Science.gov

Sample records for aqueous vanadium pentoxide

  1. Vanadium pentoxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vanadium pentoxide ; CASRN 1314 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  2. Polypyrrole-encapsulated vanadium pentoxide nanowires on a conductive substrate for electrode in aqueous rechargeable lithium battery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaowei; Fang, Dong; Cao, Yunhe; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Zhou, Qunhua; Xiong, Chuanxi; Xu, Weilin

    2015-02-01

    Precursors of ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4V4O10) nanowires assembled on a conductive substrate were prepared by a hydrothermal method. After calcination at 360°C, the NH4V4O10 precursor transformed to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires, which presented a high initial capacity of 135.0mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50mA g(-1) in 5M LiNO3 aqueous solution; while the specific capacity faded quickly over 50 cycles. By coating the surface of V2O5 nanowires with water-insoluble polypyrrole (PPy), the formed nanocomposite electrode exhibited a specific discharge capacity of 89.9mA h g(-1) at 50mA g(-1) (after 100 cycles). A V2O5@PPy //LiMn2O4 rechargeable lithium battery exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 95.2mA h g(-1); and after 100 cycles, a specific discharge capacity of 81.5mA h g(-1) could retain at 100mA g(-1).

  3. Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalio, Filipe; André, Rute; Hartog, Aloysius F.; Stoll, Brigitte; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Wever, Ron; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    Marine biofouling--the colonization of small marine microorganisms on surfaces that are directly exposed to seawater, such as ships' hulls--is an expensive problem that is currently without an environmentally compatible solution. Biofouling leads to increased hydrodynamic drag, which, in turn, causes increased fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Tributyltin-free antifouling coatings and paints based on metal complexes or biocides have been shown to efficiently prevent marine biofouling. However, these materials can damage the environment through metal leaching (for example, of copper and zinc) and bacteria resistance. Here, we show that vanadium pentoxide nanowires act like naturally occurring vanadium haloperoxidases to prevent marine biofouling. In the presence of bromide ions and hydrogen peroxide, the nanowires catalyse the oxidation of bromide ions to hypobromous acid (HOBr). Singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) is formed and this exerts strong antibacterial activity, which prevents marine biofouling without being toxic to marine biota. Vanadium pentoxide nanowires have the potential to be an alternative approach to conventional anti-biofouling agents.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This vanadium pentoxide reassessment consists of an oral reference dose (RfD), an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), an inhalation unit risk (IUR) and a cancer weight of evidence descriptor. This is the first assessment developing an RfC or IUR for this compound. This as...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and W...

  6. Vanadium pentoxide induces activation and death of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Dávalos, Angélica; Gonzalez-Villava, Adriana; Rodriguez-Lara, Vianey; Montaño, Luis Felipe; Fortoul, Teresa I; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium is a transition metal released into the atmosphere, as air-suspended particles, as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels and some metallurgic industry activities. Air-suspended particle pollution causes inflammation-related processes such as thrombosis and other cardiovascular events. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) on endothelial cells since they are key participants in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Cell adhesion, the expression of adhesion molecules and oxidative stress, as well as proliferation, morphology and cell death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to V2O5, were evaluated. Vanadium pentoxide at a 3.12 µg cm(-2) concentration induced an enhanced adhesion of the U937 macrophage cell line to HUVECs, owing to an increased expression of late adhesion molecules. HUVECs exposed to V2O5 showed an increase in ROS and nitric oxide production, and a diminished proliferation. These changes in vanadium-treated HUVECs were accompanied by severe morphological changes and apoptotic cell death. Vanadium pentoxide induced serious endothelial cell damage, probably related to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in individuals living in highly air-polluted areas. PMID:21721017

  7. Sol-gel derived PZT films doped with vanadium pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Hongfang; Guo Qing; Zhao Zhiman; Cao Guozhong

    2009-11-15

    The present research investigated the sol-gel preparation, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT films doped with 5 mol% vanadium oxide. Stable PZTV sols can be readily formed, and homogeneous, micrometer thick and pinhole-free PZTV films were obtained by using spin coating followed with rapid annealing. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that no parasitic or secondary phases were formed in the sol-gel PZT films with the addition of vanadium oxide. The material doped with vanadium pentoxide showed enhanced dielectric constant and remanent polarization with reduced loss tangent and coercive field.

  8. Plasma assisted synthesis of vanadium pentoxide nanoplates

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Megha; Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kumar, Prabhat Reddy, G. B.

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we report the growth of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (orthorhombic) nanoplates on glass substrate using plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP) and Nickel as catalyst. 100 nm thick film of Ni is deposited over glass substrate by thermal evaporation process. Vanadium oxide nanoplates have been deposited treating vanadium metal foil under high vacuum conditions with oxygen plasma. Vanadium foil is kept at fixed temperature growth of nanoplates of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to take place. Samples grown have been studied using XPS, XRD and HRTEM to confirm the growth of α-phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which revealed pure single crystal of α- V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in orthorhombic crystallographic plane. Surface morphological studies using SEM and TEM show nanostructured thin film in form of plates. Uniform, vertically aligned randomly oriented nanoplates of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been deposited.

  9. Vanadium pentoxide effects on stress responses in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UE-ME3.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Tânia; Conim, Ana; Alves-Pereira, Isabel; Ferreira, Rui

    2009-11-01

    Vanadium pentoxide mainly used as catalyst in sulphuric acid, maleic anhydride and ceramics industry, is a pollutant watering redistributed around the environment. Research on biological influence of vanadium pentoxide has gained major importance because it exerts toxic effects on a wide variety of biological systems. In this work we intent to evaluate the effects of vanadium pentoxide ranging from 0 to 2 mM in culture media on a wine wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Alentejo region of Portugal. Our results show that 2.0 mM vanadium pentoxide in culture medium induced a significant increase of malonaldehyde level and Glutathione peroxidase activity, a slightly increase of Catalase A activity as well as a decrease of wet weight and mitochondrial NADH cit c reductase of S. cerevisiae UE-ME(3). Also our results show that cycloheximide prevent cell death when cells grows 30 min in presence of 1.5 mM of vanadium pentoxide.

  10. Towards thiol functionalization of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes using gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lavayen, V.; O'Dwyer, C. . E-mail: codwyer@tyndall.ie; Cardenas, G.; Gonzalez, G.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.

    2007-04-12

    Template-directed synthesis is a promising route to realize vanadate-based 1-D nanostructures, an example of which is the formation of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes and associated nanostructures. In this work, we report the interchange of long-chained alkyl amines with alkyl thiols. This reaction was followed using gold nanoparticles prepared by the Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD) method with an average diameter of {approx}0.9nm and a stability of {approx}85 days. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanotubes (VOx-NTs) with lengths of {approx}2{mu}m and internal hollow diameters of 20-100nm were synthesized and functionalized in a Au-acetone colloid with a nominal concentration of {approx}4x10{sup -3}mol dm{sup -3}. The interchange reaction with dodecylamine is found only to occur in polar solvents and incorporation of the gold nanoparticles is not observed in the presence of n-decane.

  11. 77 FR 5797 - Draft Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide: In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... vanadium pentoxide assessment in Federal Register Notices published September 30, 2011, (76 FR 60827) and November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69736). DATES: The peer review panel meeting on the draft assessment for Vanadium... Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20460; telephone: (703) 347-8561; facsimile: (703) 347- 8691). If...

  12. Enhanced Lithium-ion intercalation properties of coherent hydrous vanadium pentoxide-carbon cryogels nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Anqiang; Liu, Dawei; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Garcia, Betzaita Betalla; Liang, Shu-quan; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2010-06-01

    Coherent hydrous vanadium pentoxide (V2O5•nH2O) - carbon cryogels (CCs) nanocomposites were synthesized by electrodeposition of vanadium pentoxide onto the porous carbon scaffold which was derived from resorcinol (R) and formaldehyde (F) organic hydrogels. As-fabricated nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), along with EDAX and nitrogen sorption isotherms which suggested vanadium pentoxide incorporated in the pores of carbon cryogels. The nanocomposites showed much improved discharge capacity and better cyclic stability as compared to hydrous vanadium pentoxide films deposited on platinum foil. The discharge capacity of the nanocomposites reached 280 mAh/g based on the mass of the vandium pentoxide at a current density of 100mA/g and it possessed good cycle stability at different discharge rate. The results demonstrated that electrochemical performances, such as specific discharge capacitance and reversibility of the composite electrode, could be greatly enhanced by the introduction of carbon cryogels (CCs) scaffold with three-dimensionally interconnected porous structure in which V2O5•nH2O homogeneously dispersed.

  13. 76 FR 69736 - Draft Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide: In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' (EPA/635R-11/004A). EPA is extending the public... December 29, 2011. The Listening Session on the draft IRIS assessment for vanadium pentoxide will be...

  14. First Steps Towards an Understanding of a Mode ofCarcinogenic Action for Vanadium Pentoxide

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Detlef; Chevalier, Hans-Jörg; Merker, Mandy; Morgenthal, Katja; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Sagelsdorff, Peter; Walter, Marc; Weber, Klaus; Mcgregor, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of vanadium pentoxide clearly increases the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms in male and female B6C3F1 mice at all concentrations tested (1, 2 or 4 mg/m3), whereas responses in F344/N rats was, at most, ambiguous. While vanadium pentoxide is mutagenic in vitro and possibly in vivo in mice, this does not explain the species or site specificity of the neoplastic response. A nose-only inhalation study was conducted in female B6C3F1 mice (0, 0.25, 1 and 4 mg/m3, 6 h/day for 16 days) to explore histopathological, biochemical (α-tocopherol, glutathione and F2-isoprostane) and genetic (comet assays and 9 specific DNA-oxo-adducts) changes in the lungs. No treatment related histopathology was observed at 0.25 mg/m3. At 1 and 4 mg/m3, exposure-dependent increases were observed in lung weight, alveolar histiocytosis, sub-acute alveolitis and/or granulocytic infiltration and a generally time-dependent increased cell proliferation rate of histiocytes. Glutathione was slightly increased, whereas there were no consistent changes in α-tocopherol or 8-isoprostane F2α. There was no evidence for DNA strand breakage in lung or BAL cells, but there was an increase in 8-oxodGuo DNA lesions that could have been due to vanadium pentoxide induction of the lesions or inhibition of repair of spontaneous lesions. Thus, earlier reports of histopathological changes in the lungs after inhalation of vanadium pentoxide were confirmed, but no evidence has yet emerged for a genotoxic mode of action. Evidence is weak for oxidative stress playing any role in lung carcinogenesis at the lowest effective concentrations of vanadium pentoxide. PMID:22272055

  15. Phase transition kinetics in DIET of vanadium pentoxide. I. Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, R.; Fan, H.-J.; Marks, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results of the kinetics of phase transformation in vanadium pentoxide during surface loss of oxygen from electron irradiation are described. Phase transformations under three different regimes were examined: (a) low flux; (b) intermediate flux and (c) high flux. Different phase transformation routes were observed under different fluxes. In a companion paper, numerical calculations are presented demonstrating that these results are due to a mixed interface/diffusion controlled phase transition pumped by surface oxygen loss.

  16. Amp Synthesis in Aqueous Solution of Adenosine and Phosphorus Pentoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Y.; Kojima, H.; Ejiri, K.; Inomata, K.

    1982-12-01

    Possible formation of a P4O10 molecule in magma, the stability of the molecule in hydrous volcanic gas at high temperatures and a possible prebiotic phosphate cycle were discussed in relation to chemical evolution. To demonstrate the utility of phosphorus pentoxide as a phosphorylating agent, aqueous solutions of adenosine (0.02M) and phosphorus pentoxide (0.2M) were incubated at 37°C for 5 months. The pH of the solutions was adjusted every day or every few days to each fixed value (9.0, 10.5, 11.5, 12.5) with 10 N NaOH. The HPLC analysis showed the formation of 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 5'-AMP, cyclic (2' 3')-AMP and cyclic (3' 5')-AMP. The main components of the products were 2'- and 3'-AMP, though cyclic (2' 3')-AMP was the main component in the early period of the incubation at pH 9.0. The yields (conversion rate of adenosine to AMPs) were increased almost linearly with the incubation time for 5 months in the case of pH 9.0. The final yields were about 3% (pH 9.0), 6% (pH 9.0, 1 M NaCl), 5% (pH 9.0, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.01 M MgCl2), 7% (pH 9.0, 0.5 M NaCl, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.01 M MgCl2), 9% (pH 9.0, 1 M NaCl, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.01 M MgCl2), 32% (pH 10.5), 43% (pH 11.5), 35% (pH 12.5).

  17. Production of large-scale, freestanding vanadium pentoxide nanobelt porous structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Yong Ju; Kim, Byung Hoon; Hong, Won G.; Kim, Chang Hee; Kim, Yark Yeon; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Jang, Won Ick; Yu, Han Young

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale, freestanding, porous structures of vanadium pentoxide nanobelts (VPNs) were successfully prepared using the template-free freeze-drying method. The porous and multi-layered VPN macrostructures are composed of randomly oriented long nanobelts (over 100 μm) and their side length can be controlled up to a few tens of centimetres. Also, the bulk density and surface area of these macrostructures are 3-5 mg cm-3 and 40-80 m2 g-1, respectively, which are similar to those of the excellent adsorbents. In addition, the removal efficiency measurements of ammonia molecules revealed that the VPN porous structures can adsorb the ammonia molecules with the combinations of van der Waals forces and strong chemical bonding by functional groups on the VPN surface.

  18. Production of large-scale, freestanding vanadium pentoxide nanobelt porous structures.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong Ju; Kim, Byung Hoon; Hong, Won G; Kim, Chang Hee; Kim, Yark Yeon; Jeong, Eun-ju; Jang, Won Ick; Yu, Han Young

    2012-03-01

    Large-scale, freestanding, porous structures of vanadium pentoxide nanobelts (VPNs) were successfully prepared using the template-free freeze-drying method. The porous and multi-layered VPN macrostructures are composed of randomly oriented long nanobelts (over 100 μm) and their side length can be controlled up to a few tens of centimetres. Also, the bulk density and surface area of these macrostructures are 3-5 mg cm(-3) and 40-80 m(2) g(-1), respectively, which are similar to those of the excellent adsorbents. In addition, the removal efficiency measurements of ammonia molecules revealed that the VPN porous structures can adsorb the ammonia molecules with the combinations of van der Waals forces and strong chemical bonding by functional groups on the VPN surface.

  19. Electronic structure of Vanadium pentoxide: An efficient hole injector for organic electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Jens; Zilberberg, K; Riedl, T.; Kahn, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure of Vanadium pentoxide (V₂O₅), a transition metal oxide with an exceedingly large work function of 7.0 eV, is studied via ultraviolet, inverse and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Very deep lying electronic states with electron affinity and ionization energy (IE) of 6.7 eV and 9.5 eV, respectively, are found. Contamination due to air exposure changes the electronic structure due to the partial reduction of vanadium to V⁺⁴ state. It is shown that V₂O₅ is a n-type material that can be used for efficient hole-injection into materials with an IE larger than 6 eV, such as 4,4'-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-bipheny (CBP). The formation of an interface dipole and band bending is found to lead to a very small energy barrier between the transport levels at the V₂O₅/CBP interface.

  20. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) induced mucin production by airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Walters, Dianne M.; Zhu, Lingxiang; Lee, Pak-Kei

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been linked to various airway diseases and disease exacerbations. Almost all chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are caused by complicated interactions between gene and environment. One of the major hallmarks of those diseases is airway mucus overproduction (MO). Excessive mucus causes airway obstruction and significantly increases morbidity and mortality. Metals are major components of environmental particulate matters (PM). Among them, vanadium has been suggested to play an important role in PM-induced mucin production. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is the most common commercial source of vanadium, and it has been associated with occupational chronic bronchitis and asthma, both of which are MO diseases. However, the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. In this study, we used both in vitro and in vivo models to demonstrate the robust inductions of mucin production by V2O5. Furthermore, the follow-up mechanistic study revealed a novel v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-IKK-NF-κB pathway that mediated V2O5-induced mucin production. Most interestingly, the reactive oxygen species and the classical mucin-inducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-MAPK pathway appeared not to be involved in this process. Thus the V2O5-induced mucin production may represent a novel EGFR-MAPK-independent and environmental toxicant-associated MO model. Complete elucidation of the signaling pathway in this model will not only facilitate the development of the treatment for V2O5-associated occupational diseases but also advance our understanding on the EGFR-independent mucin production in other chronic airway diseases. PMID:21531775

  1. A comparative study of the toxicological aspects of vanadium pentoxide and vanadium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Apoorva; Kumar, Goru Santosh; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2014-11-01

    Indiscriminate use of vanadium oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in steel industries and their release during combustion of fossil fuels makes it essential to study their toxic potential. Herein, we assessed the toxicological effects of two types of in-house synthesized vanadium oxide NPs in Wistar rats exposed to NPs through inhalation route. V2O5 and VO2 NPs exhibited rod and spherical symmetry, respectively with a mean diameter of 50±20 and 30±10 nm. Assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid parameters demonstrated that VO2 NP-exposed animals had higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to V2O5 NP-exposed animals. The levels of oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione also indicated higher toxic potential of VO2 NPs. Moreover, after 7-day recovery, the levels of the above parameters were closer to normal levels only in V2O5-exposed animals. Interestingly, histopathological and immune-histopathology analysis (TNF-α) of lung tissue showed higher damage and inflammatory response in VO2 NP-exposed animals, which persisted even after 7 days of recovery period. Surprisingly, the carcinogenic potential of vanadium oxide NPs came into light which was indicated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay as well as the decreased levels of p53 and Bax, in lung tissue of NP-exposed animals. Notably, the physiochemical characterization of NPs, especially the shape and the size, play a central role in shaping the toxicity of these NPs and thus should be extensively evaluated for outlining the regulatory guidelines.

  2. In-situ synthesis of vanadium pentoxide nanofibre/exfoliated graphene nanohybrid and its supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Arup; Bonso, Jeliza S.; Wunch, Melissa; Yang, Kap Seung; Ferraris, John P.; Yang, Duck J.

    2015-08-01

    A novel nanohybrid material composed of vanadium pentoxide nanofibres (VNFs) and exfoliated graphene were prepared by in-situ growth of VNFs onto graphene nanosheets, and explicated as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The existence of non-covalent interactions between VNFs and graphene surfaces was confirmed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopes. Morphological analysis of the nanohybrid revealed that the VNF layer uniformly grown on the graphene surfaces, producing high specific surface area and good electronic or ionic conducing path. High crystalline structure with small d-spacing of the VNFs on graphene was observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Compared to pristine VNF, the VNF/graphene nanohybrid exhibited higher specific capacitance of 218 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1, higher energy density of 22 Wh kg-1 and power density of 3594 W kg-1. Asymmetric supercapacitor devices were prepared using the Spectracarb 2225 activated carbon cloth and VNF/graphene nanohybrid as positive and negative electrode, respectively. The asymmetric device exhibited capacitance of 279 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, energy density of 37.2 Wh kg-1 and power density of 3743 W kg-1, which are comparable and or superior to reported asymmetric devices consisting of carbon material and metal oxide as electrode components.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide enwrapped vanadium pentoxide nanorods as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dezhi; Quan, Hongying; Luo, Shenglian; Luo, Xubiao; Deng, Fang; Jiang, Hualin

    2014-02-01

    Novel reduced graphene oxide/vanadium pentoxide (rGO/V2O5) nanocomposites were fabricated by coassembly between negatively charged graphene oxide and positively charged oxide nanorods. A series of characterization including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the V2O5 nanorods with the width of about 50 nm and the length from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers were enwrapped by rGO layers to form core-shell nanostructures. Compared with the pristine V2O5 nanorods, the as-prepared rGO/V2O5 nanocomposites with 13 wt% rGO showed a significantly enhanced electrochemical performance with high reversible capacities, good cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities as a cathode material for lithium batteries. The rGO/V2O5 nanocomposites electrodes delivered a stable discharge capacity around 140 mA h g-1 at a current density of 150 mA g-1 for 100 cycles in the voltage range of 2.5-4.0 V. Furthermore, the nanocomposites electrodes delivered discharge capacities of 287 mA h g-1 and 207 mA h g-1 during the first and 50th cycles in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V at a current density of 100 mA g-1, respectively. The as-synthesized nanocomposites are promising candidates for electrical energy storage applications.

  4. Hierarchical Vanadium Pentoxide Spheres as High-Performance Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-01

    We report the synthesis of hierarchical vanadium pentoxide (V2 O5 ) spheres as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (Na-ion batteries). Through field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy characterizations, it was found that the as-prepared V2 O5 spheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with pores between them. The as-prepared hierarchical V2 O5 spheres achieved a discharge capacity of 271 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 40 mA g(-1) , and 177 mA h g(-1) discharge capacity after 100 cycles. Even at high current densities, V2 O5 spheres still delivered high capacity and superior cyclability (179 and 140 mA h g(-1) discharge capacities at 640 and 1280 mA g(-1) current densities, respectively). The promising electrochemical performances of V2 O5 spheres should be ascribed to the unique architecture of hierarchical spheres and the predominant exposed (110) facets, which provides open interlayers for facile sodium ion intercalation. Each nanoparticle contains predominantly exposed (110) crystal planes. The ex situ FESEM analysis revealed that the pores formed by the primary nanocrystals effectively buffer volume changes in the electrode during cycling, contributing to the excellent cycling performance.

  5. Solubility of vanadium from manganese vanadates in aqueous solutions of soda ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalezov, B. D.; Krasheninin, A. G.; Vatolin, N. A.; Ovchinnikova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that, in the course of developing the technology of pure vanadium pentoxide preparation from manganic vanadium-containing metallurgical slags, their oxidative roasting and cinder formation without alkaline additives are accompanied by the decomposition of spinelides with the formation of manganese meta- and pyrovanadates. Concentrated aqueous solutions of soda ash with an Na2CO3 concentration of 120-150 g/dm3 are accepted as a selective leaching reagent for vanadium from a cinder. Manganese metaand pyrovanadates are synthesized, and the procedure of their preparation is presented. The solubility of vanadium from manganese vanadates in aqueous solutions of soda ash at C_{Na_2 CO_3 } = 150 g/dm^3 is studied at 20-95°C for pyrovanadate and at 85-95°C for metavanadate. It is shown that vanadium should be leached from converter manganic slags roasted without alkaline metal additives at a leaching solution temperature higher than 95°C. There is a possibility to increase the vanadium content in a leaching solution to 60-80 g/dm3. The results obtained are used in the development of the technology of vanadium leaching.

  6. Boilermakers' bronchitis. Respiratory tract irritation associated with vanadium pentoxide exposure during oil-to-coal conversion of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Levy, B S; Hoffman, L; Gottsegen, S

    1984-08-01

    Severe respiratory tract irritation occurred in at least 74 of 100 boilermakers who were exposed to high levels of vanadium pentoxide fume during oil-to-coal conversion of a utility company power plant in a rural area of western Massachusetts. Many were welders working in confined areas with inadequate ventilation. Most frequent symptoms were productive cough, sore throat, dyspnea on exertion, and chest pain or discomfort. The illness was severe enough to cause 70 workers to consult physicians and most of them to lose time from work (median, five days). Wheezing (in 39%) was the most frequent finding on physical examination. Mild hypoxemia was noted in several workers; most (72%) had normal chest x-ray films. Expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the forced vital capacity was the pulmonary function test most remarkably affected (median, 57% of predicted for 24 workers tested). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration documented levels of vanadium pentoxide fume at or above the permissible exposure limit in all eight air samples taken from inside the boiler; it cited the company for inadequate mechanical ventilation and an inadequate respiratory protection program for workers. The report of this outbreak may help prevent future problems by drawing attention of physicians, workers, and managers to the potential pulmonary hazards in power plant conversion.

  7. Novel alkylimidazolium/vanadium pentoxide intercalation compounds with excellent adsorption performance for methylene blue

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Aiguo; Ding Yongjie; Wang Ping; Zhang Hengqiang; Yang Fan; Shan Yongkui

    2011-02-15

    Novel alkylimidazolium-intercalated V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds were synthesized by a redox reaction between iodide ion and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectrometry experiments reveal that the vanadium in the intercalated V{sub 2}O{sub 5} products was partially reduced by an iodide ion and the resultant iodine can be removed in the final products. The transmission electron microscope observation and X-ray diffraction analysis testify that the prepared alkylimidazolium/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} intercalation compounds have typical lamellar structure with different d{sub 100} interlayer spacing values and the special straw-like nanofiber morphology with the length of 0.5-10 {mu}m. Systematic investigation indicates that new intercalation compounds possess the extraordinary adsorption performance for methylene blue in an aqueous solution. -- Graphical abstract: The alkylimidazolium-intercalated V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds with special straw-like nanofiber morphology were synthesized by a redox reaction between iodide ion and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which show the excellent adsorption performance for methylene blue in an aqueous medium. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Novel alkylimidazolium-intercalated V{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds. {yields} A simple preparation method by a redox reaction between iodide ion in ionic liquid and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. {yields} The excellent adsorption performance for methylene blue in an aqueous medium.

  8. Flexible Hybrid Electrodes Containing Vanadium Pentoxide (V2O5) and an Electron- and Ion-Conducting Diblock Copolymer for Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyosung; Mike, Jared; Smith, Kendall; Swank, Lisa; Lin, Yen-Hao; Pesek, Stacy; Verduzco, Rafael; Lutkenhaus, Jodie

    2015-03-01

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a promising cathode material for Lithium-ion batteries due to its high capacity, high energy density, and cost-effectiveness. However, its low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient (10-12 - 10-13 cm2/s), low electronic conductivity (10-2 - 10-3 S/cm), and severe volumetric changes during cycling have hindered its application in practical devices. One way to address these problems is to design hybrid electrodes that incorporate a second active material. For this purpose, poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT- b-PEO) block copolymer containing electron- and ion-conducting polymer blocks was introduced to a V2O5 electrode system. Cathodes are prepared by mixing aqueous dispersions of block copolymer, V2O5, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and drop casting. The V2O5 and P3HT- b-PEO hybrid electrode showed synergistic results, having improved electrochemical storage performance and mechanical property. We also demonstrated a flexible battery prototype using the P3HT- b-PEO/V2O5 cathode.

  9. Transmission Electron Microscopy and First Principle Studies Investigating Intercalation Phenomenon Of Vanadium Pentoxide(V2O5) nanowire cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Arijita; Asayesh Ardakani, Hasti; Yi, Tanghong; Kim, Cheon Jung; Andrews, Justin; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Cabana, Jordi; S Yassar, Reza; F Klie, Robert; Jcesr Collaboration

    Vanadium Pentoxide(V2O5) is an attractive intercalation compound due to its characteristic layered structure from weak vanadium-oxygen bonding which enables the intercalation of ions between the layers. Here, we will discuss an in-situ transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy approach investigating lithiation of orthorhombic α-V2O5 nanowires where the center of the nanowire undergoes a transformation to γ-Li2V2O5 phase. Since V2O5 has also been predicted as a potential cathode host for magnesium ion intercalation, we also investigate Mg intercalation in α-V2O5 nanowire and determine if our reaction pathway leads to the formation of ε-Mg0.5V2O5 phase, as predicted by density functional theory calculations. In-situ Li and Mg intercalation experiments into the new tunnel structured ζ- V2O5 nanowires will also be presented and the resulting phases will be compared with theoretical predictions. This work is supported by Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR).

  10. Correlation between porous structure and electrochemical properties of porous nanostructured vanadium pentoxide synthesized by novel spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Long; Taniguchi, Izumi

    2016-04-01

    Porous nanostructured vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) particles were successfully prepared by spray pyrolysis (SP) in a precursor solution with an ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) additive. The correlation between the porous structure and the electrochemical properties of the V2O5 particles was investigated. The porous structure markedly changed upon increasing the concentration of NH4NO3 in the precursor solution from 0 to 0.408 mol L-1. Pore structure analysis based on N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements indicated that porous nanostructured V2O5 particles with a pore size of less than 100 nm can be prepared by the novel SP method and that an increase in the NH4NO3 concentration in the precursor solution can enlarge the pores in the V2O5 particles, especially those with a size between 20 and 80 nm. The porous nanostructured V2O5 prepared with an NH4NO3 concentration of 0.272 mol L-1 exhibited a first discharge capacity of 400 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. The unique porous structure of V2O5 particles significantly enhanced the rate performance and exhibited a first discharge capacity of 180 mAh g-1 at 1200 mA g-1, which is much higher than that of dense V2O5 particles (70 mAh g-1).

  11. Mica-like vanadium pentoxide-nanostructured thin film as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Danmei; Qiao, Yajuan; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jie; Li, Chao; Chen, Changguo; Huo, Qisheng

    2014-11-01

    Stable and homogeneous mica-like vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)-nanostructured thin films are prepared directly by simple anodic deposition from V2O5/H2O2 sol solution, and then dried at ambient temperature and annealed at 500 °C in air for 1 h. The films' crystal- and microstructures, surface morphology and Li-ion intercalation properties were characterized and analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrochemical techniques. When used as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode, the films exhibit a large discharge capacity of 596 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1080 mA g-1, as well as excellent cyclic stability and a fading rate of 1% per cycle. Explanations for such significant enhancements in specific capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performance of mica-like V2O5-nanostructured thin films are demonstrated in this study.

  12. Ultrasensitive non-enzymatic immunosensor for carcino-embryonic antigen based on palladium hybrid vanadium pentoxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Jiang, Liping; Li, Faying; Wang, Ping; Liu, Qing; Dong, Yunhui; Li, Yueyun; Wei, Qin

    2016-03-15

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensor was fabricated for quantitative monitoring of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). Nanocomposite of stannic oxide/reduced graphene oxide was used as substrate material to increase the specific surface area and enhance the conductivity of the glassy carbon electrode. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were introduced to link substrate materials and primary antibodies (Ab1) and accelerate the electron transfer in this system. At the same time, the palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs)-vanadium pentoxide (V2O5)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the label of secondary antibodies (Ab2). This composite label has shown excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. The nanomaterial-based signal amplification can improve the sensitivity and lower the limit of detection. The proposed immunosensor showed wide linear range from 0.5 pgmL(-1) to 25 ngmL(-1) with limit of detection of 0.17 pgmL(-1). This novel immunosensor was used to analyze serum sample. The results indicated that this immunosensor may find huge potential application for quantitative detection of CEA in the clinical diagnosis.

  13. Aqueous vanadium ion dynamics relevant to bioinorganic chemistry: A review.

    PubMed

    Kustin, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of the four highest vanadium oxidation states exhibit four diverse colors, which only hint at the diverse reactions that these ions can undergo. Cationic vanadium ions form complexes with ligands; anionic vanadium ions form complexes with ligands and self-react to form isopolyanions. All vanadium species undergo oxidation-reduction reactions. With a few exceptions, elucidation of the dynamics of these reactions awaited the development of fast reaction techniques before the kinetics of elementary ligation, condensation, reduction, and oxidation of the aqueous vanadium ions could be investigated. As the biological roles played by endogenous and therapeutic vanadium expand, it is appropriate to bring the results of the diverse kinetics studies under one umbrella. To achieve this goal this review presents a systematic examination of elementary aqueous vanadium ion dynamics.

  14. Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Anqiang; Zhang, Jiguang; Nie, Zimin; Cao, Guozhong H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Li, Guosheng; Liang, Shu-quan; Liu, Jun

    2010-04-23

    Nano-structured vanadium oxide (V2O5) is fabricated via facile thermal-decomposition of a vanadium precursor and vanadyl oxalate produced by reacting micro-sized V2O5 with oxalic acid. The V2O5 nanorods produced by this method exhibit much better electrochemical performance than commercial micro-sized V2O5. The optimized-nanorod electrodes with a high density of (001) planar defects give the best specific discharge capacities of 270 mAh g-1 at C/2 (147 mA g-1) coupled with good cycle stability with only 0.32% fading per cycle. Even at a high rate of 4C (1176 mA g-1), the nanorod electrode still delivers 198 mAh g-1. These results suggest that the nanostructured V2O5 is a good cathode for high-rate, lithium-ion battery applications.

  15. Quantification of Kras mutant fraction in the lung DNA of mice exposed to aerosolized particulate vanadium pentoxide by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Banda, Malathi; McKim, Karen L; Haber, Lynne T; MacGregor, Judith A; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Parsons, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether Kras mutation is an early event in the development of lung tumors induced by inhalation of particulate vanadium pentoxide (VP) aerosols. A National Toxicology Program tumor bioassay of inhaled particulate VP aerosols established that VP-induced alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas of the B6C3F1 mouse lung carried Kras mutations at a higher frequency than observed in spontaneous mouse lung tumors. Therefore, this study sought to: (1) characterize any Kras mutational response with respect to VP exposure concentration, and (2) investigate the possibility that amplification of preexisting Kras mutation is an early event in VP-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis. Male Big Blue B6C3F1 mice (6 mice/group) were exposed to aerosolized particulate VP by inhalation, 6h/day, 5 days/week for 4 or 8 weeks, using VP exposure concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 1 mg/m(3). The levels of two different Kras codon 12 mutations [GGT → GAT (G12D) and GGT → GTT (G12V)] were measured in lung DNAs by Allele-specific Competitive Blocker PCR (ACB-PCR). For both exposure concentrations (0.1 and 1.0mg/m(3)) and both time points (4 and 8 weeks), the mutant fractions observed in VP-exposed mice were not significantly different from the concurrent controls. Given that 8 weeks of inhalation of a tumorigenic concentration of particulate aerosols of VP did not result in a significant change in levels of lung Kras mutation, the data do not support either a direct genotoxic effect of VP on Kras or early amplification of preexisting mutation as being involved in the genesis of VP-induced mouse lung tumors under the exposure conditions used. Rather, the data suggest that accumulation of Kras mutation occurs later with chronic VP exposure and is likely not an early event in VP-induced mouse lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26232258

  16. Lung Deposition and Clearance of Inhaled Vanadium Pentoxide in Chronically Exposed F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Kyeonghee M.; Mellinger, Kathleen H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Burka, Leo T.; Roycroft, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    Female F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 mg/m{sup 3} (rats) and 0, 1, 2, or 4 mg/m{sup 3} (mice) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week (for up to 18 months), by whole-body inhalation. Lung weights and lung burdens of vanadium were determined for exposed animals after 1, 5, and 12 days and after 1, 2, 6, 12, and 18 months of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} exposure. Blood vanadium concentrations were determined at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 18 months for all animals including controls. A model that assumed a first-order deposition rate and a first-order elimination rate for vanadium was employed to fit the lung burden data. Comparisons between exposed groups indicated a progressive increase in lung weight with exposure concentration and time on exposure for both species. The vanadium lung burdens appeared to reach steady state in the lowest exposure groups (0.5 and 1 mg/m{sup 3} for rats and mice, respectively) but showed a decline in the higher exposure groups. This deposition pattern was similar between rats and mice but the maximum lung burdens were observed at different times (1 or 2 months in mice vs. 6 months in rats). The vanadium deposition rate decreased faster in mice, while the elimination half-lives of vanadium lung burdens were about six- to nine-fold shorter in mice than in rats at 1 and 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Thus, the retention of vanadium in the lungs at 18 months was lower in mice ({approx}2% retained) compared with rats (13-15% retained) at the common exposure concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/m{sup 3}. The lung burden data were approximately proportional to the exposure concentration in both species, likely due to concomitant decreases in deposition and elimination to a similar extent with increasing exposure. The area under the lung burden versus time curves and the area under the blood concentration (control-normalized) versus time curves were also proportional to exposure concentration. The progression of

  17. Mesoporous Hybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Vanadium Pentoxide for Enhanced Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electrochemical Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaind P; Liu, Tao; Brown, Emery; Yang, Yiqun; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Fang, Yueping; Li, Jun

    2016-04-13

    Mesoporous hybrids of V2O5 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been synthesized by slow hydrolysis of vanadium oxytriisopropoxide using a two-step solvothermal method followed by vacuum annealing. The hybrid material possesses a hierarchical structure with 20-30 nm V2O5 nanoparticles uniformly grown on rGO nanosheets, leading to a high surface area with mesoscale porosity. Such hybrid materials present significantly improved electronic conductivity and fast electrolyte ion diffusion, which synergistically enhance the electrical energy storage performance. Symmetrical electrochemical capacitors with two rGO-V2O5 hybrid electrodes show excellent cycling stability, good rate capability, and a high specific capacitance up to ∼466 F g(-1) (regarding the total mass of V2O5) in a neutral aqueous electrolyte (1.0 M Na2SO4). When used as the cathode in lithium-ion batteries, the rGO-V2O5 hybrid demonstrates excellent cycling stability and power capability, able to deliver a specific capacity of 295, 220, and 132 mAh g(-1) (regarding the mass of V2O5) at a rate of C/9, 1C, and 10C, respectively. The value at C/9 rate matches the full theoretical capacity of V2O5 for reversible 2 Li(+) insertion/extraction between 4.0 and 2.0 V (vs Li/Li(+)). It retains ∼83% of the discharge capacity after 150 cycles at 1C rate, with only 0.12% decrease per cycle. The enhanced performance in electrical energy storage reveals the effectiveness of rGO as the structure template and more conductive electron pathway in the hybrid material to overcome the intrinsic limits of single-phase V2O5 materials.

  18. Mesoporous Hybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Vanadium Pentoxide for Enhanced Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Electrochemical Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaind P; Liu, Tao; Brown, Emery; Yang, Yiqun; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Fang, Yueping; Li, Jun

    2016-04-13

    Mesoporous hybrids of V2O5 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been synthesized by slow hydrolysis of vanadium oxytriisopropoxide using a two-step solvothermal method followed by vacuum annealing. The hybrid material possesses a hierarchical structure with 20-30 nm V2O5 nanoparticles uniformly grown on rGO nanosheets, leading to a high surface area with mesoscale porosity. Such hybrid materials present significantly improved electronic conductivity and fast electrolyte ion diffusion, which synergistically enhance the electrical energy storage performance. Symmetrical electrochemical capacitors with two rGO-V2O5 hybrid electrodes show excellent cycling stability, good rate capability, and a high specific capacitance up to ∼466 F g(-1) (regarding the total mass of V2O5) in a neutral aqueous electrolyte (1.0 M Na2SO4). When used as the cathode in lithium-ion batteries, the rGO-V2O5 hybrid demonstrates excellent cycling stability and power capability, able to deliver a specific capacity of 295, 220, and 132 mAh g(-1) (regarding the mass of V2O5) at a rate of C/9, 1C, and 10C, respectively. The value at C/9 rate matches the full theoretical capacity of V2O5 for reversible 2 Li(+) insertion/extraction between 4.0 and 2.0 V (vs Li/Li(+)). It retains ∼83% of the discharge capacity after 150 cycles at 1C rate, with only 0.12% decrease per cycle. The enhanced performance in electrical energy storage reveals the effectiveness of rGO as the structure template and more conductive electron pathway in the hybrid material to overcome the intrinsic limits of single-phase V2O5 materials. PMID:27010675

  19. In Vivo Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide and Antioxidants (Ascorbic Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol) on Apoptotic, Cytotoxic, and Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Mice.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, María Del Carmen; Hernández-Cortés, Lourdes Montserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), ascorbic acid (AA), and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH) on apoptotic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Groups of five Hsd:ICR mice were treated with the following: (a) vehicle, distilled water; (b) vehicle, corn oil; (c) AA, 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip); (d) α-TOH, 20 mg/kg by gavage; (e) V2O5, 40 mg/kg by ip injection; (f) AA + V2O5; and (g) α-TOH + V2O5. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) obtained from the caudal vein at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatments. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed at 48 h after treatment in nucleated cells of peripheral blood. Treatment with AA alone reduced basal MN-PCE, while V2O5 treatment marginally increased MN-PCE at all times after injection. Antioxidants treatments prior to V2O5 administration decreased MN-PCE compared to the V2O5 group, with the most significant effect in the AA + V2O5 group. The apoptotic cells increased with all treatments, suggesting that this process may contribute to the elimination of the cells with V2O5-induced DNA damage (MN-PCE). The necrotic cells only increased in the V2O5 group. Therefore, antioxidants such as AA and α-TOH can be used effectively to protect or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by vanadium compounds like V2O5. PMID:27413422

  20. In Vivo Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide and Antioxidants (Ascorbic Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol) on Apoptotic, Cytotoxic, and Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Mice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Hernández-Cortés, Lourdes Montserrat; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), ascorbic acid (AA), and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH) on apoptotic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Groups of five Hsd:ICR mice were treated with the following: (a) vehicle, distilled water; (b) vehicle, corn oil; (c) AA, 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip); (d) α-TOH, 20 mg/kg by gavage; (e) V2O5, 40 mg/kg by ip injection; (f) AA + V2O5; and (g) α-TOH + V2O5. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) obtained from the caudal vein at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatments. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed at 48 h after treatment in nucleated cells of peripheral blood. Treatment with AA alone reduced basal MN-PCE, while V2O5 treatment marginally increased MN-PCE at all times after injection. Antioxidants treatments prior to V2O5 administration decreased MN-PCE compared to the V2O5 group, with the most significant effect in the AA + V2O5 group. The apoptotic cells increased with all treatments, suggesting that this process may contribute to the elimination of the cells with V2O5-induced DNA damage (MN-PCE). The necrotic cells only increased in the V2O5 group. Therefore, antioxidants such as AA and α-TOH can be used effectively to protect or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by vanadium compounds like V2O5. PMID:27413422

  1. Vanadium(V) removal from aqueous solution and real wastewater using quaternized pine sawdust.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, T; Keränen, A; Vainionpää, N; Al Amir, J; Hormi, O; Tanskanen, J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked and quaternized pine sawdust was tested for vanadium removal from a synthetic aqueous solution as well as from real industrial wastewater which had a considerable amount of vanadium and other ions such as sulphate, ammonium and nickel. The maximum vanadium sorption capacity of the modified pine sawdust was found to be 130 mg/g in synthetic solution and 103 mg/g in real wastewater. Modified pine sawdust worked well over a wide range of pH. Column studies with real wastewater proved that vanadium was efficiently desorbed from the material with 2 M NaOH and that the material could be reused.

