, surfactant concentration, pH of the extractant phase, carrier concentration, internal phase stripping acid concentration, initial Co(II) concentration as well as temperature on the emulsion stability were investigated. The applicability of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process using CYANEX 923 as extractant and SPAN 80 as surfactant for the removal and the concentration of Co(II) from thiocyanate solution was investigated. The results show that it is possible to recover 95% of cobalt in the inner phase after 10 min of contacting time with a concentration factor of 5.

  8. Separation processes for recovering alloy steels from grinding sludge: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and aqueous cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A.

    1999-04-01

    Two separation processes have been developed to remove contaminants (cutting oil with trace phosphorus additive) from high-speed steel grinding sludge. One process uses an aqueous surfactant washing technique, and the second process uses supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) extraction. Bench-scale aqueous washings have shown that the required phosphorus removal is easily obtained, but a sufficient oil removal is more difficult. The experimental results also indicate a strong dependence of the aqueous washing efficiency on the choice of a suitable surfactant. A mass transfer model is used to simulate a semi-continuous washing process. SCCO{sub 2} extraction at 80 C and 340 atm shows that approximately 80% of the oil can be removed from the sludge during a 60-minute process to produce a batch of recyclable steel, and that the phosphorus removal also reaches the required level. A linear desorption model is used to describe the irreversible desorption of oil from the solid phase into the CO{sub 2} phase, and the simulated results agree very well with the experimental data.

  9. Anticonvulsant effect of Rhus chirindensis (Baker F.) (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O

    2008-04-17

    Extracts of Rhus chirindensis stem-bark are used extensively in South African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of an array of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract (RCE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Single intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (90 mg/kg), PCT(10 mg/kg) or BCL (30 mg/kg) produced tonic-clonic seizures. Like the standard antiseizure drugs used, Rhus chirindensis stem-bark aqueous extract (RCE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly delayed (p<0.05-0.001) the onset of, and antagonized pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. The plant's stem-bark aqueous extract (RCE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin-induced seizures, but only weakly antagonized bicuculline-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that RCE produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results of this laboratory animal study indicate that RCE possesses anticonvulsant activity in the mammalian experimental model used, and thus suggest that the plant may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions and epilepsy. In conclusion, the findings of this study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric, ethnomedical uses of Rhus chirindensis in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy in some rural communities of South Africa.

  10. Aqueous extract of dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris L. in acne vulgaris, a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Rohollah F

    2012-12-01

    Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry) is a very well-known herb in traditional medicine. Apart from its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the antilipogenic effect of barberry on the sebaceous glands in animals may further suggest it could be employed as an anti-acne agent. This study examined the effect of oral aqueous extract of barberry on acne vulgaris. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were randomly given oral gelatin capsules containing either aqueous extract of dried barberry (600 mg daily for 4 weeks, n = 25) or placebo (n = 24). Counts of facial noninflamed, inflamed, and total acne lesions, as well as the Michaelson's acne severity score were documented at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Both groups were comparable in terms of the patients' characteristics and baseline variables. After 4 weeks, the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions as well as mean Michaelson's acne severity score declined significantly by 43.25 ± 10.88% (median: 42.11%), 44.53 ± 11.78% (median: 45.45%), 44.64 ± 8.46% (median: 46.15%), and 44.38 ± 8.25% (median: 44.07%), respectively, among the extract receivers (p <.001 for all the changes). Similar changes were not significant in the placebo group. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to barberry. In conclusion, oral aqueous extract of dried barberry is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in teenagers with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

  11. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action. PMID:22185934

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous, methanolic and alkaloid extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae family) leaves.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Suhanya; Bin Azizi, Juzaili; Ramanathan, Surash; Ismail, Sabariah; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Said, Mohd I Mohd; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M. speciosa leaf extracts were evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method. The amount of total phenolics and flavanoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH IC(50) values of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 213.4, 104.81 and 37.08 microg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 66.0 mg, 88.4, 105.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavanoid were 28.2, 20.0 and 91.1 mg CAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to aqueous and alkaloid extract could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. The aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/mL. The alkaloid extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms. PMID:19924042

  13. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of aqueous and organic extracts of Geranium robertianum L.

    PubMed

    Graça, V C; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Dias, Maria Inês; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Santos, P F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-14

    Geranium robertianum L. has been used in folk medicine and herbalism practice for the treatment of various conditions, but the study of its bioactivity has been barely addressed. Although its phytochemical composition has received some attention, contributions to the nutritional composition are practically unknown. Herein, G. robertianum gathered in Trás-os-Montes, Northeastern Portugal, was chemically characterized regarding nutritional parameters, and the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines and non-tumor porcine liver primary cells of several aqueous and organic extracts were evaluated. G. robertianum showed to be an equilibrated valuable herb, rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing sugars, tocopherols, organic and essential fatty acids. Amongst the extracts, the acetone one showed the highest total phenol and total flavonoid contents, as well as the greatest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. This extract showed to contain hydrolysable tannins (e.g. geraniin and castalagin/vescalagin), as the main phenolic compounds. PMID:27603422

  14. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V.; Chalmers, Anita C.; Goldsmith, Chloe D.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  15. Extraction, thermal cleanup, and GC/MS quantification with disposable solid extractants: application to hydrophobic analytes in aqueous surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Begnaud, Frédéric; Debonneville, Christian; Chaintreau, Alain

    2011-02-01

    Fragranced consumer products are generally formulated together with surfactants. In application, these products are often highly diluted with water. Analyzing trace amounts of fragrance ingredients in such mixtures is challenging and usually requires either time-consuming sample cleanup or extensive cleaning of the trapping device to avoid memory effect and cross-contamination between samples. To overcome these limitations, a new disposable extraction device has been developed to be used in combination with a thermodesorption-GC-MS unit. Made of PDMS foam cylinders, it efficiently extracts trace amounts of hydrophobic compounds from complex aqueous solutions and provides an online sample cleanup, thanks to the controlled desorption temperature, which allows retaining the low volatile constituents of the matrix within the absorptive foam. Combined with a stable isotope dilution assay, accurate quantifications of Cetalox(®), Muscenone™, Helvetolide(®), Polysantol(®), Dartanol, and Myrrhone(®) from aqueous solution containing surfactant and from water from the aeration tank of a sewage plant were successfully conducted. LOQ varied between 1 and 25 ppb (20% confidence interval, α = 0.1).

  16. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract--A comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml(-1)) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml(-1)) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO3 ratio of 6:4v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO3 to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO3 to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs.

  17. Separation and recovery of food coloring dyes using aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic resins.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, J G; Willauer, H D; Boaz, K R; Rogers, R D

    1998-06-26

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) and aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic (ABEC) resins are currently under investigation for their utility in the removal of color from textile plant wastes. The structures of several widely used food colorings, suggest that these dyes would also be retained on the resins. In work currently in progress, we have begun to investigate the retention and resolution of several common food colorings including indigo carmine, amaranth, carminic acid. erythrosin B, tartrazine and quinoline yellow. The relationship between the uptake of these dyes on ABEC resins in terms of the binding strengths and capacities of the resins and their partitioning behavior in ABS is illustrated. Some possible theoretical and practical approaches to the prediction of the partitioning and retention behavior is discussed. PMID:9699992

  18. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chikhi, Ilyas; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Medjdoub, Houria; Tabti, Boufeldja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic effect of A. halimus leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The aqueous extract of the plant leaf was tested for its efficacy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extract was evaluated for its acute and short term general toxicity in male mice and for its antihyperglycemic activity using glucose tolerance test in rats. The aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and determination of total phenolic contents. Results The statistical data indicated the significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the blood glucose and hepatic levels. The total protein level was significantly increased when treated with the extract. Conclusions These results suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of A. halimus has beneficial effects in reducing the elevated blood glucose level and hepatic levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Nyadjeu, Paulin; Dongmo, Alain; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît; Kamanyi, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume stem bark aqueous extract in rats. The in vivo activities of the extract were evaluated on normotensive and three rat models of hypertension while the in vitro tests were assayed on rat isolated aorta rings. Acute intravenous injection of the extract (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) induced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetised normotensive Wistar rats, salt-loaded hypertensive, L-NAME hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pre-treatment of rats with either propranolol or atropine significantly inhibited the hypotensive effects of the plant extract suggesting its possible action through the interferences with both cholinergic and sympathetic transmissions. Moreover, pre-treatment of rats with L-NAME inhibited the sustained plant antihypertensive effects, suggesting a possible active vasodilatation, which might be partly mediated by an endothelial l-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. In isolated rat aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (60mM), the extract exhibited cumulative vasodilating effects, which were attenuated with either L-NAME, vascular endothelium removal or both tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide pre-treatments. The vasorelaxant effects may be involved in the extract antihypertensive mechanism, partially by increasing the endothelial nitric oxide and by activating the KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle.

  20. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28 days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500 μg/mg of the extract for 48 h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  2. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofik O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract. PMID:23861717

  3. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation.

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  5. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. PMID:24958776

  6. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nchegang, B.; Mezui, C.; Nkwengoua, Z. E.; Amang, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1–14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period. PMID:27525283

  7. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  8. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation. PMID:27350429

  9. Genotoxicity testing of Persicariae Rhizoma (Persicaria tinctoria H. Gross) aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    LEE, WON HO; CHOI, SEONG HUN; KANG, SU JIN; SONG, CHANG HYUN; PARK, SOO JIN; LEE, YOUNG JOON; KU, SAE KWANG

    2016-01-01

    Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) has been used as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification agent in Korea, and contains the biologically active dyes purple indirubin and blue indigo. Despite synthetic indigo showing genotoxic potential, thorough studies have not been carried out on the genotoxicity of PR. The potential genotoxicity of an aqueous extract of PR containing indigo (0.043%) and indirubin (0.009%) was evaluated using a standard battery of tests for safety assessment. The PR extract did not induce any genotoxic effects under the conditions of this study. The results of a reverse mutation assay in four Salmonella typhimurium strains and one Escherichia coli strain indicated that PR extract did not increase the frequency of revertant colonies in any strain, regardless of whether S9 mix was present or not. The PR extract also did not increase chromosomal aberrations in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Although slight signs of diarrhea were restrictedly detected in the mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg PR extract, no noteworthy changes in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were observed at doses ≤2,000 mg/kg in a bone marrow micronucleus test. These results indicate the potential safety of the PR extract, particularly if it is consumed in small amounts compared with the quantities used in the genotoxicity tests. PMID:27347027

  10. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Nchegang, B; Mezui, C; Longo, F; Nkwengoua, Z E; Amang, A P; Tan, P V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1-14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period. PMID:27525283

  11. The influence of aqueous extracts of selected Potentilla species on normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Europe and Northern America. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts of Potentilla species (Rosaceae): Dasiphora fruticosa (syn. P. fruticosa), P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. thuringiaca, P. crantzii and P. nepalensis. The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method, IL-6 by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) analysis with the Griess method in culture supernatants were performed after 24 h. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 microg/mL. For ELISA, 15 microg/mL was chosen. All extracts suppressed the metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells' mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity decreased after incubation with extracts. All extracts showed a free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent was the extract from D. fruticosa, while the least action was observed for P. thuringiaca. Potentilla extracts stimulated, IL-6 production in tested cells but the level of the cytokine was found to decrease in epithelial cells. Pre-incubation of cells with LPS resulted in increased IL-6 secretion. Modulation of NO production after extract addition and cell pre-incubation with LPS was also observed. Potentilla extracts may be interesting natural factors modulating the main features of cells forming the colon wall, and thus may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:23757943

  12. Identification of aqueous pollen extracts using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Stephan; Merk, Virginia; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous pollen extracts of varying taxonomic relations were analyzed with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by using gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions as SERS substrate. This enables a selective vibrational characterization of the pollen water soluble fraction (mostly cellular components) devoid of the spectral contributions from the insoluble sporopollenin outer layer. The spectra of the pollen extracts are species-specific, and the chemical fingerprints can be exploited to achieve a classification that can distinguish between different species of the same genus. In the simple experimental procedure, several thousands of spectra per species are generated. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), it is demonstrated that analysis of the intrinsic biochemical information of the pollen cells in the SERS data enables the identification of pollen from different plant species at high accuracy. The ANN extracts the taxonomically-relevant information from the data in spite of high intra-species spectral variation caused by signal fluctuations and preparation specifics. The results show that SERS can be used for the reliable characterization and identification of pollen samples. They have implications for improved investigation of pollen physiology and for allergy warning.

  13. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    de Barros Leite Albuquerque, Lia; dos Santos, Marcio Galdino; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I), from implantation to major organogenesis (II), and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III). We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I), pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II) was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic. PMID:24455668

  14. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

  15. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    PubMed Central

    Solís, A.; Perea, F.; Solís, M.; Manjarrez, N.; Pérez, H. I.; Cassani, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  16. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  17. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  18. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra. PMID:22701375

  19. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jain, Avnish; Jain, Sourabh; Gurjar, Rajenda

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits rind was investigated. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and also exhibited an immense reducing ability. The total content of phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds was estimated as 63.81 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material, 21.34 mg of rutin equivalents/g of dry material and 17.11 mg of total tannin equivalent /g of dry material, respectively. IC50 values for different antioxidant model were calculated as 128.86 microg/mL for DPPH radicals, 97.65 microg/mL for O2*-, 148.32 microg/mL for H2O2 and 123.01 microg/mL for NO, respectively. Reducing power and inhibition of *OH radical-induced BSA oxidation were also determined. The data obtained in the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruit rind have significant antioxidant activity against free radicals.

  20. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  1. Aqueous extract of Annona macroprophyllata: a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Trujano, M E; González-Andrade, M; Aguirre-Hernández, E; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α -glucosidase with an IC₅₀ = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K(i) = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K(i) = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.

  2. Discoloration of indigo carmine using aqueous extracts from vegetables and vegetable residues as enzyme sources.

    PubMed

    Solís, A; Perea, F; Solís, M; Manjarrez, N; Pérez, H I; Cassani, J

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  3. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGES

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  4. The hypoglycemic effect of Juglans regia leaves aqueous extract in diabetic patients: A first human trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Juglans regia L. (J. regia ) is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Iranian medicine. The effect of this plant has already been investigated on animal models; however, this is the first study conducted on human subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of J. regia leaves aqueous extract in type 2 diabetes patients. Fifty eight Iranian male and female patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One group (n = 30) received J. regia leaves extract while the other group (n = 28) received placebo. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after two months for determination of HbA1c and blood glucose level as a main outcome and insulin, SGOT, SGPT, and ALP level as secondary outcome. Results Our analysis showed that serum fasting HbA1C and blood glucose levels were significantly decreased and the insulin level was increased in patients in the J. regia arm. Conclusions The results indicate that J. regia aqueous extract favorably affects blood levels of glucose, insulin and HbA1C in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:24447826

  5. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity. PMID:24266103

  6. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  7. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation of Dendrobium moniliforme aqueous extract in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Jin; Jung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Min-Suk; Jang, Ji-Hun; Sim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Tea-Mook; Park, Ho; Ahn, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Cho, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw., an herb of the Orchidaceae family, has long been used in traditional medicine to strengthen bones, nourish the stomach, and promote the production of bodily fluid. Recently, polysaccharides isolated from Dendrobium have been used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. A traditional method to process Dendrobium is to soak fresh stems in an ethanol solution, which is the most important factor to ensure high yields of aqueous-extractable polysaccharides. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential acute toxicity of D. moniliforme aqueous extract (DMAE), by a single oral dose in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test article was orally administered once by gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg body weight (n=5 male and female rats for each dose). Throughout the study period, no treatment-related deaths were observed and no adverse effects were noted in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or gross findings at any dose tested. The results show that a single oral administration of DMAE did not induce any toxic effects at a dose below 5,000 mg/kg in rats, and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight for both sexes. With respect to cytotoxicity, the cell viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was less than 50% when the cells were treated with 10 mg/mL aqueous extract for 24 h. PMID:27729930

  8. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  9. Effect of single or combined chemical and natural antimicrobial interventions on Escherichia coli O157:H7, total microbiota and color of packaged spinach and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mitsi, Christina; Tarantilis, Petros A; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (oregano), sodium hypochlorite (60 and 300 ppm of free chlorine), Citrox® (containing citric acid and phenolic compounds [bioflavonoids] as active ingredients), vinegar, lactic acid, and double combinations of Citrox, lactic acid and oregano were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total mesophilic microbiota on fresh-cut spinach and lettuce and for their impact on color of treated vegetables. Spinach and lettuce leaves were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to a level of 5-6 log CFU/g and immersed in washing solutions for 2 or 5 min at 20 °C, followed by rinsing with ice water (30s). Bacterial populations on vegetables were enumerated immediately after washing and after storage of the samples at 5 °C for 7 days under 20% CO2: 80% N2. No significant post-washing microbial reductions were achieved by chlorinated water, whereas after storage total microbiota was increased by 2.4 log CFU/g on lettuce. Vinegar wash was the most effective treatment causing E. coli O157:H7 reductions of 1.8-4.3 log CFU/g. During storage, pathogen was further decreased to below the detection limit level (<2 log CFU/g) and total microbiota exhibited the highest reductions compared to other treatments. Lactic acid reduced pathogen by 1.6-3.7 log CFU/g after washing; however levels of total microbiota increased by up to 2 log CFU/g on packaged lettuce during storage. Washing lettuce samples with oregano for 2 min resulted in 2.1 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. When Citrox was combined with oregano, 3.7-4.0 log CFU/g reduction was achieved on spinach and lettuce samples, with no significant effect on color parameters. Additionally, rinsing with ice water after decontamination treatments contributed to maintenance of color of the treated vegetables. In conclusion, the results indicated that vinegar, lactic acid or oregano aqueous extract alone or in combination, as alternative washing solutions to chlorine, may be effectively used to

  10. Effect of single or combined chemical and natural antimicrobial interventions on Escherichia coli O157:H7, total microbiota and color of packaged spinach and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Mitsi, Christina; Tarantilis, Petros A; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (oregano), sodium hypochlorite (60 and 300 ppm of free chlorine), Citrox® (containing citric acid and phenolic compounds [bioflavonoids] as active ingredients), vinegar, lactic acid, and double combinations of Citrox, lactic acid and oregano were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total mesophilic microbiota on fresh-cut spinach and lettuce and for their impact on color of treated vegetables. Spinach and lettuce leaves were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to a level of 5-6 log CFU/g and immersed in washing solutions for 2 or 5 min at 20 °C, followed by rinsing with ice water (30s). Bacterial populations on vegetables were enumerated immediately after washing and after storage of the samples at 5 °C for 7 days under 20% CO2: 80% N2. No significant post-washing microbial reductions were achieved by chlorinated water, whereas after storage total microbiota was increased by 2.4 log CFU/g on lettuce. Vinegar wash was the most effective treatment causing E. coli O157:H7 reductions of 1.8-4.3 log CFU/g. During storage, pathogen was further decreased to below the detection limit level (<2 log CFU/g) and total microbiota exhibited the highest reductions compared to other treatments. Lactic acid reduced pathogen by 1.6-3.7 log CFU/g after washing; however levels of total microbiota increased by up to 2 log CFU/g on packaged lettuce during storage. Washing lettuce samples with oregano for 2 min resulted in 2.1 log CFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. When Citrox was combined with oregano, 3.7-4.0 log CFU/g reduction was achieved on spinach and lettuce samples, with no significant effect on color parameters. Additionally, rinsing with ice water after decontamination treatments contributed to maintenance of color of the treated vegetables. In conclusion, the results indicated that vinegar, lactic acid or oregano aqueous extract alone or in combination, as alternative washing solutions to chlorine, may be effectively used to

  11. Improved aqueous extraction of microalgal lipid by combined enzymatic and thermal lysis from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Li, Runzhi; Ren, Xiaoli; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    High moisture content in wet algal biomass hinders effective performance of current lipid extraction methods. An improved aqueous extraction method combing thermal and enzymatic lysis was proposed and performed in algal slurry of Nannochloropsis oceanica (96.0% moisture) in this study. In general, cell-wall of N. oceanica was disrupted via thermal lysis and enzymatic lysis and lipid extraction was performed using aqueous surfactant solution. At the optimal conditions, high extraction efficiencies for both lipid (88.3%) and protein (62.4%) were obtained, which were significantly higher than those of traditional hexane extraction and other methods for wet algal biomass. Furthermore, an excessive extraction of polar lipid was found for wet biomass compared with dry biomass. The advantage of this method is to efficiently extract lipids from high moisture content algal biomass and avoid using organic solvent, indicating immense potential for commercial microalgae-based biofuel production. PMID:27132220