  2. Vanadium.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    Vanadium is a steel-grey, corrosion-resistant metal, which exists in oxidation states ranging from -1 to +5. Metallic vanadium does not occur in nature, and the most common valence states are +3, +4, and +5. The pentavalent form (VO3-) predominates in extracellular body fluids whereas the quadrivalent form (VO+2) is the most common intracellular form. Because of its hardness and its ability to form alloys, vanadium (i.e., ferrovanadium) is a common component of hard steel alloys used in machines and tools. Although most foods contain low concentrations of vanadium (< 1 ng/g), food is the major source of exposure to vanadium for the general population. High air concentrations of vanadium occur in the occupation setting during boiler-cleaning operations as a result of the presence of vanadium oxides in the dust. The lungs absorb soluble vanadium compounds (V2O5) well, but the absorption of vanadium salts from the gastrointestinal tract is poor. The excretion of vanadium by the kidneys is rapid with a biological half-life of 20-40 hours in the urine. Vanadium is probably an essential trace element, but a vanadium-deficiency disease has not been identified in humans. The estimated daily intake of the US population ranges from 10-60 micrograms V. Vanadyl sulfate is a common supplement used to enhance weight training in athletes at doses up to 60 mg/d. In vitro and animal studies indicate that vanadate and other vanadium compounds increase glucose transport activity and improve glucose metabolism. In general, the toxicity of vanadium compounds is low. Pentavalent compounds are the most toxic and the toxicity of vanadium compounds usually increases as the valence increases. Most of the toxic effects of vanadium compounds result from local irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract rather than systemic toxicity. The only clearly documented effect of exposure to vanadium dust is upper respiratory tract irritation characterized by rhinitis, wheezing, nasal hemorrhage

  3. Comparative ion insertion study into a nanostructured vanadium oxide in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Q.; Ren, S. L.; Zukowski, J.; Pomeroy, M.; Soghomonian, V.

    2014-07-07

    We present a comparative study for the electrochemical insertion of different cations into a nanostructured vanadium oxide material. The oxide is hydrothemally synthesized and electrically characterized by variable temperature measurements. The electrochemical reactions are performed in aqueous chloride solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, and the electrochemical behavior of various cycles are correlated with visual changes in the vanadium oxide nanosheets as observed by scanning electron microscopy. We note an increase in the specific charge per cycle in the cases of sodium and ammonium ions only, correlated with minimal physical changes to the nanosheets. The differing behavior of the various ions has implications for their use in electrical energy storage applications.

  4. Structure, hydrolysis, and diffusion of aqueous vanadium ions from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Klyukin, Konstantin; Alexandrov, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    A molecular level understanding of the properties of electroactive vanadium species in aqueous solution is crucial for enhancing the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries. Here, we employ Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory to investigate the hydration structures, first hydrolysis reaction, and diffusion of aqueous V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO 2+ ions at 300 K. The results indicate that the first hydration shell of both V2+ and V3+ contains six water molecules, while VO2+ is coordinated to five and VO 2+ to three water ligands. The first acidity constants (pKa) estimated using metadynamics simulations are 2.47, 3.06, and 5.38 for aqueous V3+, VO 2+ , and VO2+, respectively, while V2+ is predicted to be a fairly weak acid in aqueous solution with a pKa value of 6.22. We also show that the presence of chloride ions in the first coordination sphere of the aqueous VO 2+ ion has a significant impact on water hydrolysis leading to a much higher pKa value of 4.8. This should result in a lower propensity of aqueous VO 2+ for oxide precipitation reaction in agreement with experimental observations for chloride-based electrolyte solutions. The computed diffusion coefficients of vanadium species in water at room temperature are found to increase as V 3 + < VO 2 + < V O 2 + < V 2 + and thus correlate with the simulated hydrolysis constants, namely, the higher the pKa value, the greater the diffusion coefficient.

  5. Optical properties of electrochromic vanadium pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, S. F.; Nguyen, N. M.; Perrotti, S. J.; Rauh, R. D.

    1989-08-01

    Electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements were used to characterize the electrochromic behavior of sputtered V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ films. In response to lithium intercalation, the fundamental optical absorption edge of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ shifts to high energies by 0.20--0.31 eV as the lithium concentration increases from Li/sub 0.0/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ to Li/sub 0.86/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. There is a corresponding increase in the near-infrared absorption that exhibits Beer's law behavior at low lithium concentrations. The shift in absorption edge results in a large decrease in absorbance in the 350--450 nm wavelength range. This effect is most prevalent in thin films which exhibit a yellow to colorless optical modulation on lithium intercalation. The cathodic coloration in the near infrared is relatively weak with a maximum coloration efficiency of 35 cm/sup 2//C.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of vanadium pentoxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, J. Santhosh; Thangadurai, P.

    2016-05-01

    Nanowires of V2O5 were prepared via hydrothermal route using NH4VO3 as precursor in the presence of sulfuric acid at 120°C for 24 h. This synthesis process is free of any templates and reducing agents. Thermal analysis showed a phase change at 350°C and the samples were annealed at 500°C. The XRD analysis showed the monoclinic phase for the as-prepared and orthorhombic phase of V2O5 when annealed at 500°C. Characteristic Raman peaks also expressed the same structural features. Microstructure analysis by SEM showed the nanowire structure of V2O5 with thickness in the range of 20-50 nm and length in micrometers. The possible mechanisms of formation of the nanowires were schematically explained based on the layered structure of V2O5.

  7. Comparative electrochemical studies of a nanostructured vanadium oxide electrode material in aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghomonian, Victoria; Yuan, Qifan; Ren, Shaola; Zukowski, Julia

    Electrochemical energy storage plays an increasing role in energy solutions. We report on a new hydrothermally synthesized vanadium oxide nanostructured material and study its performance as electrode material for insertion of various ions from aqueous solutions. The as-synthesized product is in the form of nanosheets forming quasi-spherical 3-dimensional objects. Variable temperature resistivity measurements indicate a thermally activated behavior. Electrodes are constructed, and comparative electrochemical insertion reactions of Li, Na, K and NH4 cations, over different cycle numbers, investigated. Concomitantly, morphological and microstructural changes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, providing physical input to the observed electrochemical behavior. Specific charge is calculated. For Li and K, the specific charge decreases as the cycle number increases, while the reverse is observed for Na and NH4 cations. The trends are correlated to the morphological changes observed. The specific charge in the case of ammonium reaches 180 mAh/g after 20 cycles and continues increasing, indicating that ammonium cations may be considered as viable charge carriers for electrical energy storage system, and moreover in an aqueous electrolyte. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, Grant No. DMR-1206338.

  8. Oxidation of vanadium(III) by hydrogen peroxide and the oxomonoperoxo vanadium(V) ion in acidic aqueous solutions: a kinetics and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Du, Guodong; Espenson, James H

    2005-07-25

    The reaction between vanadium(III) and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous acidic solutions was investigated. The rate law shows first-order dependences on both vanadium(III) and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, with a rate constant, defined in terms of -d[H(2)O(2)]/dt, of 2.06 +/- 0.03 L mol(-)(1) s(-)(1) at 25 degrees C; the rate is independent of hydrogen ion concentration. The varying reaction stoichiometry, the appreciable evolution of dioxygen, the oxidation of 2-PrOH to acetone, and the inhibition of acetone formation by the hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium benzoate, point to a Fenton mechanism as the predominant pathway in the reaction. Methyltrioxorhenium(VII) does not appear to catalyze this reaction. A second-order rate constant for the oxidation of V(3+) by OV(O(2))(+) was determined to be 11.3 +/- 0.3 L mol(-)(1) s(-)(1) at 25 degrees C. An overall reaction scheme consisting of over 20 reactions, in agreement with the experimental results and literature reports, was established by kinetic simulation studies.

  9. Vanadium(IV)-citrate complex interconversions in aqueous solutions. A pH-dependent synthetic, structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic study.

    PubMed

    Tsaramyrsi, M; Kaliva, M; Salifoglou, A; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Tangoulis, V; Giapintzakis, J

    2001-11-01

    Citrate is abundantly encountered in biological fluids as a natural metal ion chelator. Vanadium participates in biological processes as a catalyst in the active sites of metalloenzymes, as a metabolic regulator, as a mitogenic activator, and as an insulin-mimicking agent. Thus, vanadium chemistry with natural chelators, such as citrate, may have immediate implications on its role in a cellular milieu, and its action as a biological agent. In an effort to comprehend the aqueous chemistry of one of vanadium's oxidation states, namely, V(IV), implicated in its biological activity, reactions of VCl(3) and citric acid were pursued in water and led to V(IV)-citrate complexes, the nature and properties of which depend strongly on the solution pH. Analytical, FT-IR, UV/vis, EPR, and magnetic susceptibility data supported the formulation of X(4)[[VO(H(-1)Cit)](2)] x nH(2)O (H(-1)Cit = C(6)H(4)O(7)(4-); X = K(+), n = 6 (1); X = Na(+), n = 12 (2); X = NH(4)(+), n = 2 (3)) (pH approximately 8) and X(3)[[V(2)O(2)(H(-1)Cit)(Cit)

  10. Ultra-fast aqueous Li-ion redox energy storage from vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube yarn electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, Jesse; Do, Quyet H.; Zeng, Changchun; Liang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Half-cell electrochemical characterizations were conducted on carbon nanotube-vanadium oxide (CNT-VOx) yarn electrodes in an 8 M LiCl aqueous electrolyte. A supercritical fluid deposition and in-situ oxidation process was utilized to deposit nanoscale coatings of vanadium oxide on carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces throughout the porous structure of CNT yarns. The high surface area, interconnected pore structure and high electrical conductivity of the CNT yarn enabled extraordinary rate capabilities from the high capacity Li/VOx system. High-rate cyclic voltammetry scans, requiring current densities of hundreds of amperes per gram of electrode mass, produced rectangular voltammograms with distinguishable redox peaks from Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. Capacitances of over 150 F g-1 were achieved at a scan rate of 5 V s-1 over a 1.2 V potential window resulting in an energy density of >32 Wh kg-1 (>30 Wh L-1) for the yarn electrode. The charge storage also showed good reversibility when cycled over this large potential window, maintaining 90% of the capacitance after 100 cycles at a scan rate of 2 V s-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the frequency dependent behavior is distinctly lacking of the characteristic responses from the rate-limiting processes associated with faradaic charge storage in VOx.

  11. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantitiesmore » measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.« less

  12. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  13. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2014-12-01

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium, and iron-chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. Proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  14. Direct effect of vanadium on citrate uptake by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV).

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Akino, Hironobu; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenichiro

    2002-07-01

    Vanadium pentoxide is used as a catalyst and a ferrovanadium alloy ingredient in automotive steels and in jet engines and airframes. In addition, vanadium is found in fuel oils. Thus, occupational exposures to vanadium pentoxide and trioxide may occur during the cleaning of oil-fired ship boilers, and from oil-fired power station boilers. Occupational exposure to vanadium pentoxide induces green tongue, asthmatic symptoms and albuminuria with cast. Urinary citrate is freely filtered at the glomerulus, and its reabsorption in the proximal tubule is the major determinant of the rate of renal excretion. In this study, we exposed rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) to vanadium pentoxide and examined their citrate uptake characteristics. The preincubation of BBMV with 1 mM V2O5 for 8 hours significantly inhibited citrate uptake compared with that of BBMV without V2O5, preincubation. These findings indicate that the preincubation of BBMV with vanadium pentoxide results in a time-dependent inhibition of citrate uptake by BBMV. These findings might contribute to nephrotoxicity in vanadium exposure. PMID:12141377

  15. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick; Carlson, O. Norman

    1986-09-09

    A method for preparing high purity vanadium having a low silicon content has been developed. Vanadium pentoxide is reduced with a stoichiometric, or slightly deficient amount of aluminum to produce a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing an excess of oxygen. Silicon is removed by electron-beam melting the alloy under oxidizing conditions to promote the formation of SiO which is volatile at elevated temperatures. Excess oxygen is removed by heating the alloy in the presence of calcium metal to form calcium oxide.

  16. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.; Carlson, O.N.

    1984-05-16

    A method for preparing high purity vanadium having a low silicon content has been developed. Vanadium pentoxide is reduced with a stoichiometric, or slightly deficient amount of aluminum to produce a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing an excess of oxygen. Silicon is removed by electron-beam melting the alloy under oxidizing conditions to promote the formation of SiO which is volatile at elevated temperatures. Excess oxygen is removed by heating the alloy in the presence of calcium metal to form calcium oxide.

  17. Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds.

    PubMed

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium belongs to the group of transition metals and is present in the air and soil contaminants in large urban agglomerations due to combustion of fossil fuels. It forms numerous inorganic compounds (vanadyl sulfate, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, vanadium pentoxide) as well as complexes with organic compounds (BMOV, BEOV, METVAN). Depending on the research model, vanadium compounds exhibit antitumor or carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds generate ROS as a result of Fenton's reaction or of the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. They inactivate the Cdc25B(2) phosphatase and lead to degradation of Cdc25C, which induces G(2)/M phase arrest. In cells, vanadium compounds activate numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, including PI3K-PKB/Akt-mTOR, NF-κB, MEK1/2-ERK, that cause cell survival or increased expression and release of VEGF. Vanadium compounds inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis and promote entry into the S phase of cells containing functional p53 protein. In addition, vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, have insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic properties. Vanadium compounds lower blood glucose levels in animals and in clinical trials. They also inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. By activating the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, vanadium compaunds increase the cellular uptake of glucose by the GLUT4 transporter. The PKB/Akt pathway is also used to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3. The impact of vanadium compounds on inflammatory reactions has not been fully studied. Vanadium pentoxide causes expression of COX-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a human lung fibroblast model. Other vanadium compounds activate NF-κB in macrophages by activating IKKβ.

  18. Vanadium Oxide Electrochemical Capacitors: An Investigation into Aqueous Capacitive Degradation, Alternate Electrolyte-Solvent Systems, Whole Cell Performance and Graphene Oxide Composite Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Allison Michelle

    Vanadium oxide has emerged as a potential electrochemical capacitor material due to its attractive pseudocapacitive performance; however, it is known to suffer from capacitive degradation upon sustained cycling. In this work, the electrochemical cycling behavior of anodically electrodeposited vanadium oxide films with various surface treatments in aqueous solutions is investigated at different pH. Quantitative compositional analysis and morphological studies provide additional insight into the mechanism responsible for capacitive degradation. Furthermore, the capacitance and impedance behavior of vanadium oxide electrochemical capacitor electrodes is compared for both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolyte-solvent systems. Alkali metal chloride and bromide electrolytes were studied in aqueous systems, and nonaqueous systems containing alkali metal bromides were studied in polar aprotic propylene carbonate (PC) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents. The preferred aqueous and nonaqueous systems identified in the half-cell studies were utilized in symmetric vanadium oxide whole-cells. An aqueous system utilizing a 3.0 M NaCl electrolyte at pH 3.0 exhibited an excellent 96% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles at 10 mV s-1. An equivalent system tested at 500 mV s-1 displayed an increase in capacitance over the first several thousands of cycles, and eventually stabilized over 50,000 cycles. Electrodes cycled in nonaqueous 1.0 M LiBr in PC exhibited mostly non-capacitive charge-storage, and electrodes cycled in LiBr-DMSO exhibited a gradual capacitive decay over 10,000 cycles at 500 mV s-1. Morphological and compositional analyses, as well as electrochemical impedance modeling, provide additional insight into the cause of the cycing behavior. Lastly, reduced graphene oxide and vanadium oxide nanowire composites have been successfully synthesized using electrophoretic deposition for electrochemical capacitor electrodes. The composite material was found to perform with a

  19. An Ambient Temperature Molten Sodium-Vanadium Battery with Aqueous Flowing Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caihong; Shamie, Jack S; Shaw, Leon L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we have investigated the key factors dictating the cyclic performance of a new type of hybrid sodium-based flow batteries (HNFBs) that can operate at room temperature with high cell voltages (>3 V), multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, and decoupled design of power and energy. HNFBs are composed of a molten Na-Cs alloy anode, flowing aqueous catholyte, and a Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte as the separator. The surface functionalization of graphite felt electrodes for the flowing aqueous catholyte has been studied for its effectiveness in enhancing V(2+)/V(3+), V(3+)/V(4+), and V(4+)/V(5+) redox couples. The V(4+)/V(5+) redox reaction has been further investigated at different cell operation temperatures for its cyclic stability and how the properties of the solid electrolyte membrane play a role in cycling. These fundamental understandings provide guidelines for improving the cyclic performance and stability of HNFBs with aqueous catholytes. We show that the HNFB with aqueous V-ion catholyte can reach high storage capacity (∼70% of the theoretical capacity) with good Coulombic efficiency (90% ± 1% in 2-30 cycles) and cyclic performance (>99% capacity retention for 30 cycles). It demonstrates, for the first time, the potential of high capacity HNFBs with aqueous catholytes, good capacity retention and long cycling life. This is also the first demonstration that Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte can be used with aqueous electrolyte at near room temperature for more than 30 cycles.

  20. An Ambient Temperature Molten Sodium-Vanadium Battery with Aqueous Flowing Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caihong; Shamie, Jack S; Shaw, Leon L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we have investigated the key factors dictating the cyclic performance of a new type of hybrid sodium-based flow batteries (HNFBs) that can operate at room temperature with high cell voltages (>3 V), multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, and decoupled design of power and energy. HNFBs are composed of a molten Na-Cs alloy anode, flowing aqueous catholyte, and a Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte as the separator. The surface functionalization of graphite felt electrodes for the flowing aqueous catholyte has been studied for its effectiveness in enhancing V(2+)/V(3+), V(3+)/V(4+), and V(4+)/V(5+) redox couples. The V(4+)/V(5+) redox reaction has been further investigated at different cell operation temperatures for its cyclic stability and how the properties of the solid electrolyte membrane play a role in cycling. These fundamental understandings provide guidelines for improving the cyclic performance and stability of HNFBs with aqueous catholytes. We show that the HNFB with aqueous V-ion catholyte can reach high storage capacity (∼70% of the theoretical capacity) with good Coulombic efficiency (90% ± 1% in 2-30 cycles) and cyclic performance (>99% capacity retention for 30 cycles). It demonstrates, for the first time, the potential of high capacity HNFBs with aqueous catholytes, good capacity retention and long cycling life. This is also the first demonstration that Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte can be used with aqueous electrolyte at near room temperature for more than 30 cycles. PMID:26720551

  1. Anion exchange membrane prepared from simultaneous polymerization and quaternization of 4-vinyl pyridine for non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sandip; Shin, Sung-Hee; Sung, Ki-Won; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2014-06-01

    A simple, single step and environmentally friendly process is developed for the synthesis of anion exchange membrane (AEM) by simultaneous polymerization and quaternization, unlike the conventional membrane synthesis which consists of separate polymerization and quaternization step. The membrane synthesis is carried out by dissolving polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in cyclohexanone along with 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) and 1,4-dibromobutane (DBB) in the presence of thermal initiator benzoyl peroxide, followed by film casting to get thin and flexible AEMs. The membrane properties such as ion exchange capacity, ionic conductivity and swelling behaviour are tuned by varying the degree of crosslinking. These AEMs exhibit low vanadium permeability, while retaining good dimensional and chemical stability in an electrolyte solution, making them appropriate candidates for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox flow battery (VRFB) applications. The optimized membrane displays ion exchange capacity and ionic conductivity of 2.0 mequiv g-1 and 0.105 mS cm-1, respectively, whereas the efficiency of 91.7%, 95.7% and 87.7% for coulombic, voltage and energy parameter in non-aqueous VRFB, respectively. This study reveals that the non-aqueous VRFB performance is greatly influenced by membrane properties; therefore the optimal control over the membrane properties is advantageous for the improved performance.

  2. Thirty years through vanadium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-06-01

    The relevance of vanadium in biological systems is known for many years and vanadium-based catalysts have important industrial applications, however, till the beginning of the 80s research on vanadium chemistry and biochemistry did not receive much attention from the scientific community. The understanding of the broad bioinorganic implications resulting from the similarities between phosphate and vanadate(V) and the discovery of vanadium dependent enzymes gave rise to an enormous increase in interest in the chemistry and biological relevance of vanadium. Thereupon the last 30years corresponded to a period of enormous research effort in these fields, as well as in medicinal applications of vanadium and in the development of catalysts for use in fine-chemical synthesis, some of these inspired by enzymatic active sites. Since the 80s my group in collaboration with others made contributions, described throughout this text, namely in the understanding of the speciation of vanadium compounds in aqueous solution and in biological fluids, and to the transport of vanadium compounds in blood plasma and their uptake by cells. Several new types of vanadium compounds were also synthesized and characterized, with applications either as prospective therapeutic drugs or as homogeneous or heterogenized catalysts for the production of fine chemicals. The developments made are described also considering the international context of the evolution of the knowledge in the chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry of vanadium compounds during the last 30years. This article was compiled based on the Vanadis Award presentation at the 9th International Vanadium Symposium.

  3. Template-free bottom-up synthesis of yolk-shell vanadium oxide as high performance cathode for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hongchang; Cheng, Peng; Yang, Hongbin; Lu, Jinlin; Guo, Chun Xian; Ning, Guiling; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-02-21

    A template-free strategy is exploited to bottom-up synthesize yolk-shell vanadium oxide through a two-step spontaneous assembly of hydrolytically formed subunits in a one-pot process. The unique structured vanadium pentoxide exhibits excellent cathode performance for lithium ion batteries.

  4. Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising candidate for energy storage component in designing resilient grid scale power supply due to the advantage of the separation of power and energy. However, poorly understood chemical and thermal stability issues of electrolytes currently limit the performance of RFB. Designing of high performance stable electrolytes requires comprehensive knowledge about the molecular level solvation structure and dynamics of their redox active species. The molecular level understanding of detrimental V2O5 precipitation process led to successful designing of mixed acid based electrolytes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB). The higher stability of mixed acid based electrolytes is attributed to the choice of hydrochloric acid as optimal co-solvent, which provides chloride anions for ligand exchange process in vanadium solvation structure. The role of chloride counter anion on solvation structure and dynamics of vanadium species were studied using combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and DFT based theoretical methods. Finally, the solvation phenomenon of multiple vanadium species and their impact on VRFB electrolyte chemical stability were discussed.

  5. Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with the acetonitrile-1,3-dioxolane-dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, T.; Fischer, P.; Tübke, J.; Pinkwart, K.; Elsner, P.

    2014-11-01

    Different solvent mixtures were investigated for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate (V(acac)3) redox flow batteries with tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate as the supporting electrolyte. The aim of this study was to increase the energy density of the non-aqueous redox flow battery. A mixture of acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and 1-3-dioxolane nearly doubles the solubility of the active species. The proposed electrolyte system was characterized by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge set-up. Spectroscopic methods were applied to understand the interactions between the solvents used and their impact on the solubility. The potential difference between oxidation and reduction of V(acac)3 measured by cyclic voltammetry was about 2.2 V. Impedance spectroscopy showed an electrolyte resistance of about 2400 Ω cm2. Experiments in a charge-discharge test cell achieved coulombic and energy efficiencies of ∼95% and ∼27% respectively. The highest discharge power density was 0.25 mW cm-2.

  6. Development of a tantalum pentoxide Luneberg lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, D. A.; Chubb, C. R.; Powers, J. K.; Reed, W. R.; Dalke, E. A.; Tomaschke, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    A process has been developed for the fabrication of a tantalum pentoxide waveguide Luneburg lens as the input collimator for an optical signal processing circuit on a silicon substrate, such as an integrated wavelength demultiplexer. The development of such a lens involved improvement of the deposition mask profile, reduction of surface scattering by underlaying the lens, reduction of edge scattering by using shims under the mask, and prediction and measurement of the TE-TM polarization aberration. It is shown that polarization aberration significantly affects the design of a demultiplexer system.

  7. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; vanadium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, I.; Hammerbeck, E.C.I.; Labuschagne, L.S.; Rossouw, C.

    1992-01-01

    Major world resources of vanadium are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. This report, designed to benefit geologists and policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of vanadium based on inventory information. Part II contains tables of some geologic information and mineral-resource and production data collected by ISMI participants. Vanadium's greatest application is as an additive in steel. During 1984, for example, 90 percent of the vanadium produced in the world was consumed in steelmaking. The Soviet Union and China are the only major steel producers of the world that meet significant proportions of their vanadium needs from domestic sources, albeit from relatively low-grade ores. Reliable economically exploitable world resources total greater than 22 million metric tons of vanadium pentoxide. Deposits of the titaniferous magnetite type are the most economically important, and of these the Bushveld Complex of South Africa is the principal vanadium resource. The high-grade tenor of the Bushveld ore renders South Africa the world's leader in vanadium resources and production. Present (1990) major primary production is confined to only four countries: South Africa, the Soviet Union (low-grade ore), the Peoples Republic of China (low-grade ore), and the United States (partly from imported materials). This production trend is likely to continue for many years.

  8. Experimental studies and applications of vanadium oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The electrical and electrochemical properties of V-5 and V-7 vanadium oxides were investigated. The effects of pressure, temperature and moisture on the bulk resistivity of the oxides in powder, sintered, and crystalline form were determined, and the static and dynamic volt-ampere characteristics were obtained. Sintered samples tested showed better electrical stability than the compressed powder samples. Two types of commercially available vanadium pentoxide were heat-treated to obtain various crystalline oxide forms which were mounted on alumina substrates and terminated by thick-film conductors for making electrical connections. Indications are that these materials could have applications as sensors, critical-temperature resistors, high-speed switches, and temperature-compensation elements in hybrid microelectronic circuits.

  9. Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B.

    1995-09-10

    Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

  10. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  11. Reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide with fluoranthene

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Ramdahl, T.; Winer, A.M.; Pitts, J.N. Jr.

    1986-07-09

    The products and mechanisms of the reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N/sub 2/O/sub 5/) with fluoranthene (FL) in aprotic solvents have been investigated. The influence of solvent polarity and temperature and the effects of addition of HNO3 on the resulting nitrofluoranthene (NFL) isomer distributions have been studied. These data are compared with the NFL isomer distributions resulting from the reactions of FL with N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and other nitrating agents in the gas and adsorbed phases. In the gas phase and in CCl4 solution at ambient temperature, 2-NFL is the only mononitro isomer formed from the reaction of FL with N/sub 2/O/sub 5/. However, in more polar solvents (CH/sub 3/CN and CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/) and in CCl/sub 4/ at subambient temperature (-15/sup 0/C), as well as with FL in the adsorbed state, reaction with N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ produces only the 3-,8-,7-, and 1-NFL isomers. A homolytic mechanism for the formation of the 2-NFL isomer is postulated

  12. Vanadium corrosion studies. Final report, 1 February 1989-30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.; Roth, H.; Pike, R.

    1993-06-30

    Vanadium present in certain crude and residual fuel oils, is converted within the burner of the gas turbine engine to the refractory dioxide, which in flight is fully oxidized to the pentoxide. Yttrium oxide, stable in the presence of the oxides of sulfur is identified and verified as a corrosion inhibitor. A chelation process to produce a hydrolytic stable fuel soluble yttrium additive is described.... Vanadium oxide corrosion, Hot corrosion, Sulfidation corrosion, Hot corrosion attenuation, Fuel additives, Water stable fuel soluble yttrium compounds, Chelation.

  13. Vanadium inhalation induces actin changes in mice testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; Morales-Rivero, Alonso; Rivera-Cambas, Angelica Muñiz; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is becoming a health problem, which has increased mainly in megacities, and several studies have shown its association with environmental pollution. Air pollution has been linked to alterations in sperm parameters, both in humans and animal models. In male humans, it has been associated with reduced semen quality and DNA alterations. Vanadium is a transition element that has increased in recent decades as a component of air suspended matter and has been associated with reprotoxic effects in animal models. Few are the mechanisms described by which the vanadium produces these effects, and cytoskeleton interaction is a possibility. We reported immunohistochemical changes in actin testicular cytoskeleton in a vanadium inhalation experimental mice model. Our findings show that exposure to vanadium pentoxide (0.02 M) results in actin decrease in testicular cells from 3-12 weeks exposure time; this effect was statistically significant and exposure time dependent. Actin cytoskeleton damage is a mechanism that could explain vanadium reprotoxic effects and its association with impaired fertility. PMID:24097359

  14. Solvothermal synthesis of vanadium phosphates in the form of xerogels, aerogels and mesostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorchuk, V.; Zazhigalov, V.; Khalameida, S.; Diyuk, E.; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J.; Leboda, R.; Kuznetsova, L.

    2010-09-15

    Regularities and peculiarities of physicochemical changes, first of all phase transformations, during solvothermal treatment (with conventional and microwave heating) of the vanadium pentoxide and orthophosphoric acid mixture in organic solvents in the presence of reducing agents have been studied. Hemihydrate of vanadium hydrophosphate - the precursor of vanadium pyrophosphate, the active phase for n-butane to maleic anhydride oxidation, and ion exchanger with variable physicochemical characteristics, i.e. crystal structure, specific surface area, crystallite size and acidic properties - has been synthesized in the temperature range 170-200 {sup o}C. The obtained phases were examined using XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption as well as gas chromatographic determination of acidity through organic bases adsorption. The catalytic activity of prepared samples for n-butane oxidation has been investigated.

  15. Lithium insertion into oriented microcrystals and gels of anhydrous and hydrated vanadium pentoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrukaitis, E.; Bishenden, E. A.; Jacobs, P. W. M.; Lorimer, J. W.

    1989-05-01

    Electrodes composed of pure crystalline orthorhombic V 2O 5 suitable for use as insertion cathodes can be prepared by electrolytic deposition of (NH 4) 2V 6O 16·H 2O, or by spreading hydrated V 2O 5 gels on graphite cloth and subsequently heating to 350 °C. The insertion of Li into these electrodes can be followed by measurements of open-circuit potential, which show clearly the phase changes that accompany Li insertion. Maximum values of x in Li xV 2O 5 are 1.49 for V 2O 5 made electrochemically and 1.23 for non-stoichiometric V 2O 5 made from a heated gel.

  16. 76 FR 60825 - Draft Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide: In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ...., Washington, DC 20460; telephone: 703-347-8561; facsimile: 703-347- 8691). If you request a paper copy, please... Christine Ross and the telephone number 703-347-8592 to the guard on duty. The guard will contact Ms. Ross... Ross by phone at 703-347-8592 or by e-mail at IRISListeningSession@epa.gov . To request...

  17. Chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes and vanadium pentoxide xerogel cathodes for high energy density batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jian

    The work presented here is part of an effort to develop a new type of battery which uses an alkali metal such as lithium or sodium or the alkaline earth magnesium, as the anode, a V2O5 xerogel as cathode, and a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/aluminum chloride room temperature molten salt as electrolyte. First, the stability of the electrolyte was studied. The electrochemistry of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC), the organic component of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/aluminum chloride molten salt, was examined in acetonitrile. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to study the reduction of EMI+, the cation of EMIC. Controlled potential coulometry was used to determine the number of electrons involved in the EMI+ reduction process. EMI+ reduction was found to be a one-electron, diffusion controlled process occurring at -2.35V (vs. a reference electrode consisting of a Ag wire in 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate (TBAP)/acetonitrile solution) in 0.1M TBAP/acetonitrile solution. Two products were generated from the reduction, which are oxidized at about -0.45 and -0.65V. Mass spectroscopy data for these two products suggest that they are degradation products of EMI+. The major products of EMI+ reduction are not electrochemically active within the available potential window. Thus, small amounts of these species should not have a serious effect on the operation of a cell using an EMIC/AlCl3 electrolyte. The second project was to develop a method for buffering a melt which contains free Mg2+ ion for insertion into a V2O 5 xerogel cathode. The buffering of melts with MgCl2 and Mg metal was investigated starting with both acidic and basic melts. The following reaction is proposed for the Mg ribbon in acidic melt: 8Al2Cl - 7+3Mg→2Al+3Mg2++14AlCl -4 This was verified by electrochemical and atomic emission spectroscopy inductively coupled plasma (AES/ICP) data. Finally, the intercalation of Li+, Na+, and Mg2+ ions into V2O5 xerogels in this room temperature molten salt system was investigated. Characterization of spin coated V2O5 xerogel electrodes was also carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Electrochemical data showed that Li + insertion is quite feasible in the melts. Preliminary studies of Na+, and Mg2+ insertion in melts show some evidence for insertion but need to be studied further.

  18. Programmable diode/resistor-like behavior of nanostructured vanadium pentoxide xerogel thin film.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhenni; Darling, Robert B; Anantram, M P

    2015-11-11

    Electrical properties of a Cr/V2O5/Cr structure are investigated and switching of the device due to electrochemical reactions is observed at low bias (<1 V). Depending on the polarity of the first applied bias, the switched device can behave like a diode (forward sweep first) or a resistor (reverse sweep first). The switching is irreversible and persistent, lasting for more than one month. By performing environmental tests, we prove that water molecules in the atmosphere and intercalated in the xerogel film are involved in the electrochemical reactions. It is proposed that an interfacial layer with reduced oxidation state forms at the Cr/V2O5 interface, and creates a higher Schottky barrier due to rise of electron affinity. Different interfacial layer thicknesses in forward and reverse first sweeps are responsible for different I-V characteristics in subsequent sweeps. The results suggest future applications of these V2O5 thin films in low-power read-only memory devices and diode-resistor networks. PMID:26529244

  19. Promotion effects of titanium on partial oxidation of methanol over vanadium pentoxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Briand, L.; Gambaro, L.; Thomas, H.

    1996-07-01

    EDAX, XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TPR, and XPS were used to characterize various formulations of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} coprecipitated with different TiO{sub 2} concentrations. Catalytic activity of these mixed oxides in the partial oxidation of methanol was investigated. 38 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Concentrating vanadium compounds with the aid of a perfluorinated collector

    SciTech Connect

    Berezyuk, V.G.; Dubrovina, O.B.; Evtyokhova, O.V.; Kasimov, A.M.; Petrova, N.A.

    1985-09-01

    The authors report the results of experiments on extraction of vanadium compounds from aqueous solutions. A cationic flourine-containing surfactant was used as the collector. Figures show the dependence of the degree of vanadium extraction on the solution pH, and the dependence of the composition of the vanadium-containing precipitate on the amount of collector C /SUB surf/ . It was shown that it is possible in principle to concentrate vanadium compounds from aqueous solutions with the aid of a cationic perflourinated collector. The optimal conditions of vanadium extraction lie in the pH range 2.5-4.5. Interaction of decavanadates with the surfactant may proceed by an ion-exchange mechanism under certain conditions. Maximum metal content in the precipitate corresponds to the stoichiometric consumption of the collector. The hydrophobic precipitate can be seperated from the solution equally effectively by flotation and by filtration.

  1. Nanometer sized tantalum pentoxide fibers prepared by electrospinning

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmaraj, N.; Kim, H.Y.

    2006-03-09

    Novel, porous tantalum pentoxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanofibers with 150-250 nm diameter were obtained by high temperature calcination of the as-electrospun tantalum pentoxide/poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) composite fibers prepared by sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. Surface analysis, structure and elemental composition of these as-electrospun and as-calcinated Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers have been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and FT-IR. High-resolution FE-SEM images showed the porous nature of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers. EDX analysis revealed the perfect stoichiometry of the nanofibers as Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. A linear correlation was noted between the calcination temperature and orthorhombic crystalline phase evolution of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  2. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS PHOSPHORIC ACID LIQUORS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions. An acidic aqueous solution containing uranium values is contacted with an organic phase comprising an organic diluent and the reaction product of phosphorous pentoxide and a substantially pure dialkylphosphoric acid. The uranium values are transferred to the organic phase even from aqueous solutions containing a high concentration of strong uranium complexing agents such as phosphate ions. (AEC)

  3. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usha, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  4. Vanadium and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K H

    1999-01-01

    Vanadium is an ultratrace element, widely distributed in nature, yet with no presently known specific physiological function in mammals. The apparent role of vanadium in regulation of intracellular signaling, as a cofactor of enzymes essential in energy metabolism, and as a possible therapeutic agent in diabetes is of increasing interest as more and more research reports present evidence of vanadium's potentially unique biological function. In this mini-review, the author summarizes current knowledge of the bioinorganic chemistry of vanadium, the basic features of diabetes mellitus and its metabolic sequelae, and the in vitro and in vivo effects of both inorganic and organically-chelated vanadium compounds. Results of clinical trials to date, as well as kinetic studies of tissue uptake are covered. Examples of ways to enhance the positive effects of vanadium as an oral therapeutic adjunct in diabetic control, while minimizing potential toxicity, are compared with regard to desirable features and possible drawbacks.

  5. Improved capacitance characteristics of electrospun ACFs by pore size control and vanadium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji Sun; Woo, Sang-Wook; Jung, Min-Jung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2008-11-01

    Nano-sized carbon fibers were prepared by using electrospinning, and their electrochemical properties were investigated as a possible electrode material for use as an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). To improve the electrode capacitance of EDLC, we implemented a three-step optimization. First, metal catalyst was introduced into the carbon fibers due to the excellent conductivity of metal. Vanadium pentoxide was used because it could be converted to vanadium for improved conductivity as the pore structure develops during the carbonization step. Vanadium catalyst was well dispersed in the carbon fibers, improving the capacitance of the electrode. Second, pore-size development was manipulated to obtain small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 5 nm. Through chemical activation, carbon fibers with controlled pore sizes were prepared with a high specific surface and pore volume, and their pore structure was investigated by using a BET apparatus. Finally, polyacrylonitrile was used as a carbon precursor to enrich for nitrogen content in the final product because nitrogen is known to improve electrode capacitance. Ultimately, the electrospun activated carbon fibers containing vanadium show improved functionality in charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and specific capacitance compared with other samples because of an optimal combination of vanadium, nitrogen, and fixed pore structures. PMID:18771778

  6. Optimizing the synthesis of vanadium-oxygen nanostructures by plasma plume dynamics using optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Bathusile N.; Lafane, Slimane; Wu, Lorinda; Abdelli-Messaci, Samira; Kerdja, Tahar; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The effect of an oxygen atmosphere on the expansion dynamics of a laser-produced vanadium-oxygen plasma has been investigated using a fast intensified charged-coupled device camera. We find regimes of the plasma plume expansion ranging from a free plume at vacuum and low oxygen pressures, through collisional and shock-wave-like hydrodynamic regimes at intermediate oxygen pressure, finally reaching a confined plume with subsequent thermalization of the plume particles at the highest pressure of the oxygen gas. Vanadium oxide nanostructures thin films were synthesized from this plasma and the resulting vanadium oxide phases studied as a function of the plume dynamics. We found monoclinic vanadium dioxide (VO2) (M1) and VO2 (B) nanoparticles in thin films deposited at 0.05 mbar. Pure phases of vanadium trioxide (V2O3) smooth and pentoxide (V2O5) nanorods thin films were detected at 0.01 and 0.1 to 0.2 mbar, respectively. Thin films containing VO2 (M1) were found to have a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at 61°C. This work paves the way to VO phase control by judicious choice of laser and plasma conditions.

  7. Formation of new non-oxido vanadium(IV) species in aqueous solution and in the solid state by tridentate (O, N, O) ligands and rationalization of their EPR behavior.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Várnagy, Katalin; Lihi, Norbert; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2013-07-15

    The systems formed by the V(IV)O(2+) ion with tridentate ligands provided with the (O, N(imine), O) donor set were described. The ligands studied were 2,2'-dihydroxyazobenzene (Hdhab), α-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenylimino)-o-cresol (Hhmpic), calmagite (H2calm), anthracene chrome red A (H3anth), calcon (H2calc), and calconcarboxylic acid (H3calc(C)). They can bind vanadium with the two deprotonated phenol groups and the imine nitrogen to give (5,6)-membered chelate rings. The systems were studied with EPR, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy, pH-potentiometry, and DFT methods. The ligands form unusual non-oxido V(IV) compounds both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. [V(anthH(-1))2](4-) and [V(calmH(-1))2](2-) (formed in water at the physiological pH) and [V(dhabH(-1))2] and [V(hmpicH(-1))2] (formed in the solid state in MeOH) are hexa-coordinated with geometry intermediate between the octahedron and the trigonal prism and an unsymmetric facial arrangement of the two ligand molecules. DFT calculations were used to predict the structure and (51)V hyperfine coupling tensor A of the non-oxido species. The EPR behavior of 13 non-oxido V(IV) species was put into relationship with the relevant geometrical parameters and was rationalized in terms of the spin density on the d(xy) orbital. Depending on the geometric isomer formed (meridional or facial), d(z)(2) mixes with the d(xy) orbital, and this effect causes the lowering of the highest (51)V A value. PMID:23819442

  8. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  9. Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations of porous tantalum pentoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, K. R.; Vogler, T. J.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Mattsson, T. R.

    2014-05-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics has been established as a method capable of yielding high fidelity results for many materials at a wide range of pressures and temperatures and has recently been applied to complex polymers such as polyethylene, compounds such as ethane or CO2, and oxides such as MgO. We use this method to obtain a Grïneisen Γ and thereby build a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state (EOS) and a Rice-Walsh EOS for tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5 or tantala) and compare to experimental data. The experimental data have initial densities (ρ00) of approximately 1.13, 3, and 7.4 g/cm3 reduced from a crystalline of 8.36 g/cm3. We found that r becomes constant at higher temperatures and pressure, but is a function of both density and temperature at lower densities and temperatures. Finally, the Mie-Gruneisen EOS is adequate for modeling the slightly distended Hugoniot with an initial density of 7.4 g/cm3 however it is inadequate for the more porous Hugoniot, while the Rice-Walsh EOS combined with a P - λ crush model approximates the experimental data quite well.

  10. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  11. Bipolar resistive switching in room temperature grown disordered vanadium oxide thin-film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Franklin J.; Sriram, Tirunelveli S.; Smith, Brian R.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate bipolar switching with high OFF/ON resistance ratios (>104) in Pt/vanadium oxide/Cu structures deposited entirely at room temperature. The SET (RESET) process occurs when negative (positive) bias is applied to the top Cu electrode. The vanadium oxide (VOx) films are amorphous and close to the vanadium pentoxide stoichiometry. We also investigated Cu/VOx/W structures, reversing the position of the Cu electrode, and found the same polarity dependence with respect to the top and bottom electrodes, which suggests that the bipolar nature is linked to the VOx layer itself. Bipolar switching can be observed at 100 °C, indicating that it not due to a temperature-induced metal-insulator transition of a vanadium dioxide second phase. We discuss how ionic drift can lead to the bipolar electrical behavior of our junctions, similar to those observed in devices based on several other defective oxides. Such low-temperature processed oxide switches could be of relevance to back-end or package integration processing schemes.

  12. Vanadium and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Poucheret, P; Verma, S; Grynpas, M D; McNeill, J H

    1998-11-01

    We demonstrated in 1985 that vanadium administered in the drinking water to streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats restored elevated blood glucose to normal. Subsequent studies have shown that vanadyl sulfate can lower elevated blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in a variety of diabetic models including the STZ diabetic rat, the Zucker fatty rat and the Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Long-term studies of up to one year did not show toxicity in control or STZ rats administered vanadyl sulfate in doses that lowered elevated blood glucose. In the BB diabetic rat, a model of insulin-dependent diabetes, vanadyl sulfate lowered the insulin requirement by up to 75%. Vanadyl sulfate is effective orally when administered by either single dose or chronic doses. It is also effective by the intraperitoneal route. We have also been able to demonstrate marked long-term effects of vanadyl sulfate in diabetic animals following treatment and withdrawal of vanadyl sulfate. Because vanadyl sulfate is not well absorbed we have synthesized and tested a number of organic vanadium compounds. One of these, bismaltolato-oxovanadium IV (BMOV), has shown promise as a therapeutic agent. BMOV is 2-3x more potent than vanadyl sulfate and has shown less toxicity. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that the effects of vanadium are not due to a decrease in food intake and that while vanadium is deposited in bone it does not appear to affect bone strength or architecture. The mechanism of action of vanadium is currently under investigation. Several studies indicate that vanadium is a phosphatase inhibitor and that vanadium can activate serine/threonine kinases distal to the insulin receptor presumably by preventing dephosphorylation due to inhibition of phosphatases Short-term clinical trials using inorganic vanadium compounds in diabetic patients have been promising.

  13. Vanadium induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase Cdelta dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms: Relevance to etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-10-15

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC{sub 50} was determined to be 37 {mu}M in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (> fourfold) and caspase-3 (> ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKC{delta}, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKC{delta} kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKC{delta} proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKC{delta} cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKC{delta} knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral

  14. Vanadium Induces Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Via Protein Kinase C-Delta Dependent Oxidative Signaling Mechanisms: Relevance to Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, R. S.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V2O5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC50 was determined to be 37 μM in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (>fourfold) and caspase-3 (>ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKCδ, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKCδ kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKCδ proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKCδ cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V2O5-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKCδ knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V2O5-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKCδ cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:19646462

  15. A study of structure-property correlation in vanadium pentoxide and titanium dioxide based thin films as functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Chandra

    The focus of this thesis is to study the structure-property correlation in thin films of V2O5 and TiO2 based transition metal oxides as functional materials. V2O5 is investigated as a cathode material for lithium ion battery and TiO2 as a high-k dielectric material. We studied V2O5 thin films prepared by spin coating using three different types of precursors, MOD precursor, sol-gel organic precursor and sol-gel inorganic precursor. On the basis of structural and electrochemical studies, we find that the capacity is dependent on the degree of non-stoichiometry. We have also studied the effect of addition of Ti. Although Ti doping enhances non-stoichiometry, the capacity was found to increase only in 5% Ti-doped sol-gel film. This means the optimal degree of non-stoichiometry is crucial to enhance the capacity. TiO2 is one of the possible high-k dielectric materials because of its very high dielectric constant. We studied leakage characteristics, the dielectric strength and frequency dependent behavior of dielectric constant of TiO2 thin films prepared by MOD, sputter deposition and annealed at different temperatures. We find dielectric constant increasing with the increase in annealing temperature and leakage current density improvement by almost one order of magnitude with each 100 °C increase in annealing temperature. Since TiO2 possess two distinct thermodynamic phases: anatase and rutile, which dramatically influences the values of dielectric constant and leakage current density, it is crucial to stabilize the phase of TiO2 by doping. We find that 20% Zr-doping completely stabilizes TiO2 phase in its anatase form. The dielectric constant of the films is independent of annealing temperature but the leakage current density improves by one order of magnitude with every 100 °C increase in annealing temperature.

  16. Electronic density-of-states of amorphous vanadium pentoxide films: Electrochemical data and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lykissa, Iliana; Li, Shu-Yi; Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Ramzan, Muhammad; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2014-05-14

    Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were prepared by sputter deposition onto transparent and electrically conducting substrates and were found to be X-ray amorphous. Their electrochemical density of states was determined by chronopotentiometry and displayed a pronounced low-energy peak followed by an almost featureless contribution at higher energies. These results were compared with density functional theory calculations for amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant similarities were found between measured data and computations; specifically, the experimental low-energy peak corresponds to a split-off part of the conduction band apparent in the computations. Furthermore, the calculations approximately reproduce the experimental band gap observed in optical measurements.

  17. Vanadium exposure induces olfactory dysfunction in an animal model of metal neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Hilary Afeseh; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates chronic environmental exposure to transition metals may play a role in chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic inhalation exposure to welding fumes containing metal mixtures may be associated with development of PD. A significant amount of vanadium is present in welding fumes, as vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), and incorporation of vanadium in the production of high strength steel has become more common. Despite the increased vanadium use in recent years, the neurotoxicological effects of this metal are not well characterized. Recently, we demonstrated that V2O5 induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase C delta (PKCδ)-dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Since anosmia (inability to perceive odors) and non-motor deficits are considered to be early symptoms of neurological diseases, in the present study, we examined the effect of V2O5 on the olfactory bulb in animal models. To mimic the inhalation exposure, we intranasally administered C57 black mice a low-dose of 182μg of V2O5 three times a week for one month, and behavioral, neurochemical and biochemical studies were performed. Our results revealed a significant decrease in olfactory bulb weights, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and increases in astroglia of the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb in the treatment groups relative to vehicle controls. Neurochemical changes were accompanied by impaired olfaction and locomotion. These findings suggest that nasal exposure to V2O5 adversely affects olfactory bulbs, resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical impairments. These results expand our understanding of vanadium neurotoxicity in environmentally-linked neurological conditions.

  18. Synthesis of niobium pentoxide nanoparticles in single-flow supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchigami, Teruaki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2016-10-01

    The development of a new synthesis method is still required for very fine oxide nanoparticles. In this study, a single-flow supercritical fluid system has been developed for the synthesis of highly crystalline nanosized oxide particles. Niobium oxide particles were synthesized by single-flow supercritical water treatment, batch-type supercritical water treatment and subcritical water treatment. Niobium pentoxide nanoparticles synthesized by single-flow supercritical water treatment at 673 K, 24.5 MPa, and 15 ml min-1 flow rate had a pseudohexagonal structure. The morphology of the nanoparticle was a rod, and it has a smaller particle size and larger crystallite size than those of the oxide particles synthesized by the other methods, because the particle growth and the decomposition of surfactant were rapidly suppressed in the single-flow supercritical water treatment. The nanosized niobium pentoxide is useful as a catalyst in harsh environments and as a precursor powder of lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  19. Picosecond laser structuring of thin film platinum layers covered with tantalum pentoxide isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, Gerhard; Huber, Heinz; Trappendreher, Daniel; Ilchmann, Florian; Weiss, Robin S.; Wolf, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    A thin film layer system consisting of platinum (Pt) as conductive layer on a glass substrate and tantalum pentoxide as isolating layer on top of the platinum is attractive for designing biocompatible conductor paths and contact pads for bio sensor chips. For the flexible and rapid patterning of the conductive and the isolating layers, both, the complete removal and the selective ablation of the individual thin films were investigated using ultra-short laser pulses with about 10 ps pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength at low laser fluences. A platinum film covered with tantalum pentoxide shows a significantly lower ablation threshold than a single Pt film on glass alone when illuminated from the front side. Furthermore, we explored that the tantalum pentoxide film can be removed by glass side illumination from the Pt film, without affecting the Pt film and leaving the Pt film on the glass substrate intact. Those ablation phenomena occur at laser fluences of about 0.2 J/cm{sup 2}, far below the evaporation limit of platinum. We present a detailed ablation threshold value examination for the structuring of these layer systems by front side and glass side irradiation for different film thicknesses. Furthermore, we discuss the possible underlying physical mechanisms of these ablation phenomena.

  20. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  1. Structural and silver/vanadium ratio effects on silver vanadium phosphorous oxide solution formation kinetics: impact on battery electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bock, David C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-01-21

    The detailed understanding of non-faradaic parasitic reactions which diminish battery calendar life is essential to the development of effective batteries for use in long life applications. The dissolution of cathode materials including manganese, cobalt and vanadium oxides in battery systems has been identified as a battery failure mechanism, yet detailed dissolution studies including kinetic analysis are absent from the literature. The results presented here provide a framework for the quantitative and kinetic analyses of the dissolution of cathode materials which will aid the broader community in more fully understanding this battery failure mechanism. In this study, the dissolution of silver vanadium oxide, representing the primary battery powering implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), is compared with the dissolution of silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag(w)VxPyOz) materials which were targeted as alternatives to minimize solubility. This study contains the first kinetic analyses of silver and vanadium solution formation from Ag0.48VOPO4·1.9H2O and Ag2VP2O8, in a non-aqueous battery electrolyte. The kinetic results are compared with those of Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2V4O11 to probe the relationships among crystal structure, stoichiometry, and solubility. For vanadium, significant dissolution was observed for Ag2V4O11 as well as for the phosphate oxide Ag0.49VOPO4·1.9H2O, which may involve structural water or the existence of multiple vanadium oxidation states. Notably, the materials from the SVPO family with the lowest vanadium solubility are Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2VP2O8. The low concentrations and solution rates coupled with their electrochemical performance make these materials interesting alternatives to Ag2V4O11 for the ICD application.

  2. Fatal poisoning by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Boulassel, Brahim; Sadeg, Nouredine; Roussel, Olivier; Perrin, Martine; Belhadj-Tahar, Hafid

    2011-03-20

    We report here a fatal intoxication case involving ammonium vanadate. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, multiple daily diarrheas, hypoglycaemia (0.2g/L) and severe acute renal failure with glomerular filtration rate estimated at 21 ml/min. This patient had taken an undetermined amount of ammonium vanadate 12h after ingesting. She died next morning in the context of respiratory distress despite intensive care and oxygen therapy. The autopsy revealed widespread asphyxia syndrome and erosive gastritis. Determination of vanadium concentration in blood was carried out by means of mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using rhodium ((103)Rh) as the internal standard. The vanadium concentration was 6.22 mg/L, corresponding to 6000 times higher than normal concentration in the general population. The latency and the brutality of clinical picture degradation seem to be in consideration of systemic poisoning by vanadium leading to inhibition of the cellular respiratory process.

  3. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’

    2015-01-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness. PMID:26123117

  4. Thin films of pure vanadium nitride: Evidence for anomalous non-faradaic capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Morel, Alban; Bélanger, Daniel; Goikolea, Eider; Brousse, Thierry; Mysyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    An impressive gravimetric capacitance of 1300 F g-1 (surface capacitance ∼3.3 mF cm-2) reported by Choi et al., 2006 for nanosized vanadium nitride has stimulated considerable interest in vanadium nitride as a potential electrode material for energy storing systems - supercapacitors. The postulated mechanism of charge storage in vanadium nitride materials involves redox reactions in the thin surface layer of vanadium oxide while the core vanadium nitride serves exclusively as a conducting platform. In this study we have synthesized pure oxygen-free vanadium nitride films and have found that they are capable of delivering a surface capacitance of up to ∼3 mF cm-2 at a potential scan rate of 3 mV s-1 and ∼2 mF cm-2 at a potential scan rate of 1 V s-1 in aqueous electrolytes. Combining electrochemical testing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization has revealed that redox reactions play no or little role in the electrochemical response of pure VN, in contrast to the common wisdom stemming from the electrochemical response of oxygen-containing films. An alternative charge storage mechanism - space charge accumulation in a subsurface layer of ∼100 nm - was put forward to explain the experimentally observed capacitance of VN films in aqueous electrolytes.

  5. Thin films of pure vanadium nitride: Evidence for anomalous non-faradaic capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Morel, Alban; Bélanger, Daniel; Goikolea, Eider; Brousse, Thierry; Mysyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    An impressive gravimetric capacitance of 1300 F g-1 (surface capacitance ∼3.3 mF cm-2) reported by Choi et al., 2006 for nanosized vanadium nitride has stimulated considerable interest in vanadium nitride as a potential electrode material for energy storing systems - supercapacitors. The postulated mechanism of charge storage in vanadium nitride materials involves redox reactions in the thin surface layer of vanadium oxide while the core vanadium nitride serves exclusively as a conducting platform. In this study we have synthesized pure oxygen-free vanadium nitride films and have found that they are capable of delivering a surface capacitance of up to ∼3 mF cm-2 at a potential scan rate of 3 mV s-1 and ∼2 mF cm-2 at a potential scan rate of 1 V s-1 in aqueous electrolytes. Combining electrochemical testing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization has revealed that redox reactions play no or little role in the electrochemical response of pure VN, in contrast to the common wisdom stemming from the electrochemical response of oxygen-containing films. An alternative charge storage mechanism - space charge accumulation in a subsurface layer of ∼100 nm - was put forward to explain the experimentally observed capacitance of VN films in aqueous electrolytes.

  6. Evanescent field Sensors Based on Tantalum Pentoxide Waveguides – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Katrin; Oehse, Kerstin; Sulz, Gerd; Hoffmann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Evanescent field sensors based on waveguide surfaces play an important role where high sensitivity is required. Particularly tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) is a suitable material for thin-film waveguides due to its high refractive index and low attenuation. Many label-free biosensor systems such as grating couplers and interferometric sensors as well as fluorescence-based systems benefit from this waveguide material leading to extremely high sensitivity. Some biosensor systems based on Ta2O5 waveguides already took the step into commercialization. This report reviews the various detection systems in terms of limit of detection, the applications, and the suitable surface chemistry.

  7. Template-assisted formation of porous vanadium oxide as high performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yanhui; Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Jiwu; Nie, Zhiwei; An, Xinxin; Liang, Shuquan

    2015-11-01

    Similar to carbonaceous materials, porous metal oxides have attracted wide attention in energy storage and conversion systems because of their structural advantages, including high activity and electrolyte accessibility. In this work, we report the novel preparation of porous vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Ketjen black (KB), a porous carbon material, has been employed as hard templates to host precursor species in their porous structures. The porous V2O5 electrode material is prepared after removing the KB carbon framework by calcinating the composites in air. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous V2O5 electrodes exhibit high capacity, good cycling stability and rate capability. An initial discharge capacity of 141.1 mA h g-1 is delivered at a current density of 100 mAg-1, very close to the theoretical capacity of 147 mA h g-1.

  8. Electronic properties of tantalum pentoxide polymorphs from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Lu, W.; Kioupakis, E.

    2014-11-17

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is extensively studied for its attractive properties in dielectric films, anti-reflection coatings, and resistive switching memory. Although various crystalline structures of tantalum pentoxide have been reported, its structural, electronic, and optical properties still remain a subject of research. We investigate the electronic and optical properties of crystalline and amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structures using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the GW method. The calculated band gaps of the crystalline structures are too small to explain the experimental measurements, but the amorphous structure exhibits a strong exciton binding energy and an optical band gap (∼4 eV) in agreement with experiment. We determine the atomic orbitals that constitute the conduction band for each polymorph and analyze the dependence of the band gap on the atomic geometry. Our results establish the connection between the underlying structure and the electronic and optical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  9. Synthesis and thermal evolution of structure in alkoxide-derived niobium pentoxide gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1993-01-01

    Niobium pentoxide gels in the form of transparent monoliths and powder have been synthesized from the controlled hydrolysis and polycondensation of niobium pentaethoxide under different experimental conditions using various mole ratios of Nb(OC2H5)5:H2O:C2H5OH:HCl. Alcohol acted as the mutual solvent and HCl as the deflocculating agent. In the absence of HCl, precipitation of colloidal particles was encountered on the addition of any water to the alkoxide. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. After drying at 400 C, the gels were amorphous to x-rays. The amorphous powder crystallized into the low-temperature orthorhombic form of Nb2O5 at approximately 500 C, which transformed irreversibly into the high-temperature monoclinic alpha-Nb2O5 between 900 to 1000 C. The kinetics of crystallization of the amorphous niobium pentoxide have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization activation energy was determined to be 399 kJ/mol.

  10. The influence of phosphorous pentoxide on the phase composition and formation of Portland clinker

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, T.; Sulovsky, P.

    2009-07-15

    The influence of phosphorous pentoxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on the phase composition and formation of Portland clinker was studied in laboratory conditions. Phosphorous pentoxide in the form of calcium phosphate was added to common cement-making raw meal in graded quantities up to 5 wt.%. The raw meal properties were studied by thermal analysis. The development of clinker formation by burning for periods ranging from 20 s to 30 min in a special semi-automatic oven with a manipulator was followed using light optical microscopy. The phase composition of clinkers burnt to equilibrium was quantified by the optical point counting method. The entry of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} into clinker minerals was determined by electron microprobe analyses. The laboratory tests show that at 0.7 wt.% of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the clinker the alite (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) content decreases and belite (Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) content increases. At a P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content of 4.5 wt.% alite formation was totally blocked and the resulting clinker contained free lime in equilibrium with belite.

  11. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  12. Sex-based differences in lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen after vanadium inhalation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lara, Vianey; Muñiz-Rivera Cambas, Angelica; González Villalva, Adriana; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal often adhered to particulate matter and released into the atmosphere as vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) by the burning of fossil fuels. This air pollutant causes adverse effects in the immune system. Lymphocytosis and splenomegaly have been reported with increased white pulp in mice after V inhalation. The effect of V on the immune system as related to sex has been poorly investigated. This study sought to determine if V inhalation (a) produced lymphoproliferation that could explain the changes previously observed in the spleen and in peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and (b) whether any observed effects differed due to gender. Immunohistochemical analyses of Ki-67, a specific proliferation marker, was made in the spleens of CD-1 male and female mice exposed for 1 h, twice a week, over a 12-week period to V2O5 (at 1.4 mg V2O5/m(3)) by whole-body inhalation; similar analyses were performed on spleens of control mice exposed to vehicle (filtered air). The results showed that in male mice there was a significant increase in percentage of Ki-67 immunopositive lymphocytes starting from the second week and until the end of the exposure. The Ki-67 signal was cytoplasmic and nuclear in the exposed males, while in controls the signal was only nuclear. In female mice, V inhalation singificantly increased the percentage of proliferating lymphocytes only after 1 week of exposure. Ki-67 signal was observed only in the nucleus of lymphocytes from the control and exposed females. The results here help to explain the splenomegaly and lymphocytosis observed previously in male mice and support the lymphoproliferative effect induced by V. Lastly, the finding that there was a sex difference in the effect of vanadium on lymphocyte proliferation suggests a role for sex hormones in potential protection against V immunotoxicity; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:27043960

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of niobium pentoxide deposited on layered carbide-derived carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Maloney, Ryan; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Beidaghi, Majid; Dyatkin, Boris; Perre, Emilie; Long, Donghui; Qiao, Wenming; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report on the hydrothermal synthesis of niobium pentoxide on carbide-derived carbon (Nb2O5/CDC) with a layered structure. The presence of phenylphosphonic acid guides the deposition during preparation, leading to the formation of amorphous Nb2O5 particles which are 4-10 nm in diameter and homogeneously distributed on the CDC framework. Electrochemical testing of the Nb2O5/CDC electrode indicated that the highest capacitance and Coulombic efficiency occurred using an electrolyte comprised of 1 M lithium perchlorate in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate. Subsequent heat treatment of Nb2O5/CDC in CO2 environment led to crystallization of the Nb2O5, allowing reversible Li+ intercalation/de-intercalation. For sweep rates corresponding to charging and discharging in under 3 min, a volumetric charge of 180 C cm-3 and Coulombic efficiency of 99.2% were attained.

  14. Dissociative electron attachment to dinitrogen pentoxide, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Cicman, P.; Buchanan, G.A.; Marston, G.; Gulejova, B.; Skalny, J.D.; Mason, N.J.; Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    2004-11-22

    Electron attachment was studied in gaseous dinitrogen pentoxide, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, for incident electron energies between a few meV and 10 eV. No stable parent anion N{sub 2}O{sub 5}{sup -} was observed but several anionic fragments (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sup -}, O{sup -}, and O{sub 2}{sup -}) were detected using quadrupole mass spectrometry. Many of these dissociative pathways were found to be coupled and provide detailed information on the dynamics of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} fragmentation. Estimates of the cross sections for production of each of the anionic fragments were made and suggest that electron attachment to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} is amongst the most efficient attachment reactions recorded for nonhalogenated polyatomic systems.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of early transition metal neo-pentoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Alam, T.M.; Scott, B.; Ziller, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Titanium neo-pentoxide was isolated by the alcoholysis exchange between Ti(OCHMe{sub 2}){sub 4} and ONep. The molecule, [Ti(ONep){sub 4}]{sub 2}, was characterized using X-ray analysis and solution {sup 17}O, and {sup 47},{sup 49}Ti NMR spectroscopy. This dinuclear complex is the smallest Ti(OR){sub 4} isolated wherein each metal center is 5-coordinated. The molecule is highly soluble in standard solvents and volatile. The reactivity of this compound has been undertaken to compare with the ubiquitous Ti(O-I-Pr){sub 4}. The various compounds isolated and further NMR studies will be reported. Analogous routes to other M(ONep){sub n} will be reported as well.

  16. Alteration of tissue vanadium content in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamel, F G; Solomon, S S; Jespersen, A S; Blotcky, A; Rack, E; Duckworth, W C

    1993-12-01

    A great deal of interest in the element vanadium has been generated recently because of its potential as a therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus. Vanadium's insulin-mimetic properties and its requirement for proper growth and development suggest that it may be involved in insulin's mechanism of action. We have therefore examined vanadium levels in kidney, muscle, and liver tissues from normal and diabetic BB Wistar rats. Our results indicate that diabetes mellitus can decrease the tissue vanadium content of liver, suggesting that the trace element vanadium may be important in insulin action.

  17. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  18. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  19. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  20. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1985-05-17

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids (shale oil, SRC, etc.) by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  1. New vanadium trap proven in commercial trials

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, T.J. ); Alkemade, U.; Lakhanpal, B. ); Boock, L.T. )

    1994-09-26

    A vanadium trap technology called RV4+ has demonstrated in a variety of commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units its ability to reduce vanadium on equilibrium catalyst by more than 20%. Reducing vanadium loading increases microactivity and zeolite surface area retention, confirming that RV4+ protects zeolites from vanadium deactivation. Sulfur competition had prevented some previous traps from working commercially, but was not a factor with the new trap. The technology can save refiners millions of dollars per year in catalyst costs, or allow them to process feeds containing higher vanadium concentrations. The paper discusses vanadium traps, deactivation mechanism, history of traps, vanadium mobility, intraparticle mobility, interparticle mobility, measuring performance, commercial results, sulfur competition, and economic value.

  2. Peracute vanadium toxicity in cattle grazing near a vanadium mine.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, C M; Mokantla, E; Duncan, N

    2001-12-01

    Animals may act as bioindicators for potential human health problems associated with mining and refining. Eight cattle died after a vanadium mine dam collapsed close to the area in which they were grazing. Necropsies were conducted on five cattle. Affected animals had shown a watery bloody diarrhea, red urine and listlessness before collapsing. On necropsy (n = 5) there was a moderate bilateral multifocal granulomatous-like conjunctivitis. The most prominent lesions were eosinophillic granulomatous-like inflammation of the thymus, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, oesophagus, abomasum and colon. There was also marked hyperaemia of the abomasal mucosa with petechiation. Pulmonary and tracheal haemorrhage was also present. Histopathology showed severe inflammatory cell infiltration (mainly eosinophils with lesser numbers of neutrophils and macrophages) of lymphoid tissue associated with the thymus, lymph nodes, esophagus, abomasum, colon and conjunctiva. There were also areas of tissue necrosis, congested blood vessels and haemorrhage. Conjunctival lesions point to a systemic rather than a local effect as the cattle in this case died following ingestion rather than inhalation of vanadium. The causal relationship between intoxication and death is conventionally based on the level of that toxin present in tissues at necropsy. The variability in demonstrating vanadium in biological samples may have been due to the rapid excretion of vanadium by the living animal, or the solubility of the salts, which results in the substance leaching into the fluid portion of the samples. Cross-reactions with colorimetric tests for arsenic should also be noted.

  3. Insight into the adsorption mechanisms of vanadium(V) on a high-efficiency biosorbent (Ti-doped chitosan bead).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Lingfan

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, a new chitosan bead modified with titanium ions (TiCB) was prepared and employed for the adsorption of vanadium ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to research the effect of various factors, including pH, temperature, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium(V) ions. The adsorption of vanadium was followed by the pseudo second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm model, with a remarkable maximum adsorption capacity of 210 mg/g. The analysis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) revealed that the nature of adsorption was feasible, spontaneous (ΔG°<0) and endothermic (ΔH°>0) process. FTIR, EDS, EMI and XPS studies suggested that the mechanisms of adsorption were possibly attributed to electrostatic attraction, ligand-exchange and redox reaction between TiCB and vanadium ions.

  4. Insight into the adsorption mechanisms of vanadium(V) on a high-efficiency biosorbent (Ti-doped chitosan bead).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Lingfan

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, a new chitosan bead modified with titanium ions (TiCB) was prepared and employed for the adsorption of vanadium ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to research the effect of various factors, including pH, temperature, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium(V) ions. The adsorption of vanadium was followed by the pseudo second-order kinetic and the Langmuir isotherm model, with a remarkable maximum adsorption capacity of 210 mg/g. The analysis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) revealed that the nature of adsorption was feasible, spontaneous (ΔG°<0) and endothermic (ΔH°>0) process. FTIR, EDS, EMI and XPS studies suggested that the mechanisms of adsorption were possibly attributed to electrostatic attraction, ligand-exchange and redox reaction between TiCB and vanadium ions. PMID:25940529

  5. Solid-state synthesis and characterization of silver vanadium oxide for use as a cathode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Leising, R.A.; Takeuchi, E.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, AgV[sub 2]O[sub 5.5]) was synthesized for use as a cathode material in lithium/SVO batteries. The material was prepared via the solid-state thermal reaction of a silver-containing precursor and vanadium pentoxide at 500[degrees]C under an air or argon atmosphere. The silver-containing precursors examined in this study were silver nitrate, silver nitrite, silver vanadate, silver oxide, silver carbonate, and silver metal powder. SEM analysis of the SVO products indicated that the surface morphology was similar for each of the samples, with the dimensions of the rodlike particles depending on the form of silver used in the reaction. In addition, the degree of crystallinity of the samples depended strongly on the type of silver used in the reaction, as evidenced by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. All of the samples were analyzed by DSC, chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, resistivity measurements, and electrical discharge tests of Li/SVO test cells. The experimental capacities and pulse power capabilities of the SVO samples prepared under an air atmosphere were all almost identical, while the samples synthesized under an inert atmosphere displayed a significant decrease in delivered capacity and pulse power capability. 40 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. The potentiality of vanadium in medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Dieter

    2012-09-01

    In the early treatment of diabetes with vanadium, inorganic vanadium compounds have been the focus of attention; organic vanadium compounds are nowadays increasingly attracting attention. A key compound is bis(maltolato)oxidovanadium, which became introduced into clinical tests Phase IIa. Organic ligands help modulate the bioavailability, transport and targeting mechanism of a vanadium compound. Commonly, however, the active onsite species is vanadyl (VO(2+)) or vanadate (H(2)VO(4) (-)), generated by biospeciation. The mode of operation can be ascribed to interaction of vanadate with phosphatases and kinases, and to modulation of the level of reactive oxygen species interfering with phosphatases and/or DNA. This operating mode has also been inferred for most cancerostatic vanadium compounds, although some, for example vanadocenes, may directly intercalate with DNA. Novel medicinal potentiality of vanadium compounds is geared towards endemic diseases in tropical countries, in particular leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and amoebiasis, and viral infections such as Dengue fever, SARS and HIV.

  7. [The vanadium compounds: chemistry, synthesis, insulinomimetic properties].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E V; Buriakina, A V; Vorob'eva, N M; Baranova, N I

    2014-01-01

    The review considers the biological role of vanadium, its participation in various processes in humans and other mammals, and the anti-diabetic effect of its compounds. Vanadium salts have persistent hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects and reduce the probability of secondary complications in animals with experimental diabetes. The review contains a detailed description of all major synthesized vanadium complexes having antidiabetic activity. Currently, vanadium complexes with organic ligands are more effective and safer than the inorganic salts. Despite the proven efficacy of these compounds as the anti-diabetic agents in animal models, only one organic complex of vanadium is currently under the second phase of clinical trials. All of the considered data suggest that vanadium compound are a new promising class of drugs in modern pharmacotherapy of diabetes.

  8. Mineral resource of the month: vanadium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magyar, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Vanadium, the name of which comes from Vanadis, a goddess in Scandinavian mythology, is one of the most important ferrous metals. Vanadium has many uses, but the metal’s metallurgical applications, such as an alloying element in iron and steel, account for more than 85 percent of U.S. consumption. The dominant nonmetallurgical use of the metal is as a catalyst for the production of maleic anhydride and sulfuric acid, ceramics, vanadium chemicals and electronics.

  9. Oxidation state and interfacial effects on oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bondi, Robert J. Marinella, Matthew J.

    2015-02-28

    First-principles density-functional theory calculations are used to study the atomistic structure, structural energetics, and electron density near the O monovacancy (V{sub O}{sup n}; n = 0,1+,2+) in both bulk, amorphous tantalum pentoxide (a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and also at vacuum and metallic Ta interfaces. We calculate multivariate vacancy formation energies to evaluate stability as a function of oxidation state, distance from interface plane, and Fermi energy. V{sub O}{sup n} of all oxidation states preferentially segregates at both Ta and vacuum interfaces, where the metallic interface exhibits global formation energy minima. In a-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, V{sub O}{sup 0} is characterized by structural contraction and electron density localization, while V{sub O}{sup 2+} promotes structural expansion and is depleted of electron density. In contrast, interfacial V{sub O}{sup 0} and V{sub O}{sup 2+} show nearly indistinguishable ionic and electronic signatures indicative of a reduced V{sub O} center. Interfacial V{sub O}{sup 2+} extracts electron density from metallic Ta, indicating that V{sub O}{sup 2+} is spontaneously reduced at the expense of the metal. This oxidation/reduction behavior suggests careful selection and processing of both oxide layer and metal electrodes for engineering memristor device operation.

  10. A search for the ground state structure and the phase stability of tantalum pentoxide.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Walton, S; Valencia-Balvín, C; Padilha, A C M; Dalpian, G M; Osorio-Guillén, J M

    2016-01-27

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) is a wide-gap semiconductor that presents good catalytic and dielectric properties, conferring to this compound promising prospective use in a variety of technological applications. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the relations among its crystalline phases, as some of them are not even completely characterized and there is currently no agreement about which models better explain the crystallographic data. Additionally, its phase diagram is unknown. In this work we performed first-principles density functional theory calculations to study the structural properties of the different phases and models of Ta2O5, the equation of state and the zone-centered vibrational frequencies. From our results, we conclude that the phases that are built up from only distorted octahedra instead of combinations with pentagonal and/or hexagonal bipyramids are energetically more favorable and dynamically stable. More importantly, this study establishes that, given the pressure range considered, the B-phase is the most favorable structure and there is no a crystallographic phase transition to another phase at high-pressure. Additionally, for the equilibrium volume of the B-phase and the λ-model, the description of the electronic structure and optical properties were performed using semi-local and hybrid functionals.

  11. Oxidation state and interfacial effects on oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bondi, Robert J.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2015-02-28

    First-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to study the atomistic structure, structural energetics, and electron density near the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+) in both bulk, amorphous tantalum pentoxide (a-Ta2O5) and also at vacuum and metallic Ta interfaces. We calculate multivariate vacancy formation energies to evaluate stability as a function of oxidation state, distance from interface plane, and Fermi energy. VOn of all oxidation states preferentially segregate at both Ta and vacuum interfaces, where the metallic interface exhibits global formation energy minima. In a-Ta2O5, VO0 are characterized by structural contraction and electron density localization, while VO2+ promote structural expansion andmore » are depleted of electron density. In contrast, interfacial VO0 and VO2+ show nearly indistinguishable ionic and electronic signatures indicative of a reduced VO center. Interfacial VO2+ extract electron density from metallic Ta indicating VO2+ is spontaneously reduced at the expense of the metal. This oxidation/reduction behavior suggests careful selection and processing of both oxide layer and metal electrodes for engineering memristor device operation.« less

  12. Oxidation state and interfacial effects on oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bondi, Robert J.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2015-02-28

    First-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to study the atomistic structure, structural energetics, and electron density near the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+) in both bulk, amorphous tantalum pentoxide (a-Ta2O5) and also at vacuum and metallic Ta interfaces. We calculate multivariate vacancy formation energies to evaluate stability as a function of oxidation state, distance from interface plane, and Fermi energy. VOn of all oxidation states preferentially segregate at both Ta and vacuum interfaces, where the metallic interface exhibits global formation energy minima. In a-Ta2O5, VO0 are characterized by structural contraction and electron density localization, while VO2+ promote structural expansion and are depleted of electron density. In contrast, interfacial VO0 and VO2+ show nearly indistinguishable ionic and electronic signatures indicative of a reduced VO center. Interfacial VO2+ extract electron density from metallic Ta indicating VO2+ is spontaneously reduced at the expense of the metal. This oxidation/reduction behavior suggests careful selection and processing of both oxide layer and metal electrodes for engineering memristor device operation.

  13. A search for the ground state structure and the phase stability of tantalum pentoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Walton, S.; Valencia-Balvín, C.; Padilha, A. C. M.; Dalpian, G. M.; Osorio-Guillén, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) is a wide-gap semiconductor that presents good catalytic and dielectric properties, conferring to this compound promising prospective use in a variety of technological applications. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the relations among its crystalline phases, as some of them are not even completely characterized and there is currently no agreement about which models better explain the crystallographic data. Additionally, its phase diagram is unknown. In this work we performed first-principles density functional theory calculations to study the structural properties of the different phases and models of Ta2O5, the equation of state and the zone-centered vibrational frequencies. From our results, we conclude that the phases that are built up from only distorted octahedra instead of combinations with pentagonal and/or hexagonal bipyramids are energetically more favorable and dynamically stable. More importantly, this study establishes that, given the pressure range considered, the B-phase is the most favorable structure and there is no a crystallographic phase transition to another phase at high-pressure. Additionally, for the equilibrium volume of the B-phase and the λ-model, the description of the electronic structure and optical properties were performed using semi-local and hybrid functionals.

  14. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  15. Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators.

    PubMed

    Sweatlock, Luke A; Diest, Kenneth

    2012-04-01

    Actively tunable metal-insulator-metal waveguides that employ vanadium dioxide films as the active medium are analyzed numerically. Vanadium dioxide exhibits strong contrast between the optical properties of its insulating and metallic phases. In particular, the large optical absorption in the metallic phase makes it straightforward to implement broadband attenuation modulators and switches, but this strong loss can also complicate the design of other types of devices. We present a plasmonic waveguide that functions as an index modulator with Δn > 20% at λ0 = 1,550 nm (0.80 eV), by using a thin active layer to strike a balance between maximizing index contrast while mitigating attenuation. A second device is configured as a band-stop absorption modulator, taking advantage of symmetry to selectively suppress the TM1 and TM3 modes, with relatively minimal attenuation of the TM0 and TM2 modes.

  16. Dynamic shock studies of vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hills, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Using gas-gun loading techniques and velocity interferometric techniques, time-resolved wave profiles have been obtained in vanadium over the stress range of 2.9 to 9.7 GPa. The risetime data indicate steepened shock structures with increasing shock amplitude. However, unlike aluminum, finite risetimes are determined even at 9.7 GPa, indicating a large effective viscosity for the material. The dynamic yield strength measured at the Hugoniot elastic limit is 0.8 GPa and is approximately twice the static yield strength. Material softening is evidenced through measurements of shock velocity and yield strength determinations in the shocked state. The yield strength of the material upon release from the shocked state is estimated to be approx.0.43 GPa and is comparable to the static yield strength. Strain-rate dependent processes may be responsible for a higher elastic shear stress sustained before relaxation to an equilibrium value. The primary mode of deformation in shocked vanadium appears to be cross slip, resulting in dislocation tangles. Deformation twins are also observed in shock-recovered specimens with an increasing number with increased shock stress. The thermal diffusivity for vanadium is low, and the shear-strength loss observed in this material is consistent with the strength loss observed for other materials which also have low thermal diffusivities. It is conceivable that the loss of shear strength may be due to long thermal recovery times resulting from inhomogeneous deformation process.