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Asmaa A; Raafat, Dina; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing threat of microbial resistance against traditional antibiotics has prompted the development of several antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs), including silver NPs (AgNPs). In this article, a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using the cranberry powder aqueous extract is reported. Materials and methods Cranberry powder aqueous extracts (0.2%, 0.5%, and 0.8% w/v) were allowed to interact for 24 hours with a silver nitrate solution (10 mM) at 30°C at a ratio of 1:10. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared NPs were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, measurement of ζ-potential, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro antimicrobial properties of AgNPs were then investigated against several microbial strains. Finally, in vivo appraisal of both wound-healing and antimicrobial properties of either plain AgNPs (prepared using 0.2% extract) or AgNP-Pluronic F-127 gel was conducted in a rat model after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P wound infection. Results The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, where a surface-plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed between 432 and 438 nm. Both size and concentration of the formed AgNPs increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The developed NPs were stable, almost spherical, and polydisperse, with a size range of 1.4–8.6 nm. The negative ζ-potential values, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, indicated the presence of a capping agent adsorbed onto the surface of the particles. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation revealed a size-dependent activity of the AgNPs against the tested organisms. Finally, AgNPs prepared using 0.2% extract exhibited a substantial in vivo healing potential for full-thickness excision wounds in rats. Conclusion AgNPs were

  13. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  14. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Ficus exasperata vahl. (Moraceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Stephen O; Adenowo, Tk; Naicker, Thajasvarie; Ojewole, John A O

    2011-01-01

    The hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effects of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) (family: Moraceae) leaf aqueous extract (FEE) were investigated in experimental rat models. In this study, spontaneously-hypertensive rats (SHR) (type 1 diabetes), obese Zucker (type 2 diabetes) and Wistar rats were used. Three (A, B and C) groups of rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used. Group A Wistar rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of streptozotocin (STZ) and FEE administered intraperitoneally to treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the SHR group B rats by multiple low-dose (MLD) intraperitoneal injections of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight) to induce type 1 diabetes. The animals in group C were the obese Zucker rats with non-insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (NDDM) (type 2 diabetes) on genetic basis. F. exasperata leaf aqueous extract (FEE, 100 mg/kg/day p.o.) was administered orally by orogastric intubation to fasted Groups B and C rats. In groups B and C rats, administration of FEE commenced 4 weeks post STZ injection, and continued for the next 4 consecutive weeks. Group A rats gave normal biochemical and morphological findings. Group B rats exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypoinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These findings were also observed in group C rats, except that there was hyperinsilinaemia. Histopathological study of the aortic blood vessels showed extensive collagen fiber formation as well as perivascular fibrosis in both groups B and C rats. Four weeks of oral administration of F. exasperata leaf aqueous extract to diabetic groups of rats decreased blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid profiles. Administration of FEE (100 mg/kg p.o.) also restored the microanatomy of the blood vessels to almost normal levels. The findings of this study suggest that F. exasperata leaf aqueous extract possesses hypoglycaemic, hypotensive and hypolipidaemic properties. These findings lend biomedical and pharmacological

  15. Oral subchronic toxicity of aqueous crude extract of Plantago australis leaves.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, N M S; Almeida, C E; Ghedini, P C; Goulart, L S; Pereira, M C F; Huber, S; da Silva, J E P; Lopes, S

    2003-09-01

    The toxic effects of chronic oral administration (60 days) of aqueous crude extract (AE) of Plantago australis Lam. (Plantaginaceae) in rats at doses of 850 and 1700 mg/kg on biochemical (ALT, AST, creatinine, urea, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumin), hematological (complete hemogram), and histopathological (heart, lung, liver, kidney, esophagus, stomach and gut) parameters were studied. All biochemical and hematological parameters were found to be in the normal range, but ALT in animals that received AE of 850 mg/kg was higher. Histopathological analysis of organs, especially the liver did not present alterations. PMID:12902047

  16. Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn].

    PubMed

    Pal, Atanu; Sharma, Parmeshwar P; Pandya, Tarulata N; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B

    2012-10-01

    Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana.

  17. Antineoplasic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus Amboinicus in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandao, Eduardo M.; Brandão, Paulo H. D. M.; Souza, Ivone A.; Paiva, Gerson S.; de C. Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  18. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  19. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins. PMID:24148423

  20. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Sanaa; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2007-04-01

    In the Moroccan traditional medicine, the ripe fruits of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/Compositae), two widely available plant materials, are used as diuretics. Since, the diuretic activity of these substances has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (caraway) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Water extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare (100 mg/kg) or the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. After single doses of the extracts of both caraway seeds and tansy leaves, urine output was significantly increased at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was similar for the plant extracts and furosemide. Both extracts increased urinary levels of Na(+) and K(+), to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na(+) and decreased urinary K(+). Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were not affected by any of the three substances. In the 8-day sub-chronic study, all three substances induced significant diuresis and natriuresis; only tansy increased urinary potassium excretion. The plant extracts did not appear to have renal toxicity or any other adverse effects during the study period. In conclusion, water extracts of both Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare have strong diuretic action confirming their ethnopharmacological use. From the pattern of excretion of water, sodium and potassium, it may be deduced that there are atleast two types of active principals present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity.

  1. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  2. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. Results: All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression. PMID:27462555

  3. Phenolic constituents in commercial aqueous Quillaja (Quillaja saponaria Molina) wood extracts.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Carle, Reinhold; Weiss, Jochen; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin

    2015-02-18

    Phenolic compounds in aqueous, saponin-rich soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina) extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS(n) and NMR spectroscopy. (+)-Piscidic acid represented the major constituent (75-87% (w/w) of total phenolics) in all examined extracts (n = 4), ranging from 22.1 ± 0.1 to 34.0 ± 0.2 mg/g of dry matter (DM). Derivatives of p-coumaric acid were present at concentrations from 2.2 to 9.3 mg/g of DM (8.1-20.4% of total phenolics), whereas other phenolic constituents such as glucosyringic acid and vanillic acid derivatives accounted for less than 7% of total phenolics. Generally, all Quillaja extracts showed a highly similar but unique pattern, potentially being useful to authenticate Quillaja extracts in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical formulations. Furthermore, the desired antioxidant activity as well as undesired browning reactions in the final product might also be explained by these phenolic compounds, which were identified for the first time in Q. saponaria extracts.

  4. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus shoots in rats.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, V; Masika, Pj; Adedapo, Aa

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous extract from Leonotis leonurus (L) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) shoots was evaluated in female rats for its acute, sub acute, and chronic toxicity together with hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes. In the acute toxicity test, the extract caused death in animals receiving 3200 mg/kg dose. The extract also caused significant (P < 0.05) changes in red blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelets, white blood cells and its differentials at doses of 1600 mg/kg in sub-acute toxicity and in as low as 200 mg/kg in chronic toxicity. In biochemical parameters, the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the levels of urea and creatinine at 1600 mg/kg dose and a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in urea, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, glutamine transference gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alanine transminase in the 400 mg/kg dose in chronic toxicity. Changes were also noted in body weights, but no significant changes were observed in the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride). Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress, and mortality were recorded. The extract also caused various histopathological changes in the organs. The study concluded that farmers need to exercise caution in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes. PMID:19244291

  5. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L.) leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Mansouri, Esrafil; Meamar, Zakieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery) has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001), and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05). Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters. PMID:25949952

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  7. Phenolic constituents in commercial aqueous Quillaja (Quillaja saponaria Molina) wood extracts.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Carle, Reinhold; Weiss, Jochen; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin

    2015-02-18

    Phenolic compounds in aqueous, saponin-rich soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina) extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS(n) and NMR spectroscopy. (+)-Piscidic acid represented the major constituent (75-87% (w/w) of total phenolics) in all examined extracts (n = 4), ranging from 22.1 ± 0.1 to 34.0 ± 0.2 mg/g of dry matter (DM). Derivatives of p-coumaric acid were present at concentrations from 2.2 to 9.3 mg/g of DM (8.1-20.4% of total phenolics), whereas other phenolic constituents such as glucosyringic acid and vanillic acid derivatives accounted for less than 7% of total phenolics. Generally, all Quillaja extracts showed a highly similar but unique pattern, potentially being useful to authenticate Quillaja extracts in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical formulations. Furthermore, the desired antioxidant activity as well as undesired browning reactions in the final product might also be explained by these phenolic compounds, which were identified for the first time in Q. saponaria extracts. PMID:25625186

  8. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Agwaya, Moses Solomon; Vuzi, Peter California; Nandutu, Agnes Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p = 0.27), implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage. PMID:27069932

  9. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus shoots in rats.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, V; Masika, Pj; Adedapo, Aa

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous extract from Leonotis leonurus (L) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) shoots was evaluated in female rats for its acute, sub acute, and chronic toxicity together with hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes. In the acute toxicity test, the extract caused death in animals receiving 3200 mg/kg dose. The extract also caused significant (P < 0.05) changes in red blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelets, white blood cells and its differentials at doses of 1600 mg/kg in sub-acute toxicity and in as low as 200 mg/kg in chronic toxicity. In biochemical parameters, the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the levels of urea and creatinine at 1600 mg/kg dose and a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in urea, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, glutamine transference gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alanine transminase in the 400 mg/kg dose in chronic toxicity. Changes were also noted in body weights, but no significant changes were observed in the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride). Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress, and mortality were recorded. The extract also caused various histopathological changes in the organs. The study concluded that farmers need to exercise caution in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes.

  10. DNA degradation by aqueous extract of Aloe vera in the presence of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shoa; Ullah, M F; Hadi, S M

    2010-06-01

    The plant Aloe vera has long been used in medicine, as dietary supplements and for cosmetic purposes. Aloe vera extracts are a rich source of polyphenols, such as aloin and aloe emodin and have shown a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The bioactive component aloe emodin has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Many of the biological activities of Aloe vera have been attributed to its antioxidant properties. However, most plant-derived polyphenols that are also present in Aloe vera may exhibit pro-oxidant properties either alone or in the presence of transition metals, such as copper. Previous reports from this laboratory have implicated the pro-oxidant action as one of the mechanisms for their anti-cancer properties. In the present paper, we show that aqueous extract of Aloe vera is also able to cause DNA degradation in the presence of copper ions. Further, the extract is also able to reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I) and generate reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner, which correlates with ability of the extract to cause DNA breakage. Thus, the study shows that in addition to antioxidant activity, Aloe vera extract also possess pro-oxidant properties, leading to oxidative DNA breakage.

  11. ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF COMBINED AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF VERNONIA AMYGDALINA AND METFORMIN IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Michael, U. Adikwu; David, B. Uzuegbu; Theophine, C. Okoye; Philip, F. Uzor; Ogochukwu, Adibe Maxwell; Benson, V. Amadi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the antidiabetic activity of the various combinations (ratios) of metformin (50 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (100 mg/kg). The ratios of Extract to Metformin were 1:1, 2 1, and 2:1 and distilled water (control, p.o.) were given to both normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats. Blood was withdrawn and tested at 0, 1, 3 and 6 hours. Results showed that the combinations of the extract and metformin caused more reduction in glycemia compared to any of the agents acting alone in either of the two categories of animals. The ratio of 1:2 caused the most significant (p%0.05) reduction in blood sugar (-66.07%) compared to distilled water (-7.2%). However, the ratio of metformin: extract (2:1) caused a reduction of -62.66% but was found a better combination considering the safety of the drugs. The combination of Vernonia amygdalina with metformin for the management of diabetes should be highly encouraged with a reduction in the dose of metformin and an increase in the dose of the plant extract to guarantee efficacy and safety PMID:24825988

  12. Extraction preconcentration and photometric determination of chlorophenols and naphthols in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Ya.I.; Kalinkina, S.P.; Sukhanov, P.T.

    1994-11-01

    Mono- and bicyclic hydroxy compounds (phenol, chlorophenols, naphthols, and naphtholsulfonic acids) are industrial toxicants; these compounds occur in waste water from the production of dyestuffs, polymer materials, perfumes, drugs, varnishes, paints, and pesticides. Phenol, chlorophenols, and naphthols are carcinogenic toxicants; they may constitute a threat to living organisms in reservoirs and biologically active silts. The presence of these compounds changes the oxygen balance of water basins. The maximum permissible concentration of these compounds in water varies from 10{sup {minus}1} (naphthols) to 10{sup {minus}4} mg/L (chlorophenols). For the reliable determination of microquantities of toxicants in water, we proposed procedures that include extraction by lower alcohols, organic acids, and hexane or hexane-hexanol solutions of solvotropic reagents (dialkyl phthalates and trialkyl phthalates). A set of extraction photometric procedures has been developed for the total and selective determination of microquantities of phenol and naphthol toxicants in aqueous media.

  13. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Ramkumar, R; Rajthilak, C; Perumal, P

    2014-01-24

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  14. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  15. Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of cold aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides by Allium cepa L test.

    PubMed

    Sabini, María C; Cariddi, Laura N; Escobara, Franco M; Bachetti, Romina A; Sutil, Sonia B; Contigiani, Marta S; Zanon, Silvia M; Sabini, Liliana I

    2011-07-01

    Achyrocline satureioides ("marcela del campo") is native to America. Numerous investigations have reported several bioactive properties such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antiviral. Nowadays, few medicinal plants have been scientifically evaluated to test its safety, efficacy and potential benefits, despite the great public interest in these herbs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of cold aqueous extract obtained from A. satureioides using Allium cepa L test. The results demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of the extract. Only higher concentrations induced cytotoxicity but interestingly this effect was reversible and was not associated with mutagenicity. The contribution of this research provides assurance of safety in the application of Achyrocline satureioides in treatment of microbial diseases and other pathologies helping to define selective toxicity.

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  17. Solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-09-12

    This study deals with the solid supported in situ derivatization extraction of acidic degradation products of nerve agents present in aqueous samples. Target analytes were alkyl alkylphosphonic acids and alkylphosphonic acids, which are important environmental signatures of nerve agents. The method involved tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane mediated in situ silylation of analytes on commercially available diatomaceous solid phase extraction cartridges. Various parameters such as derivatizing reagent, its concentration, reaction time, temperature and eluting solvent were optimized. Recoveries of the analytes were determined by GC-MS which ranged from 60% to 86%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes were achieved down to 78 and 213ngmL(-1) respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode. The successful applicability of method was also demonstrated on samples of biological origin such as plasma and to the samples received in 34th official proficiency test conducted by the Organization for Prohibition the of Chemical Weapons. PMID:25103280

  18. Comparison of Fe(II) Photo-Formation Characteristics Between Aqueous Humic Acid Solutions and Aqueous Extracts of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Okada, K.; Arakaki, T.

    2007-12-01

    Photochemical cycles of Fe(III)-Fe(II) affects the oxidation and the reduction of transient species such as active oxygen species and various transition metals in the atmospheric condensed phases. Although the importance of organic ligands to iron cycling (e.g. ligand-to-metal charge transfer) is becoming clearer, the mechanism by which photochemical reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) are not well understood. Humic acid (HA) is considered as an important organic ligand for Fe(III) complexes in the environment. HA is a collection of organic compounds that exist in nature but whose structures are not well known. Commercially available HAs as received from the manufacturers contain trace amount of iron. Using this residual Fe, we investigated the photochemical formation of Fe(II) in aqueous HA solutions to elucidate the photochemical cycles of Fe(III)-Fe(II) in the atmospheric water drops. We purchased HAs from several different suppliers. We investigated the effects of pH and wavelengths on Fe(II) photo-formation using monochromatic radiations at 313, 334, 366, and 405 nm. Concentrations of photochemically formed Fe(II) were determined by ferrozine-HPLC technique, and the apparent quantum yields were determined based on the total absorbance of the HA solutions. Fe(II) photo-formation characteristics of the aqueous humic acid solutions purchased from different suppliers showed slightly different wavelength dependence. Furthermore, we compared Fe(II) photoformation characteristics observed in aqueous HA solutions with those in the aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan. The results showed that the apparent quantum yields of the aerosol extracts were 5-10 times higher than those of the HA solutions. Wavelength-dependence of Fe(II) photo-formation observed in the aqueous extracts of aerosols was similar to that seen in the aqueous HA solutions.

  19. Analysis of energy utilization in spinach processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chhinnan, M.S.; Singh, R.P.; Pedersen, L.D.; Carroad, P.A.; Rose, W.W.; Jacob, N.L.

    1980-03-01

    The equipment and methods used to monitor the electrical and thermal energy consumed in various unit operations in a spinach processing plant are described and the results of a processing plant energy audit are presented. It is concluded that it requires 6.5 MJ of natural gas and fuel oil and 0.072 MJ of electric power to process one kg of new spinach; the energy intensive operations in spinach processing are associated with exhaust boxes, blanchers, and retorts; uniform product flow through the canning line is essential to energy conservation; and design improvements are needed for the blancher, exhaust box, and retort. (LCL)

  20. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Amagon, Kennedy Iliya; Agbo, John; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara

    2015-01-01

    Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250–4000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out at doses of 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg administered daily for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical (renal and hepatic), hematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using standard methods. LD50 of the extract was estimated as >4 000 mg/kg orally; neither significant visible signs of toxicity nor mortality were observed. There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count were observed in the treated animals compared with the control group. The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution. PMID:27486366

  1. Aqueous Neem Extract Versus Neem Powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: Implications for Control in Anthropogenic Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Kudom, Andreas A.; Mensah, Ben A.; Botchey, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ2 = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas. PMID:22233153

  2. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  3. Uterolytic effect of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Hypoxidaceae) corm [;African Potato'] aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Nyinawumuntu, Agatha; Awe, Emmanuel O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-01

    Extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea corm (African potato) are commonly used by some traditional health practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa as natural antenatal remedy to prevent threatening or premature abortion and miscarriage, and to ensure successful confinement. In this study, we investigated the uterolytic activity of H. hemerocallidea corm aqueous extract on spontaneous, rhythmic contractions of uterine horns taken from pregnant rats and guinea-pigs, as well as on spasmogen-provoked contractions of stilboesterol-primed, oestrogen-dominated, non-pregnant rat and guinea-pig isolated uterine horns. Relatively low to high concentrations of H. hemerocallidea corm aqueous extract (APE, 25-400 mg/ml) inhibited the amplitude of the spontaneous, rhythmic contractions of, and relaxed, uterine horns isolated from pregnant rats and guinea-pigs in a concentration-related manner. Furthermore, relatively low to high concentrations of APE (25-400 mg/ml) relaxed basal tones of uterine horns taken from non-pregnant, oestrogen-dominated rats and guinea-pigs in a concentration-dependent manner. The same moderately low to high concentrations of APE (25-400 mg/ml) inhibited acetylcholine-, oxytocin-, bradykinin-, and potassium chloride (K(+))-induced contractions of oestrogen-dominated rat and guinea-pig isolated uterine horns in a concentration-related manner. Although the mechanism of uterolytic action of APE could not be established, the results of the present study lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of APE as a natural antenatal remedy for threatening or premature abortion, and suggest that the uterolytic action of the corm's extract is unlikely to be mediated via beta(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation, but probably mediated through a non-specific spasmolytic mechanism. PMID:19122381

  4. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EFFICACY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINIS.

    PubMed

    Eida, Omima M; El-Shafei, Hanaa A; Nomeir, Yousra A; El Safhi, Mohammed B

    2016-04-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) was the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) with high treatment failure rate, resistance and potential mutagenic and carcinogenic effects so there is urgent need to find out new, effective and safe treatment against B. hominis. The present research aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (NS) at different doses on B. hominis in vitro and in vivo in comparison to MTZ as a control drug. Isolates of B. hominis were obtained from patients complaining of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Isolates were cultured in egg diphasic medium (LE) for in vitro study and to adjust proper inoculating dose for in vivo study. The aqueous extract of NS at concentrations of 100 & 500 µg/ml showed a potent lethal effect on B. hominis isolates in vitro. Caecal tissue of experimentally infected and treated mice with two different doses of NS (250 & 500 mg/kg/d) were examined histopathologically and compared with that of mice infected and treated by two doses of MTZ (62 & 125 mg/kg/d) as control drug and Infected untreated mice as negative control group. Histopathological examination of infected untreated group showed all pathological degrees in the caecal tissue while infected treated one showed remission of pathological changes especially with higher dose (500 mg/kg). Present study proved that N. sativa had inhibitory effect on B. hominis in vitro and prevented cytopathic effect in infected mice inoculated orally with B. hominis. PMID:27363038

  5. Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system extraction of sulfonamides in milk.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingyuan; Zhang, Xuli; Li, Na; Shi, Jiayuan; Zhang, Huijie; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Yong

    2014-06-15

    A simple method for the determination of six sulfonamides (SAs) in milk samples was developed. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and trisodium citrate dihydrate were used to form aqueous two-phase system. The aqueous two phase system was applied to the extraction of the SAs and the determination of the analytes was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. To achieve optimum extraction performance, several experimental parameters, including the type and the amount of salt, the type and amount of ionic liquid, ultrasonic time and pH of sample solution, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 8.55-1036.36ngmL(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 2.04-2.84 and 6.73-9.37ngmL(-1), respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs in milk samples, and the recoveries of analytes were in the range of 72.32-108.96% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.56 to 12.20%. The results showed that the present method was rapid, feasible and environmentally friendly. PMID:24854709

  6. Ionic liquids for aqueous two-phase extraction and stabilization of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Susanne; Kragl, Udo

    2008-04-15

    The ionic liquid (IL) Ammoeng110 contains cations with oligoethyleneglycol units and was found to be highly effective for the formation of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) that can be used for the biocompatible purification of active enzymes. Above critical concentrations of the IL and an inorganic salt in aqueous solution, phase separation takes place resulting in the formation of an IL-enriched upper and a salt-enriched lower phase. For the optimization of the composition of IL-based ATPS with regard to the extraction of catalytically active enzymes, the Box-Wilson method of experimental design was successfully applied; IL-based ATPS proved to be suitable for the purification and stabilization of two different alcohol dehydrogenases (from Lactobacillus brevis and a thermophilic bacterium). Both enzymes were enriched in the IL-containing upper phase resulting in an increase of specific activity by a factor of 2 and 4 respectively. Furthermore, the presence of IL within the system provided the opportunity to combine the extraction process with the performance of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The IL was found to exhibit a stability improving effect on both enzymes and a solubility enhancing effect on hydrophobic substrates. Thus the conversion and volumetric productivity of ADH catalyzed reduction of acetophenone could be increased significantly. PMID:18023057

  7. Isolation, purification and identification of antioxidants in an aqueous aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yukun; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    An aqueous aged garlic extract (AGE) was prepared by soaking sliced garlic in water for 20days at room temperature (23-25 °C). In order to locate the antioxidant ingredients of the aqueous AGE, an activity-guided fractionation approach using ABTS assay, DPPH assay and FRAP assay were conducted to guide the fractionation by means of extraction, column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Some phenols and organosulfur compounds were identified as antioxidants in AGE by GC-MS. Furthermore, UV, IR, ESI-MS, NMR and specific rotation experiments led to the identification of l-phenylalanine, l-tryptophan, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as the major antioxidants in the AGE. The EC50 values of these purified tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives were 0.625-1.334 μmol/mL and 1.063-2.072 μmol/mL in ABTS assay and DPPH assay, respectively. It is the first time for us to identify (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as an in vitro antioxidant in AGE.