  17. Leaching characteristics of vanadium in mine tailings and soils near a vanadium titanomagnetite mining site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinyan; Tang, Ya; Yang, Kai; Rouff, Ashaki A; Elzinga, Evert J; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-01-15

    A series of column leaching experiments were performed to understand the leaching behaviour and the potential environmental risk of vanadium in a Panzhihua soil and vanadium titanomagnetite mine tailings. Results from sequential extraction experiments indicated that the mobility of vanadium in both the soil and the mine tailings was low, with <1% of the total vanadium readily mobilised. Column experiments revealed that only <0.1% of vanadium in the soil and mine tailing was leachable. The vanadium concentrations in the soil leachates did not vary considerably, but decreased with the leachate volume in the mine tailing leachates. This suggests that there was a smaller pool of leachable vanadium in the mine tailings compared to that in the soil. Drought and rewetting increased the vanadium concentrations in the soil and mine tailing leachates from 20μgL(-1) to 50-90μgL(-1), indicating the potential for high vanadium release following periods of drought. Experiments with soil columns overlain with 4, 8 and 20% volume mine tailings/volume soil exhibited very similar vanadium leaching behaviour. These results suggest that the transport of vanadium to the subsurface is controlled primarily by the leaching processes occurring in soils.

  18. Natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water stimulates glucose uptake through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung-Lark; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of natural vanadium-containing Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and adipogensesis in 3T3 L1 cells. The Jeju ground water samples containing vanadium components were designated as S1 (8.0 ± 0.9 μg/l), S2 (24.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), and S3 (26.0 ± 2.0 μg/l), respectively. To investigate the effects of the Jeju ground water on glucose uptake in L6 myotubes, L6 cells were differentiated in media containing deionized distilled water (DDW group) and the water samples (S1, S2, and S3 groups). After daily changes in cultured media containing the Jeju ground water samples for 1 week, all samples had increased glucose uptake compared to the DDW group and the order of glucose uptake increased in parallel with vanadium content (S3 > S2 > S1). In addition, S3 significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of the Thr-172 residue of the AMP-activated protein kinase-α subunit and the Ser-79 subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase compared to the DDW group. The effect of glucose uptake by S3 was reversed by pretreatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Interestingly, vanadium pentoxide also increased glucose uptake and activated AMPK activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, as compared to the DDW treated group, S3 treatment inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by down regulation of expressions of adipogenic transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that S3 displays beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes, at least in part through the activation of AMPK activity.

  19. Toxicity of vanadium to different freshwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Beusen, J.M.; Neven, B.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the acute and subchronic toxicity of vanadium for various species of freshwater fish. The long-term toxicity and the effect of vanadium on the reproduction of Daphnia magna is also evaluated and compared with the toxicity of other metals.

  20. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  1. VANADIUM CHEMISTRY ESSENTIALS FOR TREATMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of vanadium occurrence and treatment in drinking water has been elevated by its inclusion in the Contaminant Candidate List. Though it is still too early to know the nature of new regulatory requirements for vanadium, if indeed it becomes regulated, a substantial u...

  2. Sulfatization of vanadium pentoxide in equilibrium gaseous mixtures containing SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenko, S.V.; Dzhoraev, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    The sulfatization of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} + MgSO{sub 4} carriers in equilibrium gaseous SO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures at P{sub SO{sub 3}} = 0.8 - 33 kPa and T {>=} 673 K is studied using a flow thermogravimetric setup. Sulfatization is accompanied by V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reduction and production of vanadyle sulfate VOSO{sub 4}, which can decay completely or partially, depending on the conditions. This is supported by hysteresis observed in the course of the sulfatization and desulfatization of the catalyst. The experimental data indicates the formation of surface sulfates with various formations heats, which is determined by the energetic heterogeneity of the surface.

  3. Effect of nitrogen doping on oxygen vacancies of titanium dioxide supported vanadium pentoxide for ammonia-SCR reaction at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Shule; Zhong, Qin

    2013-07-15

    A V2O5/N-doped TiO2 catalyst has been developed by partly substituting the lattice oxygen of TiO2 support with nitrogen, which showed a remarkable increase in activity for the reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature. The catalyst was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The results demonstrated that N doping cannot noticeably change the microscopic features but dramatically enhanced the formation of surface oxygen vacancies, which can play a vital role in the formation of superoxide ions to improve the SCR activity. The catalyst with [N]/[Ti]=1.0×10(-2) showed the highest NO removal efficiency in the SCR reaction at low temperature. Furthermore, the V1TiN1.0 catalyst showed better resistance to SO2 and H2O during the SCR of NO.

  4. Orientation Studies of Recrystallized Vanadium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Felipe; Clemens, Mike; Burk, Laurel; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

    2007-03-01

    Crystalline films and isolated vanadium dioxide particles were obtained through thermal annealing of amorphous vanadium dioxide thin films on silicon dioxide. Vanadium dioxide undergoes an insulator to metal transition near 66 ^oC. Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) was used to study the phase and orientation of the crystals formed, as well as to differentiate from different vanadium oxide crystal structures. Kikuchi patterns for the tetragonal phase of vanadium dioxide were used for indexing as the Kikuchi patterns for the two phases are indistinguishable by OIM. There is a preferred orientation for the growth of these crystals with the c axis of the tetragonal phase parallel to the plane of the specimen. Resistance and Capacitance measurements on these films are being performed to study the electronic chracteristics of this phase transition. The results of this study will be presented.

  5. Orientation Studies of Recrystallized Vanadium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Felipe; Burk, Laurel; Davis, Robert; Vanfleet, Richard

    2006-10-01

    Crystalline films and isolated vanadium dioxide particles (up to 700nm in diameter) were obtained through thermal annealing of amorphous vanadium dioxide thin films on silicon dioxide. Vanadium dioxide undergoes a metal to insulator transition changing from a monoclinic to tetragonal phase near 66 ^o C. Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) was used to study the phase and orientation of the crystals formed, as well as to differentiate from different vanadium oxide crystal structures. Kikuchi patterns for the tetragonal phase of vanadium dioxide were used for indexing as the Kikuchi patterns for the monoclinic phase are indistinguishable, by OIM, from those of the tetragonal phase. There is a preferred orientation for the growth of these crystals with the c axis in the plane of the specimen.

  6. Perspectives for vanadium in health issues.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium is omnipresent in trace amounts in the environment, in food and also in the human body, where it might serve as a regulator for phosphate-dependent proteins. Potential vanadium-based formulations--inorganic and coordination compounds with organic ligands--commonly underlie speciation in the body, that is, they are converted to vanadate(V), oxidovanadium(IV) and to complexes with the body's own ligand systems. Vanadium compounds have been shown to be potentially effective against diabetes Type 2, malign tumors including cancer, endemic tropical diseases (such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and amoebiasis), bacterial infections (tuberculosis and pneumonia) and HIV infections. Furthermore, vanadium drugs can be operative in cardio- and neuro-protection. So far, vanadium compounds have not yet been approved as pharmaceuticals for clinical use.

  7. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Cramer, Roger

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  8. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McKernan, M.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Link, W.A.; Olsen, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was Iympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 :g/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 ug/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 ug/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney <5 ug/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  9. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; McKernan, Moira A; Eisenreich, Karen M; Link, William A; Olsen, Glenn H; Hoffman, David J; Knowles, Kathy A; McGowan, Peter C

    2006-02-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 microg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 microg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 microg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 microg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  10. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  11. Vanadium Electrolyte Studies for the Vanadium Redox Battery-A Review.

    PubMed

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Cao, Liuyue; Kazacos, Michael; Kausar, Nadeem; Mousa, Asem

    2016-07-01

    The electrolyte is one of the most important components of the vanadium redox flow battery and its properties will affect cell performance and behavior in addition to the overall battery cost. Vanadium exists in several oxidation states with significantly different half-cell potentials that can produce practical cell voltages. It is thus possible to use the same element in both half-cells and thereby eliminate problems of cross-contamination inherent in all other flow battery chemistries. Electrolyte properties vary with supporting electrolyte composition, state-of-charge, and temperature and this will impact on the characteristics, behavior, and performance of the vanadium battery in practical applications. This Review provides a broad overview of the physical properties and characteristics of the vanadium battery electrolyte under different conditions, together with a description of some of the processing methods that have been developed to produce vanadium electrolytes for vanadium redox flow battery applications. PMID:27295523

  12. Vanadium Electrolyte Studies for the Vanadium Redox Battery-A Review.

    PubMed

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Cao, Liuyue; Kazacos, Michael; Kausar, Nadeem; Mousa, Asem

    2016-07-01

    The electrolyte is one of the most important components of the vanadium redox flow battery and its properties will affect cell performance and behavior in addition to the overall battery cost. Vanadium exists in several oxidation states with significantly different half-cell potentials that can produce practical cell voltages. It is thus possible to use the same element in both half-cells and thereby eliminate problems of cross-contamination inherent in all other flow battery chemistries. Electrolyte properties vary with supporting electrolyte composition, state-of-charge, and temperature and this will impact on the characteristics, behavior, and performance of the vanadium battery in practical applications. This Review provides a broad overview of the physical properties and characteristics of the vanadium battery electrolyte under different conditions, together with a description of some of the processing methods that have been developed to produce vanadium electrolytes for vanadium redox flow battery applications.

  13. Vanadium toxicity in the thymic development

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hengmin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the toxic effects of vanadium on thymic development in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg/kg of vanadium for 42 days. We examined the changes of relative weight, cell cycle phase, apoptotic cells, and protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in the thymus by the methods of flow cytometry, TUNEL (terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling) and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that dietary high vanadium (30mg/kg, 45mg/kg and 60mg/kg) caused the toxic effects on thymic development, which was characterized by decreasing relative weight, increasing G0/G1 phase (a prolonged nondividing state), reducing S phase (DNA replication) and proliferating index (PI), and increasing percentages of apoptotic thymocytes. Concurrently, the protein expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were increased, and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 were decreased. The thymic development suppression caused by dietary high vanadium further leads to inhibitive effects on T lymphocyte maturity and activity, and cellular immune function. The above-mentioned results provide new evidences for further understanding the vanadium immunotoxicity. In contrast, dietary 5 mg/kg vanadium promoted the thymic development by increasing relative weight, decreasing G0/G1 phase, increasing S phase and PI, and reducing percentages of apoptotic thymocytes when compared to the control group and high vanadium groups. PMID:26416460

  14. Vanadium dioxide phase change switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M.; Hillman, C.; Stupar, P.; Hacker, J.; Griffith, Z.; Lee, K.-J.

    2015-05-01

    The thermally driven metal insulator transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is used to create a low loss millimeter wave switch which operates up to and beyond W-band frequencies. We have built RF switches using vanadium dioxide thin films fabricated within a section of inverted transmission line with integrated on chip heaters to provide local thermal control. On heating the films above the metal insulator transition we obtain record low switch insertion loss of 0.13 dB at 50 GHz and 0.5 dB at 110 GHz. The switch cut-off frequency is high, fc ~ 45 THz, due to the low on state resistance and off state capacitance. We have investigated the device physics of these switches including self-latching of the devices under high RF powers, and demonstrated their integration with silicon germanium RF circuits where the switch heater current sources and control logic are also integrated into the same silicon germanium circuit.

  15. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure.

  16. Solvents and supporting electrolytes for vanadium acetylacetonate flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkle, Aaron A.; Pomaville, Timothy J.; Sleightholme, Alice E. S.; Thompson, Levi T.; Monroe, Charles W.

    2014-02-01

    Properties of supporting electrolytes and solvents were examined for use with vanadium acetylacetonate - a member of the class of metal(β-diketonate) active species - in non-aqueous redox flow batteries. Twenty supporting-electrolyte/solvent combinations were screened for ionic conductivity and supporting-electrolyte solubility. Hexane, tetrahydrofuran, and dimethylcarbonate solvents did not meet minimal conductivity and solubility criteria for any of the electrolytes used, which included tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate, tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate, tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate, and (1-butyl, 3-methyl)imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Ionic conductivities and solubilities for solutions of these electrolytes passed screening criteria in acetonitrile and dimethylformamide solvents, in which maximum supporting-electrolyte and active-species solubilities were determined. Active-species electrochemistry was found to be reversible in several solvent/support systems; for some systems the voltammetric signatures of unwanted side reactions were suppressed. Correlations between supporting-solution properties and performance metrics suggest that an optimal solvent for a vanadium acetylacetonate RFB should have a low solvent molar volume for active-species solubility, and a high Hansen polarity for conductivity.

  17. Solid-state cathode materials for lithium batteries: Effect of synthesis temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of silver vanadium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Leising, R.A.; Takeuchi, E.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, AgV[sub 2]O[sub 5.5]) was synthesized for use as a cathode material in lithium/SVO batteries. The material was prepared via a solid-state thermal reaction of silver nitrate and vanadium pentoxide in the presence of air. The surface morphology of the final product was found to be dependent on the temperature of synthesis of the material, as evidenced by SEM analysis of the samples. SVO synthesized at 320 and 375[degrees]C displayed irregularly shaped particles, while material prepared at 450[degrees]C was needlelike. SVO synthesized at 540[degrees]C appeared to be a mixture of large crystalline plates and irregular particles. All of the samples were analyzed by DSC, chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, resistivity measurements, and constant-resistance discharge of Li/SVO test cells. The experimental capacities of the lower temperature materials (320,375[degrees]C) were similar to that found for SVO prepared at 450[degrees]C. A significant decrease in delivered capacity was noted when the SVO prepared at 540[degrees]C was used as a cathode material. 30 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Design of vanadium oxide structures with controllable electrical properties for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changzheng; Feng, Feng; Xie, Yi

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of inorganic materials has been a long-standing pursued research topic, and successfully controlling the electrical property of an inorganic material has attracted significant attention for a wide range of energy-related applications, covering energy storage, energy conversion and energy utilization. During the few past decades, vanadium oxides have been studied to gain a clear picture of how microstructural characteristics generating the e-e correlations influence the electronic structure of a material, through which the charge concentration, electrical conductivity as well as the metal-insulator transition (MIT), etc., can be precisely controlled, giving promising signs for constructing energy-related devices. In this review, we present an extensive review of the engineering of the microstructures of vanadium oxides with control of their electrical properties, and with attempts to rationally construct energy-related devices, such as aqueous lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors for energy storage, and thermoelectric generators for energy conversion. Furthermore, the MIT performance of vanadium oxides has also seen tremendous advantages for the applications of "smart windows" and magnetocaloric refrigerators for energy utilization. Collectively, progresses to date suggest that in vanadium oxide systems, the electrical properties, including electrical conductivity, carrier concentrations, and the MIT performance, were all strongly dependent on the microstructural characteristics at the atomic scale, which have presented extensive promising energy applications covering energy storage, energy conversion and energy utilization. PMID:23482986

  19. On the thermodynamic properties of vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Daans, J.M.; Carbotte, J.P.; Ashraf, M.; Baquero, R.

    1984-04-01

    The thermodynamic properties of superconducting vanadium are calculated from the tunneling-derived microscopic parameters for this metal. Consideration is given to the possible role of spin fluctuations and to anisotropy. A comparison with experiment is included.

  20. The role of vanadium in biology.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Dieter

    2015-05-01

    Vanadium is special in at least two respects: on the one hand, the tetrahedral anion vanadate(v) is similar to the phosphate anion; vanadate can thus interact with various physiological substrates that are otherwise functionalized by phosphate. On the other hand, the transition metal vanadium can easily expand its sphere beyond tetrahedral coordination, and switch between the oxidation states +v, +iv and +iii in a physiological environment. The similarity between vanadate and phosphate may account for the antidiabetic potential of vanadium compounds with carrier ligands such as maltolate and picolinate, and also for vanadium's mediation in cardiovascular and neuronal defects. Other potential medicinal applications of more complex vanadium coordination compounds, for example in the treatment of parasitic tropical diseases, may also be rooted in the specific properties of the ligand sphere. The ease of the change in the oxidation state of vanadium is employed by prokarya (bacteria and cyanobacteria) as well as by eukarya (algae and fungi) in respiratory and enzymatic functions. Macroalgae (seaweeds), fungi, lichens and Streptomyces bacteria have available haloperoxidases, and hence enzymes that enable the 2-electron oxidation of halide X(-) with peroxide, catalyzed by a Lewis-acidic V(V) center. The X(+) species thus formed can be employed to oxidatively halogenate organic substrates, a fact with implications also for the chemical processes in the atmosphere. Vanadium-dependent nitrogenases in bacteria (Azotobacter) and cyanobacteria (Anabaena) convert N2 + H(+) to NH4(+) + H2, but are also receptive for alternative substrates such as CO and C2H2. Among the enigmas to be solved with respect to the utilization of vanadium in nature is the accumulation of V(III) by some sea squirts and fan worms, as well as the purport of the nonoxido V(IV) compound amavadin in the fly agaric.

  1. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  2. Laser Fabricated Nanostructures on Vanadium Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, B.; Fuele, M.; Nanai, L.; Balint, A. M.

    2011-10-03

    In this work we present our results concerning to the nanostructure generation on vanadium surfaces by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation. The melting free formation of these structures is very important in many fields of science and industry too. We obtain that the nanostructure forming process on vanadium surface is Stransky Krastanov type. The surface covering and the nano-tower shape are depending on the ambient of the laser matter reaction.

  3. Overview of environmental and occupational vanadium exposure and associated health outcomes: an article based on a presentation at the 8th International Symposium on Vanadium Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, and Toxicology, Washington DC, August 15-18, 2012.

    PubMed

    Fortoul, T I; Rojas-Lemus, M; Rodriguez-Lara, V; Gonzalez-Villalva, A; Ustarroz-Cano, M; Cano-Gutierrez, G; Gonzalez-Rendon, S E; Montaño, L F; Altamirano-Lozano, M

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium (V) has a variety of applications that make it suitable for use in ceramic production and decoration, production of pigments for a variety of products, an accelerator for drying paint, production of aniline black dye, and as a mordant in coloring textiles. Taking advantage of its hardness, resilience, ability to form alloys, and its resistance to corrosion, V is also used in the production of tools, steel, machinery, and surgical implants. V is employed in producing photographic developers, batteries, and semi-conductors, and in catalyst-based recycling processes. As technologies have evolved, the use of V has increased in jet aircraft and space technology, as well as in manufacture of ultraviolet filter glass to prevent radiation injury. Due to these myriad uses, the potential for occupational exposure to V is ever-evident. Similarly, there is an increased risk for environmental contamination by V agents themselves or as components of by-products released into the environment. For example, the use of V in sulfuric acid production results in the release of soot and/or fly ash rich in vanadium pentoxide. Petroleum refinery, smelting, welding, and cutting of V-rich steel alloy, the cleaning and repair of oil-fired boilers, and catalysis of chemical productions are other sources of increased airborne V-bearing particles in local/distant environments. Exposure of non-workers to V is an increasing health concern. Studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to airborne V-bearing particles (as part of air pollution) and increased risks of a variety of pathologies like hypertension, dysrhythmia, systemic inflammation, hyper-coagulation, cancers, and bronchial hyper-reactivity. This paper will provide a review of the history of V usage in occupational settings, documented exposure levels, environmental levels of V associated with pollution, epidemiologic data relating V exposure(s) to adverse health outcomes, and governmental responses to protect both

  4. Vanadium tube processing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Tanaka, G.J.

    1993-08-11

    Vanadium tubing obtained from Century Tubes, a custom tubing manufacturer, was studied to determine as-received quality and fabricability. Applications for this tubing involve crimping and sealing operations at Pantex Plant requiring very high levels of leak-tightness (leak rates less than 10{sup {minus}8} atm-cc He/sec). The as-received material had poor OD and ID surface finish and cleanliness that needed to be improved before use in component fabrication. Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) personnel developed a cleaning procedure to make this tubing acceptable for crimping and sealing operations. After suitably cleaning the tubing, we tested several tube sealing techniques and all showed some degree of success. Pantex Plant personnel are now implementing a tube sealing process very similar to one of the techniques studied, a mechanical crimp followed by seal welding.

  5. Bioaccumulation of Vanadium by Vanadium-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from the Intestine of Ascidia sydneiensis samea.

    PubMed

    Romaidi; Ueki, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Isolation of naturally occurring bacterial strains from metal-rich environments has gained popularity due to the growing need for bioremediation technologies. In this study, we found that the vanadium concentration in the intestine of the vanadium-rich ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis samea could reach 0.67 mM, and thus, we isolated vanadium-resistant bacteria from the intestinal contents and determined the ability of each bacterial strain to accumulate vanadium and other heavy metals. Nine strains of vanadium-resistant bacteria were successfully isolated, of which two strains, V-RA-4 and S-RA-6, accumulated vanadium at a higher rate than did the other strains. The maximum vanadium absorption by these bacteria was achieved at pH 3, and intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism. Each strain strongly accumulated copper and cobalt ions, but accumulation of nickel and molybdate ions was relatively low. These bacterial strains can be applied to protocols for bioremediation of vanadium and heavy metal toxicity. PMID:27177911

  6. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form.

  7. Thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions involving vanadium in natural systems: Accumulation of vanadium in sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid V species is presented to evaluate dissolution, transport, and precipitation of V under natural conditions. Emphasis is given to results of experimental studies of V chemistry, especially those for which the experimental conditions are near those found in nature. Where possible, data are obtained for or corrected to the reference conditions of 298.15K, 1 atm (1.01325 bar) and zero ionic strength. Vanadium [IV] (VIV) and vanadium[V] (VV) are the most soluble forms of V in nature, and their complexes with fluoride, sulfate, and oxalate may act to increase V solubility under oxidizing conditions. Because redox behavior is of fundamental importance to understanding natural V chemistry, the kinetics of reduction of VIV to VIII H2S were studied. Although H2S is predicted from thermodynamic data to be capable of reducing VIV to VIII, this reaction has not been demonstrated experimentally. Experiments were carried out under conditions of temperature (45??C), pH (3.6-6.8), ionic strength (0.05-0.1 m), and V concentrations (9.8-240 ??molar) likely to be found in nature. Because the reaction is very slow, H2S concentrations in excess of natural conditions were used (8.1 ?? 10-4 to 0.41 atm). The results show that VIV is reduced to VIII under a variety of conditions. The rate increases with increasing pH, but is not appreciably affected by ionic strength (as represented by the concentration of KCl, which was used as the supporting electrolyte in all cases). Prior to initiation of the reaction, there is an induction period, the length of which increases with increasing KCl concentration or decreasing pH. Attempts to model the reaction mechanism by numerical methods have failed to produce a satisfying fit of the results, indicating partial reaction orders, a complex mechanism, or involvement of a variety of intermediate species. The results of the thermodynamic and kinetic studies were applied to understanding the

  8. Removal of Vanadium(III) and Molybdenum(V) from Wastewater Using Posidonia oceanica (Tracheophyta) Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Chiara; Totti, Cecilia; Beolchini, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The use of dried and re-hydrated biomass of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica was investigated as an alternative and –low-cost biomaterial for removal of vanadium(III) and molybdenum(V) from wastewaters. Initial characterisation of this biomaterial identified carboxylic groups on the cuticle as potentially responsible for cation sorption, and confirmed the toxic-metal bioaccumulation. The combined effects on biosorption performance of equilibrium pH and metal concentrations were investigated in an ideal single-metal system and in more real-life multicomponent systems. There were either with one metal (vanadium or molybdenum) and sodium nitrate, as representative of high ionic strength systems, or with the two metals (vanadium and molybdenum). For the single-metal solutions, the optimum was at pH 3, where a significant proportion of vanadium was removed (ca. 70%) while there was ca. 40% adsorption of molybdenum. The data obtained from the more real-life multicomponent systems showed that biosorption of one metal was improved both by the presence of the other metal and by high ionic strength, suggesting a synergistic effect on biosorption rather than competition. There data ware used for the development of a simple multi-metal equilibrium model based on the non-competitive Langmuir approach, which was successfully fitted to experimental data and represents a useful support tool for the prediction of biosorption performance in such real-life systems. Overall, the results suggest that biomass of P. oceanica can be used as an efficient biosorbent for removal of vanadium(III) and molybdenum(V) from aqueous solutions. This process thus offers an eco-compatible solution for the reuse of the waste material of leaves that accumulate on the beach due to both human activities and to storms at sea. PMID:24204692

  9. The use of a vanadium species as a catalyst in photoinduced water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Marie-Pierre; La Ganga, Giuseppina; Mollica Nardo, Viviana; Natali, Mirco; Puntoriero, Fausto; Scandola, Franco; Campagna, Sebastiano

    2014-06-11

    The first water oxidation catalyst containing only vanadium atoms as metal centers is reported. The compound is the mixed-valence [(V(IV)5V(V)1)O7(OCH3)12](-) species, 1. Photoinduced water oxidation catalyzed by 1, in the presence of Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and Na2S2O8, in acetonitrile/aqueous phosphate buffer takes place with a quantum yield of 0.20. A hole scavenging reaction between the photochemically generated Ru(bpy)3(3+) and 1 occurs with a bimolecular rate constant of 2.5 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The time-resolved formation of the oxidized molecular catalyst 1(+) in bimolecular reactions is also evidenced for the first time by transient absorption spectroscopy. This result opens the way to the use of less expensive vanadium clusters as water oxidation catalysts in artificial photosynthesis schemes.

  10. Silver vanadium oxide and silver vanadium phosphorous oxide dissolution kinetics: a mechanistic study with possible impact on future ICD battery lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Bock, David C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2013-10-14

    Material design strategies for energy storage applications can be considered in two major categories: (1) control of structure and composition and (2) material dimensional control such as the implementation of nanomaterials. Characterization of electrochemical properties determines energy content and possible viability for potential application. Equally critical yet more challenging is quantifying the non-Faradaic parasitic reactions of the active materials and the relationship to battery life. Understanding the significant factors associated with battery lifetimes for the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is critical for the development of new ICD batteries. In situ dissolution of the cathode material has been identified as a major factor in premature end of life for ICD batteries. This study contains the kinetic analyses of silver and vanadium dissolution from the benchmark silver vanadium oxide (SVO) material and two silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (SVPO-H and SVPO-R) materials with differing physical properties in a non-aqueous ICD battery electrolyte. A comparison of the kinetic and mechanistic results for SVO, SVPO-H and SVPO-R provides insight for future material design approaches.

  11. Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

  12. Catalysis science of supported vanadium oxide catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Israel E

    2013-09-01

    Supported vanadium oxide catalysts contain a vanadium oxide phase deposited on a high surface area oxide support (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, etc.) and have found extensive applications as oxidation catalysts in the chemical, petroleum and environmental industries. This review of supported vanadium oxide catalysts focuses on the fundamental aspects of this novel class of catalytic materials (molecular structures, electronic structures, surface chemistry and structure-reactivity relationships). The molecular and electronic structures of the supported vanadium oxide phases were determined by the application of modern in situ characterization techniques (Raman, IR, UV-vis, XANES, EXAFS, solid state (51)V NMR and isotopic oxygen exchange). The characterization studies revealed that the supported vanadium oxide phase consists of two-dimensional surface vanadia sites dispersed on the oxide supports. Corresponding surface chemistry and reactivity studies demonstrated that the surface vanadia sites are the catalytic active sites for oxidation reactions by supported vanadia catalysts. Combination of characterization and reactivity studies demonstrate that the oxide support controls the redox properties of the surface vanadia sites that can be varied by as much as a factor of ~10(3).

  13. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Quong, Roland; Rigdon, Lester P.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  14. Vanadium inhibition of serine and cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, N; Cerletti, P; De Vincentiis, M; Salvati, A; Scippa, S

    1999-03-01

    A study was made on the effect of vanadium, in both the tetravalent state in vanadyl sulphate and in the pentavalent state in sodium meta-vanadate, and ortho-vanadate, on the proteolysis of azocasein by two serine proteases, trypsin and subtilisin and two cysteine proteases bromelain and papain. Also the proteolysis of bovine azoalbumin by serine proteases was considered. An inhibitory effect was present in all cases, except meta-vanadate with subtilisin. The oxidation level of vanadium by itself did not determine the inhibition kinetics, which also depended on the type and composition of the vanadium containing molecule and on the enzyme assayed. The pattern of inhibition was similar for proteases belonging to the same class. The highest inhibition was obtained with meta-vanadate on papain and with vanadyl sulphate on bromelain.

  15. Slag remelt purification of irradiated vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Gorman, P.K.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes theoretical and scoping experimental efforts to investigate the decontamination potential of a slag remelting process for decontaminating irradiated vanadium alloys. Theoretical calculations, using a commercial thermochemical computer code HSC Chemistry, determined the potential slag compositions and slag-vanadium alloy ratios. The experiment determined the removal characteristics of four surrogate transmutation isotopes (Ca, Y - to simulate Sc, Mn, and Ar) from a V-5Ti-5Cr alloy with calcium fluoride slag. An electroslag remelt furnace was used in the experiment to melt and react the constituents. The process achieved about a 90 percent removal of calcium and over 99 percent removal of yttrium. Analyses indicate that about 40 percent of the manganese may have been removed. Argon analyses indicates that 99.3% of the argon was released from the vanadium alloy in the first melt increasing to 99.7% during the second melt. Powder metallurgy techniques were used to incorporate surrogate transmutation products in the vanadium. A powder mixture was prepared with the following composition: 90 wt % vanadium, 4.7 wt % titanium, 4.7 wt % chromium, 0.35 wt % manganese, 0.35 wt % CaO, and 0.35 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This mixture was packed into 2.54 cm diameter stainless steel tubes. Argon was introduced into the powder mixture by evacuating and backfilling the stainless steel containers to a pressure of 20 kPa (0.2 atm). The tubes were hot isostatically pressed at 207 MPa (2000 atm) and 1473 K to consolidate the metal. An electroslag remelt furnace (crucible dimensions: 5.1 cm diameter by 15.2 cm length) was used to process the vanadium electrodes. Chemical analyses were performed on samples extracted from the slags and ingots. Ingot analyses results are shown below. Values are shown in percent removal of the four targeted elements of the initial compositions.

  16. Vanadium-catalyzed chlorination under molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Yasuhiro; Kato, Satoshi; Kajikawa, Tomomi; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2015-06-01

    A catalytic chlorination of ketones was performed by using a vanadium catalyst in the presence of Bu4NI and AlCl3 under atmospheric molecular oxygen. This catalytic chlorination could be applied to the chlorination of alkenes to give the corresponding vic-dichlorides. AlCl3 was found to serve as both a Lewis acid and a chloride source to induce the facile chlorination. A combination of Bu4NI and AlI3 in the presence of a vanadium catalyst under atmospheric molecular oxygen induced the iodination of ketones.

  17. Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

  18. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Cubadda, Francesco; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg(-1)) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  19. Establishment of process technology for the manufacture of dinitrogen pentoxide and its utility for the synthesis of most powerful explosive of today--CL-20.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Sivabalan, R; Polke, B G; Nair, U R; Gore, G M; Asthana, S N

    2005-09-30

    This paper reviews the recent work done on the synthesis as well as characterization of dinitrogen pentoxide (DNPO). The physico-chemical characteristics of DNPO are also discussed. The review brings out the key aspects of N2O5 technology with relevance to realize modern and novel HEMs. The paper also includes the aspects related with establishing the synthesis facility of dinitrogen pentoxide at HEMRL by gas phase interaction of N2O4 with O3. The process parameters for the synthesis of N2O5 at 50 g/batch have been optimized. The synthesized dinitrogen pentoxide has been characterized by UV [204, 213, 258 nm (pi-->pi*) 378 and 384 nm (n-->pi*)] and IR (1428, 1266, 1249, 1206, 1044, 822, 750, 546 and 454 cm(-1)) spectroscopy. The DSC clearly showed the sublimation of N2O5 at 32 degrees C. The nitration studies on 2,6,8,12-tetraacetylhexaaza tetracyclo[5,5,0,0(3,11)0(5,9)]dodecane (TAIW) proved its viability in 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8(10,12))-hexaazatetracyclo [5,5,0,0(3,11)0(5,9)]dodecane (CL-20) synthesis. The synthesized CL-20 and its precursors have also been subjected to hyphenated TG-FTIR studies to understand decomposition pattern. PMID:15979786

  20. Large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers for pH measurement at the Nernstian limit

    SciTech Connect

    Fakih, Ibrahim Sabri, Shadi; Szkopek, Thomas; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Nannini, Matthieu; Siaj, Mohamed

    2014-08-25

    We have fabricated and characterized large area graphene ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers and demonstrated pH sensitivities approaching the Nernstian limit. Low temperature atomic layer deposition was used to deposit tantalum pentoxide atop large area graphene ISFETs. The charge neutrality point of graphene, inferred from quantum capacitance or channel conductance, was used to monitor surface potential in the presence of an electrolyte with varying pH. Bare graphene ISFETs exhibit negligible response, while graphene ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide sensing layers show increased sensitivity reaching up to 55 mV/pH over pH 3 through pH 8. Applying the Bergveld model, which accounts for site binding and a Guoy-Chapman-Stern picture of the surface-electrolyte interface, the increased pH sensitivity can be attributed to an increased buffer capacity reaching up to 10{sup 14} sites/cm{sup 2}. ISFET response was found to be stable to better than 0.05 pH units over the course of two weeks.

  1. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%. PMID:25840036

  2. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping; Qi, Tao; Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Weijing

    2015-08-30

    An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30-40°C for 10min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0-0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H2SO4 as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H2SO4 concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20min stripping time, and 40°C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16g/LV2O5,0.691g/L Fe, 0.007g/L TiO2, 0.006g/L SiO2 and 0.247g/L CaO. A V2O5 product with a purity of 99.12% V2O5 and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation, and calcination processes. The total vanadium recovered from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution was 85.5%.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on vanadium(IV) electrolyte solutions for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Huang, Cheng; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jianzhi; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    The vanadium(IV) electrolyte solutions with various vanadium concentrations are studied by variable temperature 1H and 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure and kinetics of vanadium(IV) species in the electrolyte solutions are explored with respect to vanadium concentration and temperature. It was found that the vanadium(IV) species exist as hydrated vanadyl ion, i.e. [VO(H 2O) 5] 2+ forming an octahedral coordination with vanadyl oxygen in the axial position and the remaining positions occupied by water molecules. This hydrated vanadyl ion structure is stable in vanadium concentrations up to 3 M and in the temperature range of 240-340 K. The sulfate anions in the electrolyte solutions are found to be weekly bound to this hydrated vanadyl ion and occupies its second-coordination sphere. The possible effects of these sulfate anions in proton and water exchange between vanadyl ion and solvent molecules are discussed based on 1H and 17O NMR results.

  4. Precipitation and fine structure in medium-carbon vanadium and vanadium/niobium microalloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S.W.; Krauss, G. )

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports hot-rolled and continuously cooled, medium-carbon microalloyed steels containing 0.2 or 0.4 pct C with vanadium (0.15 pct) or vanadium (0.15 pct) plus niobium (0.04 pct) additions investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope was conducted on precipitates of the 0.4 pct C steel with vanadium and niobium additions. The vanadium steels contained fine interphase precipitates within ferrite, pearlite nodules devoid of interphase precipitates, and fine ferritic transformation twins. The vanadium plus niobium steels contained large Nb-rich precipitates, precipitates which formed in cellular arrays on deformed austenite substructure and contained about equal amounts of niobium and vanadium, and V-rich interphase precipitates. Transformation twins in the ferrite and interphase precipitates in the pearlitic ferrite were not observed in either of the steels containing both microalloying elements. Consistent with the effect of higher C concentrations on driving the microalloying precipitation reactions, substructure precipitation was more frequently observed in the 0.4C-V-Nb steel than in the 0.2C-V-Nb steel, both in the ferritic and pearlitic regions of the microstructure. Also, superposition of interphase and substructure precipitation was more frequently observed in the high-C-V-Nb steel than in the similar low-C steel.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Huang, Cheng; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2010-11-15

    The vanadium (IV) electrolyte solutions with various vanadium concentrations are studied by variable temperature 1H and 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure and kinetics of vanadium (IV) species in the electrolyte solutions are explored with respect to vanadium concentration and temperature. It was found that the vanadium (IV) species exist as hydrated vanadyl ion, i.e. [VO(H2O)5]2+ forming an octahedral coordination with vanadyl oxygen in the axial position and the remaining positions occupied by water molecules. This hydrated vanadyl ion structure is stable in vanadium concentrations up to 3M and in the temperature range of 240 to 340 K. The sulfate anions in the electrolyte solutions are found to be weekly bound to this hydrated vanadyl ion and occupies its second coordination sphere. The possible effects of these sulfate anions in proton and water exchange between vanadyl ion and solvent molecules are discussed based on 1H and 17O NMR results.

  6. Posttranslational modification of a vanadium nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Heiniger, Erin K; Harwood, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    In microbes that fix nitrogen, nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of N2 to ammonia in an ATP-demanding reaction. To help conserve energy some bacteria inhibit nitrogenase activity upon exposure to ammonium. The purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain CGA009 can synthesize three functional nitrogenase isoenzymes: a molybdenum nitrogenase, a vanadium nitrogenase, and an iron nitrogenase. Previous studies showed that in some alphaproteobacteria, including R. palustris, molybdenum nitrogenase activity is inhibited by ADP-ribosylation when cells are exposed to ammonium. Some iron nitrogenases are also posttranslationally modified. However, the posttranslational modification of vanadium nitrogenase has not been reported. Here, we investigated the regulation of the alternative nitrogenases of R. palustris and determined that both its vanadium nitrogenase and its iron nitrogenase activities were inhibited and posttranslationally modified when cells are exposed to ammonium. Vanadium nitrogenase is not found in all strains of R. palustris, suggesting that it may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Also, phylogenetic analyses of the three nitrogenases suggest that VnfH, the target of ADP-ribosylation, may be the product of a gene duplication of nifH, the molybdenum nitrogenase homolog. PMID:26097040

  7. Catalytic determination of vanadium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, M. J.; Skougstad, M.W.

    1964-01-01

    A rapid, accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of vanadium in water is based on the catalytic effect of vanadium on the rate of oxidation of gallic acid by persulfate in acid solution. Under given conditions of concentrations of reactants, temperature, and reaction time, the extent of oxidation of gallic acid is proportional to the concentration of vanadium present. Vanadium is determined by measuring the absorbance of the sample at 415 m?? and comparison with standard solutions treated in an identical manner. Concentrations in the range of from 0.1 to 8.0 ??g. per liter may be determined with a standard deviation of 0.2 or less. By reducing the reaction time, the method may be extended to cover the range from 1 to 100 ??g. with a standard deviation of 0.8 or less. Several substances interfere, including chloride above 100 p.p.m., and bromide and iodide in much lower concentrations. Interference from the halides is eliminated or minimized by the addition of mercuric nitrate solution. Most other substances do not interfere at the concentration levels at which they commonly occur in natural waters.

  8. Novel water soluble neutral vanadium(IV)-antibiotic complex: Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Datta, Chitraniva; Das, Dharitri; Mondal, Paritosh; Chakraborty, Biswajit; Sengupta, Mahuya; Bhattacharjee, Chira R

    2015-06-01

    A novel water soluble five coordinate oxovanadium(IV) complex, [VO(C16H15N4O8S)HSO4] incorporating cefuroxime, a cephalosporin group of antibiotic have been prepared from an interaction of vanadyl sulfate and cefuroxime in aqueous solution. The compound was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), CHN microanalyses, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Density Functional Theory (DFT) computation using Gaussian 09 program at B3LYP level revealed a distorted square pyramidal energy optimized geometry for the vanadyl(IV) complex. The molecular docking studies show that the interaction between the vanadium complex and protein receptor, clathrin is dominated by hydrophobic forces. The experimental (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) features of the analogous Zn(II) complex matched well with the theoretically computed values further affirming the distorted square pyramidal geometry for the vanadyl(IV) complex. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a metal centered single-electron oxidation-reduction response for VO(IV)/VO(V) couple. The antioxidant activity of the vanadium(IV)-complex vis-à-vis the antibiotic has been assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The vanadium complex showed comparatively better radical scavenging ability compared to the antibiotic cefuroxime. The antimicrobial activity of the compound has been assayed for five different microbial strains using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Immunomodulatory studies carried out using phagocytosis index, myeloperoxidase release and cytokine assay indicated the vanadium(IV)-complex to be immunosuppressant. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay.

  9. Vanadium removal by metal (hydr)oxide adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Naeem, A; Westerhoff, P; Mustafa, S

    2007-04-01

    Vanadium is listed on the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) candidate contaminant list # 2 (CCL2), and regulatory guidelines for vanadium exist in some US states. The USEPA requires treatability studies before making regulatory decisions on CCL2 contaminants. Previous studies have examined vanadium adsorption onto some metal hydroxides but not onto commercially available adsorbents. This paper briefly summarizes known vanadium occurrence in North American groundwater and assesses vanadium removal by three commercially available metal oxide adsorbents with different mineralogies. GTO (Dow) is TiO2 based and E-33 (Seven Trents) and GFH (US Filter) are iron based. Preliminary vanadate adsorption kinetics onto GFH, E-33 and GTO has been studied and the homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) is used to describe the adsorption kinetics data. The effects of pH, vanadium concentration, and volume/mass ratio are assessed. Vanadium adsorption decreases with increasing pH, with maximum adsorption capacities achieved in at pH 3-4. Results indicate that all adsorbents remove vanadium; GFH has the highest adsorption capacity, followed by GTO and E-33. Data are best fit with the Langmuir model rather than Freundlich isotherms. Both the sorption maxima (Xm) and binding energy constant (b) follow the trend GFH>GTO>E-33. Naturally occurring vanadium is also removed from Arizona ground water in rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Metal oxide adsorption technologies currently used for arsenic removal may also remove vanadium but not always with the same effectiveness.

  10. Mechanical mixtures of metal oxides and phosphorus pentoxide as novel precursors for the synthesis of transition-metal phosphides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijuan; Zhao, Yu; Yao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-21

    This study presents a new type of precursor, mechanical mixtures of metal oxides (MOs) and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) are used to synthesize Ni2P, Co2P and MoP phosphides by the H2 reduction method. In addition, this is first report of common solid-state P2O5 being used as a P source for the synthesis of metal phosphides. The traditional precursors are usually prepared via a complicated preparation procedure involving dissolution, drying and calcination steps. However, these novel MOs/P2O5 precursors can be obtained only by simple mechanical mixing of the starting materials. Furthermore, unlike the direct transformation from amorphous phases to phosphides, various specific intermediates were involved in the transformation from MOs/P2O5 to phosphides. It is worthy to note that the dispersions of Ni2P, Co2P and MoP obtained from MOs/P2O5 precursors were superior to those of the corresponding phosphides prepared from the abovementioned traditional precursors. It is suggested that the morphology of the as-prepared metal phosphides might be inherited from the corresponding MOs. Based on the results of XRD, XPS, SEM and TEM, the formation pathway of phosphides can be defined as MOs/P2O5 precursors → complex intermediates (metals, metal phosphates and metal oxide-phosphates) → metal phosphides.

  11. Evaluation of nickel-titanium oxide-niobium pentoxide metal ceramic composite as interconnect for solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budur, Abhijith

    With increasing importance for clean energy, fuel cells have gained great significance in recent decades. Solid oxide fuel cells are easy to transport due to presence of solid electrolyte and also have requisite electrical properties,but have been obstructed by their limitation to be used at only temperatures greater than 6000C and less than 8000C. To construct a stack of cells, materials that are good electrical conductors and having necessary mechanical strengths at that temperatures are being considered as interconnects between the cells. Evaluation of Nickel-Titanium dioxide-Niobium pentoxide (NTN) as interconnect and comparison to Stainless Steel 441 alloy has been made in this research. The criteria for evaluation are the resistance, long-term stability and the power density characteristics of the cell for each interconnect. Electrical measurements by impedance spectroscopy techniques were conducted at variousworking temperatures using a gas mixture of 10 % hydrogen and 90% nitrogen to evaluate both interconnect materials in the working range of fuel cells. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite paste before and after the fuel cell measurements are shown.The results showed that both NTN and Stainless Steel 441 interconnects exhibit similar electrical properties under operating conditions of the fuel cell. Since theNTN interconnect is less prone to corrosion and does not have the effect of chromium poisoning, it can be considered as a viable interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  12. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (∼60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage. PMID:24997904

  13. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (∼60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage.

  14. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications. PMID:21922094

  15. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications.

  16. Investigation on vanadium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margoni, Mudaliar Mahesh; Mathuri, S.; Ramamurthi, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Sethuraman, K.

    2016-05-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were deposited at 400 °C by spray pyrolysis technique using 0.1 M aqueous precursor solution of ammonium meta vanadate (AMV) with two different pH values. X-ray diffraction results showed that the film prepared using aqueous precursor AMV solution (solution A; pH 7) is amorphous in nature and the film prepared by adding HNO3 in the AMV aqua solution A (solution B; pH 3) is polycrystalline in nature. Vanadium oxide film prepared from the precursor solution B is in the mixed phases of V2O5 and V4O7. Crystallinity is improved for the film prepared using solution B when compared to film prepared from solution A. Crystallite size, strain and dislocation density calculated for the film prepared from solution B is respectively 72.1 nm, 0.4554 × 10-3 lin.-2m-4 and 1.7263 × 1014 lin.m-2. Morphology study revealed that the size of the flakes formed on the surface of the films is influenced by the pH of the precursor solution. Average Visible Transmittance and maximum transmittance of the deposited films exceed 70% and the direct optical band gap value calculated for the films deposited from A and B solution is 1.91 eV and 2.08 eV respectively.

  17. Biotinylated vanadium and chromium sulfide nanoparticles as probes for colocalization of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Emin, Saim

    2016-09-01

    We report the microemulsion synthesis of vanadium and chromium sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) and their biological application as nanoprobes for colocalization of membrane proteins. Spherical V2 S3 and Cr2 S3 NPs were prepared in reverse microemulsion droplets, as nanoreactors, obtained by the surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) in nonpolar organic phase (heptane). Electron microscopic data indicated that the size distribution of the nanoparticles was uniform with an average diameter between 3 ÷ 5 nm. The prepared hydrophobic nanocrystals were transferred in aqueous phase by surface cap exchange of AOT with biotin-dihydrolipoic ligands. This substitution allows the nanoparticles solubility in aqueous solutions and confer their bioactivity. In addition, we report the conjugation procedure between α-Lipoic acid (LA) and biotin (abbreviated as biotin-LA). The biotin-LA structure was characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The biotinylated vanadium and chromium sulfide nanoparticles were tested as probes for colocalization of glutamate receptors on sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-digested replica prepared from rat hippocampus. The method suggests their high labeling efficiency for study of membrane biological macromolecules. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:799-805, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312069

  18. Modified lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials products and methods

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Visser, Donald R.; Dees, Dennis W.; Benedek, Roy

    1999-12-21

    A method of improving certain vanadium oxide formulations is presented. The method concerns fluorine doping formulations having a nominal formula of LiV.sub.3 O.sub.8. Preferred average formulations are provided wherein the average oxidation state of the vanadium is at least 4.6. Herein preferred fluorine doped vanadium oxide materials, electrodes using such materials, and batteries including at least one electrode therein comprising such materials are provided.

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of vanadium in the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, A.D.

    1961-01-01

    The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.

  20. Experimental method for investigating helium effects in irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.; Greenwood, L.; Loomis, B.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses have been performed which indicate that an effective method for experimentally investigating helium effects in neutron irradiated vanadium base alloys can be developed. The experimental procedure involves only modest modifications to existing procedures currently used for irradiation testing of vanadium-base alloys in the FFTF reactor. Helium is generated in the vanadium alloy by decay of tritium which is either preinjected or generated within the test capsule. Calculations indicate that nearly constant He/dpa ratios of desired magnitude can be attained by proper selection of experimental parameters. The proposed method could have a major impact on the development of vanadium base alloys for fusion reactor applications. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Vanadium-spinel composites for structural applications in hostile environments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Wetteland, C.J.; Shen, T.D.

    1997-05-01

    Vanadium-spinel composites are promising materials for structural applications in radiation environments. Powders of two Vanadium-spinel composites, 20/80 vol. %, were prepared by (a) ball milling mixtures of vanadium and spinel powders (alloy VSLP) and (b) through a self-sustained reaction synthesis of vanadium, MgO, and Al powders (alloy VSHP). These powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Most of the V and spinel domains in the the compacts are sub-micron in size. The compacts have K{sub c} toughness values of 3.9, about three times the toughness obtained by hipping mixtures of commercial powders.

  2. Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1998-03-01

    A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200--300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

  3. Magnetic field induced transition in vanadium spinels.

    PubMed

    Mun, E D; Chern, Gia-Wei; Pardo, V; Rivadulla, F; Sinclair, R; Zhou, H D; Zapf, V S; Batista, C D

    2014-01-10

    We study vanadium spinels AV2O4 (A = Cd,Mg) in pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T. A jump in magnetization at μ0H≈40  T is observed in the single-crystal MgV2O4, indicating a field induced quantum phase transition between two distinct magnetic orders. In the multiferroic CdV2O4, the field induced transition is accompanied by a suppression of the electric polarization. By modeling the magnetic properties in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling characteristic of vanadium spinels, we show that both features of the field induced transition can be successfully explained by including the effects of the local trigonal crystal field. PMID:24483929

  4. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V3+ in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V3+/Vtot ratio, followed by determination of V3+ in the presence of V4+. The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100?? in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V3+-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe3+ is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. ?? 1985.

  5. Placental vanadium in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Manci, E A; Coffin, C M; Smith, S M; Ganong, C A

    1989-01-01

    Although many studies in animal models and in cell cultures have shown that vanadate has insulin-like effects, it has not been studied in human diabetes mellitus. In this study the levels of vanadium in human placentae from 23 pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus were compared with 18 uncomplicated non-diabetic pregnancies closely matched for maternal age, gravidity, and gestational age. Using the unpaired Student's t-test, the mid-disc placental levels in gestational diabetes (7.62 +/- 1.29 micrograms/g dry weight) were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than controls (8.73 +/- 1.85 micrograms/g dry weight). These findings appear to be independent of placental size and birthweight. When these data were analyzed according to treatment, the vanadium levels in insulin-treated cases (8.07 +/- 1.32 micrograms/g dry weight) were not significantly different from the matched controls (8.84 +/- 1.69 micrograms/dry weight); the levels in noninsulin treated cases (7.08 +/- 1.25 micrograms/g dry weight), however, were significantly (p less than 0.005) lower than controls (8.99 +/- 1.96 micrograms/g dry weight). It is interesting to speculate that there may be increased binding of vanadium to maternal tissues in human diabetes mellitus when insulin is deficient.

  6. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600/sup 0/C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520/sup 0/C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys.

  7. Is vanadium a biometal for boreal cyanolichens?

    PubMed

    Darnajoux, Romain; Constantin, Jérôme; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Lutzoni, François; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) nitrogenase has long been considered the predominant isoenzyme responsible for dinitrogen fixation worldwide. Recent findings have challenged the paradigm of Mo hegemony, and highlighted the role of alternative nitrogenases, such as the vanadium-nitrogenase. Here, we first characterized homeostasis of vanadium (V) along with other metals in situ in the dinitrogen fixing cyanolichen Peltigera aphthosa. These lichens were sampled in natural sites exposed to various levels of atmospheric metal deposition. These results were compared with laboratory experiments where Anabaena variabilis, which is also hosting the V-nitrogenase, and a relatively close relative of the lichen cyanobiont Nostoc, was subjected to various levels of V. We report here that V is preferentially allocated to cephalodia, specialized structures where dinitrogen fixation occurs in tri-membered lichens. This specific allocation is biologically controlled and tightly regulated. Vanadium homeostasis in lichen cephalodia exposed to various V concentrations is comparable to the one observed in Anabaena variabilis and other dinitrogen fixing organisms using V-nitrogenase. Overall, our findings support current hypotheses that V could be a more important factor in mediating nitrogen input in high latitude ecosystems than previously recognized. They invite the reassessment of current theoretical models linking metal dynamics and dinitrogen fixation in boreal and subarctic ecosystems.

  8. Reduction of vanadium(V) with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Bredberg, Katarina; Karlsson, Hans T; Holst, Olle

    2004-03-01

    Biotechnological leaching has been proposed as a suitable method for extraction of vanadium from spent catalysts and oil ash. In the biological leaching process, the vanadium(V) can be reduced to vanadium(IV), which is a less toxic and more soluble form of the vanadium. The present investigation showed that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans efficiently reduced vanadium(V) in the form of vanadium pentaoxide, to vanadyl(IV) ions, and tolerated high concentrations of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V). A. ferrooxidans was compared with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, which has previously been utilized for vanadium leaching and reduction. Vanadium pentaoxide and sodium vanadate were used as model compounds. The results of this study indicate possibilities to develop an economical and technically feasible process for biotechnological vanadium recovery.

  9. Observations of Dinitrogen Pentoxide and Nitryl Chloride at two inland sites in North China: Abundances, Origins, and Impact on Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Q.; Xue, L.; Tham, Y. J.; Wang, W.; Yun, H.; Wang, T.; Wang, Z.; Wang, X.; Zhang, L.; Yao, L.; Wen, L.; Lu, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) are key players in the nocturnal tropospheric chemistry, and also have potential to perturb the next-day's photochemistry. We here present the first ambient measurements of N2O5 and ClNO2 in inland regions of northern China, which is suffering from severe photochemical smog and haze pollution. A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in Wangdu, Hebei and on the top of Mt Tai, Shandong (1500 m a.s.l.) during the summer of 2014. At Wangdu, significant levels of ClNO2 were observed persistently throughout the campaign, with the maximum concentration of up to 2.1 ppbv (1-min data). N2O5 were generally in small concentrations but on few occasions reached up to hundreds of pptv. Clear variation of ClNO2 and N2O5 from night to night suggests the variability of N2O5 heterogeneous reactivity under different conditions over the region. On the mountain-top, elevated ClNO2-laden plumes were frequently observed around mid-night with a 1-min maximum of 2.1 ppbv, whilst N2O5 was always in very low levels indicating a fast N2O5 hydrolysis. The elevated ClNO2 levels at both locations were significantly influenced by the high NOx-saturated urban plumes and non-oceanic sources of chloride like biomass burning and coal-fired power plants in the region. MCM (Master Chemical Mechanism) modeling analyses indicate the significance of ClNO2 photolysis to the daytime radical and ozone production. Our study implies that the N2O5 reactivity and chlorine activation are significant in North China, and should be also important in other non-marine regions of China where NOx and particle chloride are in great abundances.

  10. C3 vanadium(V) amine triphenolate complexes: vanadium haloperoxidase structural and functional models.

    PubMed

    Mba, Miriam; Pontini, Marta; Lovat, Silvia; Zonta, Cristiano; Bernardinelli, Gerald; Kündig, Peter E; Licini, Giulia

    2008-10-01

    The C 3 vanadium(V) amine triphenolate complex 1f has been characterized as a structural and functional model of vanadium haloperoxidases. The complex catalyzes efficiently sulfoxidations at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant, yielding the corresponding sulfoxides in quantitative yields and high selectivities (catalyst loading down to 0.01%, TONs up to 9900, and TOFs up to 8000 h (-1)) as well as bromination of 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene (catalyst loading down to 0.05%, TONs up to 1260, and TOFs up to 220 h (-1)).

  11. Powder metallurgy of vanadium and its alloys (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Radomysel'skii, I.D.; Solntsev, V.P.; Evtushenko, O.V.

    1987-10-01

    This article reviews the current powder metallurgy technology of vanadium and its alloys. Data are given on sintering, compacting, electrowinning and other current production techniques, as well as on the corrosion behavior and mechanical and physical properties of alloys produced by these different methods. The use of vanadium alloys as reactor and jet engine materials is also briefly discussed.

  12. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J.

    1991-02-13

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions.

  13. A well-defined terminal vanadium(III) oxo complex.

    PubMed

    King, Amanda E; Nippe, Michael; Atanasov, Mihail; Chantarojsiri, Teera; Wray, Curtis A; Bill, Eckhard; Neese, Frank; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    The ubiquity of vanadium oxo complexes in the V+ and IV+ oxidation states has contributed to a comprehensive understanding of their electronic structure and reactivity. However, despite being predicted to be stable by ligand-field theory, the isolation and characterization of a well-defined terminal mononuclear vanadium(III) oxo complex has remained elusive. We present the synthesis and characterization of a unique terminal mononuclear vanadium(III) oxo species supported by the pentadentate polypyridyl ligand 2,6-bis[1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl]pyridine (PY5Me2). Exposure of [V(II)(NCCH3)(PY5Me2)](2+) (1) to either dioxygen or selected O-atom-transfer reagents yields [V(IV)(O)(PY5Me2)](2+) (2). The metal-centered one-electron reduction of this vanadium(IV) oxo complex furnishes a stable, diamagnetic [V(III)(O)(PY5Me2)](+) (3) species. The vanadium(III) oxo species is unreactive toward H- and O-atom transfer but readily reacts with protons to form a putative vanadium hydroxo complex. Computational results predict that further one-electron reduction of the vanadium(III) oxo species will result in ligand-based reduction, even though pyridine is generally considered to be a poor π-accepting ligand. These results have implications for future efforts toward low-valent vanadyl chemistry, particularly with regard to the isolation and study of formal vanadium(II) oxo species.

  14. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, J.

    1992-05-26

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions. 4 figs.

  15. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

  16. Recent progress on gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a continuing research project to acquire a fundamental understanding of the metallurgical processes in the welding of vanadium alloys. It also has the goal of developing techniques for welding structural vanadium alloys. The alloy V-4Cr-4Ti is used as a representative alloy of the group; it is also the prime candidate vanadium alloy for the U.S. Fusion Program at the present time. However, other alloys of this class were used in the research as necessary. The present work focuses on recent findings of hydrogen embrittlement found in vanadium alloy welds. It was concluded that the atmosphere in the inert gas glove box was insufficient for welding 6mm thick vanadium alloy plates.

  17. Chemistry related to the procurement of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.; Chung H.M.; Tsai, H.C.

    1997-08-01

    Evaluation of trace element concentrations in vanadium alloys is important to characterize the low-activation characteristics and possible effects of trace elements on the properties. Detailed chemical analysis of several vanadium and vanadium alloy heats procured for the Argonne vanadium alloy development program were analyzed by Johnson-Matthey (UK) as part of a joint activity to evaluate trace element effects on the performance characteristics. These heats were produced by normal production practices for high grade vanadium. The analyses include approximately 60 elements analyzed in most cases by glow-discharge mass spectrometry. Values for molybdenum and niobium, which are critical for low-activation alloys, ranged from 0.4 to 60 wppm for the nine heats.

  18. Novel Neo-Pentoxide Precursors for MOCVD Thin Films of TiO(2) and ZrO(2).[1

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Francisco, Laila P.; Gallegos, Jesus J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Ward, Timothy L.

    1999-07-14

    Two novel Group IV precursors, titanium (IV) neo-pentoxide, [Ti({mu}-ONep)(ONep){sub 3}]{sub 2} (l), and zirconium (IV) neo-pentoxide, [Zr({mu}-ONep)(ONep){sub 3}]{sub 2} (2), were reported to possess relatively high volatility at low temperatures. These compounds were therefore investigated as MOCVD precursors using a lamp-heated cold-wall CVD reactor and direct sublimation without carrier gas. The ONep derivatives proved to be competitive precursors for the production of thin films of the appropriate MO{sub 2} (M = Ti or Zr) materials in comparison to other metallo-organic precursors. Compound 1 was found to sublime at 120 C with a deposition rate of {approximately}0.350 {mu}m/min onto a substrate at 330 C forming the anatase phase with < 1% residual C found in the final film. Compound 2 was found to sublime at 160 C and deposited as crystalline material at 300 C with < 1% residual C found in the final film. A comparison to standard alkoxide and {beta}-diketonates is presented where appropriate.

  19. Observations of High-latitude NOx Removal Processes: The Roles of Dinitrogen Pentoxide, Aerosols, and Seasonal Snow Pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apodaca, R. L.; Huff, D. M.; Cahill, C. F.; Simpson, W. R.

    2007-12-01

    Heterogeneous chemistry of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) plays a major role in the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particularly in the cold, dark nighttime atmosphere in winters at high latitudes. NOx is ultimately converted to nitric acid, which, in turn, is deposited to surfaces. The resultant nitric acid deposition has unintended consequences, such as nitrogen fertilization and acidification of sensitive ecosystems. As anthropogenic emissions increase globally, and particularly in high latitudes, the importance of a mechanistic understanding of NOx removal processes and their impact on sensitive ecosystems, becomes more important for assessing fate of this pollution. We report measurements of the sum of NO3 and N2O5 (primarily N2O5 at ambient temperatures) in the Fairbanks, AK pollution plume during a two week period in March 2007. Ancillary atmospheric observations include NO, NO2, and O3-levels, aerosol particle size distribution, and aerosol elemental composition. N2O5 loss to snow pack was observed by measuring boundary layer profiles and chemical composition of the snow. The profiles were conducted by sampling the boundary-layer gradient at 1 and 4 meter altitudes. Results show elevated levels of nitrate ion in the snow pack, typical nighttime lifetimes for N2O5 between 10 and 20 minutes, and periods of clear vertical gradients in N2O5. The reported lifetimes are short when compared to observations from lower latitudes and most nights demonstrate rapid decay of N2O5 prior to sunrise; both phenomena occur in air masses without measurable NO. It is of particular interest that when gradients were present, N2O5 mixing ratios typically increased with elevation, but periods were observed where mixing ratios would decrease with elevation. Implications of the short lifetimes, rapid decay of N2O5 in highly polluted air masses, and gradient observations are discussed, and suggest that deposition to the surface competed with reactions in the atmosphere

  20. Correlated metallic state of vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazilbash, M. M.; Burch, K. S.; Whisler, D.; Shrekenhamer, D.; Chae, B. G.; Kim, H. T.; Basov, D. N.

    2006-11-01

    The metal-insulator transition and unconventional metallic transport in vanadium dioxide (VO2) are investigated with a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements. The data indicate that electronic correlations, not electron-phonon interactions, govern charge dynamics in the metallic state of VO2 . This study focuses on the frequency and temperature dependence of the conductivity in the regime of extremely short mean free path violating the Ioffe-Regel-Mott limit of metallic transport. The standard quasiparticle picture of charge conduction is found to be untenable in metallic VO2 .

  1. New all-vanadium redox flow cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllas-Kazacos, M.; Rychcik, M.; Robins, R. G.; Fane, A. G.; Green, M. A.

    1986-05-01

    A laboratory-scale cell was constructed to test the performance of V(II)/V(III) and V(IV)/V(V) half-cells in an all-vanadium redox battery. Graphite plates were used as electrodes, and the membrane was manufactured from a sulfonated polyehylene anion-selective material. The average charging efficiency of the cell was over 90 percent. Stability tests on the reduced and oxidized electrolytes, measured over the temperature range of -5 C to 60 C, showed no accelerated decomposition at high temperatures and no crystallization at the lower temperatures. After prolonged usage, however, a slow deterioration of the positive electrode and the membrane was observed.

  2. A Green, Expeditious, One-Pot Synthesis of 3, 4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones Using a Mixture of Phosphorus Pentoxide-Methanesulfonic Acid at Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Borse, Amulrao; Patil, Mahesh; Patil, Nilesh; Shinde, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    An expeditious, one-pot method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones using a mixture of phosphorus pentoxide-methanesulfonic acid (Eaton's reagent) at room temperature under solvent-free conditions is described. The salient features of this method include short reaction time, green aspects, high yields, and simple procedure. PMID:24052843

  3. Vanadium induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M A; Ayala, M E; Fortoul, T I; Bizarro, P; Altamirano-Lozano, M

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. In the environment, vanadium occurs in the (V) oxidized form, but in the body it is found exclusively in the (IV) oxidized form. Vanadium tetraoxide is an inorganic chemical species in the (IV) oxidized form that has been shown to induce toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The reproductive toxicity of vanadium in males was studied through monitoring germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis. We analyzed ultrastructural damage, and testosterone and progesterone concentrations following vanadium tetraoxide administered to male mice for 60 days. Spermatogenesis stages I-III and X-XII frequently showed apoptotic germ cells in control and treated animals; vanadium tetraoxide treatment induced an increase in the number of germ cell apoptosis in stages I-III and XII at 9.4 and 18.8 mg/kg, respectively. Although spermatogenesis is regulated by testosterone, in our study this hormone level was not modified by vanadium administration; thus, germ cell death was not related with testosterone concentration. At the ultrastructural level, we observed inclusion structures that varied as to location and content in the Sertoli and germ cells. PMID:15808796

  4. Chemical state of vanadium in tin-based yellow pigment

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiyoshi, Kaichi; Yokoyama, Hisanori ); Ren, Feng; Ishida, Shingo . Dept. of Chemistry and Materials Technology)

    1993-04-01

    Vanadium-tin composite oxides are rather widely used as, for example, yellow pigments for coloring glazes and selective oxidation catalysts for hydrocarbons. Physicochemical states of vanadium in V-doped SnO[sub 2] were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-tin yellow pigment and its color instability when fired with glaze material. Precision measurements of lattice parameters of V-doped SnO[sub 2] revealed that vanadium was dissolved as V[sup 4+] and its solubility limit was 0.9 wt% as V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. It was found that the color of vanadium-tin yellow was produced by two types of undissolved vanadium on SnO[sub 2] grains. One is poorly crystallized vanadium oxide (v), (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime], having a yellow color, and the other is orange-colored crystalline V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. The structure of (V[sub 2]O[sub 5])[prime] was discussed in connection with its color.

  5. Essentiality and toxicity of vanadium supplements in health and pathology.

    PubMed

    Gruzewska, K; Michno, A; Pawelczyk, T; Bielarczyk, H

    2014-10-01

    The biological properties of vanadium complexes have become an object of interest due to their therapeutic potential in several diseases. However, the mechanisms of action of vanadium salts are still poorly understood. Vanadium complexes are cofactors for several enzymes and also exhibit insulin-mimetic properties. Thus, they are involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, including in patients with diabetes. In addition, vanadium salts may also normalize blood pressure and play a key role in the metabolism of the thyroid and of iron as well as in the regulation of total cholesterol, cholesterol HDL and triglyceride (TG) levels in blood. Moreover, in cases of hypoxia, vanadium compounds may improve cardiomyocytes function. They may also exhibit both carcinogenic and anti-cancer properties. These include dose- and exposure-time-dependent induction and inhibition of the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. On the other hand, the balance between vanadium's therapeutic properties and its side effects has not yet been determined. Therefore, any studies on the potential use of vanadium compounds as supplements to support the treatment of a number of diseases must be strictly monitored for adverse effects.

  6. Facile synthesis of vanadium oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysar, Jesse; Sekhar, Praveen Kumar

    2016-10-01

    A simple growth process is reported for the synthesis of vanadium (II) oxide nanowires with an average width of 65 nm and up to 5 μm in length for growth at 1000 °C for 3 h. The vanadium (II) oxide nanowires were grown on a gold-coated silicon substrate at ambient pressure using a single heat zone furnace with Ar as the carrier gas. Gold was utilized as a catalyst for the growth of the nanowires. The growth temperature and heating time were varied to observe the nanowire morphology. An increase in nanowire width was observed with an increase in the heating temperature. A ninefold increase in the number density of the nanowires was observed when the heating time was changed from 30 min to 3 h. This is the first time a simple growth process for producing VO nanowires at ambient pressure has been demonstrated. Such a scheme enables wider use of VO nanowires in critical applications such as energy storage, gas sensors, and optical devices.

  7. Separation of tracer titanium-44 from vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, M.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    The trend in medical radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical research and development is toward the use of short-lived neutron-deficient nuclides. Biomedical generators that deliver positron-emitting nuclides will be an important source of these nuclides. The /sup 44/Ti-/sup 44/Sc generator (/sup 44/Ti(t/sub 1/2/ = 4 years), /sup 44/Sc (t/sub 1/2/ = 3.93 h)) has been suggested previously. Titanium-44 produced by the /sup 45/Sc(p,2n)/sup 44/Ti reaction is commercially available only in very limited quantities. The authors have found that /sup 44/Ti can also be produced by the /sup 51/V(p,2p6n)/sup 44/Ti nuclear reaction by irradiating a vanadium target with high-energy protons. A new separation method was required in order to recover /sup 44/Ti without added carrier. The authors have developed a new method for the separation of titanium from vanadium.

  8. Ion-exchange preconcentration and determination of vanadium in milk samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-García, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Romero-Romero, Rafael; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-06-15

    A new method for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of vanadium in milk and infant formulas using suspensions to avoid the need for previous dissolution of samples is described. Sensitivity is improved by a procedure based on preconcentration and removal of the matrix, using ion-exchange (Dowex 1X8-100). Suspensions of 15% (m/v) infant formula samples were prepared in a medium containing 0.05M sodium citrate (pH 7.2) and passed through the ion exchange column. Vanadium was eluted from the column using 1M hydrochloric acid and injected in the graphite furnace using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid plus magnesium nitrate as chemical modifiers. Calibration was carried out using multiple injection and aqueous standards prepared in the same medium. Detection limits were 0.2 ng g(-1) for infant formulas and 0.02 microg L(-1) for cow milk samples. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained with those found using a previous mineralization stage and by analyzing five certified reference materials.

  9. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VI Potentiometric titration of vanadium(III) alone and in mixture with vanadium(IV).

    PubMed

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1966-09-01

    Vanadium(III) can be titrated at room temperature with potassium dichromate in an 8-12M phosphoric acid medium. Two potential breaks are observed in 12M phosphoric add with 0.2N potassium dichromate, the first corresponding to the oxidation of vanadium(III) to vanadium(IV) and the second to the oxidation of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(V). In titrations with 0.05N dichromate only the first break in potential is clearly observed. The method has been extended to the titration of mixtures of vanadium(III) and vanadium(IV). Conditions have also been found for the visual titration of vanadium(III) using ferroln or barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicator.

  10. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  11. Determining vanadium in titanium alloys by extraction voltammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ulakhovich, N.A.; Shaidarova, L.G.; Beloglazova, A.D.; Naida, N.E. Akhmetzyanova, I.R.; Barkhanova, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the authors developments in solvent-extraction voltammetric methods of determining alloying components in layerwise alloy analysis. Titanium alloys are dissolved by electrolysis in an electrolyte containing methanol. Logarithms provided in the study give the separation constants for the vanadium mercaptoquinolinates which indicate that molten naphthalene is the most effective extraction agent. This method has been applied to VT-6ch titanium alloy containing vanadium and aluminum. The authors checked the results by using the slower atomic emission check method with coincidental results. Extraction ACV indicates that there is not more than 0.01% vanadium in the core of the specimen.

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  13. Surfactant-Free Vanadium Oxides from Reverse Micelles and Organic Oxidants: Solution Processable Nanoribbons with Potential Applicability as Battery Insertion Electrodes Assembled in Different Configurations.

    PubMed

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M; Vazquez-Santos, Maria B

    2015-11-17

    Vanadium oxides similar to other metal transition oxides are prototypes of multifunctionality. Implementing new synthesis routes that lead to dry vanadium oxide nanomaterials with good functional and structural properties as well as good processing capabilities is thus of general interest. Here we report a facile method based on reverse micelles for the growth at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of surfactant-free vanadium oxide nanoribbons that retain after drying excellent solution-processable capabilities. Essential for the success of the method is the use of a soluble organic oxidant that acts as oxidant and cosurfactant during the synthesis, and facilitates surfactant removal with a simple washing protocol. Interestingly, this simple surfactant removal protocol could be of general applicability. As a proof-of-concept of the functional, structural, and processing capabilities of the dry vanadium oxide nanoribbons here prepared, we have checked their lithium insertion capabilities as battery cathodes built upon different configurations. Specifically, we show efficient insertion both in dry nanoribbons processed as films using doctor blade and organic solvents and in dry nanoribbons infiltrated in three-dimensional metal collectors from aqueous suspensions.

  14. Vanadium K-edge XANES in vanadium-bearing model compounds: a full multiple scattering study.

    PubMed

    Benzi, Federico; Giuli, Gabriele; Della Longa, Stefano; Paris, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study is presented on a set of vanadium-bearing model compounds, representative of the most common V coordination geometries and oxidation states, analysed by means of vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy calculations in the full multiple scattering (FMS) framework. Analysis and calibration of the free parameters of the theory under the muffin-tin approximation (muffin-tin overlap and interstitial potential) have been carried out by fitting the experimental spectra using the MXAN program. The analysis shows a correlation of the fit parameters with the V coordination geometry and oxidation state. By making use of this correlation it is possible to approach the study of unknown V-bearing compounds with useful preliminary information. PMID:27359143

  15. Vanadium(IV/V)-p-dioxolene temperature induced electron transfer associated with ligation/deligation of solvent molecules.

    PubMed

    Drouza, Chryssoula; Vlasiou, Manos; Keramidas, Anastasios D

    2013-09-01

    Reaction of an aqueous solution of NaVO3 or a methanol solution of [VO(acac)2] with 2,5-bis((bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)methyl)hydroquinone, H6bdeah, results in the formation of two major vanadium species characterized by X-ray crystallography: the [(V(5+)O)2(bdeah)] and the [(V(4.5+)O)2(bdeas)S2] (S = DMSO or MeOH). The vanadium ions in the two species have a trigonal pyramidal and an octahedral coordination sphere respectively. Variable temperature UV-Vis and (51)V NMR spectroscopy as well as EPR and electrochemistry showed a temperature induced electron transfer. The diamagnetic [(V(5+)O)2(bdeah)] is the main species at high temperature. At low temperature one electron is transferred from the bdeah(6-) to the two vanadium centers resulting in the [(V(4.5+)O)2(bdeas)S2] species [H5bdeas = 2,5-bis((bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)methyl)-1,4-semiquinone]. The thermodynamic parameters of this intramolecular electron transfer were calculated by UV-Vis (ΔH = -36 ± 2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS = -129 ± 5 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and (51)V NMR spectroscopy (ΔH = -37 ± 2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS = -109 ± 5 J mol(-1) K(-1)). The electron transfer is a result of the large change of entropy which is associated with the ligation of the solvent molecules and the geometry change. EPR spectroscopy shows that most of the electron density in [(V(4.5+)O)2(bdeas)S2] is mainly located on the two vanadium ions.

  16. Temperature-programmed sulfiding of vanadium oxides and alumina-supported vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, R.L.C.; Langeveld, A.D. van; Moulijn, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Sulfiding of bulk and alumina-supported vanadium oxides has been studied using temperature-programmed sulfiding and reduction techniques. Bulk compounds (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, V{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and V/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts are sulfided via a similar mechanism. For bulk V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, two major sulfiding steps have been identified. At temperatures up to 673K, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} is reduced to V{sub 2}O{sub 3} by O-S exchange and subsequent rupture of V-S bonds where H{sub 2}S acts as reducing agent. Sulfiding to V{sub 2}S{sub 3} takes place above 673K. The catalysts are sulfided more easily than the bulk oxides due to the higher dispersion of the vanadium species. In catalysts sulfided at 673K which are still partially oxidic, four types of sulfur have been observed, viz. adsorbed H{sub 2}S, stoichiometric sulfur, S-H groups, and nonstoichiometric (excess) sulfur (S{sub x}). There are indications that (isothermal) room temperature H{sub 2}S adsorption can be used to determine the dispersion of the supported microcrystallites at higher vanadium loadings. From the present results it is inferred that alumina-supported vanadium-based catalysts, when sulfided at temperatures commonly applied in hydrotreating operations, essentially consist of an oxide, the outer surface of which is sulfided. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green by vanadium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khezami, L; Taha, Kamal K; Ghiloufi, Imed; El Mir, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Herein the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous medium by vanadium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:V3%) nanopowder was investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of the nanopowder was characterized by nitrogen adsorption method. Batch experimental procedures were conducted to investigate the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MG dye. Adsorption kinetics investigations were performed by varying the amount of the catalyst and the initial dye concentrations. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic equation. The results showed that the ZnO:V3% nanopowder was particularly effective for the removal of MG and data were found to comply with Lagergreen pseudo-first-order kinetic model. PMID:26901732

  18. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green by vanadium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khezami, L; Taha, Kamal K; Ghiloufi, Imed; El Mir, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Herein the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous medium by vanadium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:V3%) nanopowder was investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of the nanopowder was characterized by nitrogen adsorption method. Batch experimental procedures were conducted to investigate the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MG dye. Adsorption kinetics investigations were performed by varying the amount of the catalyst and the initial dye concentrations. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic equation. The results showed that the ZnO:V3% nanopowder was particularly effective for the removal of MG and data were found to comply with Lagergreen pseudo-first-order kinetic model.

  19. Characterization of vanadium, manganese and iron model clusters by vibrational and optical spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin

    1999-12-01

    The active ferryl intermediates in the catalytic cycles of heme proteins are subject to interactions from the proximal and distal amino acid residues which control their activities and affect the ν(FeIVO) frequency. The effects of sixth axial ligation, hydrogen bonding, and solvent induced polarization on the resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferryl porphyrin analogs, vanadyl (VIVO) porphyrins and their π-cation radicals, are characterized. ν(VIVO) stretching bands for (VO)TMPyP and (VO)PPIX are observed to be sensitive to the pH value of the aqueous solutions, and reveal a number of coexisting 5-coordinate (c) and 6- c vanadyl porphyrins in solution. Moreover, the ν(VIVO) bands for (VO)TMP and (VO)TPP porphyrins upshift to higher frequencies with the formation of their π-cation radicals, in agreement with that of the (VO)OEP radical. For both a1u (OEP) and a2u (TPP, TMP) type radicals, an increased positive charge on the porphyrin reduces the porphyrin --> vanadium electron donation, but enhances the oxo --> V donation. The UV-Vis absorption and RR spectroscopic studies on a series of oxo-bridged vanadium(III) and manganese (III, IV) complexes established spectrostructural correlations that are useful as monitors of the structure of vanadium(III) and manganese(III, IV) centers in biological systems. The linear and bent V-O-V dimers display distinctive RR and absorption spectra. The linear V-O-V bridge displays an intense μ-O --> V charge transfer (CT) absorption band and a strongly enhanced symmetric (νs) or antisymmetric (νas) V-O-V stretching band in RR spectra, depending upon terminal ligands. In contrast, the bent bridge shows two μ-O --> V CT bands and both νs and νas V- O-V stretches are observed in RR spectra. These νs and νas vibrations are used to indicate that the vanadium(III) oxo-bridged dimer intercalates with DNA. The Mn-O-Mn vibrational frequencies in the 400-700 cm -1 region of the oxo-bridged manganese(III, IV) dimers, trimers, and

  20. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  1. Gas-Phase Partial Oxidation of Lignin to Carboxylic Acids over Vanadium Pyrophosphate and Aluminum-Vanadium-Molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Samira; Boffito, Daria C; Patience, Gregory S

    2015-10-26

    Lignin is a complex polymer that is a potential feedstock for aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids by cleaving the β-O-4 and 5-5' linkages. In this work, a syringe pump atomizes an alkaline solution of lignin into a catalytic fluidized bed operating above 600 K. The vanadium heterogeneous catalysts convert all the lignin into carboxylic acids (up to 25 % selectivity), coke, carbon oxides, and hydrogen. Aluminum-vanadium-molybdenum mostly produced lactic acid (together with formic acid, acrylic acid, and maleic anhydride), whereas the vanadium pyrophosphate catalyst produced more maleic anhydride.

  2. Geochemistry of vanadium in an epigenetic, sandstone-hosted vanadium- uranium deposit, Henry Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Northrop, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The epigenetic Tony M vanadium-uranium orebody in south-central Utah is hosted in fluvial sandstones of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). Measurements of the relative amounts of V+3 and V +4 in ore minerals show that V+3 is more abundant. Thermodynamic calculations show that vanadium was more likely transported to the site of mineralization as V+4. The ore formed as V+4 was reduced by hydrogen sulfide, followed by hydrolysis and precipitation of V+3 in oxide minerals or chlorite. Uranium was transported as uranyl ion (U+6), or some complex thereof, and reduced by hydrogen sulfide, forming coffinite. Detrital organic matter in the rocks served as the carbon source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Vanadium most likely was derived from the dissolution of iron-titanium oxides. Uranium probably was derived from the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies have shown that the ore formed at the density-stratified interface between a basinal brine and dilute meteoric water. The mineralization processes described above occurred within the mixing zone between these two fluids. -from Authors

  3. Ion Exchange Separation of the Oxidation State of Vanadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Describes an experiment that emphasizes the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by the separation of ammonium metavanadate into all four species by ion exchange chromatography. (CS)

  4. Absorption behavior of vanadium in Nafion®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-Seok; Ohashi, Masato; Van Zee, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The absorption of vanadium to Nafion® was investigated through ex-situ isotherm and conductivity measurements at 23 °C. The data show a maximum loss of ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 30% for all four oxidation states of vanadium. The affinity of vanadium for N115 was measured by back titration and atomic absorption (AA) and characterized by isotherms at 23 °C, and the affinity is highest for the divalent species and lowest for the pentavalent species in the following order: VO2+ (V5+) < VO2+ (V4+) < V3+ < V2+. Steric hindrance from the associated water complex may explain the lower absorption of vanadium compared to alkali metals. The conductivity for the VO2+ (minimum affinity)-exchanged membrane was 2-3× lower than the sodium-exchanged membrane at an approximate RH = 100%.