  8. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the mean grooming episodes and duration. However, the fraction did not significantly potentiate haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These results suggest that the residual aqueous fraction of methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa contains biological active principle with antipsychotic potential.

  9. Evaluation of Anxiolytic-Like Effect of Aqueous Extract of Asparagus Stem in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Long; Pan, Guo-feng; Sun, Xiao-bo; Huang, Yun-xiang; Peng, You-shun; Zhou, Lin-yan

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies on the neuropharmacological properties of asparagus, which was applied in Chinese traditional medicine as a tonic and heat-clearing agent. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of the aqueous extract of asparagus stem (AEAS) using elevated plus maze (EPM) and Vogel conflict tests (VCT) in mice. AEAS significantly increased the percentage of time spent in open arms in EPM, when compared with control group. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, the numbers of punished licks increased to 177% and 174% by the treatment of AEAS at the doses of 1.5 and 3.0 g/kg (250 and 500 mg sarsasapogenin per kilogram of body weight), compared with control group. The serum cortisol level decreased significantly, at the same time. In conclusion, these findings indicated that the aqueous extract of asparagus stem exhibited a strong anxiolytic-like effect at dose of 1.5 and 3.0 g/kg (250 and 500 mg sarsasapogenin per kilogram of body weight) in experimental models of anxiety and may be considered an alternative approach for the management of anxiety disorder. PMID:24348707

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Cortex acanthopanacis Aqueous Extract on Bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Jiazi; Liu, Meijie; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Wenlai; Bai, Dong; Xiang, Lihua; Xiao, Gary G.; Ju, Dahong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of aqueous extract from Cortex acanthopanacis (CAE) on osteoporosis rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX) using aqueous extract from Folium Epimedii (FEE) as positive control agent. Three-month-old female rats that underwent OVX were treated with CAE. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in tibia were evaluated. In addition, the serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), calcitonin (CT), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined. Administration of CAE significantly prevented OVX-induced rats from gain of the body weight. Treatment with CAE increased bone mass remarkably and showed a significant inhibitory effect on bone resorption by downregulating significantly the expression of RANKL in tibia of OVX rats. Meanwhile, treatment of CAE significantly reduced serum level of IL-1β and increased level of CT in OVX rats. This suggests that CAE has the potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:22997530

  11. The use of electrodialysis to prepare aqueous bread extracts for bromate determination by chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Himata, Katsuichi; Warner, Charles; Currie, Douglas; Graves, Qian; Diachenko, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    A cleanup procedure based on electrodialysis is described for the preparation of aqueous bread extracts for bromate determination by chemiluminescence. The technique utilizes electrophoresis with 3 chambers separated by semipermeable membranes. The relative merits of reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration membranes with various molecular weight cutoffs were evaluated. The best results were obtained with an RO membrane manufactured from thin-film (composite) polysulfone as support for polyamide. A 0.14 M sodium sulfate solution in the center or collection chamber provides optimum conductivity. Aqueous hydroxylamine sulfate (30 mM) was selected for the anode compartment as a reductant for the anode oxidation products. The constant current mode at 150 mA with a potential of ca 100 volts was used. After electrophoretic separation, the bromate concentration in the collection chamber was typically 2 to 3 times greater than the concentration in the bread extract. The chemiluminescent reaction of bromate with sulfite with hydrocortisone as the enhancer was selected for detection of bromate. The emission, with a wavelength maximum at 575 nm, was found to "glow" rather than "flash" after the reagents were mixed; therefore, it was possible to optimize the light collection period. The method was validated with a variety of commercial bread products. White bread, hot dog buns, hamburger rolls, and a multigrain bread from 7 different manufacturers were studied. PMID:16001854

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    PubMed Central

    Anusha, M.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Prabhakaran, V.; Taj, S. Shareen; Kumari, B. Pushpa; Ranganayakulu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days). The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w) was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST), alanine transaminases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P), total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP) and total cholesterol (TC)], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST) and histopathological studies of liver. Results: Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions: The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:22022001

  13. Evaluation of cutaneous wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Ravarian, Behdad; Zardast, Mahmoud; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Fard, Mohammad Hasanpour; Valavi, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract on cutaneous wound healing in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male BALB/c mice (2.5 months of age) were used. A cut wound (superficial fascia depth) was made locally. The mice were then divided into three groups: the first, second and third groups received topical administration of M. sylvestris 1% aqueous extract, silver sulfadiazine topical cream and cold cream (positive and negative control groups), respectively. On days 4, 7 and 10 excisional biopsies were performed and wound healing was evaluated histopathologically. The data were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results: On days 4 and 7, the numbers of inflammatory cells in the silver sulfadiazine and M. sylvestris-treated groups were significantly lower than the control group and keratinization at the edges of the wound in both groups was significantly higher than the control group. On the tenth day of the study, the Malva-treated mice showed better healing features and less fibrosis and scar formation, and also fewer hair follicles were damaged in this group. On the tenth day of the study, the numbers of inflammatory cells in M. sylvestris and silver sulfadiazine-treated groups were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: The present study supports the beneficial effects of M. sylvestris on the wound healing process and suggests a potential clinical application. PMID:26221487

  14. Isolation, purification and identification of antioxidants in an aqueous aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yukun; Zhang, Min

    2015-11-15

    An aqueous aged garlic extract (AGE) was prepared by soaking sliced garlic in water for 20days at room temperature (23-25 °C). In order to locate the antioxidant ingredients of the aqueous AGE, an activity-guided fractionation approach using ABTS assay, DPPH assay and FRAP assay were conducted to guide the fractionation by means of extraction, column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Some phenols and organosulfur compounds were identified as antioxidants in AGE by GC-MS. Furthermore, UV, IR, ESI-MS, NMR and specific rotation experiments led to the identification of l-phenylalanine, l-tryptophan, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as the major antioxidants in the AGE. The EC50 values of these purified tetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives were 0.625-1.334 μmol/mL and 1.063-2.072 μmol/mL in ABTS assay and DPPH assay, respectively. It is the first time for us to identify (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as an in vitro antioxidant in AGE. PMID:25976995

  15. Novel Displacement Agents for Aqueous 2-Phase Extraction Can Be Estimated Based on Hybrid Shortcut Calculations.

    PubMed

    Kress, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele; Brandenbusch, Christoph

    2016-10-01

    The purification of therapeutic proteins is a challenging task with immediate need for optimization. Besides other techniques, aqueous 2-phase extraction (ATPE) of proteins has been shown to be a promising alternative to cost-intensive state-of-the-art chromatographic protein purification. Most likely, to enable a selective extraction, protein partitioning has to be influenced using a displacement agent to isolate the target protein from the impurities. In this work, a new displacement agent (lithium bromide [LiBr]) allowing for the selective separation of the target protein IgG from human serum albumin (represents the impurity) within a citrate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) ATPS is presented. In order to characterize the displacement suitability of LiBr on IgG, the mutual influence of LiBr and the phase formers on the aqueous 2-phase system (ATPS) and partitioning is investigated. Using osmotic virial coefficients (B22 and B23) accessible by composition gradient multiangle light-scattering measurements, the precipitating effect of LiBr on both proteins and an estimation of both protein partition coefficients is estimated. The stabilizing effect of LiBr on both proteins was estimated based on B22 and experimentally validated within the citrate-PEG ATPS. Our approach contributes to an efficient implementation of ATPE within the downstream processing development of therapeutic proteins. PMID:27449229

  16. Ecological hazard assessment of aqueous soil extracts using FETAX. Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay--Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Fort, D J; Stover, E L; Norton, D

    1995-01-01

    Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay--Xenopus (FETAX) testing of a series of diverse hazardous waste-site soil samples was performed to evaluate the efficacy of FETAX as a rapid developmental toxicity screening tool for environmental hazard assessment. Soil samples were collected from six different hazardous waste sites, three from eastern and three from western Washington State. The type of waste site samples studied, based on the contaminants identified, included: heavy metals (2), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum products (2) and organochlorine pesticides. Three to five samples from each site representing baseline and increasing levels of contamination were collected. Aqueous extracts of the soil samples were prepared and used for FETAX studies. Samples collected from the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon- and petroleum product-contaminated sites induced greater levels of embryolethal effects, although embryonic malformation was also observed. The metal-contaminated sites induced greater levels of embryonic malformation, but induced less embryolethality than the other samples evaluated. The organochlorine pesticide-contaminated site samples caused significant levels of embryonic deformities but failed to induce embryolethal effects. Results from these studies suggested that FETAX was sensitive enough to detect low levels of developmental toxicants but robust enough to be suitable for aqueous soil extract testing. FETAX may be used as a component of a battery of tests designed to assess potential ecological hazard.

  17. Modulating effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis on induced cyanide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O M; Olabode, O O

    2011-12-20

    The effect of lyophilised aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TO) on induced cyanide toxicity in rats was investigated. Twenty 3-week old male wistar albino rats were randomly distributed into one control and three treatment groups of five rats each: control group (group1), group treated with 3mg/kg body wt of cyanide only (group2), group treated with 3mg/kg body wt. each of cyanide and extract (group3), and a group treated with 3mg/kg Body wt of extract only (group4) were used for the investigation. Cyanide toxicity reduced both food and water intake (p<0.05), while the food intake was improved in group3, this effect of the extract on food was not observed on water intake. Cyanide reduced average body weight of rats significantly (p<0.05). The reduction effect of cyanide on body weight was countered by Telfairia occidentalis extract. The extract did not have an observable effect on rats' body weight. Ocular lesion was observed in 67% of rats in group2 . This ocular effect of cyanide was mitigated significantly by Telfairia occidentalis as only 17% of the rats in group3 had ocular lesion. Cyanide toxicity produced nasal discharge in 39% of the rat population in group2 while there was a partial but considerable reduction (21%) in the severity of nasal discharge in group 3. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the organ/body wt.ratio between the treatments and the control groups for all the organs examined in the study. Biochemical analysis of liver enzymes showed that cyanide (group2) damaged the liver as there was significantly elevated presence (p<0.05) of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALP) above those of the control group. The damaging effect of cyanide on the liver was ameliorated by Telfairia occidentalis considerably.Histopathological effect of cyanide toxicity on the organs examined included multifocal degeneration and necrosis of the liver, mild kidney congestion and congestion of the brain. These effects

  18. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERBERIS CALLIOBOTRYS IN ALBINO MICE.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Naz, Huma; Rasool, Shadid; Raza, Sayed Atif; Ahmad, Taseer; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Asif, Hira; Khan, Zahid; Noor, Nabeela; Utra, Ambreen Malik; Umme-Habiba-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of stem part of Berberis calliobotiys (AMEBC) was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in albino mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using carrageenan and albumin induced paw edema, while the analgesic effect was assessed by using formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. The brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used for antipyretic investigation. Ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug in all the three models. The aqueous methanolic extract at both (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) doses, showed highly significant (p < 0.001) reduction in paw edema induced by carrageenan and albumin. Moreover, the aqueous methanolic extract also highly significantly (p < 0.001) reduced (87%) the formalin-induced paw licking at 500 mg/kg. The highly significant (p < 0.001) reductions (24.48% and 37.9%) was also observed in the number of writhings. Furthermore, aqueous methanolic extract also demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) antipyretic activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The maximum effect was observed in all the three parameters at 500 mg/kg dose. The results suggest a potential benefit of the aqueous methanolic extract of Berbeis calliobotrys in treating conditions associated with inflammation, pain and fever. PMID:27505907

  19. Identification of the chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Zhi-Qiao and evaluation of its antidepressant effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hongmei; Ma, Zhuo; Zou, Zhongmei

    2015-01-01

    The immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. (Zhi-Qiao, ZQ) has been used as a traditional medicine in China. Our previous study has shown that ZQ decoction may contribute to the antidepressant-like action of Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San. However, there are no reports on the chemical constituents of ZQ aqueous extract or its anti-depression effects. Firstly, this research reported the on-line identification of the chemical constituents in the aqueous extract of ZQ by coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 31 chemical constituents were identified in ZQ aqueous extract, including one tannic acid, five flavones, 13 flavanones, one limonoid, three coumarins, three cyclic peptides, and five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The antidepressant effect of ZQ aqueous extract was evaluated in vivo and the results indicated that the mice immobility time during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test were significantly reduced with ZQ treatment. MTT assays showed both ZQ aqueous extract and its major constituents (naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) had neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The in vivo and in vitro results suggest that ZQ has an antidepressant effect.

  20. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Materials and Methods Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Results Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. Conclusions It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:24624210

  1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERBERIS CALLIOBOTRYS IN ALBINO MICE.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Naz, Huma; Rasool, Shadid; Raza, Sayed Atif; Ahmad, Taseer; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Asif, Hira; Khan, Zahid; Noor, Nabeela; Utra, Ambreen Malik; Umme-Habiba-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of stem part of Berberis calliobotiys (AMEBC) was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in albino mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using carrageenan and albumin induced paw edema, while the analgesic effect was assessed by using formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. The brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used for antipyretic investigation. Ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug in all the three models. The aqueous methanolic extract at both (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) doses, showed highly significant (p < 0.001) reduction in paw edema induced by carrageenan and albumin. Moreover, the aqueous methanolic extract also highly significantly (p < 0.001) reduced (87%) the formalin-induced paw licking at 500 mg/kg. The highly significant (p < 0.001) reductions (24.48% and 37.9%) was also observed in the number of writhings. Furthermore, aqueous methanolic extract also demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) antipyretic activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The maximum effect was observed in all the three parameters at 500 mg/kg dose. The results suggest a potential benefit of the aqueous methanolic extract of Berbeis calliobotrys in treating conditions associated with inflammation, pain and fever.

  2. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  3. Picrocrocin kinetics in aqueous saffron spice extracts (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel; Jarén-Galán, Manuel; Mosquera, M Isabel Mínguez; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2011-01-12

    The kinetics of picrocrocin degradation in aqueous extracts of saffron upon thermal treatment from 5 to 70 °C have been studied, together with the degradation of purified picrocrocin in water at 100 °C. The best fits to experimental data were found for a second-order kinetics model. Picrocrocin showed high stability with half-life periods (t(1/2)) ranging from >3400 h at 5 °C in saffron extracts to 9 h in the experiments with purified picrocrocin at 100 °C. In saffron extracts, the evolution of the rate constant (k) with temperature showed maximum values at 35 °C, and filtration of the extracts contributed to picrocrocin stability. In the case of purified picrocrocin, the generation of safranal in the first 5 h (yield up to 7.4%) was confirmed. Spectrometric parameters used in saffron quality control (E(1cm)(1%) 257 nm and ΔΕ(pic)) were not appropriate for documenting the evolution of picrocrocin.

  4. A simultaneous extraction method for organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    de Perre, Chloé; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A method was developed for the extraction and analysis of 2 organophosphate, 8 pyrethroid, and 5 neonicotinoid insecticides from the same water sample. A salted liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was optimized with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step that separated the organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids from the neonicotinoids. Factors that were optimized included volume of solvent and amount of salt used in the LLE, homogenization time for the LLE, and type and volume of eluting solvent used for the SPE. The OPs and pyrethroids were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the neonicotinoids were quantified using liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Results showed that the optimized method was accurate, precise, reproducible, and robust; recoveries in river water spiked with 100 ng L(-1) of each of the insecticides were all between 86 and 114 % with RSDs between 2 and 8 %. The method was also sensitive with method detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 27.2 ng L(-1) depending on compounds and matrices. The optimized method was thus appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of 15 widely applied insecticides from three different classes and was shown to provide valuable information on their environmental fate from field-collected aqueous samples.

  5. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  6. Effective extraction of elastase from Bacillus sp. fermentation broth using aqueous two-phase system*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; He, Guo-qing; Li, Jing-jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for extracting elastase produced by Bacillus sp. EL31410. The elastase and cell partition behavio r in polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt systems was investigated. The suitable system for elastase extraction was PEG/KH2PO4-K2HPO4, in which elastase is mainly partitioned into the PEG-rich phase, while the cells remained in the other phase. The influence of defined system parameters (e.g. PEG molecular mass, pH, NaCl addition) on the partitioning behavior of elastase is described. The concentration of phase forming components, PEG and KH2PO4-K2HPO4, was optimized for elastase recovery by means of response surface methodology, and it was found that they greatly influenced extraction recovery. The optimal ATPS was 23.1% (w/w) PEG 2 000 and 11.7% (w/w) KH2PO4-K2HPO4. The predicted recovery was about 89.5%, so this process is suggested to be a rapid and convenient method for elastase extraction. PMID:16252343

  7. Liquid Phase Micro-Extraction of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Anionic Surfactants in Aqueous Samples

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Niklas; Otrembska, Paulina; Villar, Mercedes; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-01-01

    Hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous samples was studied. Ion pair extraction of C10, C11, C12 and C13 homologues was facilitated with trihexylamine as ion-pairing agent, using di-n-hexylether as solvent for the supported liquid membrane (SLM). Effects of extraction time, acceptor buffer concentration, stirring speed, sample volume, NaCl and humic acids were studied. At 10–50 μg L−1 linear R2-coefficients were 0.99 for C10 and C11 and 0.96 for C12. RSD was typically ∼15%. Three observations were especially made. Firstly, LPME for these analytes was unusually slow with maximum enrichment observed after 15–24 h (depending on sample volume). Secondly, the enrichment depended on LAS sample concentration with 35–150 times enrichment below ∼150 μg L−1 and 1850–4400 times enrichment at 1 mg L−1. Thirdly, lower homologues were enriched more than higher homologues at low sample concentrations, with reversed conditions at higher concentrations. These observations may be due to the fact that LAS and the amine counter ion themselves influence the mass transfer at the water-SLM interface. The observations on LPME of LAS may aid in LPME application to other compounds with surfactant properties or in surfactant enhanced membrane extraction of other compounds. PMID:24957870

  8. Optimization of pancreatic trypsin extraction in PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rocío L; Loureiro, Dana B; Nerli, Bibiana B; Tubio, Gisela

    2015-02-01

    Enzyme extraction using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) has been increasingly used as a primary recovery technique which integrates the clarification, concentration and partial purification of important biomolecules from their natural source in a single step. The goal of this work was to optimize the extraction of trypsin from pancreas homogenate with polyethylene glycol and sodium citrate (PEG/NaCit) ATPS by using the tools of experimental design. The variables NaCl concentration - added inert salt -, the top/bottom phase volume ratio - Vr - and the biomass loaded into the system - in percentage - were selected as the main factors in the trypsin extraction. The yield (%) and the purification factor of trypsin were considered the responses to be optimized. The central composite design and the response surface analysis proved to be suitable tools for a quick and efficient study. As a result, the optimal extraction conditions in PEG3350/NaCit system were 3.34% wt/wt for NaCl concentration, a biomass load which represented 9.30% wt/wt of the total ATPS mass and 6.37 top/bottom volume ratio giving a purification factor of 2.55 and a yield of 99.7% in top phase.