  5. Systematics of Vanadium in Olivine from Planetary Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    The systematics of vanadium in olivines from the Earth, Moon and Mars allows for the comparison of planetary basalt origin and igneous setting and process. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  7. 1. VIEW TO NORTH, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO NORTH, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Office Building, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  8. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  9. 1. VIEW TO NORTH, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO NORTH, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  10. Vanadium removal from LD converter slag using bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Mirazimi, S M J; Abbasalipour, Z; Rashchi, F

    2015-04-15

    Removal of vanadium from Linz-Donawits (LD) converter slag was investigated by means of three different species of microbial systems: Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (autotrophic bacteria), Pseudomonas putida (heterotrophic bacteria) and Aspergillus niger (fungi). The bioleaching process was carried out in both one-step and two-step process and the leaching efficiencies in both cases were compared. Formation of inorganic and organic acids during the leaching process caused mobilization of vanadium. In order to reduce toxic effects of the metal species on the above mentioned microorganisms, a prolonged adaptation process was performed. Both bacteria, A. thiooxidans and P. putida were able to remove more than 90% of vanadium at slag concentrations of 1-5 g L(-1) after 15 days. Also, the maximum achievable vanadium removal in the fungal system was approximately 92% at a slag concentration of 1 g L(-1) after 22 days.

  11. 1. VIEW TO EAST, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO EAST, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  12. 4. DETAIL OF GEARWELL AND GENERATOR, WEST VIEW. Vanadium ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF GEARWELL AND GENERATOR, WEST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  13. 1. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  14. 2. INTERIOR, WEST VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, WEST VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  15. 14. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SMALL ROASTER (DISMANTLED). Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SMALL ROASTER (DISMANTLED). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. 1. VIEW TO EAST, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO EAST, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  17. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  18. 1. VIEW TO EAST, FRONT AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO EAST, FRONT AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Weighing Office & Station, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  19. 2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO WEST, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mechanic Shed, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. 3. INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST VIEW. Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  1. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison, Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  3. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Minjoon; Ryu, Jaechan; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-10-01

    Vanadium redox reactions have been considered as a key factor affecting the energy efficiency of the all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). This redox reaction determines the reaction kinetics of whole cells. However, poor kinetic reversibility and catalytic activity towards the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples on the commonly used carbon substrate limit broader applications of VRFBs. Consequently, modified carbon substrates have been extensively investigated to improve vanadium redox reactions. In this Focus Review, recent progress on metal- and carbon-based nanomaterials as an electrocatalyst for VRFBs is discussed in detail, without the intention to provide a comprehensive review on the whole components of the system. Instead, the focus is mainly placed on the redox chemistry of vanadium ions at a surface of various metals, different dimensional carbons, nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures, and metal-carbon composites.

  4. Surface modification of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering and correlation with cell adhesion and proliferation in in vitro tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, A.; Safonov, V.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rossokha, I.; Donkov, N.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2016-03-01

    The effect was analyzed of surface treatment by argon ions on the surface properties of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural parameters of the as-deposited coatings were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction profiles and X-ray photoelectron spectra were also acquired. The total surface free energy (SFE), the polar, dispersion parts and fractional polarities, were estimated by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaeble method. The adhesive and proliferative potentials of bone marrow cells were evaluated for both Ta2O5 coatings and Ta2O5 coatings deposited by simultaneous bombardment by argon ions in in vitro tests.

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of restoring items converter vanadium slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodova, M. A.; Rogihina, I. D.; Nohrina, O. I.; Rybenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Calculations of parameters for equilibrium processes of iron, manganese, vanadium and titanium reduction from converter vanadium slag by carbon from small-sized coke and silica from ferrosilicon were performed by the method of thermodynamic modeling using the program complex “Terra”. Calculations were made for each type of reductant separately and in combination. Dependences of process parameters on reducing agents consumption were drawn. The analysis of the results was carried out.

  6. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  7. Stable Vanadium Isotope Fractionation at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytulak, J.; Parkinson, I. J.; Savage, P. S.; Nielsen, S. G.; Halliday, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    Vanadium is a redox sensitive transition metal existing in multiple valence states at terrestrial conditions. Stable vanadium isotopes (reported as δ51V in % relative to an Alfa Aesar standard [1]) are a potentially powerful tracer of oxidation-reduction processes. However, the determination of δ51V is analytically challenging, primarily due to the extreme abundance ratio between the only two stable isotopes (51V/50V ~ 400) and, also, significant isobaric interferences of 50Ti and 50Cr on the minor 50V isotope. We have developed the first method able to determine δ51V to a precision (2 s.d. ~ 0.15%, [1,2]) that enables application of this isotope system to geological processes. To usefully investigate high temperature processes using vanadium isotopes, knowledge of the isotope composition and range of values present in the ambient mantle is required. Here we discuss the first δ51V measured in igneous materials encompassing peridotites, MORB, and primitive mantle-derived melts such as picrites. This first dataset provides a preliminary reconnaissance of the magnitude of natural fractionation. We find little isotope fractionation in suites of peridotites and MORB (< 0.5 %). However, the small but analytically significant variation appears to be related to secondary processes, with extremely altered peridotites consistently displaying slightly heavier isotope compositions. We find no resolvable δ51V variation between fresh MORB glass and fresh peridotite. Intriguingly, a suite of subduction-related peridotites from the Mariana forearc, previously characterized for fO2 [3], do not display the predicted co-variation between δ51V and fO2, but instead also have compositions identical to MORB glass. This nominally supports recent indications that there is limited difference in the oxygen fugacity of the MORB source and the subarc mantle wedge [e.g., 4, 5]. Finally, we observe large δ51V variations (~ 2 %) in a suite of evolving lavas from Hekla volcano, Iceland

  8. Quasiparticle band structure of vanadium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, R; Miyake, T; Aryasetiawan, F

    2009-02-11

    Vanadium dioxide is insulating below 340 K in experiments, whereas the band structure calculated in the local density approximation (LDA) is gapless. We study the self-energy effects using the ab initio GW method. We found that the self-energy depends strongly on the energy, and proper treatment of the dynamical effect is essential for getting precise quasiparticle energies. Off-diagonal matrix elements in the Kohn-Sham basis are also important for disentangling bands. Inclusion of the two effects opens up a direct gap. Our results also suggest that one-shot GW on top of LDA is not enough, and the impact of self-consistency is significant.

  9. Crystal chemistry of the natural vanadium bronzes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Hughes, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The crystal chemistry of the natural vanadium bronze minerals is reviewed on the basis of published information and new studies (mainly by X-ray powder-diffraction methods) using type material wherever possible. The known V bronze minerals are divided into three categories: 1) the hewettite group, 2) the straczekite group, 3) other structure types including navajoite, schubnelite, fervanite, shcherbinaite, bannermanite, and melanovanadite. All known structures associated with the fibrous V bronzes (fiber spacing 3.6 A??) can be considered as various lateral linkages (into sheets or networks) of only two types of polyvanadate chains: 1) a divanadate chain (V2O6)n consisting of alternating square pyramids, and 2) a tetravanadate chain (V4O12)n consisting of four highly condensed single octahedral chains. -from Authors

  10. Economics of vanadium redox flow battery membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Christine; Turek, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The membrane is a key component of the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) in terms of electrochemical performance as well as costs. The standard material Nafion® is cost intensive and therefore several alternative materials are in the focus of research. In this paper a substantial analytical approach is presented in order to quantify bottom price limits for different types of membranes. An in-depth analysis of material and production cost allows statements concerning cost potentials of different ion exchange membranes (IEM) and nano filtration membranes (NFM). The final result reveals that expected costs of IEM and NFM at high production volumes differ by one order of magnitude. Moreover, an analysis of the current market situation is made to provide a framework for economic considerations at present.

  11. Study on leaching vanadium from roasted residue of stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    He, D.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Ou, L.

    2008-11-15

    In China, the total reserves of vanadium, reported as V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, in stone coal is 118 Mt (130 million st). Recovering vanadium from such a large resource is very important to China's vanadium industry. The technology now being used to recover vanadium from stone coal has the following two problems in the leaching process: a low recovery of vanadium and high acid consumption. To resolve these problems, a new leaching technology is proposed. The effects of factors such as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, liquid-solid ratio, temperature and time, and the types and additions of additives were studied. By adding 1.5% (by weight) CaF2 and leaching the roasted residue of stone coal with 5.4% (by weight) sulfuric acid at 90{sup o}C for 12 hours at a liquid-solid ratio of 2 mL/g, the leaching degree of vanadium reached 83.10%. This proposed leaching technology gives a feasible alternative for the processing of roasting residue of stone coal and can be applied in the comprehensive utilization of stone coal ores in China.

  12. Vanadium-based nanostructure materials for secondary lithium battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui Teng; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Qingyu; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2015-08-01

    Vanadium-based materials, such as V2O5, LiV3O8, VO2(B) and Li3V2(PO4)3 are compounds that share the characteristic of intercalation chemistry. Their layered or open frameworks allow facile ion movement through the interspaces, making them promising cathodes for LIB applications. To bypass bottlenecks occurring in the electrochemical performances of vanadium-based cathodes that derive from their intrinsic low electrical conductivity and ion diffusion coefficients, nano-engineering strategies have been implemented to ``create'' newly emerging properties that are unattainable at the bulk solid level. Integrating this concept into vanadium-based cathodes represents a promising way to circumvent the aforementioned problems as nanostructuring offers potential improvements in electrochemical performances by providing shorter mass transport distances, higher electrode/electrolyte contact interfaces, and better accommodation of strain upon lithium uptake/release. The significance of nanoscopic architectures has been exemplified in the literature, showing that the idea of developing vanadium-based nanostructures is an exciting prospect to be explored. In this review, we will be casting light on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium-based cathodes. Furthermore, efficient strategies such as hybridization with foreign matrices and elemental doping are introduced as a possible way to boost their electrochemical performances (e.g., rate capability, cycling stability) to a higher level. Finally, some suggestions relating to the perspectives for the future developments of vanadium-based cathodes are made to provide insight into their commercialization.

  13. [Physical and chemical properties of vanadium and its compounds].

    PubMed

    Tudares, C

    1998-04-01

    Vanadium is present in the earth crust mainly in the heavy oils, carbons and bituminous materials, where is associated with the heavy fractions. Many live beings have vanadium in their tissues. Their industrial applications are fundamentally based in the physical and chemical properties. From the environmental point of view the vanadium emissions to the atmosphere are produced in areas around siderurgical industries, oil refineries and cities that use fossil fuels for heating. The pollution process in these areas is associated partially with the presence of vanadium compounds, as is the case in the eastern coast of the lake of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Some clinical-epidemiological researches report a high incidence of congenital malformations at the Central Nervous System level, and this has been associated with the intense oil activities of the region. The high incidence of the Central Nervous System congenital malformations could be associated with the vanadium compounds present in the eastern coast of the lake of Maracaibo; here is the interest in the physical and chemical properties knowledge of vanadium and their compounds.

  14. Advances in Development of Vanadium Alloys and MHD Insulator Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Muroga, Takeo; Chen, J M; Chernov, V M; Fukumoto, K; Hoelzer, David T; Kurtz, Richard; Nagasaka, T; Pint, Bruce A; Satou, M; Suzuki, Akihiro; Watanabe, H

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of low activation vanadium alloys and MHD insulator coatings for a Li-self cooled blanket is reviewed. Research progress in vanadium alloys is highlighted by technology for fabricating creep tubes, comparison of thermal creep in vacuum and Li, understanding impurity transfer between vanadium alloys and Li and its impact on mechanical properties, behavior of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes, low dose irradiation effects on weld joints, and exploration for advanced vanadium alloys. Major remaining issues for vanadium alloys are thermal and irradiation creep, helium effects on high-temperature mechanical properties and radiation effects on low-temperature fracture properties. Er2O3 showed good compatibility with Li, and is promising as a MHD insulator coating on vanadium alloys. Significant progress in coating technology for this material has been made. Recent efforts are focused on multi-layer and in-situ coatings. Tests under flowing lithium conditions with a temperature gradient are necessary for quantitative examination of coating performance.

  15. Adipogenic action of vanadium: a new dimension in treating diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ruchi; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2008-04-01

    Vanadium is a well known anti-diabetic agent which mimics most of the actions of insulin on mature adipocytes. We report here the effect of vanadium on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Like insulin, vanadium treatment leads to increased proliferation as evidenced by H(3)thymidine uptake studies and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes as evidenced by oil-red-O staining. Adipogenic potential of vanadium can be attributed to CREB activation, as documented by phospho-CREB antibody staining. This adipogenic potential is of significance in an in vivo scenario as the new adipocytes are likely to be insulin sensitive as against resistant existing mature adipocytes and thus indirectly may help in reduction of insulin resistance. Till today decrease in insulin resistance by vanadium treatment has been mainly attributed to its potential to inhibit PTP-1B, however the present study opens a new dimension in vanadium treatment for diabetes due to its novel role in adipogenesis.

  16. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Turner, John A.; Liu, Ping

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

  17. Photocatalytic reduction of vanadium(V) in TiO₂ suspension: chemometric optimization and application to wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Sturini, Michela; Rivagli, Elisa; Maraschi, Federica; Speltini, Andrea; Profumo, Antonella; Albini, Angelo

    2013-06-15

    The photocatalytic reduction of V(V) to V(IV) over TiO₂ in aqueous solution is presented. Experiments were undertaken on air-equilibrated water spiked with V(V) (0.6-20 mgL(-1)), under UV-A or solar light. A chemometric study was performed to optimize the reduction yield, by considering the most important variables recognized to affect the photocatalytic process. Among pH, irradiation time and catalyst concentration, the two latter proved to be determinant. The good yields achieved (up to 98%), along with the possibility of working in aerated solution, make this procedure simple, rapid and efficient. Although a deep insight on the photochemical mechanisms was beyond our scope, the role of electron donors was investigated, proving the efficiency of 2-propanol, citric acid and formic acid in the acceleration and improvement of V(V) conversion. After irradiation, total vanadium and aqueous V(V) and V(IV) after solid-phase separation on Chelex-100 resin, were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The procedure was applied to contaminated wastewaters, combining remediation and possible vanadium recovery as V(IV).

  18. Investigations on transfer of water and vanadium ions across Nafion membrane in an operating vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chenxi; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Huamin; Han, Xi; Luo, Qingtao

    Diffusion coefficients of the vanadium ions across Nafion 115 (Dupont) in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) are measured and found to be in the order of V 2+ > VO 2+ > VO 2 + > V 3+. It is found that both in self-discharge process and charge-discharge cycles, the concentration difference of vanadium ions between the positive electrolyte (+ve) and negative electrolyte (-ve) is the main reason causing the transfer of vanadium ions across the membrane. In self-discharge process, the transfer of water includes the transfer of vanadium ions with the bound water and the corresponding transfer of protons with the dragged water to balance the charges, and the transfer of water driven by osmosis. In this case, about 75% of the net transfer of water is caused by osmosis. In charge-discharge cycles, except those as mentioned in the case of self-discharge, the transfer of protons with the dragged water across the membrane during the electrode reaction for the formation of internal electric circuit plays the key role in the water transfer. But in the long-term cycles of charge-discharge, the net transfer of water towards +ve is caused by the transfer of vanadium ions with the bound water and the transfer of water driven by osmosis.

  19. In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-27

    We will show a new method to differentiate the vanadium transport from concentration gradient and that from electric field. Flow batteries with vanadium and iron redox couples as the electro-active species were employed to investigate the transport behavior of vanadium ions in the presence of electric field. It was shown that electric field accelerated the positive-to-negative and reduced the negative-to-positive vanadium ions transport in charge process and affected the vanadium ions transport in an opposite way in discharge process. In addition, a method was designed to differentiate the concentration gradient-driven vanadium ions diffusion and electric field-driven vanadium ions migration. Simplified mathematical model was established to simulate the vanadium ions transport in real charge-discharge operation of flow battery. The concentration gradient diffusion coefficients and electric-migration coefficients of V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+ across Nafion membrane were obtained by fitting the experimental data.

  20. CATALYTIC PROMOTION OF THE ADSORPTION OF VANADIUM ON AN ANIONIC EXCHANGE RESIN

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Ellis, D.A.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement in the process for the recovery of vanadium from acidic phosphatic solutions is presented. In this process the vanadium is first oxidized to the pentavaleat state, and is then separated by contacting such solutions with an anion exchange resin whereby adsorption of the complexed pentavalent vanadium is effected. The improvement lies in the fact that adsorp tion of the vanadium complex by the anion exchange resin is promoted and improved by providing fiuoride ions in solution to be contacted.

  1. Dietary high vanadium causes oxidative damage-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Xi; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Cui, Wei; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the renal and hepatic oxidative damage and toxicity caused by dietary high vanadium in broilers. A total of 420 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into six groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (vanadium 0.073 mg/kg), and five high vanadium diets (vanadium 5 mg/kg, high vanadium group I; 15 mg/kg, high vanadium group II; 30 mg/kg, high vanadium group III; 45 mg/kg, high vanadium group IV; and 60 mg/kg, high vanadium group V) throughout the experimental period of 42 days. The results showed that the renal and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, ability to inhibit hydroxy radical, and malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, and vanadium contents were not significantly changed in high vanadium group I and II when compared with those of the control groups. However, the SOD and GSH-Px activities, ability to inhibit hydroxy radical, and GSH content were significantly decreased, and the MDA and vanadium contents were markedly increased in high vanadium groups III, IV, and V. At the same time, the lesions were also observed in the kidney and liver of high vanadium groups III, IV, and V. The renal tubular epithelial cells showed granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration, and hepatocytes showed granular degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, and fatty degeneration. It was concluded that dietary vanadium in the range of 30-60 mg/kg could cause oxidative damage and vanadium accumulation, which induced renal and hepatic toxicity and lesions. The renal and hepatic function was finally impaired in boilers.

  2. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C are applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  4. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C are applicable...

  5. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  6. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  7. Vanadium-uranium extraction from Wyoming vanadiferoud silicates. Report of investigations/1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.; Nichols, I.L.; Huiatt, J.L.

    1983-11-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted laboratory studies on low-grade vanadiferous silicates from the Pumpkin Buttes and Nine Mile Lake deposits of Wyoming to examine techniques for extracting vanadium and uranium. Recovery from low-grade sources such as these could contribute to future vanadium production and reduce reliance on vanadium imports.

  8. Consolidation and fabrication techniques for vanadium-20 w/o titanium /TV-20/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, W. R.; Karasek, F. J.; Kramer, W. C.; Mayfield, R. M.; Mc Gowan, R. D.

    1968-01-01

    Tests of the mechanical properties, fuel compatibility, sodium corrosion and irradiation behavior were made for vanadium and vanadium alloy. Improved methods for consolidation and fabrication of bar, rod, sheet, and high-quality, small diameter, thin-wall tubing of vanadium-20 without titanium are reported.

  9. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium ore... vanadium ore (recovered alone and not as a by-product of uranium mining and mills) and (b) mills that process vanadium ore (recovered alone, not as a byproduct of uranium mining and mills)....

  10. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  11. Vanadium carcinogenic, immunotoxic and neurotoxic effects: a review of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious health effects induced by inorganic vanadium compounds are linked with carcinogenic, immunotoxic and neurotoxic insults. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of mammalian cell culture studies (from the 1990s to most recent) looking into the mode of the above-mentioned adverse actions of vanadium. Regarding the carcinogenicity potential, the key cell-based studies have evidenced the ability of vanadium to induce genotoxic lesions, cell morphological transformation and anti-apoptotic effects in a certain type of cells. Two contradictory effects of vanadium on the immune functions of cells have been observed in cell culture studies. The first effect involves reduction of cell immune responses such as vanadium-dependent inhibition of cytokine-inducible functions, which may underlie the mechanism of vanadium-induced immunosuppression. The second one involves stimulation of immune activity, for example, a vanadium-mediated increase in cytokine production, which may contribute to vanadium-related inflammation. So far, an in vitro evaluation of vanadium neurotoxicity has only been reported in few articles. These papers indicate probable cytotoxic mechanisms resulting from exposure of neurons and glial cells to vanadium. In summary, this literature review collects in vitro reports on adverse vanadium effects and thus provides vanadium researchers with a single, concise source of data.

  12. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section 440.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart H are applicable to discharges from (a) mines...

  13. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  14. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section 440.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart H are applicable to discharges from (a) mines...

  15. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  16. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section 440.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart H are applicable to discharges from (a) mines...

  18. 40 CFR 421.220 - Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. 421.220 Section 421.220 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Molybdenum and Vanadium Subcategory § 421.220 Applicability: Description of the secondary molybdenum and vanadium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section 440.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium...

  20. Geochemical controls of vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  1. Geochemical controls on vanadium accumulation in fossil fuels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    High vanadium contents in petroleum and other fossil fuels have been attributed to organic-matter type, organisms, volcanic emanations, diffusion of sea water, and epigenetic enrichment. However, these factors are inadequate to account for the high abundance of vanadium in some fossil fuels and the paucity in others. By examining vanadium deposits in sedimentary rocks with sparse organic matter, constraints are placed on processes controlling vanadium accumulation in organic-rich sediments. Vanadium, as vanadate (V(V)), entered some depositional basins in oxidizing waters from dry, subaerial environments. Upon contact with organic matter in anoxic waters, V(V) is reduced to vanadyl (V(IV)), which can be removed from the water column by adsorption. H2S reduces V(IV) to V(III), which hydrolyzes and precipitates. The lack of V(III) in petroleum suggests that reduction of V(IV) to V(III) is inhibited by organic complexes. In the absence of strong complexing agents, V(III) forms and is incorporated in clay minerals.

  2. Vanadium Extraction from Refractory Stone Coal Using Novel Composite Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Z. L.; Zhang, Y. M.; Liu, T.; Huang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the novel composite additive BaCO3/CaO for the vanadium extraction from the refractory stone coal, the vanadium leaching effect has been investigated and many technical conditions have also been optimized. The results indicated that an optimum vanadium leaching efficiency of 81.07% can be obtained under the conditions that the mass ratio of BaCO3 to CaO was 1:9 with the total proportion of the raw ore was 5 wt.%, the roasting temperature was 850°C, the roasting time was 2 h, the sulfuric acid concentration was 15% (v/v), the leaching temperature was 95°C, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 4 mL/g, and the leaching time was 3 h. Meanwhile, the vanadium leaching mechanisms demonstrated that the composite additive BaCO3/CaO can destroy the lattice structure of muscovite and phlogopite with the production of BaSi4O9 and Ca2Al2SiO7 during the roasting process, which can therefore facilitate the release and extraction of vanadium.

  3. Can Vanadium Be Substituted into LiFePO4

    SciTech Connect

    Omenya F.; Nam K.; Chernova N.A.; Upreti S.; Zavalij P.Y.; Nam K.-W.; Yang X.-Q.; Whittingham M.S.

    2011-11-08

    Vanadium is shown to substitute for iron in the olivine LiFePO{sub 4} up to at least 10 mol %, when the synthesis is carried out at 550 C. In the solid solution LiFe{sub 1-3y/2}V{sub y}PO{sub 4}, the a and b lattice parameters and cell volume decrease with increasing vanadium content, while the c lattice parameter increases slightly. However, when the synthesis is performed at 650 C, a NASICON phase, Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, is also formed, showing that solid solution is a function of the synthesis temperature. X-ray absorption near-edge structure indicates vanadium is in the 3+ oxidation state and in an octahedral environment. Magnetic studies reveal a shift of the antiferromagnetic ordering transition toward lower temperatures with increasing vanadium substitution, confirming solid solution formation. The addition of vanadium enhances the electrochemical performance of the materials especially at high current densities.

  4. Vanadium promotes hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fickl, Heidi; Theron, Annette J; Grimmer, Heidi; Oommen, Joyce; Ramafi, Grace J; Steel, Helen C; Visser, Susanna S; Anderson, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of vanadium in the +2, +3, +4, and +5 valence states on superoxide generation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and hydroxyl radical formation by activated human neutrophils in vitro, using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (LECL), autoiodination, and electron spin resonance with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide as the spin trap, respectively. At concentrations of up to 25 microM, vanadium, in the four different valence states used, did not affect the LECL responses of neutrophils activated with either the chemoattractant, N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (1 microM), or the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate (25 ng/ml). However, exposure to vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4, but not the +5, valence states was accompanied by significant augmentation of hydroxyl radical formation by activated neutrophils and attenuation of MPO-mediated iodination. With respect to hydroxyl radical formation, similar effects were observed using cell-free systems containing either hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) or xanthine/xanthine oxidase together with vanadium (+2, +3, +4), while the activity of purified MPO was inhibited by the metal in these valence states. These results demonstrate that vanadium in the +2, +3, and +4 valence states interacts prooxidatively with human neutrophils, competing effectively with MPO for hydrogen peroxide to promote formation of the highly toxic hydroxyl radical.

  5. Membrane Development for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Kim, Soowhan; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-17

    Large-scale energy storage has become a main bottleneck for increasing the percentage of renewable energy in our electricity grids. Redox flow batteries are considered to be among the best options for electricity storage in the megawatt range, and large demonstration systems have already been installed. Although the full technological potential of these systems has not been reached yet, currently the main problem hindering more widespread commercialization is the high cost of redox flow batteries. Nafion{reg_sign} as the preferred membrane material is responsible for {approx}11% of the overall cost of a 1 MW/8 MWh system. Therefore in recent years two main membrane-related research threads have emerged: (a) chemical and physical modification of Nafion membranes to optimize their properties with regard to vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application; and (b) replacement of the Nafion membranes with different, less expensive materials. This review summarizes the underlying basic science issues associated with membrane use in VRFBs and presents an overview of membrane-related research approaches aimed at improving the efficiency of VRFBs and making the technology cost-competitive. Promising research strategies and materials are identified and suggestions are provided on how materials issues could be overcome.

  6. Membrane development for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Kim, Soowhan; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-17

    Large-scale energy storage has become the main bottleneck for increasing the percentage of renewable energy in our electricity grids. Redox flow batteries are considered to be among the best options for electricity storage in the megawatt range and large demonstration systems have already been installed. Although the full technological potential of these systems has not been reached yet, currently the main problem hindering more widespread commercialization is the high cost of redox flow batteries. Nafion, as the preferred membrane material, is responsible for about 11% of the overall cost of a 1 MW/8 MWh system. Therefore, in recent years two main membrane related research threads have emerged: 1) chemical and physical modification of Nafion membranes to optimize their properties with regard to vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application; and 2) replacement of the Nafion membranes with different, less expensive materials. This review summarizes the underlying basic scientific issues associated with membrane use in VRFBs and presents an overview of membrane-related research approaches aimed at improving the efficiency of VRFBs and making the technology cost-competitive. Promising research strategies and materials are identified and suggestions are provided on how materials issues could be overcome.

  7. Magnetism in Bulk Vanadium Dioxide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengyan, P. W.; Lichti, R. L.; Baker, B. B.; Jayarathna, G.

    2015-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) compounds show a metal-semiconductor transition (MST) near room temperature (stoichiometric VO2 is metallic T >TMST ~ 340 K and semiconducting T

  8. Process for improving phosphorus-vanadium oxide and phosphorus-vanadium-co-metal oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.C.

    1987-10-20

    A process is described for the improvement of a vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalyst having a phosphorus to vanadium atomic ratio of about 2:1 to about 0.8:1 which catalyst is present on a catalyst bed having a portion therof containing an initial exotherm of reaction. The catalyst is suitable for use in the manufacture of maleic anhydride from a feed gas stream comprising C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, benzene, or butane which process comprises: applying to the catalyst bed, simultaneously with introduction of the feed gas stream thereon, water and a phosphorus compound in an amount sufficient to initiate (a) deactivation of the portion of the catalyst containing the initial exotherm, and (b) formation of a new exotherm downstream in the catalyst bed from the initial exotherm, and thereafter reducing or discontinuing application of the phosphorus compound at a point in time when the initial exotherm portion of the catalyst bed is still undergoing deactivation, thereby allowing the partially deactivated exotherm portion to reactivate by producing a more isothermal catalyst bed.

  9. Oxidative demethylation of 2-picolines on vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Glubokovskikh, L.K.; Demin, V.V.; Kan, I.I.

    1988-07-10

    One of the known methods for the preparation of pyridine is based on the dealkylation of alkylpyridines in the presence of vanadium-containing catalysts, molecular oxygen and steam. By using the oxidative demethylation of 2-picoline in the presence of steam on a fused vanadium(V) oxide, pyridine can be obtained in a yield of up to 88% of theory. To lower the consumption of vanadium(V) oxide and increase the thermostability of the catalyst, they studied the possible use of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ catalysts on various carriers (diatomite, silica gel, porcelain balls), including the industrially produced brand SVD and SVS catalysts. The SVS brand catalyst has a satisfactory activity and selectivity in the oxidation demethylation of 2-picoline into pyridine. Under optimal conditions, pyridine is formed on this catalyst in a yield of 88% of the theoretical.

  10. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabrodina, G. S.; Makarov, S. G.; Kremlev, K. V.; Yunin, P. A.; Gusev, S. A.; Kaverin, B. S.; Kaverina, L. B.; Ketkov, S. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V2O5·nH2O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB - tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA)0.33V2O5 flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA)0.33V2O5, (TBA)0.16V2O5 nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  11. Dependence of electrophysical properties on structure of vanadium dioxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Baryshnikov, Yu.Yu.; Zakharov, I.L.; Makin, G.I.; Terman, M.Yu.

    1988-02-01

    Among the inorganic materials with a metal-semiconductor phase transition (MSPT), vanadium dioxide attracts much theoretical and practical interest for two reasons. First, the maximum change in the electrical conductivity at the MSPT point is of order of magnitudes, and secondly, since the temperature T/sub P/ at the MSPT point is about 68/sup 0/C, neither high nor low temperature techniques are required for the utilization of VO/sub 2/. We study the mixture and structural-morphological condition of thin films (0.01-2 ..mu..m) of vanadium dioxide as well as the relation between the films and the change in the resistivity in the MSPT temperature range. The resistivity of the vanadium dioxide films was measured by a standard four probe method.

  12. Novel vanadium chloride/polyhalide redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    This paper describes a novel redox flow cell which employs a polyhalide solution in the positive half-cell electrolyte and a vanadium(II)/vanadium(III) chloride redox couple as the negative half-cell electrolyte. During charging, the bromide ions in the positive half-cell are considered to undergo oxidation to the polyhalide ion Br 2Cl -; the formal potential of this couple is about 0.8 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). When combined with a formal potential of around -0.5 V versus SCE for the V(III)/V(III) coupled in the chloride supporting electrolyte, an overall cell potential of approximately 1.3 V would be expected for the vanadium chloride/polyhalide redox flow cell.

  13. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  14. [Vanadium compounds--a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N F; Gorodetskiĭ, V K; Tochilkin, A I; Golubev, M A; Semenova, N V; Kovel'man, I R

    2000-01-01

    Vanadium compounds as insulin mimics with promising therapeutic properties are reviewed. The biological effects of both inorganic forms of vanadium and vanadyl organic complexes are decried for various animal models. These effects include hypoglycemic and insulin reserve actions, insulin sensitivity enhance, cholesterol lowering and other manifestations. The effectiveness of vanadium compounds in diabetes treatment is confirmed with clinical trials. The possible mechanisms of insulin-like effects of vanadium are discussed. The various nutritional supplements for patients with diabetes mellitus including vanadium-contained used in Russia and abroad are also considered.

  15. Structure and properties of bimetallic titanium and vanadium oxide clusters.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Benjamin; Sierka, Marek; Döbler, Jens; Sauer, Joachim

    2014-05-14

    By employing a genetic algorithm together with density functional theory (B3LYP), we investigate the most stable minimum structures of several bimetallic titanium and vanadium oxide clusters that contain four metal atoms. The following compositions are studied: VnTin-4O10(-) (n = 1-4), (TiO2)VOn(-) (n = 1-4), and (TiO2)VOn(+) (n = 1-3). Apart from (TiO2)3VO(-), vanadium oxo groups are always part of the most stable minimum structures when vanadium is present. Anti-ferromagnetic coupling lowers the energy substantially if spin centers are located at neighbored metal atoms rather than at distant oxygen radical sites. Vanadium-rich or oxygen-poor compositions prefer symmetric adamantane-like cage structures, some of which have already been proposed in a previous study. In contrast, vanadium-poor and oxygen-rich compositions show versatile structural motifs that cannot be intuitively derived from the symmetric cage motif. Particularly, for Ti4O10(-) there are several non-symmetric and distorted cages that have an up to 68 kJ mol(-1) lower energy than the symmetric adamantane-like cage structure. Nevertheless, for the adamantane-like cage the simulated infra-red spectrum (within the harmonic approximation) agrees best with the experimental vibrational spectrum. The oxidative power of the (TiO2)3VO3(-) and (TiO2)3VO2(+) clusters as measured by the energy of removing 1/2 O2 (297 and 227 kJ mol(-1), respectively) is less than that of the pure vanadium oxide clusters (V2O5)VO3(-) and (V2O5)VO2(+) (283 and 165 kJ mol(-1), respectively).

  16. Effect of dietary vanadium on intestinal microbiota in broiler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangping; Cui, Hengmin; Deng, Yuanxin; Peng, Xi; Zuo, Zhicai; Fang, Jing; Deng, Junliang; Cui, Wei; Wu, Bangyuan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this 42-day study was to examine the effect of dietary vanadium on intestinal microorganism diversity in the duodenum, ileum, cecum, and rectum segments of broilers by the plate count and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 420 1-day-old avian broilers were divided into six groups and fed on a control diet or the same diet supplemented with vanadium at the doses of 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg in the form of ammonium metavanadate. In comparison with control group, the dietary vanadium at the doses of 45 and 60 mg/kg could decrease the counts of Bifidobacterium spp. in the intestinal tract at 21 and 42 days of age. With increasing level in dietary vanadium, the counts of Escherichia coli were significantly increased in the ileum, cecum, and rectum and were decreased in the duodenum at 21 and 42 days of age. However, the counts of Lactobacilli were decreased in the cecum and rectum and increased in the ileum of 45 and 60 mg/kg groups. The colonization of these three bacteria could be affected by dietary vanadium. DGGE analysis showed that the number of bands in duodenum, ileum, cecum, and rectum were obviously decreased in the 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg groups at 21 and 42 days of age. In conclusion, the dietary vanadium in excess of 30 mg/kg could alter the amount and diversity of intestinal bacteria in broilers, implying that the structure and initial balance in the intestinal microbiota were disrupted.

  17. Vanadium(V) complexes of a tripodal ligand, their characterisation and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Mannar R; Uprety, Bhawna; Avecilla, Fernando; Adão, Pedro; Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-10-28

    The reaction of the tripodal tetradentate dibasic ligand 6,6'-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol), H2L(1)I, with [V(IV)O(acac)2] in CH3CN gives the V(V)O-complex, [V(V)O(acac)(L(1))] 1. Crystallisation of 1 in CH3CN at ∼0 °C gives dark blue crystals of 1, while at room temperature it affords dark green crystals of [{V(V)O(L(1))}2μ-O] 3. Upon prolonged treatment of 1 in MeOH, [V(V)O(OMe)(MeOH)(L(1))] 2 is obtained. All three complexes were analysed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, depicting a distorted octahedral geometry around vanadium. In the reaction of H2L(1) with V(IV)OSO4 partial hydrolysis of the tripodal ligand results in the elimination of the pyridyl fragment of L(1) and the formation of H[V(V)O2(L(2))] 4 containing the ONO tridentate ligand 6,6'-azanediylbis(methylene)bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol), H2L(2)II. Compound 4, which was not fully characterised, undergoes dimerization in acetone yielding the hydroxido-bridged [{V(V)O(L(2))}2μ-(OH)2] 5 having a distorted octahedral geometry around each vanadium. In contrast, from a solution of 4 in acetonitrile, the dinuclear compound [{V(V)O(L(2))}2μ-O] 6 is obtained, with a trigonal bipyramidal geometry around each vanadium. The methoxido complex 2 is successfully employed as a functional catechol-oxidase mimic in the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone under air. The process was confirmed to follow a Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with respect to catechol, the Vmax and KM values obtained being 7.66 × 10(-6) M min(-1) and 0.0557 M, respectively, and the turnover frequency is 0.0541 min(-1). A similar reaction with the bulkier 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol proceeded at a much slower rate. Complex 2 was also used as a catalyst precursor for the oxidative bromination of thymol in aqueous medium. The selectivity shows quite interesting trends, namely when not using excess of the primary oxidizing agent, H2O2, the para mono-brominated product corresponds to ∼93% of the

  18. Vanadium(V) complexes of a tripodal ligand, their characterisation and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Mannar R; Uprety, Bhawna; Avecilla, Fernando; Adão, Pedro; Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-10-28

    The reaction of the tripodal tetradentate dibasic ligand 6,6'-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol), H2L(1)I, with [V(IV)O(acac)2] in CH3CN gives the V(V)O-complex, [V(V)O(acac)(L(1))] 1. Crystallisation of 1 in CH3CN at ∼0 °C gives dark blue crystals of 1, while at room temperature it affords dark green crystals of [{V(V)O(L(1))}2μ-O] 3. Upon prolonged treatment of 1 in MeOH, [V(V)O(OMe)(MeOH)(L(1))] 2 is obtained. All three complexes were analysed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, depicting a distorted octahedral geometry around vanadium. In the reaction of H2L(1) with V(IV)OSO4 partial hydrolysis of the tripodal ligand results in the elimination of the pyridyl fragment of L(1) and the formation of H[V(V)O2(L(2))] 4 containing the ONO tridentate ligand 6,6'-azanediylbis(methylene)bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol), H2L(2)II. Compound 4, which was not fully characterised, undergoes dimerization in acetone yielding the hydroxido-bridged [{V(V)O(L(2))}2μ-(OH)2] 5 having a distorted octahedral geometry around each vanadium. In contrast, from a solution of 4 in acetonitrile, the dinuclear compound [{V(V)O(L(2))}2μ-O] 6 is obtained, with a trigonal bipyramidal geometry around each vanadium. The methoxido complex 2 is successfully employed as a functional catechol-oxidase mimic in the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone under air. The process was confirmed to follow a Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with respect to catechol, the Vmax and KM values obtained being 7.66 × 10(-6) M min(-1) and 0.0557 M, respectively, and the turnover frequency is 0.0541 min(-1). A similar reaction with the bulkier 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol proceeded at a much slower rate. Complex 2 was also used as a catalyst precursor for the oxidative bromination of thymol in aqueous medium. The selectivity shows quite interesting trends, namely when not using excess of the primary oxidizing agent, H2O2, the para mono-brominated product corresponds to ∼93% of the

  19. Sorption preconcentration of vanadium for its determination in sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, I.Yu.; Lebedeva, L.I.; Izotova, Yu.A.; Danilova, E.Ya.

    1987-08-10

    This work is devoted to a study of the conditions of vanadium sorption by a fibrous sorbent with a view to evolving a procedure for its determination in sea water. The sorbent was the same as used by them earlier for molybdenum preconcentration. It is a fiber based on polyethylenepolyamine-modified polyacrylonitrile. The sorbent contained 80% tertiary and approx. = 20% primary and secondary amino groups. Static exchange capacity of the sorbent relative to HCl 2 mmole/g, swelling 34%, fiber diameter 0.016 mm. The vanadium content was determined photometrically using acidic chromium blue K.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hierarchical nano-vanadium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mjejri, I; Sediri, F

    2016-10-15

    Hierarchically structured nano-vanadium oxides with different morphologies have been synthesized via a template-free hydrothermal route by adjusting the organic precursor quantities. The effects of molar ratio on structure, morphology and crystallite sized were investigated. The possible growth mechanism is also proposed. When evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the vanadium oxyhydroxide H2V3O8 samples deliver very high charging capacity, good reversibility and a better cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to multiple advantageous structural features.

  1. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Matsui, H.; Abe, K.; Smith, D.L.; Osch, E. van; Kazakov, V.A.