  9. Antipyretic and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Cornu bubali (water buffalo horn).

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Min; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2010-01-01

    Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn, WBH) is an animal-derived product which is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for dispelling heat, relieving convulsions and cooling blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antipyretic activity of WBH aqueous extract and its potential mechanism. Two hyperthermia models, yeast-induced (infectious) and skimmed milk-induced (noninfectious) hyperthermia were employed to evaluate the antipyretic effect and the results showed that rectal temperature of hyperthermia animals was decreased significantly after oral administration of WBH extract. The production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs) was inhibited by WBH extract in the concentrations of 10 microg/ml and 100 microg/ml. The WBH extract protected rCMECs survival from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced toxicity and inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme release at a dose ranging from 5 microg/ml to 100 microg/ml. It could also increase the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities. The results suggest that Cornu Bubali exhibits antipyretic activity on both infectious and noninfectious hyperthermia. The antipyretic activity of WBH may be due to the effects on enhancing antioxidation enzyme activities, decreasing PGE(2) production, and protecting the rCMECs against H(2)O(2)-induced injury.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts and steroidal sapogenins of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Peana, A T; Moretti, M D; Manconi, V; Desole, G; Pippia, P

    1997-06-01

    Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from Agave americana L (Agavaceae) collected in the north of Sardinia were characterized with regard to their steroidal sapogenin content. Extracts of A. americana and genins isolated from them were evaluated for anti-inflammatory properties by testing their effects on carrageenin-induced edema. The effect of orally administered genins on gastric mucous membranes was also assessed. Lyophilized extracts administered by the intraperitoneal route at doses equivalent to 200 and 300 mg/kg of fresh plant starting material, showed good anti-inflammatory activity. Doses of genins (total steroidal sapogenins, hecogenin and tigogenin) equivalent to the amount in the lyophilized extracts produced an antiedentatous effect which was much stronger and more efficacious than that obtained with an i.p. administration of 5 mg/kg of indomethacin or dexamethasone 21-phosphate at a dose equivalent to the molar content of hecogenin administered. At the doses used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, the genins did not have any harmful effect on the gastric mucous membranes. Lesions occurred when significantly higher doses of hecogenin were given, but gastric damage was still less than that caused by the drugs used for comparative purposes.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  12. Hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic effect of aqueous extract leaves of Ficus glumosa (Moraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ntchapda, Fidele; Djedouboum, Abakar; Talla, Emmanuel; Sokeng Dongmo, Sélestin; Nana, Paulin; Adjia, Hamadjida; Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Bonabe, Christian; Gaimatakon, Samuel; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-02-01

    Leaves of Ficus glumosa are used in northern Cameroon and southern Chad for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, as food and as a stimulant for milk production in both women and animals. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which frequency increases with age. The first lesions appear at the young subject during adolescence. Atherosclerosis lesions appear very precociously and worsen with age. They interest the levels chronologically aortic, coronary then carotid. Age is a risk factor in that it reflects the exposure time of individual to the other risk factors. The frequency of the atherosclerosis increases with age because of the aging of the cells. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic properties of aqueous extract of the leaves of F. glumosa in rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC). 60 male rats were fed for 4 weeks with a high-cholesterol diet (1%) and 3 doses (225, 300 and 375 mg/kg) of extract of F. glumosa were used in these experiments. The experiments were conducted under the same conditions with atorvastatin (1 mg/kg), as pharmacological reference substance. The effects of F. glumosa on weight gain, water and food consumption, levels of serum lipids and lipoprotein lipid oxidation and stress markers in the blood and liver were examined. The administration of F. glumosa extract prevented significant (P<0.05) elevation in TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c, hepatic and aortic TG and TC. The atherogenic, triglyceride, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) indexes were also decreased in the rats treated with the extract. F. glumosa favored the performance of fecal cholesterol. It also significantly inhibited the changes and the formation of aortic atherosclerotic plaques. These results revealed the hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of F. glumosa extract and support the traditional use of the extract of this plant in the treatment of hypertension and diabetes.

  13. Morphological alterations in toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus exposed to neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and seed aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Allameh, Abdolamir; Tiraihi, Taki; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Ghorbanian, Mehdi

    2005-06-01

    The mode of action of the extracts prepared from neem plant i.e., Azadirachta indica on aflatoxin formation in toxigenic Aspergillus species is not well understood. Aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was suppressed depending on the concentration of the plant aqueous extract (0, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, and 50% v/v) added to the culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Aflatoxin production in fungal mycelia grown for 96 h in culture media containing 50% neem leaf and seed extracts was inhibited by approximately 90 and approximately 65% respectively. Under similar conditions, culture media amended with 1.56% of leaf or seed extract caused approximately 23 and approximately 7% inhibition respectively. Mycelial samples exposed to selected concentrations of the plant extract (1.56 or 50% v/v) collected and processed for morphological studies. Semi-thin longitudinal and cross sections prepared from control (untreated) and treated mycelia (1.56% v/v) revealed that alterations are limited to the vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm. Nevertheless, exposure to high concentration i.e., 50% v/v of the extract resulted in vacuolation of the mycelial cytoplasm and vesicle deformation causing attenuation of cell wall at variable intervals. Herniation of the cytoplasmic contents that was protruding from the mycelium was associated with deformation of the mycelium. Some mycelia showed a cleft between the cell wall and cytoplasm. Association of aflatoxin production with morphological changes suggest that probably integrity of the cell barriers particularly cell wall is critical in regulation of aflatoxin production and excretion. PMID:15983743

  14. Effect of chickpea aqueous extracts, organic extracts, and protein concentrates on cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; del Mar Yust, María; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Millán, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds are a staple in the traditional diet of many Mediterranean, Asian, and South and Central American countries. In addition, chickpea seeds have industrial applications since they can be used for the preparation of protein concentrates and isolates. The cell lines Caco-2 (epithelial intestinal) and J774 (macrophages) have been exposed to chickpea seed extracts and protein preparations in order to screen the different chickpea fractions for effects on cell growth. Both cell growth-promoting and cell growth-inhibiting effects were found. Most interestingly, a fraction soluble in ethanol and acetone specifically and almost completely inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells exhibiting a cancerous phenotype. It is concluded that chickpea seeds are a source of bioactive components and deserve further study for their possible anti-cancer effect.

  15. Extraction of Cesium Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bonnesen, Peter V; Buchanan III, A C; Holbrey, John D; Bridges, Nicholas J; Rogers, Robin D

    2004-01-01

    Solvent extraction of cesium ions from aqueous solution to hydrophobic ionic liquids without the introduction of an organophilic anion in the aqueous phase was demonstrated using calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as an extractant. The selectivity of this extraction process toward cesium ions and the use of a sacrificial cation exchanger (NaBPh{sub 4}) to control loss of imidazolium cation to the aqueous solutions by ion exchange have been investigated.

  16. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    González-Palma, Ivette; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Ponce-Alquicira, Edith; Téllez-Téllez, Maura; Gupta, Vijai K; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Soriano-Santos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal ions chelating activity, reducing power assay and scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radicals in aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained from mycelium, primordium, and fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus in both fresh as dry, were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of dried samples was higher in aqueous extracts obtained both in room temperature and boiling. The total polyphenol content of the fresh samples obtained at room temperature and boiling was higher in aqueous extract of mycelium and in the methanolic extract of the fruiting body. In general, flavonoids represented a very small percentage of the total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP method of extracts from fresh samples were higher with respect to the dried samples. The results of the metal ion chelating activity indicate that all extracts tested had acted. The reducing power of all samples was concentration dependent. In general, the extracts of dried samples showed higher reducing power than the extracts of fresh samples and tend to show greater reducing power by aqueous than methanolic extracts. It was observed that the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were positively correlated to the concentration of the extract. The results suggested that antioxidant activity could be due to polyphenols, but mainly by different molecules or substances present in the extracts. Overall, the fruiting body of P. ostreatus showed the best results and the possibility of continuing to investigate its functional properties of this fungus is opened. This is the first report where the antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus in different growth stage was reported. PMID:27462314

  17. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus in Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    González-Palma, Ivette; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B.; Ponce-Alquicira, Edith; Téllez-Téllez, Maura; Gupta, Vijai K.; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Soriano-Santos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal ions chelating activity, reducing power assay and scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radicals in aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained from mycelium, primordium, and fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus in both fresh as dry, were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of dried samples was higher in aqueous extracts obtained both in room temperature and boiling. The total polyphenol content of the fresh samples obtained at room temperature and boiling was higher in aqueous extract of mycelium and in the methanolic extract of the fruiting body. In general, flavonoids represented a very small percentage of the total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP method of extracts from fresh samples were higher with respect to the dried samples. The results of the metal ion chelating activity indicate that all extracts tested had acted. The reducing power of all samples was concentration dependent. In general, the extracts of dried samples showed higher reducing power than the extracts of fresh samples and tend to show greater reducing power by aqueous than methanolic extracts. It was observed that the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were positively correlated to the concentration of the extract. The results suggested that antioxidant activity could be due to polyphenols, but mainly by different molecules or substances present in the extracts. Overall, the fruiting body of P. ostreatus showed the best results and the possibility of continuing to investigate its functional properties of this fungus is opened. This is the first report where the antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus in different growth stage was reported. PMID:27462314

  18. Anti-snake venom properties of Schizolobium parahyba (Caesalpinoideae) aqueous leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mirian M; Oliveira, Carolina F; Lopes, Daiana S; Vale, Luís Henrique F; Alcântara, Tânia M; Izidoro, Luiz Fernando M; Hamaguchi, Amélia; Homsi-Brandeburgo, Maria Inês; Soares, Andreimar M; Rodrigues, Veridiana M

    2008-07-01

    Many medicinal plants have been recommended for the treatment of snakebites. The aqueous extracts prepared from the leaves of Schizolobium parahyba (a plant found in Mata Atlantica in Southeastern Brazil) were assayed for their ability to inhibit some enzymatic and biological activities induced by Bothrops pauloensis and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms as well as by their isolated toxins neuwiedase (metalloproteinase), BnSP-7 (basic Lys49 PLA(2)) and CB (PLA(2) from crotoxin complex). Phospholipase A(2), coagulant, fibrinogenolytic, hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities induced by B. pauloensis and C. d. terrificus venoms, as well as by their isolated toxins were significantly inhibited when different amounts of S. parahyba were incubated previously with these venoms and toxins before assays. However, when S. parahyba was administered at the same route as the venoms or toxins injections, the tissue local damage, such as hemorrhage and myotoxicity was only partially inhibited. The study also evaluated the inhibitory effect of S. parahyba upon the spreading of venom proteins from the injected area into the systemic circulation. The neutralization of systemic alterations induced by i.m. injection of B. pauloensis venom was evaluated by measuring platelet and plasma fibrinogen levels which were significantly maintained when S. parahyba extract inoculation occurred at the same route after B. pauloensis venom injection. In conclusion, the observations confirmed that the aqueous extract of S. parahyba possesses potent snake venom neutralizing properties. It may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and as a rich source of potential inhibitors of toxins involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  19. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage.

  20. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage. PMID:24477466

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Celosia argentea leaves

    PubMed Central

    Malomo, S. O.; Ore, A.; Yakubu, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aqueous extract of Celosia argentea var. cristata L. leaves at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was investigated against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. The in vitro antioxidant of the extract was evaluated using ammonium thiocyanate, reducing power, and membrane stabilizing models. Materials and Methods: For the in vivo study, 30 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 138.02 ± 7.02 g were completely randomized into 6 groups (A–F) of 5 animals each. Animals in groups A and B received 0.5 ml of distilled water and the same volume containing 8 mg/kg b.w. of Cd, respectively, for 7 days orally. Animals in groups C, D, E, and F were treated like those in group B except that they received 100 mg/kg b.w. of ascorbic acid, and 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, in addition to Cd. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids (0.61%), saponins (2.93%), cardiac glycosides (0.21%), cardenolides (0.20%), phenolics (3.26%), and flavonoids (2.38%). A total of 10 mg/ml of the extract inhibited linoleic acid oxidation by 67.57%. The highest reducing power was 100 mg/ml as against 10 mg/ml for ascorbic acid. In addition, 2 mg/ml of the extract produced a membrane stabilizing activity of 63.49% as against 77.46% for indomethacin. Compared with the distilled water control group, the administration of Cd alone significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity of the rat liver and brain. This decrease was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the serum enzyme. The simultaneous administration of the extract and Cd produced an enzyme activity that compared favorably (P > 0.05) with the animals that received Cd and ascorbic acid. In addition, the reduction in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of the liver and brain of the animals, serum uric acid, albumin and bilirubin, and also the increase in the serum malondialdehyde content in animals treated with Cd

  2. Effects of aqueous celery (Apium graveolens) extract on lipid parameters of rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tsi, D; Das, N P; Tan, B K

    1995-02-01

    The antihyperlipidemic property of aqueous celery extract was studied in rats. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a high fat diet for eight weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. One group was supplemented with aqueous celery extract in the diet while the other group served as control. At the end of the experiment, a significant reduction was found in the serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations in the celery-treated rats. However, the concentration of hepatic TG was significantly higher in the celery-treated group than in the control group. Hepatic triacylglycerol lipase (HL) activity was found to be significantly lower in the celery-treated rats while the reverse was observed for the hepatic microsomal P450 content. Analysis of an ethereal extract of the aqueous extract of celery by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with two different solvent systems showed that the extract did not contain 3-n-butylphthalide (BuPh), a unique compound in celery that has previously been reported to have lipid-lowering action. Our study indicates that other active principle(s) could be responsible for the observed effects of aqueous celery extract on serum and hepatic lipid levels.

  3. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Passiflora ligularis Juss. on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Anusooriya, Palanirajan; Malarvizhi, Deivasigamani; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy causing neurological disorders due to perturbation in utilization of glucose. Hypoglycemic activity was detected in aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis, a traditionally used medicinal plant, using streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rat model. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a decrease in blood glucose. The diabetic rats had decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio as compared to control rats. In addition, the activities of hepatic and renal markers were significantly elevated in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Treatment with aqueous fruit extract of P. ligularis and glibenclamide reversed these parameters to near normal. Extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg given orally for 30 days showed significant elevation in enzymatic (SOD, catalase, and Gpx) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione). Plant extract treated groups showed significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis fruit can decrease the blood glucose and reduce the oxidative stress by removing free radicals in diabetes. PMID:27350966

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    PubMed

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products. PMID:26989840

  5. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Passiflora ligularis Juss. on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Anusooriya, Palanirajan; Malarvizhi, Deivasigamani; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder that impairs glucose homeostasis resulting in severe diabetic complications including retinopathy, angiopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy causing neurological disorders due to perturbation in utilization of glucose. Hypoglycemic activity was detected in aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis, a traditionally used medicinal plant, using streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rat model. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a decrease in blood glucose. The diabetic rats had decreased levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio as compared to control rats. In addition, the activities of hepatic and renal markers were significantly elevated in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Treatment with aqueous fruit extract of P. ligularis and glibenclamide reversed these parameters to near normal. Extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg given orally for 30 days showed significant elevation in enzymatic (SOD, catalase, and Gpx) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione). Plant extract treated groups showed significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Aqueous extract of Passiflora ligularis fruit can decrease the blood glucose and reduce the oxidative stress by removing free radicals in diabetes. PMID:27350966

  6. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    PubMed

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products.

  7. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    PubMed

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems. PMID:26664068

  8. Effects of aqueous soil-biochar extracts on representative aquatic organisms: a first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A. C.; Abrantes, N.; Prodana, M.; Verheijen, F.; Keizer, J. J.; Soares, A. M. V. M.; Loureiro, S.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing considerations of biochar application to soils has raised concerns over implications to overall environmental quality, associated to some of its components. The heterogeneity of biochar composition is well documented in relation to co-existing chemical species, as a function of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Robust ecotoxicology studies with focus on bioavailable biochar components in soil remain scarce and have only started to emerge. This pilot study provides an insight into the potential ecotoxicological effects of aqueous extracts of biochar-amended soil on a range of aquatic organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Daphnia magna), using a battery of standard aquatic bioassays. The use of such bioassays in environmental risk assessment of soil-biochar elutriates is here suggested as a crucial tool, to bridge the gap between biochar's 'inert' fraction in soil and that bioavailable to edaphic organisms. Aqueous extracts were obtained from LUFA 2.2 standard soil (control) and following amendment with pine biochar at common field application rates (80 ton ha-1). Acute exposure to soil-biochar extracts allowed estimating toxicity parameters and developing dose-response curves for all tested species, through well-established methodological guidelines. The bioluminescent bacteria V. fischeri showed negligible EC50 (effect concentration corresponding to 50% luminescence decline) values in the MICROTOX® basic test (independent of exposure time), suggesting low susceptibility to soil-biochar extracts. Mild toxicity was also observed in the microalgae P. subcapitata growth inhibition test, where significant deleterious effects on growth rate occurred only at the highest (100%) extract concentration (p<0.05). Among the tested species, toxicity was generally more marked in the primary consumer D. magna, with an EC50 (effect concentration corresponding to 50% immobilisation) of 2.95%. The pattern and extent of observed effects were

  9. Polycations Globally Enhance Binding of 14-3-3 omega to Target Proteins in Spinach Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The binding of 14-3-3' to phosphorylated NR (pNR) is stimulated by cations such as Mg2+ or spermine, and decreased by 5'-AMP. In order to determine whether binding to other cellular proteins is affected similarly, Far-Western overlays of extracts prepared from light- or dark-treated spinach (Spinac...

  10. Evaluation of extraction methods for quantification of aqueous fullerenes in urine

    PubMed Central

    Pycke, Benny F. G.; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the human and environmental health effects of fullerenes (e.g., C60) due to their increasing application in research, medicine, and industry. Toxicological and pharmacokinetic research requires standard methods for extraction and detection of fullerenes from biological matrices such as urine. The present study validates the use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods in conjunction with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) for the quantitative determination of C60 in human and synthetic urine as compared with ultrapure water. Glacial acetic acid, which is necessary to prevent emulsions during LLE, inhibited C60 detection by LC–MS, but this could be mitigated with evaporation. Aqueous C60 aggregates (nC60) were spiked at 180 µg/L into the components of a synthetic urine recipe to determine their individual impacts on extraction and detection. Urea, creatinine, and a complex protein (i.e., gelatin) were found to impair SPE, leading to a low recovery rate of 43±4% for C60 spiked into human urine. In contrast, C60 was consistently recovered from synthetic matrices using LLE, and recovery in human urine was 80±6%. These results suggest that LLE combined with LC–MS is suitable for studying the clearance of fullerenes from the body. LLE is a robust technique that holds promise for extracting C60 from other complex biological matrices (e.g., blood, sweat, amniotic fluid) in toxicological studies, enabling a better understanding of the behavior of fullerenes in human and animal systems and facilitating a more comprehensive risk evaluation of fullerenes. PMID:21153587

  11. Antihemorrhagic, antinucleolytic and other antiophidian properties of the aqueous extract from Pentaclethra macroloba.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jocivânia O; Coppede, Juliana S; Fernandes, Vanessa C; Sant'ana, Carolina D; Ticli, Fábio K; Mazzi, Maurício V; Giglio, José R; Pereira, Paulo S; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2005-08-22

    Several Brazilian plants have been utilized in folk medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snake venoms. The inhabitants of the Amazon region use, among others, the macerated bark of a plant popularly named "Pracaxi" (Pentaclethra macroloba Willd) to combat these effects. We report now the antihemorrhagic properties against snake venoms of the aqueous extract of Pentaclethra macroloba (EPema). EPema exhibited full inhibition of hemorrhagic and nucleolytic activities induced by several snake venoms. Additionally, partial inhibition of myotoxic, lethal, phospholipase and edema activities of snake venoms and its isolated PLA(2)s by EPema is reported. In vivo tests showed that EPema is able to totally inhibit a Bothrops jararacussu metalloprotease (BjussuMP-I) induced hemorrhage, suggesting interaction of the extract compounds with this high molecular weight protein. The extract did induce neither hemorrhage nor death in mice when administered alone by i.m. route. When administered separately by i.m. route, the extract did not induce death in mice at 12.5--300 mg/kg doses. Other assays demonstrated that EPema was unable to inhibit fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activities of Bothrops atrox venom. Although the mechanism of action of EPema is still unknown, the finding that no visible change was detected in the electrophoretic pattern of snake venom after incubation with the extract excludes proteolytic degradation as a potential mechanism. The search for new inhibitors of venom metalloproteases and DNAases are a relevant task. Investigation of snake venom inhibitors can provide useful tools for the elucidation of the action mechanisms of purified toxins. Furthermore, these inhibitors can be used as molecular models for development of new therapeutical agents in the treatment of ophidian accidents.