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  2. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hierarchical nano-vanadium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mjejri, I; Sediri, F

    2016-10-15

    Hierarchically structured nano-vanadium oxides with different morphologies have been synthesized via a template-free hydrothermal route by adjusting the organic precursor quantities. The effects of molar ratio on structure, morphology and crystallite sized were investigated. The possible growth mechanism is also proposed. When evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the vanadium oxyhydroxide H2V3O8 samples deliver very high charging capacity, good reversibility and a better cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to multiple advantageous structural features. PMID:27442146

  3. Fever and neutrophilic alveolitis caused by a vanadium based catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, O; Binard-Van, C; Gregoire, J; Brumagne, A; Larbanois, A

    2002-01-01

    Methods: The investigation included inhalation challenge with the suspected compound combined with monitoring of lung function tests and post-challenge bronchoalveolar lavage. Results: Exposure to the vanadium containing catalyst for 120 minutes resulted in a sustained decline in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second, while the transfer factor for carbon monoxide did not change significantly. The subject developed fever and peripheral blood neutrophilia. Bronchoalveolar lavage performed 48 hours after the end of challenge exposure showed a marked increase in neutrophils (60% of total cell count). Conclusions: Exposure to vanadium can cause a metal fume fever-like syndrome associated with neutrophilic alveolitis. PMID:12409538

  4. The Molecular Mechanisms and Rational Design of Anti-Diabetic Vanadium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xia; Xiao, Ruyue; Wang, Na; Wang, Ziwei; Zhang, Yue; Xia, Qing; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium compounds are promising anti-diabetic agents. Although BEOV was not able to succeed in phase II clinical trial, great progresses have been made in the past three decades on the discovery and development of anti-diabetic vanadium compounds. A vast of knowledge has been obtained on the molecular mechanisms of both the pharmacological and toxicological effects of vanadium complexes. It has been revealed that vanadium compounds exert insulin enhancement effects and cell protection via a multiple mechanism involving inhibition of PTP1B, activation of PPARs- AMPK signaling, regulation of unfolded protein responses (UPRs), and stimulation of antioxidant enzymes, while vanadium-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response could primarily be attributed to vanadium toxicity. Based on the present results concerning the relationship between structures, biological activities and biochemical properties, the rationale for future design of anti-diabetic vanadium compounds has been discussed.

  5. Vanadium-mediated lipid peroxidation in microsomes from human term placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Byczkowski, J.Z.; Wan, B.; Kulkarni, A.P.

    1988-11-01

    Vanadium is considered an essential element present in living organisms in trace amounts but it is toxic when introduced in excessive doses to animals and humans. Vanadium compounds are extensively used in modern industry and occupational exposure to high doses of vanadium is quite common. In pregnant mice, vanadium accumulates preferentially in the placenta and to lower extent in fetal skeleton and mammary gland during exposure to radioactive vanadium. Accumulation of vanadium in fetoplacental unit may present threat to the fetus by interacting with enzymes and ion-transporting systems in membranes. It is also possible that accumulation of vanadium with its concomitant reduction to vanadyl may lead to lipid peroxidation, followed by damage to biological membranes, lysosomal enzymes release and destruction of placental tissue. To explore some of these possibilities the authors decided to examine whether vanadate can undergo redox cycling in microsomes from human term placenta (HTP) that can lead to lipid peroxidation.

  6. DFT insights into the electronic and optical properties of fluorine-doped monoclinic niobium pentoxide (B-Nb2O5:F)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shazly, Tamer S.; Hassan, Walid M. I.; Rehim, Sayed S. Abdel; Allam, Nageh K.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the effect of fluorine doping on the electronic structure and optical properties of monoclinic niobium pentoxide (B-Nb2O5) as revealed by the first principles calculations. Density functional theory (DFT) along with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) at the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBEsol) exchange-correlation functional was used in this study. The band calculations revealed that the studied materials are indirect bandgap semiconductors, with bandgap energies of 2.67 and 2.28 eV for the undoped and F-doped B-Nb2O5, respectively. Upon doping B-Nb2O5, the Fermi level shifts towards the conduction band, allowing optical absorption in the visible region with enhanced transmittance in the wavelength range 400-1000 nm. The calculated static refractive index of the undoped B-Nb2O5 is in good agreement with the reported experimental value, which is enhanced upon F-incorporation resulting in cladding properties for the F-doped B-Nb2O5. Also, the effective mass of free charge carriers increased upon F-doping. The enhanced properties were attributed to the effect of the excessive valent electron of the incorporated F atom.

  7. Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes.

    PubMed

    Badmaev, V; Prakash, S; Majeed, M

    1999-06-01

    The potential role of vanadium in human health is described as a building material of bones and teeth. However, another very interesting and promising application for vanadium in human health emerges from recent studies that evaluated the role of vanadium in the management of diabetes. Vanadium is present in a variety of foods that we commonly eat. Skim milk, lobster, vegetable oils, many vegetables, grains and cereals are rich source of vanadium (>1 ppm). Fruits, meats, fish, butter, cheese, and beverages are relatively poor sources of vanadium. The daily dietary intake in humans has been estimated to vary from 10 microg to 2 mg of elemental vanadium, depending on the environmental sources of this mineral in the air, water, and food of the particular region tested. In animals, vanadium has been shown essential (1-10 microg vanadium per gram of diet). There is only circumstantial evidence that vanadium is essential for humans. However, in doses ranging from 0.083 mmol/d to 0.42 mmol/d, vanadium has shown therapeutic potential in clinical studies with patients of both insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) type. Although vanadium has a significant biological potential, it has a poor therapeutic index, and attempts have been made to reduce the dose of vanadium required for therapeutic effectiveness. Organic forms of vanadium, as opposed to the inorganic sulfate salt of vanadium, are recognized as safer, more absorbable, and able to deliver a therapeutic effect up to 50% greater than the inorganic forms. The goal is to provide vanadium with better gastrointestinal absorption, and in a form that is best able to produce the desired biological effects. As a result, numerous organic complexes of vanadium have been developed including bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (BMOV), bis(cysteinamide N-octyl)oxovanadium known as Naglivan, bis(pyrrolidine-N-carbodithioato)oxovanadium, vanadyl-cysteine methyl ester, and bis

  8. Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes.

    PubMed

    Badmaev, V; Prakash, S; Majeed, M

    1999-06-01

    The potential role of vanadium in human health is described as a building material of bones and teeth. However, another very interesting and promising application for vanadium in human health emerges from recent studies that evaluated the role of vanadium in the management of diabetes. Vanadium is present in a variety of foods that we commonly eat. Skim milk, lobster, vegetable oils, many vegetables, grains and cereals are rich source of vanadium (>1 ppm). Fruits, meats, fish, butter, cheese, and beverages are relatively poor sources of vanadium. The daily dietary intake in humans has been estimated to vary from 10 microg to 2 mg of elemental vanadium, depending on the environmental sources of this mineral in the air, water, and food of the particular region tested. In animals, vanadium has been shown essential (1-10 microg vanadium per gram of diet). There is only circumstantial evidence that vanadium is essential for humans. However, in doses ranging from 0.083 mmol/d to 0.42 mmol/d, vanadium has shown therapeutic potential in clinical studies with patients of both insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) type. Although vanadium has a significant biological potential, it has a poor therapeutic index, and attempts have been made to reduce the dose of vanadium required for therapeutic effectiveness. Organic forms of vanadium, as opposed to the inorganic sulfate salt of vanadium, are recognized as safer, more absorbable, and able to deliver a therapeutic effect up to 50% greater than the inorganic forms. The goal is to provide vanadium with better gastrointestinal absorption, and in a form that is best able to produce the desired biological effects. As a result, numerous organic complexes of vanadium have been developed including bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (BMOV), bis(cysteinamide N-octyl)oxovanadium known as Naglivan, bis(pyrrolidine-N-carbodithioato)oxovanadium, vanadyl-cysteine methyl ester, and bis

  9. Interaction of trace levels of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) in biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crans, D.C.; Bunch, R.L.; Theisen, L.A. )

    1989-09-13

    Enzyme kinetics have been used to study interactions of trace-level concentrations of vanadate (V(V)) and vanadyl cation (V(IV)) in biological systems. A quantitative method based on the inhibition of alkaline or acid phosphatase by monomeric vanadate or vanadyl cation has been developed to determine the concentration of free monomeric vanadate or vanadyl cation at 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}7} M vanadium concentrations. Interactions of vanadate and vanadyl cation with potential ligands including buffers, chelating agents, enzyme substrates, cofactors, amino acids, peptides, and proteins were examined. Seven out of 26 commonly used buffers were found to strongly complex vanadate, and an additional 11 buffers were found to complex vanadate to various degrees. The vanadyl cation generally interacts more strongly with these buffers than does vanadate.

  10. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases of Azotobacter chroococcum. Low temperature favours N2 reduction by vanadium nitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Miller, R W; Eady, R R

    1988-12-01

    A comparison of the effect of temperature on the reduction of N2 by purified molybdenum nitrogenase and vanadium nitrogenase of Azotobacter chroococcum showed differences in behaviour. As the assay temperature was lowered from 30 degrees C to 5 degrees C N2 remained an effective substrate for V nitrogenase, but not Mo nitrogenase, since the specific activity for N2 reduction by Mo nitrogenase decreased 10-fold more than that of V nitrogenase. Activity cross-reactions between nitrogenase components showed the enhanced low-temperature activity to be associated with the Fe protein of V nitrogenase. The lower activity of homologous Mo nitrogenase components, although dependent on the ratio of MoFe protein to Fe protein, did not equal that of V nitrogenase even under conditions of high electron flux obtained at a 12-fold molar excess of Fe protein.

  11. Magnetic stirrer induced dispersive ionic-liquid microextraction for the determination of vanadium in water and food samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, magnetic stirrer induced dispersive ionic-liquid microextraction (MS-IL-DLLME) was developed to quantify the trace level of vanadium in real water and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In this extraction method magnetic stirrer was applied to obtained a dispersive medium of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6] in aqueous solution of (real water samples and digested food samples) to increase phase transfer ratio, which significantly enhance the recovery of vanadium - 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) chelate. Variables having vital role on desired microextraction methods were optimised to obtain the maximum recovery of study analyte. Under the optimised experimental variables, enhancement factor (EF) and limit of detection (LOD) were achieved to be 125 and 18 ng L(-1), respectively. Validity and accuracy of the desired method was checked by analysis of certified reference materials (SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicate determinations at 0.5 μg L(-1) of vanadium level was found to be <5.0%. This method was successfully applied to real water and acid digested food samples.

  12. Effects of Microwave Roasting on the Kinetics of Extracting Vanadium from Vanadium Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Ting-an; Lü, Guozhi; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Weiguang

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of extracting vanadium (V) from microwave-roasted (MR) vanadium slag (V-slag) with concentrated H2SO4 were investigated. The microwave irradiation experiments were performed in a modified microwave muffle furnace at temperatures ranging from 150°C to 750°C. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the spinel phase of the V-slag is destroyed after 10 min of roasting. The phase composition of the V-slag was changed by the roasting process, and a new Fe2O3 phase appeared in the samples roasted at higher temperatures. Compared to the raw slag, the surface area, pore volume, and pore size of the MR slags were much lower. It was easier to leach V from the MR samples than the raw sample with the H2SO4 solution, and the leaching process was accelerated in the MR samples. When the V-slag was roasted at 150°C and 350°C (MR@150 and MR@350, respectively), the apparent activation energy was decreased from 77.65 kJ/mol to 68.42 kJ/mol and 66.68 kJ/mol, respectively. The process of leaching V from the raw and MR slags was controlled by both the surface chemical reactions and internal diffusion. The reaction orders of the raw, MR@150, and MR@350 V-slags, with respect to the H2SO4 concentration, were 1.23, 0.75, and 0.70, respectively.

  13. Vapor-Diffusion-Controlled Sol-Gel Synthesis of Flaky Lithium Vanadium Oxide and Its Electrochemical Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong-Li; Neilson, James R.; Morse, Daniel E.

    2010-10-28

    Effectively modifying an existing synthesis method for materials can prove as useful as developing a new one. In this work, we revisited a conventional sol-gel synthesis of lithium vanadium oxide, a promising electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Employing a kinetically controlled, vapor diffusion strategy (in which ammonia vapor was slowly diffused into the solution), we modified the conventional method to obtain a thin, flaky, lithium vanadium oxide with an average thickness of ~120 nm. In comparison, material prepared by the conventional sol-gel route (in which aqueous ammonia was dropwise added to the solution) exhibited an agglomeration of irregular particles with a typical size of ~10 μm. When evaluated as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries, this flaky material displayed a stable, reversible capacity of ~250 and ~115 mAh/g at discharge rates of 0.1 C and 2 C, respectively, considerably better than the agglomerated sample. The reasons for this improved performance were investigated by evaluating the electrochemical reaction kinetics, morphological and structural stability using cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  14. Lithiated Vanadium Oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (Gamma-LIV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (VO2) as thermal battery cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richie, A. G.; Warner, K.

    1991-05-01

    Thermal batteries are high temperature reserve batteries, predominantly used in missiles. Modern designs use a lithium (or lithium alloy) anode, an immobilized molten salt electrolyte, and an iron-disulphide cathode. These batteries have many advantages: high reliability, long storage life without maintenance, wide temperature range of operation, and, sometimes, high power. However, the energy density is rather low and this could be improved if the individual cell voltage could be raised above the present 2.2 V/cell open circuit-voltage for the lithium iron-disulphide couple. A new cathode material, lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), was invented at RAE and has the advantage of a much higher open-circuit voltage of 2.6 V/cell versus lithium. The properties of LVO have been investigated and it has been shown that LVO consists of vanadium dioxide as the major component. Some lithium bromide is also present.

  15. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  16. Ab initio Investigation of Helium in Vanadium Oxide Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Thomas; Tea, Eric; Hin, Celine

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are strong candidate materials for the next generation of fission reactors and future fusion reactors. They are characterized by a large number density of oxide nanoclusters dispersed throughout a BCC iron matrix, where current oxide nanoclusters are primarily comprised of Y-Ti-O compounds. The oxide nanoclusters provide the alloy with high resistance to neutron irradiation, high yield strength and high creep strength at the elevated temperatures of a reactor environment. In addition, the oxide nanoclusters serve as trapping sites for transmutation product helium providing substantially increased resistance to catastrophic cracking and embrittlement. Although the mechanical properties and radiation resistance of the existing NFAs is promising, the problem of forming large scale reactor components continues to present a formidable challenge due to the high hardness and unpredictable fracture behavior of the alloys. An alternative alloy has been previously proposed and fabricated where vanadium is added in order to form vanadium oxide nanoclusters that serve as deflection sites for crack propagation. Although experiments have shown evidence that the fracture behavior of the alloys is improved, it is unknown whether or not the vanadium oxide nanoclusters are effective trapping sites for helium. We present results obtained using density functional theory investigating the thermodynamic stability of helium with the vanadium oxide matrix to make a comparison of trapping effectiveness to traditional Y-Ti-O compounds.

  17. Evaluation of lithium-vanadium oxide cells. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.

    1982-12-01

    Hermetically sealed lithium-vanadium oxide cells were evaluated after one year of storage. From cell capacity measurements, excellent charge retention was found. The energy to weight and volume ratios did not change substantially during storage. The rate capability observed is within practical limits. At 0 degrees C the rate is 31 percent of that at room temperature.

  18. The role of vanadium in the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brichard, S M; Henquin, J C

    1995-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion and a resistance of target tissues to the action of insulin, in proportions that vary with the type of the disease. The shortage of insulin can be corrected by administration of exogenous insulin or stimulation of pancreatic beta-cells with sulphonylureas. However, insulin resistance remains a major therapeutic problem. Here, Sonia Brichard and Jean-Claude Henquin review the recent discoveries that indicate a possible role for vanadium in management of the disease. In vitro, vanadium salts mimic most effects of insulin on the main target tissues of the hormone, and in vivo they induce a sustained fall in blood glucose levels in insulin-deficient diabetic rats, and improve glucose homeostasis in obese, insulin-resistant diabetic rodents. Recent short-term clinical trials with vanadium salts also seem promising in type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients in whom liver and peripheral insulin resistance was attenuated, indicating the therapeutic potential of vanadium salts, pending demonstration of their long-term innocuity.

  19. [Adsorption of methylene blue onto vanadium-doped magnetite].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan-Hong; Liang, Xiao-Liang; Zhu, Jian-Xi; He, Hong-Ping; Yuan, Peng

    2010-06-01

    A series of vanadium-doped magnetite (Fe3-x VxO4, x < 0.4) synthesized by an oxidation-precipitation method, were characterized using chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analyses. The obtained results show that the synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 has spinel structure while vanadium mostly replaces Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. The synthetic Fe3-x VxO4 is magnetic material, with crystal size ranging from 28 to 35 nm. The substitution of vanadium in the magnetite structure increases the amount of surface hydroxyls. The experimental adsorption results indicate that, in neutral pH condition, the maximum adsorption capacities of Fe3-x VxO4 increase obviously with the increase of vanadium concentration in magnetite while the adsorption isotherm complies well with the Langmuir model. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on Fe3-x VxO4 can get equilibrium in the first 25 min, supporting a pseudo-second order equation. Moreover, the rise of the solution pH value results in an increase of the adsorption capability of MB on Fe3-x VxO4.

  20. Organometalic carbosilane polymers containing vanadium and their preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Fukuda, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention concerns a new organometallic polymer material containing in part a vanadium-siloxane linkage (V-0-Si), which has excellent resistance to heat and oxidation and a high residue ratio after high temperature treatment in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, for example, nitrogen, argon, helium, ammonia, or hydrogen.

  1. Metals passivation of sodium and vanadium on FCC catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, F.W.; Hohnholt, J.F.; English, A.R.; Krishna, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to clarify the value of tin passivation of vanadium and to dispel some misconceptions. We will also introduce a new benefit, sodium passivation. The three perspectives provided by this paper are: the research and development and early applications of tin, a commercial overview of the utility of tin in our industry, and a refiner's experience with tin.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel Wells-Dawson-type mono vanadium(V)-substituted tungsto-polyoxometalate isomers: 1- and 4-[S2VW17O62](5-).

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tadaharu; Ohnishi, Miho; Shiro, Motoo; Nambu, Jun-ichi; Yonemura, Toshiaki; Boas, John F; Bond, Alan M

    2014-05-19

    Two vanadium(V)-substituted tungsto-polyoxometalate isomers, 1- and 4-[S2VW17O62](5-), were prepared as their tetra-alkyl ammonium salts from a W(VI)-H2SO4-V(V) reaction mixture in aqueous CH3CN solution. X-ray crystallographic structural analysis revealed that both isomers have a Wells-Dawson-type structure with a higher occupancy of vanadium at polar sites and belt sites for 1- and 4-[S2VW17O62](5-), respectively. The isomers were also characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, Raman, UV-vis, and (51)V NMR spectroscopies as well as voltammetry, and the data obtained were compared with that derived from [S2W18O62](4-). Significantly, the reversible potentials for the vanadium(V/IV) couple for both 1- and 4-[S2VW17O62](5-) in CH3CN (0.1 M n-Bu4NPF6) are considerably more positive than the tungstate reduction process exhibited by the [S2W18O62](4-) framework, implying that the presence of vanadium should be useful in catalytic reactions. The one-electron-reduced [S2V(IV)W17O62](6-) forms of both isomers were prepared in solution by controlled potential bulk electrolysis and characterized by voltammetry and EPR spectroscopy.

  3. Kinetics of oxidation of vanadium(IV) by alkyl hydroperoxides in acidic, aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rong; Bakac, A.; Espenson, J.H. )

    1992-05-13

    The title reactions produce VO[sub 2][sup +] and products derived from [beta]-scission of alkoxy radicals, largely acetone, ethane, and methane (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) or ethane, ethylene, and n-butane (tert-amyl hydroperoxide). The minor amounts of methane from the first reaction and the excess amount of ethane from the second suggest a small contribution from the oxidation of VO[sup 2+] by [sm bullet]CH[sub 3] and [sm bullet]C[sub 2]H[sub 5], respectively. The kinetic dependence of the main reaction upon [H[sup +

  4. Vanadium Exposure-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations among Chinese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Zhou, Dinglun; Zhang, Qin; Feng, Chengyong; Zheng, Wei; He, Keping; Lan, Yajia

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium-containing products are manufactured and widely used in the modern industry. Yet the neurobehavioral toxicity due to occupational exposure to vanadium remained elusive. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the neurotoxic effects of occupational vanadium exposure. A total of 463 vanadium-exposed workers (exposed group) and 251 non-exposed workers (control group) were recruited from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. A WHO-recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) and event-related auditory evoked potentials test (P300) were used to assess the neurobehavioral functions of all study subjects. A general linear model was used to compare outcome scores between the two groups while controlling for possible confounders. The exposed group showed a statistically significant neurobehavioral alteration more than the control group in the NCTB tests. The exposed workers also exhibited an increased anger-hostility, depression-dejection and fatigue-inertia on the profile of mood states (p<0.05). Performances in the Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, Benton Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming were also poorer among exposed workers as compared to unexposed control workers(p<0.05). Some of these poor performances in tests were also significantly related to workers’ exposure duration. P300 latencies were longer in the exposed group than in the control (p<0.05). Longer mean reaction times and more counting errors were also found in the exposed workers (p<0.05). Given the findings of our study and the limitations of neurobehavioral workplace testing, we found evidence of altered neurobehavioral outcomes by occupational exposure to vanadium. PMID:23500660

  5. Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yuen, V G; McNeill, J H

    2001-06-01

    Vanadium, a potent nonselective inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, has been shown to mimic many of the metabolic actions of insulin both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism(s) of the effect of vanadium on the decrease in appetite and body weight in Zucker fa/fa rats, an insulin-resistant model, is still unclear. Because insulin may inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to be related to appetite, and increase leptin secretion in adipose tissue, we studied the possibility that the changes in appetite produced by vanadium may be linked to altered NPY levels in the hypothalamus. We also examined effects of vanadium on leptin. Zucker lean and fatty rats were chronically treated with bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), an organic vanadium compound, in the drinking water. Plasma and adipose tissue leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting, respectively. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA and peptide levels were measured using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. BMOV treatment significantly reduced food intake, body fat, body weight, plasma insulin levels, and glucose levels in fatty Zucker rats. Fifteen minutes after insulin injection (5 U/kg, intravenous [IV]), circulating leptin levels (+100%) and adipose leptin levels (+60%) were elevated in BMOV-treated fatty rats, although these effects were not observed in untreated fatty rats. NPY mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (-29%), NPY peptide levels in ARC (-31%), as well as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (-37%) were decreased with BMOV treatment in these fatty rats. These data indicate that BMOV may increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and decrease appetite and body fat by decreasing NPY levels in the hypothalamus. BMOV-induced reduction in appetite and weight gain along with normalized insulin levels in models of obesity, suggest its possible use as a therapeutic agent in obesity.

  6. Vanadium-substituted heteropolyacids immobilized on amine- functionalized mesoporous MCM-41: A recyclable catalyst for selective oxidation of alcohols with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xinbo; Wang, Danjun; Li, Kebin; Zhen, Yanzhong; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acids are immobilized on amine- functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 and the hybrid catalyst is proved to be a highly efficient solid catalyst for the oxidation of aromatic alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, featured by the high conversion and selectivity, easy recovery, and quite steady reuse. - Highlights: • Vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acid immobilized on amine-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 are prepared. • HPAs were fixed on the inner surface of mesoporous MCM-41 by chemical bonding to aminosilane groups. • The hybrid catalyst showed much higher catalytic activity than the pure HPAs. • The hybrid catalyst is a highly efficient recyclable solid catalyst for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols. - Abstract: New hybrid materials of vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acids (VHPW) immobilized on amine-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 (VHPW/MCM-41/NH{sub 2}) are prepared and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption, elemental analysis, SEM and TEM for their structural integrity and physicochemical properties. It is found that the structure of the heteropolyacids is retained upon immobilization over mesoporous materials. The catalytic activities of these hybrid materials are tested in the selective oxidation of alcohols to the carbonyl products with 30% aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant in toluene. The catalytic activities of different number of vanadium-substituted phosphotungstic acid are investigated, and among the catalysts, H{sub 5}[PV{sub 2}W{sub 10}O{sub 40}] immobilized on amine-functionalized MCM-41 exhibits the highest activity with 97% conversion and 99% selectivity in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The hybrid catalyst is proved to be a highly efficient recyclable solid catalyst for the selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  7. Vanadium as a modulator of cellular regulatory cascades and oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Stern, A; Yin, X; Tsang, S S; Davison, A; Moon, J

    1993-01-01

    Vanadium, a trace metal in the environment and in biological systems, influences the behavior of enzymes, mimics and regulates growth factor activity, is a potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agent, and regulates gene expression. The diverse biological actions of vanadium result from its capacity to function as an oxyanion, oxycation, or prooxidant. Vanadium is found in water, rocks, and soils in low concentration and in relatively high concentrations in coal and oil deposits. Vanadium compounds at much higher concentrations than are typically ingested are being considered in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The actions of insulin and vanadium on the insulin receptor are similar, but the mechanisms are not identical. Vanadium modulates growth-factor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Vanadium promotes cell transformation and diminishes cell adhesion. Consistent with its mitogenic action and its capacity to mimic mitogenic growth factors, vanadium stimulates expression of protooncogenes. In particular, oxygen-derived active species are involved in the expression of the jun protooncogene in the presence of vanadium. The unique cellular activity of vanadium makes it a tool of unparalleled potential for studying mechanisms of cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

  8. Physiological roles of peroxido-vanadium complexes: Leitmotif as their signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, Seiichi; Kanamori, Kan; Sugiyama, Hironori; Misu, Hirofumi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2015-06-01

    Evidence exists that supports the various physiological roles of vanadium compounds, although the amount of vanadium in our body is limited. This limited concentration in our body does not attract much attention of the biological chemists, although the fact is present; even in the 19th century, vanadium derivatives were used for the therapeutic reagents. In the middle of the 20th century, the main focus of vanadium chemistry is mainly on the chemical and material fields. After the first discovery of vanadium compounds expressing ATPase activity, oxidovanadium(IV) sulfate was reported to have insulin mimic activity. Additionally, because some vanadium compounds possess cellular toxicity, trials were also carried out to examine the possible use of vanadium compounds as cancer therapeutics. The application of vanadium complexes was extended in recent years especially in the 21st century. In this review, we briefly explain the historical background of vanadium chemistry and also summarize the physiological role of vanadium complexes mainly focusing on the synthesis and physiological role of peroxidovanadium compounds and their interactions with insulin signal transduction pathways.

  9. Bioavailability, tissue distribution and hypoglycaemic effect of vanadium in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Cristina; Torres, Miguel; Bermúdez-Peña, María C; Aranda, Pilar; Montes-Bayón, María; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Llopis, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Vanadium is an element whose role as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic drug has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate the bioavailability and tissue distribution of vanadium and its interactions with magnesium in healthy and in magnesium-deficient rats, in order to determine its role as a micronutrient and antidiabetic agent. Four groups were used: control (456.4 mg magnesium and 0.06 mg vanadium/kg food); control treated with 1mg vanadium/day; magnesium-deficient (164.4 mg magnesium/kg food and 0.06 mg vanadium/kg food); and magnesium-deficient treated with 1 mg vanadium/day. The vanadium was supplied in the drinking water as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV). The experiment had a duration of five weeks. We measured vanadium and magnesium in excreta, serum, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver, adipose tissue and femur. Fasting glucose, insulin and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were studied. The vanadium treatment applied to the control rats reduced the absorption, retention, serum level and femur content of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency increased the retention and serum level of vanadium, the content of vanadium in the kidney, liver and femur (organs where magnesium had been depleted), serum glycaemia and insulin, and reduced TAS. V treatment given to magnesium-deficient rats corrected magnesium content in muscle, kidney and liver and levels of serum glucose, insulin and TAS. In conclusion, our results show interactions between magnesium and vanadium in the digestive and renal systems. Treatment with vanadium to magnesium-deficient rats corrected many of the alterations that had been generated by the magnesium deficiency.

  10. Assessing the solubility controls on vanadium in groundwater, northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The solubility controls on vanadium (V) in groundwater were studied due to concerns over possible harmful health effects of ingesting V in drinking water. Vanadium concentrations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley ranged from 25 μg/L) and lowest in samples collected from anoxic groundwater (70% 2VO4−. Adsorption/desorption reactions with mineral surfaces and associated oxide coatings were indicated as the primary solubility control of V5+ oxyanions in groundwater. Environmental data showed that V concentrations in oxic groundwater generally increased with increasing groundwater pH. However, data from adsorption isotherm experiments indicated that small variations in pH (7.4–8.2) were not likely as an important a factor as the inherent adsorption capacity of oxide assemblages coating the surface of mineral grains. In suboxic groundwater, accurate SM modeling was difficult since Eh measurements of source water were not measured in this study. Vanadium concentrations in suboxic groundwater decreased with increasing pH indicating that V may exist as an oxycationic species [e.g. V(OH)3+]. Vanadium may complex with dissolved inorganic and organic ligands under suboxic conditions, which could alter the adsorption behavior of V in groundwater. Speciation modeling did not predict the existence of V-inorganic ligand complexes and organic ligands were not collected as part of this study. More work is needed to determine processes governing V solubility under suboxic groundwater conditions. Under anoxic groundwater conditions, SM predicts that aqueous V exists as the uncharged V(OH)3 molecule. However, exceedingly low V concentrations show that V is sparingly soluble in anoxic conditions. Results indicated that V may be precipitating as V3+- or mixed V3+/Fe3+-oxides in anoxic groundwater, which is consistent with results of a previous study. The fact that V appears insoluble in anoxic (Fe reducing) redox conditions indicates that the behavior of V is different than

  11. LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte stabilizes vanadium oxide nanowire electrodes for pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongming; Lu, Xihong; Ling, Yichuan; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2012-11-27

    Here we report a new strategy to improve the electrochemical stability of vanadium oxide electrodes for pseudocapacitors. Vanadium oxides are known to suffer from severe capacitance loss during charging/discharging cycling, due to chemical dissolution and ion intercalation/deintercalation-induced material pulverization. We demonstrate that these two issues can be addressed by using a neutral pH LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte. The function of the gel electrolyte is twofold: (i) it reduces the chemical dissolution of amphoteric vanadium oxides by minimizing water content and providing a neutral pH medium and (ii) it serves as a matrix to maintain the vanadium oxide nanowire network structure. Vanadium oxide nanowire pseudocapacitors with gel electrolyte exhibit excellent capacitance retention rates of more than 85% after cycling for 5000 cycles, without sacrificing the electrochemical performance of vanadium oxides.

  12. Influence of vanadium-organic ligands treatment on selected metal levels in kidneys of STZ rats.

    PubMed

    Krośniak, Mirosław; Kowalska, Joanna; Francik, Renata; Gryboś, Ryszard; Blusz, Magdalena; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of five organic vanadium complexes supplement and a small dose of insulin injection on V, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ca, and K level in the streptozotocin diabetic rat's kidney during a 5-week treatment with the tested complexes. In all groups of animals, metal level in the lyophilized kidney organs was investigated by means of the proton induced X-ray emission method. Tissue vanadium level was naturally higher in vanadium-treated rats. The maximum level of vanadium was observed in the kidney (x(mean) = 16.6 μg/g). The influence of vanadium administration on other metal level in rat's tissue was also investigated. Spectacular influence of vanadium action was observed on copper and zinc level in examined tissue.

  13. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Sivakumar, Bhuvaneswari M.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Nafion-117 membrane used in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface due to their low diffusivity. On the other hand, the 17O NMR spectrum explores the diffused vanadium cation from the bulk part of Nafion and shows the chemical bonding of cation and the host membrane. The 19F NMR shows the basic Nafion structure is not altered due to the presence of diffused vanadium cation. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of diffused vanadium cation in the Nafion membrane is discussed. This study also shed light into the possible cause for the high diffusivity of certain vanadium cations inside the Nafion membranes.

  14. Vanadium in asymmetric synthesis: emerging concepts in catalyst design and applications.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Shinobu; Gröger, Harald; Sasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-15

    In recent years vanadium catalysis has been extended to a range of different and even complementary directions in asymmetric synthesis. Inspired by nature's way to activate both substrate and reagent in many cases, the design of efficient bifunctional and dinuclear vanadium catalysts has been achieved. Furthermore, vanadium catalysis has been an early field in which "hybrid catalysts" have been studied in detail by incorporation of oxovanadium complexes into proteins, thus giving artificial enzymes. In addition, a high compatibility of vanadium with proteins enabled the use of vanadium chemocatalysts for combinations with enzyme catalysis in one-pot, thus leading to dynamic kinetic resolutions. In this contribution, these three concepts of vanadium catalysis opening up new perspectives for asymmetric synthesis are reviewed.

  15. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of vanadium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Troy Darrell

    The APCVD of vanadium(IV) oxide thin films from halide precursors was investigated. It was found that the phase of vanadium oxide obtained could be controlled by the reactor temperature and precursor ratio. For vanadium(IV) chloride and water, reactor temperatures > 550 °C and an excess of water over VCI4 was required to produce VO2 thin films. For vanadium(V) oxytrichloride and water, reactor temperatures > 550 °C and an excess of water over VOCI3 also produced VO2 but required low total gas flow rates (< 1 L min 1) for complete coverage of the substrate. Vanadium(IV) oxide thin films doped with metal ions (W, Cr, Nb, Ti, Mo or Sn) were also prepared by the APCVD process in order to reduce the thermochromic transition temperature (TC) from 68 °C for the undoped material to < 30 °C. The most successful dopant was tungsten, introduced into the VOCl3, and water system as WCI6, which lowered T to 5 °C for a 3 atom% tungsten doped thin film. Tungsten (VI) ethoxide was introduced into the VCI4 and water system and reduced TC, of VO2, to 42 °C for a 1 atom% tungsten doped thin film. Chromium, introduced as CrCO2Cl2, formed a chromium vanadium oxide that did not display any thermochromic properties. Niobium, introduced as NbCl5 into the VOCl3 system, reduced TC of VO2, but the amount of niobium introduced could not be easily controlled. Molybdenum, introduced as MoCI5, also reduced TC of VO2, but the form of the molybdenum appeared to be different from that required for complete control of TC, Titanium, introduced as TiCl4, produced phase segregated films of VO2 and TiO2, with interesting multifunctional properties and a reduced TC. Tin, introduced as SnCl4, also formed a phase segregated material of VO2, and SnO2, with a slightly reduced TC.

  16. Vanadium accumulation in carbonaceous rocks: A review of geochemical controls during deposition and diagenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, G.N.; Wanty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Published data relevant to the geochemistry of vanadium were used to evaluate processes and conditions that control vanadium accumulation in carbonaceous rocks. Reduction, adsorption, and complexation of dissolved vanadium favor addition of vanadium to sediments rich in organic carbon. Dissolved vanadate (V(V)) species predominate in oxic seawater and are reduced to vanadyl ion (V(IV)) by organic compounds or H2S. Vanadyl ion readily adsorbs to particle surfaces and is added to the sediment as the particles settle. The large vanadium concentrations of rocks deposited in marine as compared to lacustrine environments are the result of the relatively large amount of vanadium provided by circulating ocean water compared to terrestrial runoff. Vanadium-rich carbonaceous rocks typically have high contents of organically bound sulfur and are stratigraphically associated with phosphate-rich units. A correspondence between vanadium content and organically bound sulfur is consistent with high activities of H2S during sediment deposition. Excess H2S exited the sediment into bottom waters and favored reduction of dissolved V(V) to V(IV) or possibly V(III). The stratigraphic association of vanadiferous and phosphatic rocks reflects temporal and spatial shifts in bottom water chemistry from suboxic (phosphate concentrated) to more reducing (euxinic?) conditions that favor vanadium accumulation. During diagenesis some vanadium-organic complexes migrate with petroleum out of carbonaceous rocks, but significant amounts of vanadium are retained in refractory organic matter or clay minerals. As carbon in the rock evolves toward graphite during metamorphism, vanadium is incorporated into silicate minerals. ?? 1991.

  17. The public health implications of farming cattle in areas with high background concentrations of vanadium.

    PubMed

    Gummow, B; Botha, C J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2005-12-12

    Forty-two adult Brahman-cross cattle farmed extensively in two groups, immediately adjacent to and 2 km from a vanadium processing plant respectively, were slaughtered over a 5 year period at a nearby abattoir. Cattle were being exposed to vanadium at close to no-adverse-effect levels. The dose of vanadium that cattle were taking in prior to slaughter was calculated for each animal from environmental and physiological data using a stochastic risk assessment model. The median exposure doses in the month prior to slaughter ranged from 0.55 to 2.73 mg vanadium/kg body weight/day. A range of tissues was taken from the cattle at slaughter for vanadium determination and tissue levels of vanadium in muscle, liver and kidney are reported. The concentrations of vanadium in the milk of cattle from the same farm sampled over 5 years are also reported. Concentrations were further modelled using a lognormal distribution function to look at possible extreme values that are likely to occur. The concentrations of vanadium in commonly consumed tissues ranged from <0.05 to 11.51 mg/kg (wet-mass basis). The median concentration of vanadium in milk was 0.23 mg vanadium/kg. People drinking milk were at highest risk. The potential oral daily intake of vanadium for people consuming these foodstuffs was modelled using a stochastic model. The model predicted that there is less than a 5% chance that the potential daily intake of vanadium from milk will be >0.44 microg/kg/day for adults. Based on this upper limit it was concluded from current knowledge of toxicity in humans that the tissue and milk residues from cattle should pose no health risk to the consumer.

  18. Atom probe study of vanadium interphase precipitates and randomly distributed vanadium precipitates in ferrite.

    PubMed

    Nöhrer, M; Zamberger, S; Primig, S; Leitner, H

    2013-01-01

    Atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the precipitation reaction in the austenite and ferrite phases in vanadium micro-alloyed steel after a thermo-mechanical process. It was observed that only in the ferrite phase precipitates could be found, whereupon two different types were detected. Thus, the aim was to reveal the difference between these two types. The first type was randomly distributed precipitates from V supersaturated ferrite and the second type V interphase precipitates. Not only the arrangement of the particles was different also the chemical composition. The randomly distributed precipitates consisted of V, C and N in contrast to that the interphase precipitates showed a composition of V, C and Mn. Furthermore the randomly distributed precipitates had maximum size of 20 nm and the interphase precipitates a maximum size of 15 nm. It was assumed that the reason for these differences is caused by the site in which they were formed. The randomly distributed precipitates were formed in a matrix consisting mainly of 0.05 at% C, 0.68 at% Si, 0.03 at% N, 0.145 at% V and 1.51 at% Mn. The interphase precipitates were formed in a region with a much higher C, Mn and V content.

  19. Atom probe study of vanadium interphase precipitates and randomly distributed vanadium precipitates in ferrite.

    PubMed

    Nöhrer, M; Zamberger, S; Primig, S; Leitner, H

    2013-01-01

    Atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the precipitation reaction in the austenite and ferrite phases in vanadium micro-alloyed steel after a thermo-mechanical process. It was observed that only in the ferrite phase precipitates could be found, whereupon two different types were detected. Thus, the aim was to reveal the difference between these two types. The first type was randomly distributed precipitates from V supersaturated ferrite and the second type V interphase precipitates. Not only the arrangement of the particles was different also the chemical composition. The randomly distributed precipitates consisted of V, C and N in contrast to that the interphase precipitates showed a composition of V, C and Mn. Furthermore the randomly distributed precipitates had maximum size of 20 nm and the interphase precipitates a maximum size of 15 nm. It was assumed that the reason for these differences is caused by the site in which they were formed. The randomly distributed precipitates were formed in a matrix consisting mainly of 0.05 at% C, 0.68 at% Si, 0.03 at% N, 0.145 at% V and 1.51 at% Mn. The interphase precipitates were formed in a region with a much higher C, Mn and V content. PMID:24041583

  20. Preparation and characterization of vanadium-doped ZnO nanoparticles for environmental application.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hankwon; Nikolov, Jonian; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Jang, Hee Dong; Lim, Seng; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium-doped ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO:V) were prepared via flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) from a mixed aqueous solution of zinc hydroxide and vanadyl (IV) acetylacetonate. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO:V photocatalyst were characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible diffused reflection spectrum (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of ZnO:V was evaluated via photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the hexagonal wurtzite-structured ZnO:V nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via FSP. The morphology of the as-prepared nanoparticles was polyhedral and non-hollow. The average diameter of ZnO:V, which was calculated from BET result, was 11.7 nm when the molar ratio of V/Zn was 0.1. The maximum decomposition of MB by the ZnO:V nanoparticles was 99.4% after 180 min under UV irradiation, whereas the decomposition of MB by the pure ZnO nanoparticles was 96.6%. PMID:21446523

  1. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-zirconium(IV) composite for adsorption of vanadium(V).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingfan; Liu, Xin; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-03-01

    In this present study, an inorganic-biopolymer composite based on chitosan-zirconium(IV) was prepared and investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of vanadium(V) ions from aqueous solution. The resulting composite before and after adsorbed V(V) were characterized by using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDS, respectively. Various relevant parameters affecting the adsorption capacity such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, temperature and co-existing ions were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the optimum pH was found to be 4.0 and the equilibrium was achieved after 4h for V(V) adsorption. The Langmuir isotherm model could be well described the adsorption of V(V), with the maximum adsorption capacity of 208 mg g(-1) at 30 °C. The kinetics data were well fitted to pseudo-second-order equation, indicating that chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanism. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° indicated that the adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Moreover, co-existing ions including nitrate, chloride and sulfate had a certain effect on the uptake of V(V). The V(V) loaded chitosan-zirconium(IV) composite could be regenerated by 0.01 mol L(-1) sodium hydroxide, with efficiency greater than 95%.