  12. Antihemorrhagic, antinucleolytic and other antiophidian properties of the aqueous extract from Pentaclethra macroloba.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jocivânia O; Coppede, Juliana S; Fernandes, Vanessa C; Sant'ana, Carolina D; Ticli, Fábio K; Mazzi, Maurício V; Giglio, José R; Pereira, Paulo S; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2005-08-22

    Several Brazilian plants have been utilized in folk medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snake venoms. The inhabitants of the Amazon region use, among others, the macerated bark of a plant popularly named "Pracaxi" (Pentaclethra macroloba Willd) to combat these effects. We report now the antihemorrhagic properties against snake venoms of the aqueous extract of Pentaclethra macroloba (EPema). EPema exhibited full inhibition of hemorrhagic and nucleolytic activities induced by several snake venoms. Additionally, partial inhibition of myotoxic, lethal, phospholipase and edema activities of snake venoms and its isolated PLA(2)s by EPema is reported. In vivo tests showed that EPema is able to totally inhibit a Bothrops jararacussu metalloprotease (BjussuMP-I) induced hemorrhage, suggesting interaction of the extract compounds with this high molecular weight protein. The extract did induce neither hemorrhage nor death in mice when administered alone by i.m. route. When administered separately by i.m. route, the extract did not induce death in mice at 12.5--300 mg/kg doses. Other assays demonstrated that EPema was unable to inhibit fibrinogenolytic and coagulant activities of Bothrops atrox venom. Although the mechanism of action of EPema is still unknown, the finding that no visible change was detected in the electrophoretic pattern of snake venom after incubation with the extract excludes proteolytic degradation as a potential mechanism. The search for new inhibitors of venom metalloproteases and DNAases are a relevant task. Investigation of snake venom inhibitors can provide useful tools for the elucidation of the action mechanisms of purified toxins. Furthermore, these inhibitors can be used as molecular models for development of new therapeutical agents in the treatment of ophidian accidents. PMID:16054531

  13. [Acid oligosaccharides as the active principle of aqueous carrot extracts for prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal infections].

    PubMed

    Kastner, U; Glasl, S; Follrich, B; Guggenbichler, J P; Jurenitsch, J

    2002-01-01

    Adherence of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa is an important and initial step in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infections and mediated by carbohydrate structures on the cell surface. Adherence can be blocked by carbohydrate receptor analogues. Aqueous extracts from carrots (carrot soup) contain acidic oligosaccharides, which are able to block adherence of various enteropathogenic microorganisms to HEp-2 cells and human intestinal mucosa in vitro. Dependent on the grade of polymerisation the most potent blocking ability was seen for trigalacturonic acid. Clinical studies revealed, that aqueous carrot extracts are significantly superior to the basic glucose-electrolyt-solution for oral rehydration in acute gastrointestional infections of children.

  14. Electrophysiological effects of the aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola L. leaves on the guinea pig heart.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, C M L; Araújo, M S; Conde-Garcia, E A

    2006-07-01

    This work aims to describe some electrophysiological changes promoted by the aqueous extract (AEx) from Averrhoa carambola leaves in guinea pig heart. The experiments were carried out on isolated heart or on right atrium-ventricle preparations. In 6 hearts, the extract induced many kinds of atrioventricular blocks (1st, 2nd, and 3rd degrees); increased the QT interval from 229+/-23 to 264+/-19 ms; increased the QRS complex duration from 27+/-3.1 to 59+/-11 ms, and depressed the cardiac rate from 136+/-17 to 89+/-14b pm. Furthermore, it decreased the conduction velocity of atrial impulse (17+/-3%); reduced the intraventricular pressure (86+/-6%), and increased the conduction time between the right atrium and the His bundle (27+/-6.5%). The conduction time from the His bundle to the right ventricle was not altered. Atropine sulfate did not change either the electrocardiographic parameters or the intraventricular pressure effects promoted by the A. carambola AEx. Based on these results, the popular use of such extracts should be avoided because it can promote electrical and mechanical changes in the normal heart.

  15. [Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from Panax notoginseng on three maize varieties (Zea mays)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Xiu

    2014-02-01

    It has been showed that there were obvious obstacle effects of Panax notoginseng replanting. Crop rotation was the main effective technique to overcome the obstacle. To find a reasonable crop rotation system for P. notoginseng, aqueous extracts from root, stem and leaf of P. notoginseng were analyzed for allelopathic effect on three maize varieties (which are often grown in regions where P. notoginseng grown). The main results were as follows: (1) Allelopathic effect of P. notoginseng stem and leaf extracts on the three other tested plants was stronger than that of root extracts; (2) Corn was more vulnerable to the effects of allelochemicals at seedling stage than at germination stage, and the corn root was more sensitive than aerial part to allelochemicals; (3) Lusan No. 3 and Yunrui No. 1 showed resistance to P. notoginseng allelopathy, with respective comprehensive sensitivity indexes (M3) of - 0.089 3 and -0.159 2, while Bainuo No. 1 is sensitive at M3 = -0.261 0. It then can be concluded that Lusan No. 3 and Yunrui No. 1 may be an alternative rotation plants for overcoming P. notoginseng continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:25204128

  16. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    PubMed

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  17. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Hammada scoparia against hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Nciri, Riadh; Damak, Mohamed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2014-03-01

    Aqueous extract (AE) of Hammada scoparia leaves was chemically characterized and its hepatoprotective activities were investigated in vivo in rat model. Wistar rats were treated daily with 35% ethanol solution (3 g/kg/day) during 4 weeks and fed with basal diet or basal diet containing AE (200 mg/kg/day). Control rats were treated with saline solution and fed with basal diet. The bioactivity of AE against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver was studied in order to explore its hepatoprotective effects. H. scoparia extract used at 200 mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the effects of ethanol, which induced a hepatic pathological damage and increased the levels of the serum markers of the enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Concomitantly, with these changes, this extract also prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver as evidenced by the decreased lipid peroxidation level, a considerable decrease in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP and restoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the AE of H. scoparia. PMID:22778112

  18. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts on rats.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Ojeifo, Uadia Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts were investigated in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the pulverized leaf, root, pod and stem samples. Proximate analysis was also conducted for the root to ascertain the effect of drying procedures on its composition. Fifty-six (56) Wister albino rats, male and female were divided into two broad groups of 28 animals per group. The first group was randomly separated into seven (7) groups of four (4) animals per group. The control group received distilled water alone while the other groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of the Soluble and Insoluble Tefairia occidentalis root fraction. The second group of 28 animals was also distributed into 7 groups of 4 animals per group. Six test groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of Telfairia occidentalis fruit and stem extracts. The animals were observed for the first 12hr for any toxic symptoms and for 48 hr for mortality rate. Surviving animals were sacrificed after 48 hours. Phytochemical screening results reveal the presence of tannins, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponin, alkaloid, glycosides, proteins and carbohydrates. Flavonoid and saponin was not detected in stem sample; alkaloid is present in all samples except pod; and cyanogenic glycoside was found in both root and pod samples. Except for the fibre content, the method of preparation of the root had no significant effect on the proximate composition of the sample. The root extracts cause insignificant reduction in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, except for the significant reduction in ALT activity at highest dose. The pod extract significantly increased the ALT and AST activities, which is dose dependent, while the stem extract only caused increased activity of ALT, but not AST. None of the extracts administered had any significant effect on the

  19. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Separated via Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Fagan, J. A.; Hight Walker, A. R.

    2014-03-01

    We report Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples dispersed in aqueous solutions via surfactant wrapping and separated using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) into chirality-enriched semiconducting and metallic SWCNT species. ATPE provides a rapid, robust, and remarkably tunable separation technique that allows isolation of high-purity, individual SWCNT chiralities via modification of the surfactant environment. We report RRS measurements of individual SWCNT species of various chiral index including, armchair and zigzag metals. Raman provides a powerful technique to quantify the metallic SWCNTs in ATPE fractions separated for metallicity. We measure Raman spectra over a wide range of excitation wavelengths from 457 nm to 850 nm using a series of discrete and continuously tunable laser sources coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled detector. The spectra reveal Raman-active vibrational modes, including the low-frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) and higher-order modes. SWCNT chiral vectors are determined from the Raman spectra, specifically the RBM frequencies and corresponding energy excitation profiles, together with input from theoretical models.

  20. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Separated via Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Fagan, J. A.; Hight Walker, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    We report resonance Raman Spectroscopy measurements of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples dispersed in aqueous solutions via surfactant wrapping and separated using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) into chirality-enriched semiconducting and metallic SWCNT species. ATPE provides a rapid, robust, and remarkably tunable separation technique that allows isolation of high-purity, individual SWCNT chiralities via modification of the surfactant environment. We report RRS measurements of individual SWCNT species of various chiral index including, semiconductors, armchair and zigzag metals. Raman provides a powerful technique to quantify the metallic SWCNTs in ATPE fractions separated for metallicity. We measure Raman spectra over a wide range of excitation wavelengths from (457 to 850) nm using a series of discrete and continuously tunable laser sources coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer. The spectra reveal Raman-active vibrational modes, including the low-frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) and higher-order modes. SWCNT chiral vectors are determined from Raman spectra, specifically the RBM frequencies and corresponding energy excitation profiles, together with input from theoretical models.

  1. HPLC-MTT assay: anticancer activity of aqueous garlic extract is from allicin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenny; Gupta, Shalini; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Jayathilaka, Lasanthi P; Lee, Bao-Shiang

    2013-05-15

    A strategy using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical synthesis, and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay to identify allicin as the active anticancer compound in aqueous garlic extract (AGE) is described. Changing the pH of AGE from 7.0 to 5.0 eliminated interfering molecules and enabled a clean HPLC separation of the constituents in AGE. MTT assay of the HPLC fractions identified an active fraction. Further analysis by TLC, MS, and NMR verified the active HPLC fraction as allicin. Chemically synthesized allicin was used to provide further confirmation. The results clearly identify the active compound in AGE as allicin.

  2. Preparation of nanosilver and nanogold based on dog rose aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Pulit, Jolanta; Banach, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a process of obtaining nanosilver and nanogold based on chemical reduction using substances contained in the aqueous extract of dog rose (Rosa canina). The resulting products were subjected to spectrophotometric analysis (UV-Vis), and testing of the nanoparticles' size and suspension stability was carried out by measuring the electrokinetic potential, ζ, via dynamic light scattering (DLS). Solid samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained data were given to statistical analysis in order to illustrate the properties of the suspension depending on the values of the input parameters: metal salts concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, and process temperature. In the course of the work, samples of nanosilver and nanogold were obtained, which were stable for over two months and which had a monomodal particle size distribution.

  3. Preparation of Nanosilver and Nanogold Based on Dog Rose Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a process of obtaining nanosilver and nanogold based on chemical reduction using substances contained in the aqueous extract of dog rose (Rosa canina). The resulting products were subjected to spectrophotometric analysis (UV-Vis), and testing of the nanoparticles' size and suspension stability was carried out by measuring the electrokinetic potential, ζ, via dynamic light scattering (DLS). Solid samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained data were given to statistical analysis in order to illustrate the properties of the suspension depending on the values of the input parameters: metal salts concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, and process temperature. In the course of the work, samples of nanosilver and nanogold were obtained, which were stable for over two months and which had a monomodal particle size distribution. PMID:24511306

  4. Assay of mutagens in aqueous fecal extracts with a modified ames Salmonella test.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R; Andrews, A W; Riggs, C W

    1985-01-01

    Mutagenicity with Salmonella strain TA 100 can be determined by an island test in which only an isolated portion of a pour plate is spotted with a sample. The magnitude of the ratio of the numbers of revertant colonies on the treated and untreated parts of the plate reflects the potency of the mutagen. Five of six chemicals tested yielded statistically significant and generally linear dose-response curves. Minimum detectable mutagenic doses for four compounds calculated from the dose-response curves showed that the island test generally required less material for detection of mutagenicity than the liquid pre-incubation procedure. The island method was primarily designed to test the mutagenicity of aqueous extracts of human stool samples. Dose-responses were obtained for six such samples, and in two samples the amount of material needed for a positive response was significantly less than that required in the liquid pre-incubation method. PMID:2859658

  5. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Giant Horsetail (Equisetum giganteum L.) in Antigen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farinon, Mirian; Lora, Priscila Schmidt; Francescato, Leandro Nicolodi; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Henriques, AmÉlia Teresinha; Xavier, Ricardo Machado; de Oliveira, Patricia Gnieslaw

    2013-01-01

    Equisetum giganteum is a plant used in traditional medicine as diuretic. From our knowledge this is the first time this plant is tested in an in vivo model of acute inflammation. To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of giant horsetail (AEGH) as immunomodulatory therapy, antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was generated in mice with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA). Inflammation was evaluated by articular nociception, leukocytes migration and lymphocyte proliferation. AEGH reduced nociception at 3, 6 and 24 h (P < 0.01), decreased leukocyte migration (P < 0.015), and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation stimulated with Concanavalin A and Lipopolysaccharide (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AEGH has an anti-inflammatory potential in acute model of inflammation, as well as immunomodulatory effect on both B and T lymphocytes, with an action independent of cytotoxicity. PMID:24494034

  6. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kirana, H; Agrawal, S S; Srinivasan, B P

    2009-10-01

    One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20112810

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 μg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 μg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 μg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

  8. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the elevated plus maze, Hebb–William maze, and Morris water maze tests which served as the exteroceptive behavioral model. Diazepam-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral model. Results: Results showed that all the doses of aqueous root extract of Gg significantly enhanced the memory; however, in the doses of 150 and 225 mg/kg, it showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement in learning and memory. Furthermore, Diazepam-induced amnesia was reversed by the aqueous root extract of Gg (150 and 225 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the memory enhancement effects of Gg may be mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, Gg appears to be a promising drug for improving memory in the management of impaired learning, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24082744

  9. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study.

  10. Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Alafia multiflora Stem Barks in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Tsala, David Emery; Bouba, Armand Abdou; Hritcu, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of Alafia multiflora Stapf (AM) stem barks (150 and 300 mg/kg, 7 days administration) on rats and mice, using experimental paradigms of anxiety and depression. In the open field, the aqueous extract increased significantly the number of center square crossed and the time spent at the center of the field as well as the rearing time, while the grooming time was reduced significantly. In the elevated plus maze, the aqueous extract increased the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms. All these effects were also completely reversed by flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors and pindolol a β-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT 1A/1B receptor antagonist. The time spent in the light compartment, the latency time, and the number of the light-dark transitions increased significantly in the light/dark exploration test after the treatment with AM. The extract was able to reduce significantly the immobility time and increase swimming as well as climbing duration. Taken together, the present work evidenced anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of AM that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptors and an antidepressant effect where noradrenergic mechanisms will probably play a role. PMID:23125853

  11. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study. PMID:25751173

  12. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla L. (Saltcedar) in mice.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Hamayun, Rahma; Ali, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol (70:30) as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition (p<0.005) of acetic acid- induced writhing, 63% reduction (p<0.005) in formalin-induced paw licking, and 42% increase (p<0.05) in reaction time as compared to normal control. The extract did not show significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, it showed significant antipyretic effect (p<0.005). The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25362598

  13. Uterotonic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-10-01

    Some traditional health practitioners of South Africa have claimed that Harpagophytum procumbens DC (family: Pedaliaceae) secondary root is a useful obstetric remedy for induction or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) on longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from non-pregnant and pregnant, young adult, female rats. HPE (10-800 microg/ml) induced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05) increases in the baseline tone, and caused powerful rhythmic, myogenic contractions of, oestrogen-dominated rat longitudinal uterine horn muscle strips taken from stilboesterol-pretreated, non-pregnant female rats. Relatively low to high concentrations of HPE (10-800 microg/ml) also provoked concentration-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) increases in the baseline tone of, and contracted, longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from female rats in the early, middle and late stages of pregnancy. Moderate to high concentrations of HPE (200-1,000 microg/ml) always provoked powerful contractions of isolated longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle preparations of non-pregnant and pregnant rats. The results of this in vitro study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses spasmogenic, uterotonic action on mammalian uterine muscles. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric obstetric uses of the plant's secondary root for induction and/or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. PMID:19907121

  14. Uterotonic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-10-01

    Some traditional health practitioners of South Africa have claimed that Harpagophytum procumbens DC (family: Pedaliaceae) secondary root is a useful obstetric remedy for induction or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) on longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from non-pregnant and pregnant, young adult, female rats. HPE (10-800 microg/ml) induced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05) increases in the baseline tone, and caused powerful rhythmic, myogenic contractions of, oestrogen-dominated rat longitudinal uterine horn muscle strips taken from stilboesterol-pretreated, non-pregnant female rats. Relatively low to high concentrations of HPE (10-800 microg/ml) also provoked concentration-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) increases in the baseline tone of, and contracted, longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from female rats in the early, middle and late stages of pregnancy. Moderate to high concentrations of HPE (200-1,000 microg/ml) always provoked powerful contractions of isolated longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle preparations of non-pregnant and pregnant rats. The results of this in vitro study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses spasmogenic, uterotonic action on mammalian uterine muscles. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric obstetric uses of the plant's secondary root for induction and/or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women.

  15. Hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract from Cissus sicyoides

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Glauce SB; Medeiros, Ana Carolina C; Lacerda, Ana Michelle R; Leal, L Kalyne AM; Vale, Tiago G; Matos, F José de Abreu

    2004-01-01

    Background Cissus sicyoides (Vitaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly known in Brazil as "cipó-pucá, anil-trepador, cortina, and insulina". The plant is used in several diseases, including rheumatism, epilepsy, stroke and also in the treatment of diabetes. In the present work, we studied the hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract prepared from fresh leaves of the plant (AECS), in the model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. In addition, hepatic enzyme levels were also determined. Results Results showed that the daily treatment of diabetic rats with AECS for 7 days (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased blood glucose levels in 25 and 22% respectively, as compared to the same groups before AECS treatment. No significant changes were seen in control diabetic rats before (48 h after alloxan administration) and after distilled water treatment. While no changes were seen in total cholesterol levels, a significant decrease was observed in plasma triglyceride levels, in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after AECS treatment with both doses, as compared to the same groups before treatment. Significant decreases in blood glucose (25%) and triglyceride levels (48%) were also observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 4 days treatment with AECS (200 mg/kg, p.o.). Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases levels, in diabetic controls and AECS-treated rats, were in the range of reference values presented by normal rats. Conclusions The results justify the popular use of C. sicyoides, pointing out to the potential benefit of the plant aqueous extract (AECS) in alternative medicine, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:15182373

  16. Biosynthesised palladium nanoparticles using Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract and their catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liansheng; Li, Ming; Liu, Huihong

    2015-12-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are of great importance as catalytic materials. Their synthesis has been widely studied and interest in their properties is growing. Bio-based methods might be a greener option for designing the PdNPs with reduced environmental impacts. This study reports the synthesis of PdNPs by utilising the aqueous extract of medicinally important Eucommia ulmoides (E. Ulmoides) bark which functions as both reducing and capping agent in moderate reaction conditions. Reduction potential of E. Ulmoides bark aqueous extract was about -0.08 V vs. saturated calomel electrode by open-circuit voltage method and the rich polyphenolics was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, which helps to reduce palladium ions to PdNPs. The characterisation through high-resolution transmission electron microscopic, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction infer that the as-synthesised PdNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal structure. The results from dynamic light scattering suggest the PdNPs have the narrow size distribution with an average size of 12.6 nm. The lower zeta potential (-25.3 mV) and the Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that the as-synthesised PdNPs keep remarkably stable for a long period due to the capped biomolecules on the nanoparticle surface. This method for synthesis of PdNPs is simple, economic, non-toxic and efficient. The PdNPs show excellent catalytic activity for the electro-catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and the catalytic reducing degradation of p-aminoazobenzene, a model compound of azo-dyes.

  17. Biosynthesised palladium nanoparticles using Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract and their catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liansheng; Li, Ming; Liu, Huihong

    2015-12-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) are of great importance as catalytic materials. Their synthesis has been widely studied and interest in their properties is growing. Bio-based methods might be a greener option for designing the PdNPs with reduced environmental impacts. This study reports the synthesis of PdNPs by utilising the aqueous extract of medicinally important Eucommia ulmoides (E. Ulmoides) bark which functions as both reducing and capping agent in moderate reaction conditions. Reduction potential of E. Ulmoides bark aqueous extract was about -0.08 V vs. saturated calomel electrode by open-circuit voltage method and the rich polyphenolics was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, which helps to reduce palladium ions to PdNPs. The characterisation through high-resolution transmission electron microscopic, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction infer that the as-synthesised PdNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal structure. The results from dynamic light scattering suggest the PdNPs have the narrow size distribution with an average size of 12.6 nm. The lower zeta potential (-25.3 mV) and the Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that the as-synthesised PdNPs keep remarkably stable for a long period due to the capped biomolecules on the nanoparticle surface. This method for synthesis of PdNPs is simple, economic, non-toxic and efficient. The PdNPs show excellent catalytic activity for the electro-catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and the catalytic reducing degradation of p-aminoazobenzene, a model compound of azo-dyes. PMID:26647810

  18. Aqueous extract of Monodora myristica ameliorates cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Osunsanmi, Foluso Oluwagbemiga; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indigenous medicinal plants exhibiting diverse biological activities have been explored in the amelioration of hepatotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of Monodora myristica (MM) on cadmium-induced liver damage in experimental animals. Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on 200 mg/L cadmium: Cd (Cd as CdCl2) in the animals' main drinking water to induce hepatotoxicity. Added to this, the animals received aqueous extracts of MM at a dose of 200 or 400 and 20 mg/kg bw of Livolin forte (LF) for 21 days. At the end of the experiment, levels of serum enzyme biomarkers (alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase) as well as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde were significantly raised in the cadmium treated groups. Conversely, cadmium treatment elicited noticeable decrease in hepatic enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione: GSH, catalase: CAT, superoxide dismutase: SOD). Co-treatment with MM at varying doses as well as LF considerably decreased the elevated levels of the serum biomarkers as well as TC, TG and malondialdehyde in the cadmium-treated groups in a dose dependant manner. Additionally, MM exhibited reversal potential on cadmium-toxicity at the tested doses as its administration was accompanied by a pronounced increase in GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Histopathological results were parallel to these findings. These results demonstrates that aqueous extracts of MM is effective in the amelioration of hepatic damages arising from cadmium-induced toxicity, indicating that the antioxidant bio-constituents of MM play an important role in the prevention of liver toxicity possibly by inhibiting bioaccumulation of free radicals in animal models. PMID:27330907

  19. Protein sorption and recovery by hydrogels using principles of aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, S H; Vaid, N R; McBride, J F

    1998-05-20

    Use of the thermodynamic principles of aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) to drive protein into a crosslinked gel is developed as a protein isolation and separation technique, and as a protein loading technique for drug delivery applications. A PEG/dextran gel system was chosen as a model system because PEG/dextran systems are widely used in aqueous two-phase extraction and dextran gels (Sephadex(R)) are common chromatographic media. The effects of polymer concentrations and molecular weights, salts, and pH on the partitioning of ovalbumin matched ATPE heuristics and data trends. Gel partition coefficients (Cgel/Csolution) increased with increasing PEG molecular weight and concentration and decreasing dextran concentration (increased gel swelling). The addition of PEG to the buffer solution yielded partition coefficients more than an order of magnitude greater than those obtained in systems with buffer alone, or added salt. A combined salt/PEG system yielded an additional order of magnitude increase. For example, when ovalbumin solution (2.3 mg/mL) was equilibrated with Sephadex(R) G-50 at pH 6.75, the partition coefficients were 0.13 in buffer, 0.11 in buffer with 0.22M KI, 2.3 in 12 wt% PEG-10,000 and 32.0 in 12 wt% PEG-10, 000 with 0.22M KI. The effect of anions and cations as well as ionic strength and pH on the partitioning of ovalbumin also matched ATPE heuristics. Using the heuristics established above, partition coefficients as high as 80 for bovine serum albumin and protein recoveries over 90% were achieved. In addition, the wide range of partition coefficients that were obtained for different proteins suggests the potential of the technique for separating proteins. Also, ovalbumin sorption capacities in dextran were as high as 450 mg/g dry polymer, and the sorption isotherms were linear over a broad protein concentration range.

  20. Antipruritic and antiinflammatory effects of aqueous extract from Si-Wu-Tang.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yue; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Chan, Yiu-Pong; Matsuda, Hideaki; Kubo, Michinori

    2002-09-01

    Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), a traditional Chinese formula, has been clinically used in the treatment of cutaneous pruritus, chronic inflammation, and other diseases. The present study was carried out to observe the antipruritic and antiinflammatory effects of SWT aqueous extract using compound 48/80 and picryl chloride (PC) models in mice. SWT (500, 1000 mg/kg p.o.) clearly reduced the scratching responses elicited by compound 48/80 in normal mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, it inhibited the scratching responses induced by PC in mice actively sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum. Furthermore, SWT (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the footpad swelling caused by compound 48/80 in mice. In the biphasic ear skin reactions induced by PC in actively sensitized mice, SWT (250, 500 mg/kg) reduced the immediate-phase reaction, but did not affect the late-phase reaction. In vitro, SWT (50-500 microg/ml) showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat peritoneal mast cells. The crude drugs contained in SWT, Paeoniae Radix (25, 100 microg/ml), Rehmanniae Radix, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (100 microg/ml), also showed a clear inhibition, but Angelica Radix did not at the concentrations examined. These findings indicate that SWT aqueous extract has antipruritic and antiinflammatory effects in mice. SWT inhibits histamine release from rat mast cells, and Paeoniae Radix probably plays a crucial role in the formula.

  1. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sabetghadam, Azadeh; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif Mahsuti

    2010-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5–20 mg/kg), methanolic (50–200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100–400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.). Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05). Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction. PMID:21808563

  2. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    Sabetghadam, Azadeh; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif Mahsuti

    2010-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.). Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05). Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction. PMID:21808563

  3. Improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads in aqueous media via dual-phase solvent system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuling; Liu, Ruijin; Zhang, Yi; Li, Gongke

    2009-08-15

    In this study, a novel and simple dual-phase solvent system for the improvement of extraction capability of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) beads in aqueous sample was proposed. The method integrated MIP extraction and micro-liquid-liquid extraction (micro-LLE) into only one step. A magnetic MIP beads using atrazine as template was synthesized, and was applied to aqueous media by adding micro-volume of n-hexane to form a co-extraction system. The magnetic MIP beads preferred to suspend in the organic phase, which shielded them from the disturbance of water molecule. The target analytes in the water sample was extracted into the organic phase by micro-LLE and then further bound to the solid-phase of magnetic MIP beads. The beads specificity was significantly improved with the imprinting efficiency of template increasing from 0.5 to 4.4, as compared with that in pure aqueous media. The extraction capacity, equilibration process and cross-selectivity of the MIP dual-phase solvent extraction system were investigated. The proposed method coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine, propazine, simetryn, prometryne, ametryn and terbutryn in complicated sample such as tomato, strawberry juice and milk. The method is selective, sensitive and low organic solvent-consuming, and has potential to broaden the range of MIP application in biological and environmental sample.

  4. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, M. I.; Adamson, J. O.; Ogunwande, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99%) of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts) and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL). Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract. PMID:24455701

  5. Effect of organic and conventional cropping systems on ascorbic acid, vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 varieties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2012-03-28

    This study was undertaken to compare the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 spinach varieties grown in certified organic and conventional cropping systems. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)MS/MS) of methanolic extracts of spinach demonstrated 17 flavonoids, including glucuronides and acylated di- and triglycosides of methylated and methylenedioxyderivatives of 6-oxygenated flavonoids. The mean levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoids were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the organically grown [40.48 ± 6.16 and 2.83 ± 0.03 mg/kg of fresh weight (FW)] spinach compared to the conventionally grown spinach (25.75 ± 6.12 and 2.27 ± 0.02 mg/kg of FW). Conversely, the mean levels of nitrate were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the conventionally grown spinach compared to the organically grown spinach. No significant effects were observed in the oxalate content of spinach from either production system. The levels of nitrate correlated negatively with those of ascorbic acid, vitamin C, and total flavonoids and showed a positive correlation with the oxalate content. These results suggest that organic cropping systems result in spinach with lower levels of nitrates and higher levels of flavonoids and ascorbic acid.

  6. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission. PMID:26143492

  7. Extraction of actinides into aqueous polyethylene glycol solutions from carbonate media in the presence of alizarin complexone

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Frenkel', V.Ya.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Actinide extraction in a two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol from carbonate solutions of various compositions in presence of alizarin complexone is studied. It is shown that the nature of the alkali metals affects actinide extraction into the polyethylene glycol phase. Tri- and tetravalent actinides are extracted maximally from sodium carbonate solutions. Separation of actinides in different oxidation states is more effective in potassium carbonate solutions. The behavior of americium in different oxidation states in the system carbonate-polyethylene glycol-complexone is studied. The possibility of extraction separation of microamount of americium(V) from curium in carbonate solutions in presence of alizarin complexone is shown.

  8. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  9. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    weight on days 1 and 3. Data from this study identified that the aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata stem enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats. The improved sexual appetitive behaviour in male rats at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of Massularia acuminata stem may be attributed, at least in part, to the alkaloids, saponins, and/or flavonoids since these phytochemicals has engorgement, androgen enhancing, and antioxidant properties. PMID:21253466

  10. Potential Mechanisms Responsible for the Antinephrolithic Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Fructus Aurantii

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoran; Liang, Qiang; Sun, Yunji; Diao, Long; Qin, Ze; Wang, Wei; Lu, Jianzhong; Fu, Shengjun; Ma, Baoliang; Yue, Zhongjin

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of Fa extract on the prevention and treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis were analyzed in an ethylene glycol- (EG-) induced CaOx crystallization model in rats and an in vitro assay. Multiple biochemical variables were measured in the urine and kidney. Kidney sections were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Urolithiasis-related osteopontin (OPN) was evaluated by Western blotting. The in vitro assay revealed the significant inhibition of crystal formation (3.50 ± 1.43) and dilution of formed crystals (12.20 ± 3.35) in the group treated with 1 mg/mL Fa extract compared with the control group (52.30 ± 4.71 and 53.00 ± 4.54, resp.) (p < 0.05). The in vivo experiments showed that prophylactic treatment with Fa aqueous extract significantly prevented EG-induced renal crystallization and pathological alterations compared with nephrolithic rats (p < 0.05). Significantly lower levels of oxidative stress, oxalate, and OPN expression as well as increased citrate and urine output levels were observed in both the low- and high-dose prophylactic groups (p < 0.05). However, in the low- and high-dose therapeutic groups, none of these indexes were significantly improved (p > 0.05) except for urinary oxalate in the high-dose therapeutic groups (p < 0.05). Fa extract prevented CaOx crystallization and promoted crystal dissolution in vitro. Additionally, it was efficacious in preventing the formation of CaOx nephrolithiasis in rats. PMID:26170875

  11. A 1-dodecanethiol-based phase transfer protocol for the highly efficient extraction of noble metal ions from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Cui, Penglei; Cao, Hongbin; Yang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    A 1-dodecanethiol-based phase-transfer protocol is developed for the extraction of noble metal ions from aqueous solution to a hydrocarbon phase, which calls for first mixing the aqueous metal ion solution with an ethanolic solution of 1-dodecanethiol, and then extracting the coordination compounds formed between noble metal ions and 1-dodecanethiol into a non-polar organic solvent. A number of characterization techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrate that this protocol could be applied to extract a wide variety of noble metal ions from water to dichloromethane with an efficiency of >96%, and has high selectivity for the separation of the noble metal ions from other transition metals. It is therefore an attractive alternative for the extraction of noble metals from water, soil, or waste printed circuit boards.

  12. Chromatographic and Spectral Analysis of Two Main Extractable Compounds Present in Aqueous Extracts of Laminated Aluminum Foil Used for Protecting LDPE-Filled Drug Vials

    PubMed Central

    Akapo, Samuel O.; Syed, Sajid; Mamangun, Anicia; Skinner, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Laminated aluminum foils are increasingly being used to protect drug products packaged in semipermeable containers (e.g., low-density polyethylene (LDPE)) from degradation and/or evaporation. The direct contact of such materials with primary packaging containers may potentially lead to adulteration of the drug product by extractable or leachable compounds present in the closure system. In this paper, we described a simple and reliable HPLC method for analysis of an aqueous extract of laminated aluminum foil overwrap used for packaging LDPE vials filled with aqueous pharmaceutical formulations. By means of combined HPLC-UV, GC/MS, LC/MS/MS, and NMR spectroscopy, the two major compounds detected in the aqueous extracts of the representative commercial overwraps were identified as cyclic oligomers with molecular weights of 452 and 472 and are possibly formed from poly-condensation of the adhesive components, namely, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, and diethylene glycol. Lower molecular weight compounds that might be associated with the “building blocks” of these compounds were not detected in the aqueous extracts. PMID:20140083

  13. The Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia dracunculus L. Aqueous Extract on Fructose Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Reza, Shahraki; Hamideh, Mirshekari; Zahra, Samadi

    2015-01-01

    Aim & Objective. Artemisia dracunculus L. (Tarragon) species have been used as a traditional medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of A. dracunculus L. leaf aqueous extract on fructose drinking water (FDW) in male rats. Materials & Methods. Forty-eight Wistar-albino male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into control (C), control extract (CE), FDW, and FDWE groups (n = 12). Group C did not receive any agents; Group CE did 100 mg/kg A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract on a daily basis for duration of four weeks. FDW Group received fructose drinking water (10%, weight/volume) but did not receive any agents during trial period. FDWE group received 100 mg/kg A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract during trial period. At the end of experiment, a biphasic pain response was induced following interplanetary injection of formalin (50 µL, 1%). Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software version 17 and using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results. Our findings revealed that acute and chronic pain scores in FDW group are significantly higher than other ones and A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract causes significant decreasing of this parameter in FDWE group (P < 0.001). Moreover, IL6 and TNF values in this group were significantly decreased compared to FDW group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Results in the present study show that FDW causes the pain response score to increase and cause proinflammatory cytokines in rat model but A. dracunculus L. leaf aqueous extract improves values of these parameters. PMID:26170888

  14. Radical intermediate generation and cell cycle arrest by an aqueous extract of Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. In human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Charoen, Savapong; Martin, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. (TL) is one of the most familiar plants in Thai traditional medicine that is used to treat various conditions, including cancer. However, the antitumor activity of TL or its constituents has never been reported at the molecular level to support the folklore claim. The present study was designed to investigate the antitumor effect of an aqueous extract of TL in human breast cancer cells and the possible mechanism(s) of action. An aqueous crude extract was prepared from dried leaves of TL. Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assays were used to determine the total phenolic content. Antiproliferative and cell cycle effects were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells by MTT reduction assay, cell growth inhibition, clonogenic cell survival, and flow cytometric analysis. Free radical generation by the extracts was detected using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The exposure of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells to a TL aqueous extract resulted in decreases in cell growth, clonogenic cell survival, and cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 843 μg/ml. Treatments with extract for 24 h at 250 μg/ml or higher induced cell cycle arrest as indicated by a significant increase of cell population in the G1 phase and a significant decrease in the S phase of the cell cycle. The capability of the aqueous extract to generate radical intermediates was observed at both high pH and near-neutral pH conditions. The findings suggest the antitumor bioactivities of TL against selected breast cancer cells may be due to induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbation that are associated with a high concentration of the extract could be in part explained by the total phenolic contents in the extract and the capacity to generate radical intermediates to modulate cellular proliferative signals. PMID:26028099

  15. The non-competitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) tubers.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Goulart, Camila; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; McCollum, Isabelle; Gardner, Dale R

    2015-12-15

    Water hemlocks (Cicuta spp.) are acutely toxic members of the Umbellierae family; the toxicity is due to the presence of C17-polyacetylenes such as cicutoxin. There is only limited evidence of noncompetitive antagonism by C17-polyacetylenes at GABAA receptors. In this work with WSS-1 cells, we documented the noncompetitive blockade of GABAA receptors by an aqueous extract of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) and modulated the actions of the extract with a pretreatment of 10 μM midazolam. PMID:26415905

  16. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides and its bio-active flavonoids against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Gupta, Rashmi; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the protective efficacy of aqueous extract of Hippophae rhamnoides against chronic hypoxic injury using primary rat hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared using maceration method and characterized by its phenolic and flavonoid content and chemical antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Hepatocytes were maintained in hypoxia chamber (3% and 1% oxygen) for 72 h. The cells kept under normoxic condition served as control. The cells were treated with the extract and flavonoids; isorhamentin, kaempferol or qurecetin-3-galactoside. After the end of exposure period; cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results: The extract showed presence of high phenolic and flavonoid content with significant antioxidant activity in chemical assay. The cell exposed to hypoxia showed concentration dependent cell death and harbored higher reactive oxygen species. In addition, these cells showed significant leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST accompanied by the diminished levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD. The treatment of cells with aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides reduced hypoxia-induced cell death and prevented increase in ROS levels and leakage of intracellular LDH, ALT, and AST from cells. Moreover, these cells maintained better levels/activities of GSH, GPx, and SOD in comparison to the respective controls. The major flavonoids present in aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides; quercetin-3-galactoside, kaempferol, and isorhamentin also prevented hypoxia induced cell injury individually or in combination, however, the protection offered by these compounds taken together could not match to that of the extract. Conclusions: Overall the findings reveal significance of aqueous extract of

  17. Anti-trypanosomal effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) leaf in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Adamu, M; Nwosu, C O; Agbede, R I S

    2009-01-01

    The anti-trypanosomal effects of aqueous extract of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum were evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The anti-trypanosomal activity of the extract against Trypanosoma brucei was investigated in-vitro. The survival and motility of the trypanosomes were completely inhibited within two hours of incubation in various concentrations of the extract. Parasite survival time was concentration dependent being longer in lower (25 and 12.5 mg/ml) than higher (100, 75 and 50 mg/ml) concentrations of the extract. The in-vivo anti-trypanosomal effect of the leaf extract of the leaf extract was investigated in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with the extract. The infected rats treated with the extract had less dramatic clinical manifestations and mortality, survived longer and higher PCV values than their untreated counterparts, however, parasitaemia was not significantly reduced. The results suggest that the folkloric medicinal application of the aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum has no possible pharmacological basis. PMID:20448851

  18. Extraction Separation of Rare-Earth Ions via Competitive Ligand Complexations between Aqueous and Ionic-Liquid Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Sun, Xiaoqi; Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The extraction separation of rare earth elements is the most challenging separation processes in hydrometallurgy and advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) is a prime example of these separation processes. The objective of this paper is to explore the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for the TALSPEAK-like process, to further enhance its extraction efficiencies for lanthanides, and to investigate the potential of using this modified TALSPEAK process for separation of lanthanides among themselves. Eight imidazolium ILs ([Cnmim][NTf2] and [Cnmim][BETI], n=4,6,8,10) and one pyrrolidinium IL ([C4mPy][NTf2]) were investigated as diluents using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant for separation of lanthanide ions from aqueous solutions of 50 mM glycolic acid or citric acid and 5 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). The extraction efficiencies were studied in comparison with diisopropylbenzene (DIPB), an organic solvent used as diluent for the conventional TALSPEAK extraction system. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for a number of lanthanide ions using HDEHP as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different alkyl chain lengths in the cations of ILs and anions on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of lanthanide ions are also presented in this paper.

  19. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins. PMID:24853276

  20. Catechin-based procyanidins from Peumus boldus Mol. aqueous extract inhibit Helicobacter pylori urease and adherence to adenocarcinoma gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Pastene, Edgar; Parada, Víctor; Avello, Marcia; Ruiz, Antonieta; García, Apolinaria

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of an aqueous extract from dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae) was evaluated. This extract displayed high inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease. Therefore, in order to clarify the type of substances responsible for such effect, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was carried out. The active compounds in the fractions were characterized through different chromatographic methods (RP-HPLC; HILIC-HPLC). The fraction named F5 (mDP = 7.8) from aqueous extract was the most active against H. pylori urease with an IC50  = 15.9 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL. HPLC analysis evidenced that F5 was composed mainly by catechin-derived proanthocyanidins (LC-MS and phloroglucinolysis). The anti-adherent effect of boldo was assessed by co-culture of H. pylori and AGS cells. Both the aqueous extract and F5 showed an anti-adherent effect in a concentration-dependent manner. An 89.3% of inhibition was reached at 2.0 mg GAE/mL of boldo extract. In conjunction, our results suggest that boldo extract has a potent anti-urease activity and anti-adherent effect against H. pylori, properties directly linked with the presence of catechin-derived proanthocyanidins.

  1. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  2. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda Bv; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion.

  3. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P < 0.05) between species and families. This finding may mean that FSA levels are species and family dependent, something that could be investigated in future studies. As fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  4. DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Y; Li, L; Holmgren, K; Pero, R W

    2001-07-01

    The Uncaria tomentosa water extracts (C-Med-100) have been shown to enhance DNA repair, mitogenic response and leukocyte recovery after chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in vivo. In this study, the effect of C-Med-100 supplement was evaluated in a human volunteer study. Twelve apparently healthy adults working in the same environment were randomly assigned into 3 groups with age and gender matched. One group was daily supplemented with a 250 mg tablet containing an aqueous extract of Uncaria tomentosa of C-Med-100, and another group with a 350 mg tablet, for 8 consecutive weeks. DNA repair after induction of DNA damage by a standard dose of hydrogen peroxide was measured 3 times before supplement and 3 times after the supplement for the last 3 weeks of the 8 week-supplement period. There were no drug-related toxic responses to C-Med-100 supplement when judged in terms of clinical symptoms, serum clinical chemistry, whole blood analysis and leukocyte differential counts. There was a statistically significant decrease of DNA damage and a concomitant increase of DNA repair in the supplement groups (250 and 350 mg/day) when compared with non-supplemented controls (p < 0.05). There was also an increased tendency of PHA induced lymphocyte proliferation in the treatment groups. Taken together, this trial has confirmed the earlier results obtained in the rat model when estimating DNA repair enhancement by C-Med-100.

  5. In vitro screening on amyloid beta modulation of aqueous extracts from plant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glycation process might contribute to both extensive protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid-like aggregation of glycated bovine serum albumin induces apoptosis in the neuronal cell. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, vitamins, and polyphenols are beneficial to AD, and consumption of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of AD. We conducted a screening of 14 aqueous extracts from plant seeds (PSAE) for inhibitory activity on amyloid beta (Aβ). Materials and Methods: To examine the effects of PSAE on the Aβ (1–42) concentration, PSAE were analyzed by Aβ (1–42) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we carried out an antiglycation experiment of PSAE and an antiaggregation experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. PSAE were added to buffer containing D-ribose and albumins. The solutions were incubated at 37°C for 10 days. After incubation, the products were assayed on a fluorophotometer. Results: PSAE associated differential reduction in the levels of Aβ (1–42) (lettuce; 98.7% ± 2.4%, bitter melon; 95.9% ± 2.6%, and corn; 93.9% ± 2.1%), demonstrating that treatment with lettuce seeds extracts (LSE) effectively decreases Aβ (1–42) concentration. Among the 14 PSAE, LSE exhibited the second greatest potential for antiglycation. Inhibition of aggregates was not recognized in LSE. Conclusion: These results suggest that LSE reduces the toxicity of Aβ by modifying Aβ. PMID:27134467

  6. [Studies on chemical constituents of aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Song, Wei-xia; Guo, Qing-lan; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Su-juan; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-09-01

    From an aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds, sixteen compounds were isolated by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over macroporous resin, MCI gel, silica gel, and sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis as 6'-O-acetylvogeloside (1), 6'-O-acetylsecoxyloganin (2), dichlorogelignate (3), guanosinyl-(3' --> 5')-adenosine monophosphate(GpA,4) , 5'-O-methyladenosine (5), 2'-O-methyladenosine (6), adenosine (7), syringin (8), methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeate (9), (-)-dihydrophaseic acid 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), ketologanin (11), 7α-morroniside (12), 7β-morroniside (13), kingiside (14), cryptochlorogenic acid methyl ester (15), and 6-hydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol (16). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time, compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds, 3 and 5 are new natural products, and 4 is the first example of dinucleoside monophosphate isolated from a plant extract.

  7. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis.

  8. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. PMID:26604756

  9. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from the rhizome of Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Ju, Minli; Luo, Yin; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhao, Changpo; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The rhizome of Phragmites australis has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of an aqueous extract from the rhizome of P. australis (AE-PA) were evaluated. The acute toxicity test in mice showed that AE-PA was nontoxic since a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) did not cause toxic symptoms or mortality. The prolongation of hexobarbital-induced sleeping time by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration to mice was significantly reduced after pretreatment with AE-PA at 500 mg/kg b.w., proving the protective effect of the extract on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme. The oral administration of AE-PA to rats for 5 days before CCl4 intoxication caused a significant decrease in the CCl4-induced elevation of hepatic enzymes activities in serum, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase. This suggested that AE-PA had good hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced liver injury, which was confirmed by pathomorphological examination of the liver. Through evaluation of hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities, respectively, it was demonstrated that AE-PA had good antioxidant activity, which possibly contributed to its hepatoprotective activity. More research is needed to study the bio-active compounds in P. australis and to identify the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant agents.

  10. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Dillenia indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sett, Arghya; Gadewar, Manoj; Sharma, Pragya; Deka, Manab; Bora, Utpal

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report a novel method of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis using aqueous fruit extract of Dillenia indica. The phytochemicals present in the fruit extract act as an effective reducing and capping agent to synthesize AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed the particles of various sizes and mainly spherical in shape. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images confirmed the crystallinity of the particles. The XRD patterns showed peaks at (111), (200), (220) which exhibited preferential orientation of the AuNPs as face-centered cubic crystal. FTIR measurements confirmed the coating of phenolic compounds on the AuNPs indicating a possible role of biomolecules for the capping and efficient stabilization of the AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs did not show any form of cytotoxicity in the normal fibroblast cell line L929.

  11. [Studies on chemical constituents of aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Song, Wei-xia; Guo, Qing-lan; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Su-juan; Yang, Yong-chun; Shi, Jian-gong

    2015-09-01

    From an aqueous extract of Lonicera japonica flower buds, sixteen compounds were isolated by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over macroporous resin, MCI gel, silica gel, and sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis as 6'-O-acetylvogeloside (1), 6'-O-acetylsecoxyloganin (2), dichlorogelignate (3), guanosinyl-(3' --> 5')-adenosine monophosphate(GpA,4) , 5'-O-methyladenosine (5), 2'-O-methyladenosine (6), adenosine (7), syringin (8), methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeate (9), (-)-dihydrophaseic acid 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), ketologanin (11), 7α-morroniside (12), 7β-morroniside (13), kingiside (14), cryptochlorogenic acid methyl ester (15), and 6-hydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol (16). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time, compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds, 3 and 5 are new natural products, and 4 is the first example of dinucleoside monophosphate isolated from a plant extract. PMID:26978994

  12. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancai; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu; He, Rui; Liu, Yuping; Zheng, Chao

    2009-10-01

    Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb is used as the tonic for asthenia and fatigue in China. Considering that the energizing effect might be correlated with antioxidant properties, we investigated the antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb by assessing radical-scavenging and anti-lipid-peroxidation abilities. We found that AE shows a moderate antioxidant activity to scavenge DPPH*, O2(-)* and *OH and inhibit beta-carotene bleaching with IC(50) values of 13.0, 33.2, 351, and 11.9 microg/ml, respectively, while its AcOEt-soluble fraction (ESF) and BuOH soluble fraction (BSF) exhibit remarkable efficiencies. The ESF's IC(50) values of scavenging DPPH*, O2(-)*, and *OH, and inhibiting beta-carotene bleaching are 5.6, 5.8, 171, and 7.6 mircog/ml, respectively, and those of BSF are 7.5, 8.4, 82.0, and 6.2 microg/ml, respectively. In addition, we found that there is a significant correlation between total phenol content and the antioxidant activity determined by O2(-)* and *OH scavenging, and beta-carotene-bleaching assays. Furthermore, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of quercetin, hyperoside, quercitrin, taxifoliol, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and rutin in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Thus, we suggest that the extracts from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, could be considered as natural antioxidant sources and dietary nutritional supplements to prevent oxidation-related diseases. PMID:19842137

  13. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector/(−)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. PMID:26604756

  14. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  15. Modification of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction to increase the yield of corn oil from dry fractionated corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous aqueous enzymatic extraction experiments we reported an oil yield of 67 grams from 800 grams of dry fractionated corn germ. In the current experiments, a dispersion of 10% cooked, dry-fractionated germ in water and was treated with amylases and a cellulase complex. A foam fraction was s...

  16. Neocuproine-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction of copper(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Ashfaq; Harwood, Laurence M; Hudson, Michael J; Hodson, Mark E; Shaw, Elizabeth J

    2014-07-18

    Neocuproine has been covalently bound to silica-coated maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by a phenyl ether linkage. The resulting MNPs are able to remove Cu(II) from 12 ppm aqueous solution with an extraction efficiency of up to 99% at pH 2.

  17. Anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of a wild mushroom (Ganoderma applanatum) during experimentally induced coccidial infection in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Shazia; Tanveer, Syed; Malik, Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Despite presence of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines in the market, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. There is wide-spread resistance to already known anticoccidial drugs. It is an infectious disease of poultry and rigorous management is required during vaccination. In addition there is possibility of drug residues in meat and other byproducts of such treated animals and consequently makes more imperative to explore and understand the role of natural products in livestock parasite management. Therefore a study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of Ganoderma applanatum in broiler chicken. In-vivo anticoccidial activity of aqueous extract of G. applanatum was measured in comparison to the reference drug amprolium on the basis of oocysts per gram of faeces, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Oocyst output was measured with the help of Mc-Masters counting technique. The results of this study established the virulence of coccidian oocysts and the effectiveness of both amprolium and aqueous extract of G. applanatum against coccidian oocysts, confirmed by the fact that treatment with aqueous extract of G. applanatum resulted in a noticeable reduction in coccidian oocysts output, leading to improved weight gain and better feed conversion ratio. The study highlighted the potential of G. applanatum as a natural source of bioactive components for controlling a protozoan parasite, which can be isolated and tested in a bioassay-guided manner and harnessed in the form of anticoccidial drugs. PMID:27413313

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of caper (capparis spinosa l.) Fruit aqueous extract and the isolation of main phytochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been used as food as well as folk medicine in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatism. The present study was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of C. spinosa L. fruit (CSF) aqueous extract and to isolate main phytochemica...

  19. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  20. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  1. "Respirasome"-like supercomplexes in green leaf mitochondria of spinach.

    PubMed

    Krause, Frank; Reifschneider, Nicole H; Vocke, Dirk; Seelert, Holger; Rexroth, Sascha; Dencher, Norbert A

    2004-11-12

    Higher plant mitochondria have many unique features compared with their animal and fungal counterparts. This is to a large extent related to the close functional interdependence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, in which the two ATP-generating processes of oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively, take place. We show that digitonin treatment of mitochondria contaminated with chloroplasts from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) green leaves at two different buffer conditions, performed to solubilize oxidative phosphorylation supercomplexes, selectively extracts the mitochondrial membrane protein complexes and only low amounts of stroma thylakoid membrane proteins. By analysis of digitonin extracts from partially purified mitochondria of green leaves from spinach using blue and colorless native electrophoresis, we demonstrate for the first time that in green plant tissue a substantial proportion of the respiratory complex IV is assembled with complexes I and III into "respirasome"-like supercomplexes, previously observed in mammalian, fungal, and non-green plant mitochondria only. Thus, fundamental features of the supramolecular organization of the standard respiratory complexes I, III, and IV as a respirasome are conserved in all higher eukaryotes. Because the plant respiratory chain is highly branched possessing additional alternative enzymes, the functional implications of the occurrence of respiratory supercomplexes in plant mitochondria are discussed.

  2. Antioxidant Effects of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sang-Heui; Park, Jae-Hee; Kim, So-Yun; Lee, Seon Woo; Chun, Soon-Sil; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    Increased consumption of fresh vegetables that are high in polyphenols has been associated with a reduced risk of oxidative stress-induced disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of spinach in vitro and in vivo in hyperlipidemic rats. For measurement of in vitro antioxidant activity, spinach was subjected to hot water extraction (WE) or ethanol extraction (EE) and examined for total polyphenol content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and antigenotoxic activity. The in vivo antioxidant activity of spinach was assessed using blood and liver lipid profiles and antioxidant status in rats fed a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 6 weeks. The TPC of WE and EE were shown as 1.5±0.0 and 0.5±0.0 mg GAE/g, respectively. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ORAC value, CAA, and antigenotoxic activity for all extracts tested. HFCD-fed rats displayed hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by a significant rise in blood and liver lipid profiles, an increase in plasma conjugated diene concentration, an increase in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and a significant decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity compared with rats fed normal diet. However, administration of 5% spinach showed a beneficial effect in HFCD rats, as indicated by decreased liver TBARS level and DNA damage in leukocyte and increased plasma conjugated dienes and Mn-SOD activity. Thus, the antioxidant activity of spinach may be an effective way to ameliorate high fat and cholesterol diet-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Antioxidant Effects of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Supplementation in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang-Heui; Park, Jae-Hee; Kim, So-Yun; Lee, Seon Woo; Chun, Soon-Sil; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    Increased consumption of fresh vegetables that are high in polyphenols has been associated with a reduced risk of oxidative stress-induced disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of spinach in vitro and in vivo in hyperlipidemic rats. For measurement of in vitro antioxidant activity, spinach was subjected to hot water extraction (WE) or ethanol extraction (EE) and examined for total polyphenol content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and antigenotoxic activity. The in vivo antioxidant activity of spinach was assessed using blood and liver lipid profiles and antioxidant status in rats fed a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD) for 6 weeks. The TPC of WE and EE were shown as 1.5±0.0 and 0.5±0.0 mg GAE/g, respectively. Increasing the concentration of the extracts resulted in increased ORAC value, CAA, and antigenotoxic activity for all extracts tested. HFCD-fed rats displayed hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress, as indicated by a significant rise in blood and liver lipid profiles, an increase in plasma conjugated diene concentration, an increase in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and a significant decrease in manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity compared with rats fed normal diet. However, administration of 5% spinach showed a beneficial effect in HFCD rats, as indicated by decreased liver TBARS level and DNA damage in leukocyte and increased plasma conjugated dienes and Mn-SOD activity. Thus, the antioxidant activity of spinach may be an effective way to ameliorate high fat and cholesterol diet-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24772405

  4. Spinach downy mildew – Threat, prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew disease is a widespread and destructive disease of spinach in California and elsewhere where spinach is grown, and is caused by Peronospora effusa, an obligate, plant pathogenic oomycete. As in the case with most other crops damaged by downy mildews, spinach downy mildew culminates in ...

  5. Persistence of poultry associated Salmonella spp. on spinach plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Pre-harvest spinach contamination can occur via irrigation water and can influence the persistence of Salmonella on spinach leaves. Salmonella persistence on spinach plants should be evaluated as nearby poultry farms can be a critical source of contaminated water run-off. Purpose: The...

  6. Epidemiology and control of spinach downy mildew in coastal California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most serious threat to global fresh market spinach production is spinach downy mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen, Peronospora effusa. Downy mildew causes yellow chlorotic lesions on spinach leaf tissue, often accompanied by abundant sporulation on the undersides of leaves. Very ...

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  8. Estimation of Antimicrobial Properties of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Salvadora Persica (Miswak) on Oral Microbial Pathogens - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Siddeeqh, Salman; Jose, Maji; Pai, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twigs of Salvadora persica (Miswak) plant are being used as a means of oral hygiene since ages for brushing teeth. Though clinical research and trials have shown promising results on effectiveness of Miswak, but some reports are conflicting. Aim To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of crude aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Salvadora persica (Miswak) against the common microbial pathogens causing dental caries and periodontitis. Materials and Methods A prospective study of one year duration was conducted in Yenopoya dental and medical college, Mangalore. The twigs of Salvadora persica were collected and alcoholic and aqueous extracts were prepared using standard techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Prevotella intermedia, & Peptostreptococcus were performed by agar well diffusion method and two fold broth dilution method. Results No significant results was obtained when water extracts of Salvadora persica was tested except for minimum inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia & Peptostreptococcus and Candida albicans. Relatively significant inhibitory effect was noted with respect to alcoholic extract of Salvadora persica. Conclusion Although comparatively less than chlorhexidine which is a known antimicrobial agent, the alcoholic extracts of Salvadora persica showed antimicrobial effect against the common microbial pathogens causing dental caries and periodontitis indicating a potential beneficial effect of this plant. However, further research with more standardized extraction procedure and advanced techniques is required to find out the exact chemicals responsible for the antimicrobial properties of the plant extract. PMID:27790459

  9. Natural variation of folate content and composition in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yan-yan; Yu, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Kai; Patring, Johan; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-14

    Breeding to increase folate levels in edible parts of plants, termed folate biofortification, is an economical approach to fight against folate deficiency in humans, especially in the developing world. Germplasm with elevated folates are a useful genetic source for both breeding and direct use. Spinach is one of the well-know vegetables that contains a relatively high amount of folate. Currently, little is known about how much folate, and their composition varies in different spinach accessions. The aim of this study was to investigate natural variation in the folate content and composition of spinach genotypes grown under controlled environmental conditions. The folate content and composition in 67 spinach accessions were collected from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) germplasm collections according to their origin, grown under control conditions to screen for natural diversity. Folates were extracted by a monoenzyme treatment and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography (LC) method. The total folate content ranged from 54.1 to 173.2 μg/100 g of fresh weight, with 3.2-fold variation, and was accession-dependent. Four spinach accessions (PI 499372, NSL 6095, PI 261787, and TOT7337-B) have been identified as enriched folate content over 150 μg/100 g of fresh weight. The folate forms found were H(4)-folate, 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, and 5-HCO-H(4)-folate, and 10-CHO-folic acid also varied among different accessions and was responsible for variation in the total folate content. The major folate vitamer was represented by 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, which on average accounted for up to 52% of the total folate pool. The large variation in the total folate content and composition in diverse spinach accessions demonstrates the great genetic potential of diverse genotypes to be exploited by plant breeders.

  10. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maikai, Victor Ambrose; Maikai, Beatty Viv; Kobo, Patricia Ishyaku

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action. PMID:24587898

  11. Efficient and eco-friendly extraction of corn germ oil using aqueous ethanol solution assisted by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Yang, Ruijin

    2016-04-01

    An improved aqueous extraction method has been established for extraction of oil from corn germs. This method primarily included steam explosion pretreatment and aqueous ethanol extraction. Process variables such as steam pressure, resident time, particle size and ethanol concentration were investigated. The highest yield of 93.74 % was obtained when ground steam-exploded corn germ (1.3 MPa, 30 s, 30-35 μm particle size) was treated with 30 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol for 2 h, at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The residual oil content in water and sediment phase decreased dramatically to 4 % and 3 %, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the process induced by steam explosion was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The quality of extracted crude oil was also investigated. The results showed that the quality of extracted oil was superior to commercial oils. PMID:27413241

  12. Acute Toxicity and Determination of the Active Constituents of Aqueous Extract of Uncaria tomentosa Bark in Hyphessobrycon eques.

    PubMed

    Yunis Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Ikefuti, Cynthia; Ortega, George G; Eto, Silas F; da Cruz, Claudinei; Moraes, Juliet R E; Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2014-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine by Amazon tribes. In this study the constituents of aqueous extract of U. tomentosa bark were quantified by chromatographic technique and its lethal concentration 50 (48 h) in Hyphessobrycon eques was determined. The chromatography showed high levels of oxindole alkaloids, quinovic acid glycosides, and low molecular weight polyphenols. The CL50 48 h was 1816 mg/L. Fish showed behavior changes at concentrations above 2000 mg/L, accompanied by a significant decrease of dissolved oxygen. At the highest concentration 100% mortality was observed attributed to oxygen reduction by the amount of oxindole alkaloids, polyphenols accumulation of the extract in the gills, and the interaction of these compounds with dopamine. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of U. tomentosa did not alter the chemical components and it was shown that U. tomentosa has low toxicity to H. eques; therefore, it can be used safely in this species.

  13. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Achyranthes aspera by In Vitro and In Vivo Method

    PubMed Central

    Rajpal Deshmukh, Gajanan; Hema Kumar, Kuntrapakam; Suresh Reddy, Poojari Venkata; Srinivasa Rao, Boddapati; Venkata Satish Kumar, Chirumamilla

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to investigate the eye irritation potential of aqueous leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera by in vitro, Hen's Egg Chorioallantoic Membrane Test (HET-CAM) and in vivo acute eye irritation test in rabbits. The irritation score (IS) obtained after treatment of the extract on HET-CAM is 0.07 and that of in rabbits is 0.55, Which does not comes under either category 1 or 2 as per the harmonized integrated classification system. The aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera showed no eye irritation properties both in vitro and in vivo methods when compared with negative control whereas positive controls showed eye irritation potential. PMID:23724295

  14. ILs-based microwave-assisted extraction coupled with aqueous two-phase for the extraction of useful compounds from Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Liu, Xiaojie; Huang, Songyun; Zeng, Qun

    2012-09-01

    Ionic liquids-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILs-MAE) of medicinal or useful compounds from plants was investigated as an alternative to conventional organic solvent extractions. The extraction and the preconcentration of aqueous two-phase (ATP) systems have been integrated. Various operating parameters were systematically considered by single-factor and L(9) (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]) has been selected to extract Apocynum venetum. The extract was then converted to the top phase by [bmim][BF(4)]/NaH(2)PO(4) system which was suitable for the preconcentration. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was employed for the analysis of hyperin and isoquercitrin in Apocynum venetum. The optimal experiment approach could provide higher detection limit of hyperin and isoquercitrin which were 3.82 μg L(-1) and 3.00 μg L(-1) in Apocynum venetum. The recoveries of hyperin and isoquercitrin were 97.29% (RSD = 1.02%) and 99.40% (RSD = 1.13%), respectively, from aqueous samples of Apocynum venetum by the proposed method. Moreover, the extraction mechanism of ILs-MAE and the microstructures and chemical structures of the herb before and after extraction were also investigated. The method exhibited potential applicability with other complicated samples. PMID:22785248

  15. Microfluidic aqueous two-phase extraction of bisphenol A using ionic liquid for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Linlin; Wang, Yunhua; Li, Yajie; Zheng, Guoxia; Li, Changping; Su, Hongzhen

    2015-05-01

    An aqueous two-phase microfluidics (ATPM) method suitable for selective extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous samples was developed, and a functional ionic liquid of N, N, N-trioctyl ammonium propionate (TOAP) was specially employed for the formation of a parallel flow system. Based on the analytical model, we optimized the chip design into branch-connection length pattern to achieve maximum extraction efficiency (φ max) and ensure phase separation. In combining the design flexibility and ideal reaction activity of extractant (TOAP), the developed ATPM enabled a selective and effective extraction of BPA (φ max of 95% within 2 s) from phenol derivatives. Meanwhile, the total operation time and ionic liquid consumption of the microfluidic extraction were only 2.5 min and 5 μl, respectively. The ATPM can be run at normal pH and room temperature and showed no interferences from components found in tap or beach water. To be noted, this specific extraction system was applied in real water samples; the recoveries of standard addition for all water samples spiked with BPA were from 96 to 110%. Finally, successful reuse of the chip was also realized. In all cases, the developed microfluidic chip was proven to be useful as an effective and low consumption approach in extracting BPA and should be expanded as a "green" preparative method for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. PMID:25796523

  16. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Mirtaceae).

    PubMed

    García, M D; Fernández, M A; Alvarez, A; Saenz, M T

    2004-03-01

    The leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Urban & Ekman) Landrum L. (Myrtaceae) are used against the pain and the inflammation in popular medicine of the Caribe area. In the present work, the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effect, and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa have been investigated. The antinociceptive action was assayed in several experimental models in mice: acetic acid, formalin, and hot plate tests. The aqueous extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced the nociception induced by the acetic acid intraperitoneal injection (P<0.001). In the formalin test, the extract also significantly reduced the painful stimulus in both phases of the test (P<0.001). On the contrary, the extract neither significantly increased the latency time of licking nor jumping in the hot plate test. In the anti-inflammatory study, the plant also showed an interesting effect. Aqueous extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) orally administered, significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw at 1, 3, and 5 h (P<0.001). In the TPA test the edema was dose-dependent and significantly reduced by the extract (0.5, 1, and 3 mg per ear) when it was topically applied (P<0.01; P<0.001). The levels of myeloperoxidase enzyme also were reduced in the inflamed tissue by the extract. Acute toxicity also was investigated and the results indicated a moderate toxicity (LD50: 287 +/- 12.9 mg residue/kg; 1.854 +/- 0.083 g plant/kg). These results revealed that the extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua exerts an important antinociceptive activity, associated to an anti-inflammatory effect which to appear be markedly influenced by the inhibition of neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue and that lack of toxic effects at usual doses.

  17. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p < 0.05). Tibial length was significantly increased in the high dose aqueous extract group (15-26%). The differences in growth could not be attributed to circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 as the levels were not significantly different. The caecum was significantly enlarged in the rats that received the high doses of both extracts. Although, there was no significant difference in the non-fasting plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides, the hepatic lipid and glycogen content were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the high dose aqueous extract group. The plasma alanine transaminase was not affected by the treatments, however the high doses of the extracts significantly increased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Short term administration of Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  18. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity of the leaf aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Melanthera scandens in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Twinomujuni, Silvano S.; Oloro, Joseph; Alele, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Modern drug therapy of epilepsy is complicated by the inability of drugs to control seizures in some patients and side effects that range in severity from minimal impairment of the central nervous system to death from aplastic anemia or hepatic failure. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy have been scientifically shown to possess promising anticonvulsant activities in animal models for screening for anticonvulsant activity and can be a source of newer anticonvulsants. The aim of this study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities of Melanthera scandens aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Phytochemicals from the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were screened by standard methods. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. The effect of the extract at oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was evaluated in an experimental rat model, using diazepam (5 mg/kg) as positive control. Anxiolytic activity was performed using elevated plus maze method. Phytochemical screening revealed that M. scandens extracts contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, phenols and phytosterols. The aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg significantly increased seizure latency (P=0.0023), while the ethanolic extract did not have a significant effect on seizure latency. Both extracts significantly reduced the seizure severity (P= 0.0155), and provided up to 100% protection against PTZ induced death at 1000 mg/kg. Both extracts had no significant effect on the duration of PTZ induced seizures. Both extracts were found to increase the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms of the maze at a dose of 250 mg/kg, indicating anxiolytic activity, which was not seen at higher doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg). The total numbers of entries into the closed arm were significantly reduced at 500 and 1000 mg

  19. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-04-24

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  1. Design of a microfluidic platform for monoclonal antibody extraction using an aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Silva, D F C; Azevedo, A M; Fernandes, P; Chu, V; Conde, J P; Aires-Barros, M R

    2012-08-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in medical treatments and in laboratory techniques has a very important impact in the battle against many diseases, namely in the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases and neural disorders. Thus these biopharmaceuticals have become increasingly important, reinforcing the demand for efficient, scalable and cost-effective techniques for providing pure antibodies. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have shown potential for downstream processing of mAbs. In this work, an ATPS in a microfluidic platform was designed and tested for mAbs extraction. The system demonstrated the potential to be an effective tool to accelerate bioprocess design and optimization. The partition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in an ATPS of polyethylene-glycol (PEG)/phosphate buffer with NaCl was investigated using a PDMS microfluidic device fabricated using soft lithography techniques. Different structures were tested with different values of microchannel length (3.14-16.8 cm) and flow rates of the salt (1-2 μL/min) and PEG-rich phases (0.2-0.5 μL/min). A stable interphase between the phases was obtained and the phenomena of diffusion and of partition of the IgG from the salt-rich phase to the PEG-rich phase were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Process simulation allowed the modeling of the IgG diffusion and partitioning behavior observed in the microstructure. The reduction to the microscale does not greatly affect the antibody extraction yield when compared with macroscale results, but it does reduce the operation time, demonstrating the potentiality of this approach to process optimization. PMID:22742897

  2. Effect of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina on atherosclerosis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmalik, Omotola; Oladapo, Olulola Olutoyin; Bolaji, Modupeola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina) have been shown to affect the serum lipid profile of some laboratory animals in previous studies. Its impact on serum lipid profile and the histological changes in atherosclerosis has not been studied. Our aim was to determine the effects of V. amygdalina on atherosclerotic lesions induced in rabbits on high-cholesterol diet. METHODS 18 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of control, atherogenic diet, and atherogenic diet + 200 mg/kg of V. amygdalina. The rabbits were fed a normal diet (control group) or a diet supplemented by 0.5% cholesterol and 1% methionine (second and third groups, respectively) for 12 weeks. The fasting sera of all animals were collected at baseline and at the end of the 12 weeks, to determine the levels of lipid profile and the aortas underwent pathomorphological examination. RESULTS The two groups on the atherogenic diet had significantly increased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to the control group. The serum triglyceride (TG) was not statistically different in all three groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased in the V. amygdalina group, compared to the control group but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on atherogenic diet. The two groups of rabbits that were on high-cholesterol diet (atherogenic diet group, as well as the atherogenic diet + 200 mg/kg of V. amygdalina) developed histological evidence of atherosclerosis. However, there was no histological difference between the lesions observed in these two groups. CONCLUSION The use of 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of V. amygdalina in rabbits did not appear to exert a significant effect on the serum lipid profile. It also did not appear to have any beneficial effect on the development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27114735

  3. Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Joseph; Richard, Nathalie; Mussler, Bernd; Raederstorff, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients transiently or chronically modulate functional and biochemical characteristics of cells and tissues both in vivo and in vitro. The influence of tomato aqueous extract (TAE) on the in vitro inflammatory response of activated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and macrophages was investigated. Its effect on endothelial dysfunction (ED) was analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), PBLs and HUVECs were incubated with TAE. They were activated with LPS or TNF-α in order to induce inflammatory processes and ED, respectively. Inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules were measured by immune assay-based multiplex analysis. Gene expression was quantified by RT-PCR. TAE altered the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12) and chemokines (CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10) in PBLs. TAE reduced ED-associated expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) in endothelial cell. In macrophages, the production of nitric oxide, PGE2, cytokines and ILs (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12), which reflects chronic inflammatory processes, was reduced. Adenosine was identified as the main bioactive of TAE. Thus, TAE had cell-specific and context-dependent effects. We infer from these in vitro data, that during acute inflammation TAE enhances cellular alertness and therefore the sensing of disturbed immune homeostasis in the vascular-endothelial compartment. Conversely, it blunts inflammatory mediators in macrophages during chronic inflammation. A novel concept of immune regulation by this extract is proposed. PMID:26840280

  4. Effects and Safety of Aqueous Extract of Poncirus fructus in Spinal Cord Injury with Neurogenic Bowel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Su Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., known as Poncirus fructus (PF), in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neurogenic bowel. Methods. Thirty-one SCI patients with neurogenic bowel were recruited. Patients were evaluated based on clinical information, constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale, stool retention score using plain abdominal radiograph, and colon transit time. PF was administered in dosages of 800 mg each prior to breakfast and lunch for 14 days. Results. The morphological feature of the stool before and after administration indicated a statistically significant difference from 3.52 ± 1.33 to 4.32 ± 1.44 points (p < 0.05). Stool retention score before and after administration of PF was represented with low significance (7.25 ± 1.60 to 6.46 ± 1.53 points) in the whole colon (p < 0.05), and the colon transit time was significantly shortened (57.41 ± 20.7 to 41.2 ± 25.5 hours) in terms of the whole transit time (p < 0.05). Side effects were observed in 7 people (28.0%) consisting of 2 people with soft stools and 5 people with diarrhea. Conclusion. For SCI patients, PF administration significantly improved defecation patterns, defecation retention, and colon transit time. PF could be an effective aid to improve colonic motility and constipation. PMID:27738444

  5. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from waste potato peel by aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Niphadkar, Sonali S; Vetal, Mangesh D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    Potato peel from food industrial waste is a good source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). This work illustrates the application of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction and purification of PPO from potato peel. ATPS was composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate buffer. Effect of different process parameters, namely, PEG, potassium phosphate buffer, NaCl concentration, and pH of the system, on partition coefficient, purification factor, and yield of PPO enzyme were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized as a statistical tool for the optimization of ATPS. Optimized experimental conditions were found to be PEG1500 17.62% (w/w), potassium phosphate buffer 15.11% (w/w), and NaCl 2.08 mM at pH 7. At optimized condition, maximum partition coefficient, purification factor, and yield were found to be 3.7, 4.5, and 77.8%, respectively. After partial purification of PPO from ATPS, further purification was done by gel chromatography where its purity was increased up to 12.6-fold. The purified PPO enzyme was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by Km value 3.3 mM, and Vmax value 3333 U/mL, and enzyme stable ranges for temperature and pH of PPO were determined. These results revealed that ATPS would be an attractive option for obtaining purified PPO from waste potato peel.

  6. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Cinnamomi cassiae (Lauraceae) bark aqueous extract in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ikram, Huma; Akhtar, Naheed

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor leading to a number of chronic and metabolic disorders. Obesity is the fifth leading cause of global deaths. At least 2.8 million adults are dying each year as being overweight or obese. Cinnamomi cassiae is widely used traditional medicinal plant, used indigenously, to decrease glucose and cholesterol. 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT; Serotonin) is an important neurotransmitter reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia. Present study was designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cinnamon bark aqueous extract (CBAE) in obese rats and to find the possible involvement of 5-HT in reducing the body weight in these experimental animals. CBAE was repeatedly administered orally in the test animals for 5 weeks. A decrease in the food intake along with a concomitant increase in brain 5-HT level was observed in rats administered with CBAE. Findings may help in extending therapeutics in the pathophysiology of obesity and related eating disorders. Decrease activities in behavioral models were also monitored in CBAE treated animals.

  7. Effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on blood lipid metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Yan, Jingna; Luo, Liyong; Zhang, Dongying

    2015-06-01

    Disorders of blood lipid metabolism are the primary risk factors for many diseases. Recently, the effect of Pu-erh tea on blood lipid metabolism has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying its ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism is unclear. We set out to study this through assessing the effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on the central enzymes of blood lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and pancreatic lipase (PL). We find that the Lp-PLA2, HMRG and PL activities are inhibited by PTAE in a dose-dependent manner and that the LCAT activity tends to increase with increasing PTAE concentrations. Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses reveal that PTAE acts as a competitive inhibitor for HMGR and PL and as a noncompetitive inhibitor for Lp-PLA2. Moreover, we determine that its active ingredients include catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, free amino acids, and soluble sugar. However, the effect of each ingredient and whether any of them have synergistic effects are still unknown. The results suggest that Pu-erh tea has a potent ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism and knowledge of the mechanisms provides insights into its potential therapeutic application as an alternative hypolipidemic drug.

  8. Aqueous extract of Yerba Mate tea lowers atherosclerotic risk factors in a rat hyperlipidemia model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongli; Liu, Zhaochun; Wan, Wenju; Qu, Xiaolan; Chen, Meihua

    2013-08-01

    Yerba Mate tea (Mate) is believed to be a natural source of cardioprotective lipid-lowering and antioxidant compounds. In this study, the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Mate tea in a rat hyperlipidemia model were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into five groups and fed varying diets: standard diet, hyperlipidemic diet, and hyperlipidemic diet supplemented with low, moderate, or high concentrations of Mate tea aqueous extract (1%, 2%, and 4% w/v, respectively). Compared to the hyperlipidemic control group, Mate tea reduced significantly the total body weight and lowered serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and caused the elevation of serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Moreover, activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in serum were elevated significantly, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde decreased. In addition, Mate tea treatment ameliorated significantly the severe fatty degeneration of liver cells that occurred in the hyperlipidemic groups. The relative levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and its target fatty acid synthase, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA transcripts were reduced, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mRNA transcripts were elevated in the Mate tea groups. Our results suggest that Mate tea exerts strong antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects, prevents hepatic fatty deposition, and regulates the expression of lipid metabolic regulators. It can therefore be used to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

  9. Lithocarpus polystachyus REHD leaf aqueous extract inhibits human breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Caiyu; Wang, Li; Wang, Hong; Fang, Shengtao; Zhang, Quanbo; Yang, Liuqi; Guo, Huijie; Lin, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiujie

    2014-01-01

    Lithocarpus polystachyus leaves have been used as tea beverage and folk medicine for healthy care in the Southwest of China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd leaf aqueous extract (LPAE) and to explore the possible mechanism of its activity. Growth inhibition effects of LPAE breast cancer were tested in vitro and in vivo. The possible mechanism of its activity was analyzed with cell biological and molecular biological assays. After LPAE treatment, the proliferation and colony formation of cancer cells decreased; apoptotic cells increased; DNA fragmentations were evident; mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, Bax, and caspase-3 genes increased and expressions of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 genes decreased; in vivo experiment, LPAE inhibited human beast cancer growth. The findings in this experimental study suggested that LPAE has potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits the cancer growth in vivo, and its mechanism of activity might be associated with apoptosis induction of cancer cells through upregulation of the mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, Bax, and capase-3 genes and downregulation of the expressions of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 genes.

  10. Functional proteomics reveal the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract against vascular atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Pei-Wen; Pan, Tai-Long

    2010-06-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a Chinese herb widely used for cardiovascular disorder regimens, yet little is known about the cellular mechanisms that contribute to attenuated growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) under oxidative stress such as homocysteine (Hcy) treatment. As anticipated, a low dose (0.015 mg/mL) of S.miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMAE) significantly inhibited (>60%) the growth of a rat smooth muscle cell line (A10) under Hcy stimulation and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration obviously decreased after SMAE treatment in terms of reducing p47(phox) translocation and increasing catalase activity. Signaling profile suggests that SMAE inhibited Hcy-induced A10 cell growth via the PKC/MAPK-dependent pathway. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry revealed statistically significant changes in the intensity of 14 proteins in response to Hcy and Hcy/SMAE. Meanwhile, SMAE attenuated carbonyl-modification of specific cytoskeleton and chaperone proteins leading to cell type transformation. Moreover, a network analysis using MetaCore shed more light on the molecular basis associated with SMAE efficacy. SMAE exerts its protective effect through the scavenging of ROS and subsequent modulation of protein carbonylation to inhibit cell proliferation. These signature networks and functional proteomics highlighted herein may facilitate the evaluation of potential therapeutic targets and elucidate novel mechanisms through which protein functions can be regulated by the redox status.

  11. Aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Singh, S K

    2016-09-01

    Antifertility efficacy of oral administration of aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi (200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body weight/day for 35 days) was evaluated in Parkes strain male mice. Various reproductive end points such as histopathology, sperm parameters, testosterone level, haematology, serum biochemistry and fertility indices were assessed; activities of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and immunoblot expressions of StAR and P450scc in the testis were also assessed. Histologically, testes in Mimusops-treated mice showed nonuniform and diverse degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules; both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same sections of testis. The treatment had adverse effects on testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and StAR and P450scc, serum level of testosterone and on motility, viability and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymis. However, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, and haematological parameters were not affected by the treatment. Also, libido was not affected in treated males, but their fertility was markedly suppressed. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, the alterations caused in the above parameters recovered to control levels, suggesting that Mimusops treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Further, there were no detectable signs of toxicity in treated males. PMID:27489141

  12. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from waste potato peel by aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Niphadkar, Sonali S; Vetal, Mangesh D; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    Potato peel from food industrial waste is a good source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). This work illustrates the application of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction and purification of PPO from potato peel. ATPS was composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate buffer. Effect of different process parameters, namely, PEG, potassium phosphate buffer, NaCl concentration, and pH of the system, on partition coefficient, purification factor, and yield of PPO enzyme were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized as a statistical tool for the optimization of ATPS. Optimized experimental conditions were found to be PEG1500 17.62% (w/w), potassium phosphate buffer 15.11% (w/w), and NaCl 2.08 mM at pH 7. At optimized condition, maximum partition coefficient, purification factor, and yield were found to be 3.7, 4.5, and 77.8%, respectively. After partial purification of PPO from ATPS, further purification was done by gel chromatography where its purity was increased up to 12.6-fold. The purified PPO enzyme was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by Km value 3.3 mM, and Vmax value 3333 U/mL, and enzyme stable ranges for temperature and pH of PPO were determined. These results revealed that ATPS would be an attractive option for obtaining purified PPO from waste potato peel. PMID:25036474

  13. Effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on blood lipid metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Yan, Jingna; Luo, Liyong; Zhang, Dongying

    2015-06-01

    Disorders of blood lipid metabolism are the primary risk factors for many diseases. Recently, the effect of Pu-erh tea on blood lipid metabolism has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying its ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism is unclear. We set out to study this through assessing the effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on the central enzymes of blood lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and pancreatic lipase (PL). We find that the Lp-PLA2, HMRG and PL activities are inhibited by PTAE in a dose-dependent manner and that the LCAT activity tends to increase with increasing PTAE concentrations. Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses reveal that PTAE acts as a competitive inhibitor for HMGR and PL and as a noncompetitive inhibitor for Lp-PLA2. Moreover, we determine that its active ingredients include catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, free amino acids, and soluble sugar. However, the effect of each ingredient and whether any of them have synergistic effects are still unknown. The results suggest that Pu-erh tea has a potent ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism and knowledge of the mechanisms provides insights into its potential therapeutic application as an alternative hypolipidemic drug. PMID:26018873

  14. Anti-fibrotic effects of the Masson pine pollen aqueous extract on hepatic fibrosis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Tao; Jin, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Long; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Ping; Guo, Chang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the antifibrotic effects of Masson Pine Pollen aqueous extract. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CG), hepatic fibrosis model (MG), MPPAE low dose (LG), MPPAE high dose (HG), and MPP original powder (MPPOP; OG) groups. Each group was treated with specific protocols and sacrificed 8 weeks later. Multiple indicators such as serum transaminase, HE staining of the liver tissue, and relevant indexes to fibrosis were determined. Results: Severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissues was observed in livers of the MG group rats, while aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels and collagen content obviously increased, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and MMPs expression decreased, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine concentrations increased, while mRNA expressions of hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-related cytokines such as transforming growth factor-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB p65, and signaling protein α-smooth muscle actin were all increased significantly. Conclusions: MPPAE effectively inhibited the fibrotic process in this CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rat model. It may be associated with synergic functions of antioxidant activity, inhibitory activity on HSC proliferation, collagen synthesis, and MMPs expression induction. PMID:26191155

  15. The Antidiabetic and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Pecan Shells in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Ethur, Eduardo M; Porto, Caroline D L; Marroni, Norma P; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2015-12-01

    Pecan shell decoction has been used to treat diabetes and obesity-related diseases. In this study, the effects of a pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) were evaluated in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats, analyzing clinical signs and biochemical as well as genotoxic and mutagenic parameters, to assess its safe use and efficacy. Diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia were induced with streptozotocin (STZ) and tyloxapol, respectively. Animals were orally administered PSAE (100 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) for 28 days. Biochemical analyses and genotoxicity were evaluated in blood samples and mutagenicity was evaluated in bone marrow. PSAE treatment decreased the blood glucose level and stabilized clinical signs of diabetes in diabetic rats. PSAE diminished the increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. The urea levels were higher in diabetic rats than in treated ones; however, creatinine values were the same in all groups. Elevated transaminase levels were suggestive of liver injuries in diabetic rats, and were not altered by PSAE treatment. PSAE did not show genotoxic or mutagenic activities in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats, indicating its safe use at 100 mg/kg b.w. not only in healthy rats but also in rats with induced metabolic alterations. The findings on PSAE's efficacy may indicate that its successful and popular use is in accordance with our results. Thus, PSAE might be a potential candidate for medical purposes as a complementary treatment of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26449221