  2. Neurobehavioral and cytotoxic effects of vanadium during oligodendrocyte maturation: a protective role for erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Oluwaseun; Oke, Bankole; Offen, Nils; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Olopade, James

    2014-07-01

    Vanadium exposure has been known to lead to lipid peroxidation, demyelination and oligodendrocytes depletion. We investigated behaviour and glial reactions in juvenile mice after early neonatal exposure to vanadium, and examined the direct effects of vanadium in oligodendrocyte progenitor cultures from embryonic mice. Neonatal pups exposed to vanadium via lactation for 15 and 22 days all had lower body weights. Behavioural tests showed in most instances a reduction in locomotor activity and negative geotaxis. Brain analyses revealed astrocytic activation and demyelination in the vanadium exposed groups compared to the controls. In cell culture, exposure of oligodendrocytes to 300 μM sodium metavanadate significantly increased cell death. Expression of the oligodendrocyte specific proteins, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and oligodendrocyte specific protein (OSP/Claudin) were reduced upon vanadium treatment while simultaneous administration of erythropoietin (EPO; 4-12 U/ml) counteracted vanadium-toxicity. The data suggest that oligodendrocyte damage may explain the increased vulnerability of the juvenile brain to vanadium and support a potential for erythropoietin as a protective agent against vanadium-toxicity during perinatal brain development and maturation. PMID:24927405

  3. Extraction of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Microwave Assisted Sulfation Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyu; Xian, Pengfei; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Bowen

    2015-02-01

    The extraction of vanadium from stone coal was investigated by microwave-assisted sulfation roasting followed by water leaching. The results showed that this process is an effective method for the extraction of vanadium from stone coal. Microwave-assisted sulfation roasting promotes the reaction of sulfuric acid with vanadium oxides and decreases roasting time. Under optimized conditions (roasting temperature 200°C, heating rate of 10°C/min, 25% sulfuric acid addition, water leaching at 75°C for 1 h, and liquid/solid ratio of 1.5 ml/g), the leaching rate of vanadium reached 92.6%.

  4. Neurobehavioral and cytotoxic effects of vanadium during oligodendrocyte maturation: a protective role for erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Oluwaseun; Oke, Bankole; Offen, Nils; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Olopade, James

    2014-07-01

    Vanadium exposure has been known to lead to lipid peroxidation, demyelination and oligodendrocytes depletion. We investigated behaviour and glial reactions in juvenile mice after early neonatal exposure to vanadium, and examined the direct effects of vanadium in oligodendrocyte progenitor cultures from embryonic mice. Neonatal pups exposed to vanadium via lactation for 15 and 22 days all had lower body weights. Behavioural tests showed in most instances a reduction in locomotor activity and negative geotaxis. Brain analyses revealed astrocytic activation and demyelination in the vanadium exposed groups compared to the controls. In cell culture, exposure of oligodendrocytes to 300 μM sodium metavanadate significantly increased cell death. Expression of the oligodendrocyte specific proteins, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and oligodendrocyte specific protein (OSP/Claudin) were reduced upon vanadium treatment while simultaneous administration of erythropoietin (EPO; 4-12 U/ml) counteracted vanadium-toxicity. The data suggest that oligodendrocyte damage may explain the increased vulnerability of the juvenile brain to vanadium and support a potential for erythropoietin as a protective agent against vanadium-toxicity during perinatal brain development and maturation.

  5. Impact of vanadium ions in barium borate glass.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Hammad, Ahmed H

    2015-02-25

    Combined optical and infrared spectral measurements of prepared barium borate glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 were carried out. Vanadium containing glasses exhibit extended UV-visible (UV/Vis.) bands when compared with base binary borate glass. UV/Vis. spectrum shows the presence of an unsymmetrical strong UV broad band centered at 214 nm attributed to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for the preparation of such glass. The calculated direct and indirect optical band gaps are found to decrease with increasing the vanadium content (2.9:137 for indirect and 3.99:2.01 for direct transition). This change was discussed in terms of structural changes in the glass network. Infrared absorption spectra of the glasses reveal the appearance of both triangular and tetrahedral borate units. Electron spin resonance analyses indicate the presence of unpaired species in sufficient quantity to be identified and to confirm the spectral data.

  6. Controlled reactivity tuning of metal-functionalized vanadium oxide clusters.

    PubMed

    Kastner, Katharina; Forster, Johannes; Ida, Hiromichi; Newton, Graham N; Oshio, Hiroki; Streb, Carsten

    2015-05-18

    Controlling the assembly and functionalization of molecular metal oxides [Mx Oy ](n-) (M=Mo, W, V) allows the targeted design of functional molecular materials. While general methods exist that enable the predetermined functionalization of tungstates and molybdates, no such routes are available for molecular vanadium oxides. Controlled design of polyoxovanadates, however, would provide highly active materials for energy conversion, (photo-) catalysis, molecular magnetism, and materials science. To this end, a new approach has been developed that allows the reactivity tuning of vanadium oxide clusters by selective metal functionalization. Organic, hydrogen-bonding cations, for example, dimethylammonium are used as molecular placeholders to block metal binding sites within vanadate cluster shells. Stepwise replacement of the placeholder cations with reactive metal cations gives mono- and difunctionalized clusters. Initial reactivity studies illustrate the tunability of the magnetic, redox, and catalytic activity.

  7. Low reflectance sputtered vanadium oxide thin films on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Dey, Arjun; Rangappa, Dinesh; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films on silicon (Si) substrate are grown by pulsed radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique at RF power in the range of 100-700 W at room temperature. Deposited thin films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques to investigate microstructural, phase, electronic structure and oxide state characteristics. The reflectance and transmittance spectra of the films and the Si substrate are recorded at the solar region (200-2300 nm) of the spectral window. Substantial reduction in reflectance and increase in transmittance is observed for the films grown beyond 200 W. Further, optical constants viz. absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient of the deposited vanadium oxide films are evaluated.

  8. Uncoupling binding of substrate CO from turnover by vanadium nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Chung; Fay, Aaron W.; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Krest, Courtney M.; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysis by nitrogenase, particularly the reduction of N2 and CO by this enzyme, has tremendous significance in environment- and energy-related areas. Elucidation of the detailed mechanism of nitrogenase has been hampered by the inability to trap substrates or intermediates in a well-defined state. Here, we report the capture of substrate CO on the resting-state vanadium-nitrogenase in a catalytically competent conformation. The close resemblance of this active CO-bound conformation to the recently described structure of CO-inhibited molybdenum-nitrogenase points to the mechanistic relevance of sulfur displacement to the activation of iron sites in the cofactor for CO binding. Moreover, the ability of vanadium-nitrogenase to bind substrate in the resting-state uncouples substrate binding from subsequent turnover, providing a platform for generation of defined intermediate(s) of both CO and N2 reduction. PMID:26515097

  9. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L; Bosak, Alexei; Aracne, Chantel M; Ruddle, David G; Krisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V. PMID:27539662

  10. Montroseite, a new vanadium oxide from the Colorado plateaus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, Alice D.; Cisney, Evelyn A.; Sherwood, Alexander M.

    1953-01-01

    Montroseite, a new vanadium mineral named from Montrose County, Colorado, has been found in four mines in western Colorado and in two mines in eastern Utah. It is black, opaque, submetallic, and occurs in microscopic bladed crystals of the orthorhombic dipyramidal class. The axial ratio is a:b:c = 0.509:1:0.310, the common forms are b {010}, m {110}, p {121}, and a large vicinal form is approximately {0, 10, 1}. The observed specific gravity is 4.0 and the calculated specific gravity is 4.15. The composition is essentially VO(OH), with some iron commonly substituted for vanadium. Partial oxidation to VO2 has taken place. Chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction data are given. Single crystal study indicated that the space group symmetry is Pbnm(D2h16).

  11. Shunt current loss of the vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Feng; Zhang, Huamin; Ma, Xiangkun

    The shunt current loss is one of main factors to affect the performance of the vanadium redox flow battery, which will shorten the cycle life and decrease the energy transfer efficiency. In this paper, a stack-level model based on the circuit analog method is proposed to research the shunt current loss of the vanadium redox flow battery, in which the SOC (state of charge) of electrolyte is introduced. The distribution of shunt current is described in detail. The sensitive analysis of shunt current is reported. The shunt current loss in charge/discharge cycle is predicted with the given experimental data. The effect of charge/discharge pattern on the shunt current loss is studied. The result shows that the reduction of the number of single cells in series, the decrease of the resistances of manifold and channel and the increase of the power of single cell will be the further development for the VRFB stack.

  12. Present Status of Vanadium Alloys for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muroga, Takeo; Chen, J. M.; Chernov, V. M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Le Flem, M.

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium alloys are advanced options for low activation structural materials. After more than two decades of research, V-4Cr-4Ti has been emerged as the leading candidate, and technological progress has been made in reducing the number of critical issues for application of vanadium alloys to fusion reactors. Notable progress has been made in fabricating alloy products and weld joints without degradation of properties. Various efforts are also being made to improve high temperature strength and creep-rupture resistance, low temperature ductility after irradiation, and corrosion resistance in blanket conditions. Future research should focus on clarifying remaining uncertainty in the operating temperature window of V-4Cr-4Ti for application to near to middle term fusion blanket systems, and on further exploration of advanced materials for improved performance for longer-term fusion reactor systems.

  13. Hypoglycemic activity of Grifola frondosa rich in vanadium.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bo; Han, Linna; Qu, Jingran; Lv, Yingtao

    2009-11-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Grifola frondosa rich in vanadium (GFRV) was studied in this paper. Alloxan- and adrenalin-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose and the HbA1c of the mice were analyzed respectively. After the mice were administered (ig) with GFRV, the blood glucose and the HbA1c of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) and ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin was inhibited (p < 0.01). Also, the bodyweight of the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice was increased gradually. In the fermented mushroom of G. frondosa, vanadium at lower doses in combination with G. frondosa induced significant decreases of the blood glucose and HbA1c levels in hyperglycemic mice.

  14. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L.; Bosak, Alexei; Aracne, Chantel M.; Ruddle, David G.; Krisch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V.

  15. Phonon triggered rhombohedral lattice distortion in vanadium at high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Farber, Daniel L.; Bosak, Alexei; Aracne, Chantel M.; Ruddle, David G.; Krisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V. PMID:27539662

  16. Improved activation cross sections for vanadium and titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    Vanadium alloys such as V-20Ti and V-Cr-Ti are attractive candidates for use as structural materials in fusion-reactor blankets. The virtual absence of long-lived activation products in these alloys suggest the possibility of reprocessing on an intermediate time scale. We have employed the modern Hauser-Feshbach nuclear-model code GNASH to calculate cross sections for neutron-activation reactions in /sup 50/V and /sup 51/V, to allow a more accurate assessment of induced radioactivity in vanadium alloys. In addition, cross sections are calculated for the reactions /sup 46/Ti(n,2n) and /sup 45/Ti(n,2n) in order to estimate the production of /sup 44/Ti, a 1.2-MeV gamma-ray source with a half-life of 47 years.

  17. A novel process for comprehensive utilization of vanadium slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-ying; Du, Tao; Tan, Wen-jun; Zhang, Xin-pu; Yang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Traditional processes for treating vanadium slag generate a huge volume of solid residue and a large amount of harmful gas, which cause serious environmental problems. In this study, a new process for the comprehensive utilization of vanadium slag was proposed, wherein zeolite A and a V2O5/TiO2 system were synthesized. The structural properties of the as-synthesized zeolite A and the V2O5/TiO2 system were characterized using various experimental techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results reveal that zeolite A and the V2O5/TiO2 system are successfully obtained with high purity. The results of gas adsorption measurements indicate that the prepared zeolite A exhibits high selectivity for CO2 over N2 and is a candidate material for CO2 capture from flue-gas streams.

  18. Interactions of vanadates with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Valente, Artur J. M.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Azevedo, Eduarda F. G.; Amado, Ana M.; da Costa, A. M. Amorim; Ramos, M. Luísa; Burrows, H. D.

    2004-10-01

    The interaction between the vanadate ion (VO 3-, i.e. vanadium (V)) and the carbohydrates sucrose, glucose and fructose has been studied in aqueous solutions (pH ≈6, 298.15 K) using measurements of diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity, Raman and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. With sucrose and glucose, indications of hydrolysis of the anion in the absence of the sugars came from a decrease in the diffusion coefficient with increasing concentration. Significant effects on the diffusion coefficients were observed in the presence of sucrose and glucose, suggesting interactions between the carbohydrates and vanadate ion. Support for this came from electrical conductivity measurements, where there were indications of formation of oligomeric species. These were found to depend on the carbohydrate used: confirmation of oligomer formation came from Raman spectroscopy, where it was possible to identify these species, and see their dependence on the particular carbohydrate used. Information on the interactions between the carbohydrates glucose or sucrose and vanadate came from 51V and 1H NMR spectroscopy, where the dominant species appeared to be a 2:2 complex with glucose, possessing trigonal bipyramidal centres, whereas with sucrose it is suggested that octahedral species are formed. Studies with fructose were complicated by competing oxidation of this carbohydrate and reduction of vanadium (V).

  19. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline; Soukup, Joleen M; Dailey, Lisa A; Kesic, Matthew J; Cohen, Mitchell D

    2015-06-01

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) showed a time- and dose-dependent increase in vanadium relative to PBS. HBE cells exposed to VOSO4 and then exposed to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) significantly increased intracellular iron import supporting an interaction between the two metals. Following exposure to VOSO4, there was an increase (336±73%) in RNA for divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a major iron importer. With inclusion of VOSO4 in the incubation, vanadium could be measured in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions and the supernatant. Non-heme iron in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions were decreased immediately following VOSO4 exposure while there was an increased concentration of non-heme iron in the supernatant. Provision of excess iron inhibited changes in the concentration of this metal provoked by VOSO4 exposures. Using Amplex Red, VOSO4 was shown to significantly increase oxidant generation by HBE cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HBE cells pre-treated with FAC and then exposed to VOSO4 demonstrated a decreased generation of oxidants. Similarly, activation of the transcription factor NF-ĸB promoter and release of interleukin-6 and -8 were increased following VOSO4 exposure and these effects were diminished by pre-treatment with FAC. We conclude that an initiating event in biological effect after exposure to vanadyl sulfate is a loss of requisite cell iron. PMID:25843360

  20. Vanadium-Catalyzed Regioselective Oxidative Coupling of 2-Hydroxycarbazoles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first regioselective oxidative coupling of 2-hydroxycarbazoles is described. With a vanadium catalyst and oxygen as the terminal oxidant, dimers with an ortho–ortho′ coupling pattern were obtained with high selectivity. Further oxidation led to ortho′–ortho′ coupling to generate a tetramer, which provided insight that the atropisomerization barriers of the unsymmetrical biaryl bonds are much lower than expected. PMID:25590578

  1. Vanadium salts and the future treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Y; Shisheva, A

    1993-03-01

    Until the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best in 1922, diabetes had a high mortality rate. Since then regular administration of the drug has brought it under control. Nevertheless it is not an ideal drug, in that it has to be injected and because of the incidence of insulin resistance. There is, therefore, a need for alternative forms of treatment and in recent years interest has centred on the possibilities of vanadium salts.

  2. Specific heat of vanadium dioxide at helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surikov, Vad. I.; Kuznetsova, Yu. V.; Lyakh, O. V.; Surikov, Val. I.; Kondratova, Yu. E.

    2013-08-01

    Results are reported of measurements of the specific heat СР of a series of samples of vanadium dioxide in the temperature range from 4.2 to 25 K. Analysis of the results shows that at these temperatures an appreciable contribution to the specific heat comes from the specific heat of the crystalline lattice and defects of the crystalline lattice, the presence of which is a consequence of the method of synthesis of the materials.

  3. Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g(-1), 739 F g(-1)) and cycling stability (704 F g(-1) retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors. PMID:25023373

  4. Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

    2014-07-01

    Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g-1, 739 F g-1) and cycling stability (704 F g-1 retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors.

  5. Thermal stability of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermal battery cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Bryce, J. C.

    1992-08-01

    Thermal analysis of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO) has shown that it has limited thermal stability, possibly accounting for the failure of some thermal batteries with LVO cathodes. Its minor component, gamma-LiV2O5, melts at temperatures which could be reached during thermal battery activation. The major component of LVO, VO2, is thermally stable on its own, but can react with lithium chloride-potassium chloride binary eutectic when heated for prolonged periods above 700 C, though VO2/binary eutectic mixtures should be sufficiently stable for use in thermal batteries.

  6. Vanadium dioxide thickness effects on tunable optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, Stuart K.; James, Timothy D.; Marvel, Robert E.; Gomez, Daniel E.; Davis, Timothy J.; Valentine, Jason G.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Haglund, Richard F.; Roberts, Ann

    2013-12-01

    Vanadium Dioxide is an optically dense phase change material that has been applied to modulating the resonances of plasmonic structures resonant in the THz, infrared and optical ranges. It has been shown previously that fabrication of optical antennas on thin films of Vanadium Dioxide can result in a resonance shift of more than 10% across the phase change. This post-fabrication, dynamic tuning mechanism has the potential to significantly increase the possible applications of plasmonic devices. Here, we show that optical antenna arrays fabricated on differing thicknesses of Vanadium Dioxide supported by a silicon substrate show a dependence of their resonant wavelengths on this thickness. Along with the geometry of the antennas in the arrays this constitutes an additional degree of freedom in the design of the tuning range of these devices, offering further potential for optimisation of this mechanism. The potential extra blue-shift provided by optimising this thickness may be used, for example, in lieu of reducing antenna dimensions to avoid increasing antenna absorption and the additional plasmonic heating that can result.

  7. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  8. Increasing the heat resistance of vanadium by siliciding

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutyi, E.M.; Tsvikilevich, O.S.; Shirokov, V.V.; Stepanishin, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the influence of modifier metals on the protective properties of silicide coatings in heating of vanadium in air and also on the mechanical properties of type VnM-2 unalloyed vanadium and VTsU alloy. Coatings were produced by diffusion impregnation from molten sodium with silicon or silicides of the modifying elements. The silicides of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, rhenium, and nickel were investigated using x-ray spectrometric and hardness investigations and x-ray diffractometric analysis. The protective properties of the coatings were determined from the relative change in weight of the samples with and without coatings during isothermal oxidation in air at 1073/sup 0/K and also by differential thermal analysis. The influence of the coating on the mechanical properties of the material was also investigated using a borosilicide coating. High-temperature vacuum annealing was assessed as a method for restoring the plastic properties and relieving the stresses of vanadium and VTsU alloy subsequent to coating.

  9. Electron affinity of cubic boron nitride terminated with vanadium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Sun, Tianyin; Shammas, Joseph; Kaur, Manpuneet; Hao, Mei; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    A thermally stable negative electron affinity (NEA) for a cubic boron nitride (c-BN) surface with vanadium-oxide-termination is achieved, and its electronic structure was analyzed with in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The c-BN films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing BF3 and N2 as precursors. Vanadium layers of ˜0.1 and 0.5 nm thickness were deposited on the c-BN surface in an electron beam deposition system. Oxidation of the metal layer was achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment. After 650 °C thermal annealing, the vanadium oxide on the c-BN surface was determined to be VO2, and the surfaces were found to be thermally stable, exhibiting an NEA. In comparison, the oxygen-terminated c-BN surface, where B2O3 was detected, showed a positive electron affinity of ˜1.2 eV. The B2O3 evidently acts as a negatively charged layer introducing a surface dipole directed into the c-BN. Through the interaction of VO2 with the B2O3 layer, a B-O-V layer structure would contribute a dipole between the O and V layers with the positive side facing vacuum. The lower enthalpy of formation for B2O3 is favorable for the formation of the B-O-V layer structure, which provides a thermally stable surface dipole and an NEA surface.

  10. Vanadium and V-Ti alloys at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenei, Zsolt; Cynn, Hyunchae; Evans, William J.; MacLeod, Simon; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Meng, Yue

    2013-03-01

    Experimental studies of vanadium found that during compression it undergoes a phase transition from the low pressure body centered cubic crystal structure to a rhombohedral phase at 65 GPa when compressed under quasihydrostatic conditions (PRB 83, 054101). Theoretical studies are in reasonable agreement with the transition pressure and predict that upon further compression above 200 GPa the bcc phase becomes stable again. The latest study (PRL 103, 235501) predicts that alloying vanadium with small amounts of the neighboring elements can increase or decrease the stability of the bcc phase relative to the rhombohedral phase. We performed powder x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cell of pure vanadium and V-Ti alloys at ambient temperature to very high pressures. We will discuss our results, including the equation of state and the stability of the rhombohedral phase at high pressures. This work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. HPCAT use is supported by DOE-BES, DOE-NNSA, NSF, and the W.M. Keck Foundation. APS is supported by DOE-BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  11. Synthesis, immunomodulation and cytotoxic effects of vanadium (IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Uzma; Jamal, Rifat Ara; Mesaik, Mohammad Ahmed; Mahroof-Tahir, Muhammad; Shahid, Saba; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Vanadium is known to exhibit several bioactivities and shows potential as a pharmaceutical drug. The current studies were conducted with the goal of synthesizing a new generation of oxovanadium(IV) complexes, investigating their effects on cancer cell proliferation and their immunomodulatory properties, and predicting possible structure activity relationships. The elucidation of the structures of the synthesized complexes was achieved using elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic property measurements, and IR and electronic spectroscopies. These studies suggest that the synthesized complexes have a binuclear structure. All of the complexes were evaluated on different cancer cell lines, including HeLa, PC-3, and C33A, and on the normal 3T3 fibroblast cells. Some of the compounds exhibited prominent inhibitory activities on the cervical cancer cell lines and the prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The immunomodulatory activity of the vanadium compounds was evaluated on human phagocytes for ROS (reactive oxygen species) production using luminol- and lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assays. No potent effect was exerted by the majority of the tested compounds on whole blood oxidative burst activity. A study of human T-cells proliferation in vitro on vanadium complexes was also conducted. The majority of the compounds were observed to exhibit potent inhibitory effects. The superoxide, nitric oxide and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging properties were also determined.

  12. Intragranular ferrite nucleation in medium-carbon vanadium steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Fusao; Takahashi, Toshihiko ); Ochi, Tatsurou . Muroran R D Lab.)

    1994-05-01

    In this study, the mechanism of intragranular ferrite nucleation is investigated. It is found that intragranular ferrite idiomorphs'' nucleate at vanadium nitrides which precipitate at manganese sulfide particles during cooling in the austenite region. It is observed that intragranular ferrite has the Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with vanadium nitride which precipitated at manganese sulfide. According to classical nucleation theory, the proeutectoid ferrite nucleation rate depends on the following factors: (1) the driving free energy for ferrite nucleation, (2) the diffusivity of carbon atoms in austenite, and (3) the increase in the interfacial energy associated with ferrite nucleation. In the Baker-Nutting orientation relationship, the lattice mismatch across the habit planes is likely to be very small. Depleted zones of solute atoms such as vanadium are assumed to be formed in the austenite matrix around precipitates. The effect of the depleted zones on factors (1) and (2) is estimated thermodynamically and it is proved that those effects are negligibly small. Thus, the authors conclude that the most important factor in nucleation kinetics of intragranular ferrite is the formation of precipitates which can develop coherent, low energy interfaces with ferrite.

  13. Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, V. K.; Chen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but future widespread commercialization requires a considerable reduction in capital costs. Determining the appropriate battery size for the intended power range can help minimize the amount of materials needed, thereby reducing capital costs. A physics-based model is an essential tool for predicting the power range of large scale VRFB systems to aid in the design optimization process. This paper presents a modeling framework that accounts for the effects of flow rate on the pumping losses, local mass transfer rate, and nonuniform vanadium concentration in the cell. The resulting low-order model captures battery performance accurately even at high power densities and remains computationally practical for stack-level optimization and control purposes. We first use the model to devise an optimal control strategy that maximizes battery life during discharge. Assuming optimal control is implemented, we then determine the upper efficiency limits of a given VRFB system and compare the net power and associated overpotential and pumping losses at different operating points. We also investigate the effects of varying the electrode porosity, stack temperature, and total vanadium concentration on the peak power.

  14. Dietary vanadium induces oxidative stress in the intestine of broilers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuanxin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Wang, Kangping; Cui, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine oxidative stress induced by dietary vanadium in the mucosa of different parts of intestine including duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecal tonsil. A total of 420 1-day-old avian broilers were divided into six groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg vanadium as ammonium metavanadate. During the experimental period of 42 days, oxidative stress parameters were determined for both control and experimental groups. The results showed that malondialdehyde content was significantly higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg groups than in control group. In contrast, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical, and glutathione hormone content were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) mainly in 45 and 60 mg/kg groups in comparison with those of control group. However, the abovementioned oxidative stress parameters were not significantly changed (p > 0.05) in 5 and 15 mg/kg groups. It was concluded that dietary vanadium in excess of 30 mg/kg could cause obvious oxidative stress in the intestinal mucosa, which could impact the antioxidant function of intestinal tract in broilers.

  15. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry.

    PubMed

    Gummow, B; Kirsten, W F A; Gummow, R J; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2006-10-17

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on extrapolating information from the point source (e.g. stack height, exit velocity, exit diameter) to the point of exposure. (2) It incorporates the physiological constraints of the species exposed. (3) It takes into account oral as well as inhalation exposure. (4) It addresses terrain, by using measurements at the point of exposure. (5) It accounts for existing background concentrations of pollutants and pollutants from multiple sources. (6) It uses a stochastic process with distribution functions to account for variability in the data over time. Environmental inputs into the model included aerial fall-out sample vanadium (n=566), unwashed grass sample vanadium (n=342) and soluble soil sample vanadium (n=342). Physiological cattle inputs were derived from two cohorts of Brahman-cross sentinel cattle (n=30). The model provided an estimate of the chronic external exposure dose of vanadium for two separate groups of cattle grazing over a 5-year period (1999-2004) immediately adjacent (median dose=2.14mg vanadium/kg body weight/day) and 2km away (median dose=1.07mg/kg/day) from a South African vanadium-processing plant, respectively. The final output of the model is a distribution curve of the probable vanadium intake based on the variability within the inputs over the 5-year period of the study. The model is adaptable enough for application to other transition metals and species (including man), and could be used as an alternative to plume-dispersion modelling.

  16. The role of vanadium additive in the activated sintering and shrinkage rate of tungsten-vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Kameel; Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yue; Zhao, Ming-Yue; Muhammad, Wazir; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2015-05-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a common and effective way to fabricate tungsten-based materials for preliminary investigations of their application in fusion reactor. The selection of doping materials and their appropriate concentration in tungsten is important for activated consolidation and to improve the shrinkage rate during the sintering process. The impact of vanadium concentration on the shrinkage rate of tungsten-vanadium (W-V) alloys has been studied in this work. Improvement in the shrinkage rate and mechanical strength of W-V alloys has been achieved by increasing the V concentration. The residual porosity was gradually decreased and the activated sintering conditions got better with the increase of V concentration. The saturation of shrinkage rate has been found at 1550°C for W-10 wt.%V.

  17. Amelioration of vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and adrenocortical hyperactivity by vitamin E acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Ghosh, Rituparna; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2007-12-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to the health professionals and a cutting-edge medical problem. Vanadium has been recognized as industrial hazards that adversely affect human and animal reproductive health. Since testicular function is exquisitely susceptible to reactive-oxygen species, the present study elucidates the possible involvement of oxidative stress in vanadium-induced testicular toxicity and the prophylactic effects of vitamin E acetate against such adverse effects of vanadium. The study also characterizes the effects of vanadium on rat adrenal steroidogenesis and determines the underlying mechanisms of testicular and adrenal interactions in response to vanadium exposure. Significantly reduced sperm count associated with decreased serum testosterone and gonadotropins level in the vanadium-injected group of rats compared to control substantially proves the ongoing damaging effects of vanadium-induced ROS on developing germ cells. This is in turn reflected in the appreciable increase in testicular lipid peroxidation level and decline in the activities of steroidogenic and antioxidant enzymes. However, oral administration of vitamin E acetate could protect testes from the toxic effects of vanadium. Vanadium also results in adrenocortical hyperactivity, as evidenced by the elevated secretion of glucocorticoids, adrenal gland hypertrophy and increased activity of adrenal Delta(5)3beta-HSD. However, reversibility of these alterations in adrenocortical activities was vividly reflected after vitamin E acetate supplementation. All these studies reveal that oxidative stress is the major mechanism of health deterioration and that vanadium can act as a stressor metal causing chronic stress effects through excitation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However antioxidant support by vitamin E acetate may provide significant protection.

  18. Chronic vanadium poisoning in calves and its treatment with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    PubMed

    Gummow, B; Botha, C J; Williams, M C

    2006-10-01

    Sixteen Friesland heifer calves aged between 96 and 157 days were removed from a dairy farm that had been polluted with vanadium and randomly allocated into two equal groups (n = 8). The objective of the trial was to determine whether calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa(2)EDTA) could be used as a treatment for cattle running in environments high in background vanadium. The treatment group received 80 mg CaNa(2)EDTA per kg body weight intraperitonealy (i.p.) twice a week over a 10-week period. The control group received normal saline i.p. over the same period. During the trial calves were exposed to a daily intake of vanadium in the form of contaminated tef hay derived from the farm of origin. In addition, the total mixed ration was spiked with a further 20 mg V(2)O(5)/kg feed to compensate for possible on-farm inhalation exposure. A stochastic model was used to estimate daily intake of vanadium as a distribution function. The model estimated that the daily intake of vanadium varied between an absolute minimum of 33 mg/day to an absolute maximum of 124 mg/day. The average intake of vanadium was 71.8 mg per day per calf. Various chemical pathology parameters were measured throughout the trial as well as urine excretion rates of vanadium and lymphocyte stimulation counts. All calves were slaughtered and necropsied in cohorts of 4-6 animals at monthly intervals after completion of the trial and withdrawal of vanadium from the ration. Tissue concentrations of vanadium were determined and necropsy findings were noted. The study found that CaNa(2)EDTA appears to enhance the excretion of vanadium in calves, but could not prove that the treatment had a protective effect against vanadium exposure. Calves were able to tolerate the prolonged treatment with CaNa(2)EDTA without side-effects.

  19. Ultra-low vanadium ion diffusion amphoteric ion-exchange membranes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J. B.; Lu, M. Z.; Chu, Y. Q.; Wang, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    An amphoteric ion-exchange membrane (AIEM) from fluoro-methyl sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing content-controlled benzimidazole moiety, was firstly fabricated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The AIEM and its covalently cross-linked membrane (AIEM-c) behave the highly suppressed vanadium-ion crossover and their tested VO2+ permeability are about 638 and 1117 times lower than that of Nafion117, respectively. This is further typically verified by the lower VO2+ concentration inside AIEM that is less than half of that inside Nafion117 detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, in addition of the nearly 3 times longer battery self-discharge time. The ultra-low vanadium ion diffusion could be ascribed to the narrower ion transporting channel originated from the acid-base interactions and the rebelling effect between the positively-charged benzimidazole structure and VO2+ ions. It is found that, VRB assembled with AIEM exhibits the equal or higher Coulombic efficiency (99.0% vs. 96.4%), voltage efficiency (90.7% vs. 90.7%) and energy efficiency (89.8% vs. 87.4%) than that with Nafion117 and keeps continuous 220 charge-discharge cycles for over 25 days, confirming that the AIEM of this type is a potentially suitable separator for VRB application.

  20. Ferrocene and cobaltocene derivatives for non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byunghyun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ketack

    2015-01-01

    Ferrocene and cobaltocene and their derivatives are studied as new redox materials for redox flow cells. Their high reaction rates and moderate solubility are attractive properties for their use as active materials. The cyclability experiments are carried out in a static cell; the results showed that these materials exhibit stable capacity retention and predictable discharge potentials, which agree with the potential values from the cyclic voltammograms. The diffusion coefficients of these materials are 2 to 7 times higher than those of other non-aqueous materials such as vanadium acetylacetonate, iron tris(2,2'-bipyridine) complexes, and an organic benzene derivative.

  1. Ferrocene and cobaltocene derivatives for non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byunghyun; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ketack

    2015-01-01

    Ferrocene and cobaltocene and their derivatives are studied as new redox materials for redox flow cells. Their high reaction rates and moderate solubility are attractive properties for their use as active materials. The cyclability experiments are carried out in a static cell; the results showed that these materials exhibit stable capacity retention and predictable discharge potentials, which agree with the potential values from the cyclic voltammograms. The diffusion coefficients of these materials are 2 to 7 times higher than those of other non-aqueous materials such as vanadium acetylacetonate, iron tris(2,2'-bipyridine) complexes, and an organic benzene derivative. PMID:25428116

  2. Vanadium diaphragm electrode serves as hydrogen diffuser in lithium hydride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, C. E.; Heinrich, R. R.; Johnson, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Lithium hydride cell uses vanadium diaphragm electrode as a hydrogen diffuser. Vanadium is high in hydrogen gas solubility and permeability, is least sensitive to adverse surface effects, maintains good mechanical strength in hydrogen atmospheres, and appears to be compatible with all alkali-halide electrolytes and lithium metals.

  3. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate mediated by a vanadium complex.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Michael P; Hanhan, M Emre; Jones, Michael R

    2010-03-28

    Initiation of the polymerization of vinyl acetate with azobis(isobutyronitrile) in the presence of a vanadium bis(iminopyridine) complex generates vanadium-capped dormant polymer chains with excellent correlation between molecular weight and conversion and good molecular weight distributions.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of vanadium nitride and modulation of its catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Taizhong; Mao, Shun; Zhou, Guihua; Wen, Zhenhai; Huang, Xingkang; Ci, Suqin; Chen, Junhong

    2014-07-01

    A creative hydrothermal synthesis method followed by calcination for vanadium nitride (VN) is reported. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) study of the catalyst shows that VN possesses a comparable catalytic performance to commercial Pt/C catalyst. The ORR catalytic activity study of vanadium nitride, vanadium carbonitride, and vanadium carbide reveals that tuning anions offers a promising route for the activity enhancement of the non-precious metal catalysts.A creative hydrothermal synthesis method followed by calcination for vanadium nitride (VN) is reported. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) study of the catalyst shows that VN possesses a comparable catalytic performance to commercial Pt/C catalyst. The ORR catalytic activity study of vanadium nitride, vanadium carbonitride, and vanadium carbide reveals that tuning anions offers a promising route for the activity enhancement of the non-precious metal catalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods; SEM characterization of the catalysts; Tafel test of Pt/C catalyst; BET and cyclic performance tests of VN. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02646b

  5. Effect of Sulfuric and Triflic Acids on the Hydration of Vanadium Cations: An ab Initio Study.

    PubMed

    Sepehr, Fatemeh; Paddison, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) may be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage applications, but the crossover of any of the redox active species V(2+), V(3+), VO(2+), and VO2(+) through the ion exchange membrane will result in self-discharge of the battery. Hence, a molecular level understanding of the states of vanadium cations in the highly acidic environment of a VRFB is needed. We examine the effects of sulfuric and triflic (CF3SO3H) acids on the hydration of vanadium species as they mimic the electrolyte and functional group of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes. Hybrid density functional theory in conjunction with a continuum solvation model was utilized to obtain the local structures of the hydrated vanadium cations in proximity to H2SO4, CF3SO3H, and their conjugate anions. The results indicate that none of these species covalently bond to the vanadium cations. The hydration structure of V(3+) is more distorted than that of V(2+) in an acidic medium. The oxo-group of VO2(+) is protonated by either acid, in contrast to VO(2+) which is not protonated. The atomic partial charge of the four oxidation states of vanadium varies from +1.7 to +2.0. These results provide the local solvation structures of vanadium cations in the VRFBs environment that are directly related to the electrolytes stability and diffusion of vanadium ions into the membrane. PMID:25954916

  6. Protective effects of Sesamum indicum extract against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Shahraki, Jafar; Tafreshian, Saman; Salimi, Ahmad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium toxicity is a challenging problem to human and animal health with no entirely understanding cytotoxic mechanisms. Previous studies in vanadium toxicity showed involvement of oxidative stress in isolated liver hepatocytes and mitochondria via increasing of ROS formation, release of cytochrome c and ATP depletion after incubation with different concentrations (25-200 µM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Sesamum indicum seed extract (100-300 μg/mL) against oxidative stress induced by vanadium on isolated rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that quite similar to Alpha-tocopherol (100 µM), different concentrations of extract (100-300 μg/mL) protected the isolated hepatocyte against all oxidative stress/cytotoxicity markers induced by vanadium in including cell lysis, ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease and lysosomal membrane damage. Besides, vanadium induced mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction and vanadium reductive activation mediated by glutathione in vanadium toxicity was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by Sesamum indicum extracts. These findings suggested a hepato-protective role for extracts against liver injury resulted from vanadium toxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 979-985, 2016.

  7. Vertical administration of vanadium through lactation induces behavioural and neuromorphological changes: protective role of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Olopade, J O; Fatola, I O; Olopade, F E

    2011-11-23

    The work investigated the protective role of vitamin E on vanadium induced neurotoxicity. Three adult female rats were divided into three groups, A-C with each dam and her pups forming a group. Group A served as control. The dam in Group B was given 3mg/kg b.w./day of vanadium from PND 1 while the Group C dam were given 3mg/kg b.w./day of vanadium, for 14 days and 500mg/kg b.w. of vitamin E 72 hourly in the same time frame. The results showed that pups from Group B, exhibited behavioural deficits in most tests, a significant reduction in body weight gain and absolute brain weight; in addition immunohistochemistry showed reactive astrogliosis induced by vanadium exposure. All these findings were however attenuated in pups whose dam was exposed to vanadium and vitamin E depicting the significant protective effects of this antioxidant against vanadium. This study is novel in that both vanadium and vitamin E were introduced through the lactation route. We conclude that though caution remains essential in the posology of vitamin E, the management of lactating mothers who have been exposed to vanadium occupationally, environmentally or therapeutically with supplementation of this antioxidant may be beneficial at least in the short term to both mother and offspring.

  8. Vanadium in the detection, prevention and treatment of cancer: the in vivo evidence.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Waghray, Abhijeet; Patel, Mehool A; Chatterjee, Malay

    2010-08-01

    Vanadium, a dietary micronutrient, is yet to be established as an essential part of the human diet. Over the past century, several biological effects of vanadium, such as insulin-mimetic action as well as amelioration of hyperlipidemia and hypertension, have been discovered. This transition element is known to influence a battery of enzymatic systems, namely phosphatases, ATPases, peroxidases, ribonucleases, protein kinases and oxidoreductases. Multiple biochemical and molecular actions of vanadium have been implicated in its inhibitory effects on various tumor cells of human origin. Successful in vitro studies over the past few decades have advanced the anticancer research on vanadium into the preclinical stage. Vanadium in several animal cancer models provides protection against all stages of carcinogenesis--initiation, promotion, and progression. This review focuses on the current advances in cancer prevention and treatment as well as early detection by vanadium compounds in preclinical animal models while pointing to possible mechanisms of such diverse beneficial effects. Clinical pharmacokinetic and potential toxicity studies on vanadium are also highlighted in this review. Supporting and challenging evidence as well as future directions of vanadium research exploring the possibility of using this dietary agent for detection, prevention and treatment of human cancers are critically discussed.

  9. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  10. Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the benthic invertebrate Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Fontaine, Madeleine; Norwood, Warren P; Brown, Mitra; Dixon, D George; Le, X Chris

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium has the potential to leach into the environment from petroleum coke, an oil sands byproduct. To determine uptake of vanadium species in the biota, we exposed the benthic invertebrate Hyalella azteca with increasing concentrations of two different vanadium species, V(IV) and V(V), for seven days. The concentrations of vanadium in the H. azteca tissue increased with the concentration of vanadium in the exposure water. Speciation analysis revealed that V(IV) in the exposure water was oxidized to V(V) between renewal periods, and therefore the animals were mostly exposed to V(V). Speciation analysis of the H. azteca tissue showed the presence of V(V), V(IV), and an unidentified vanadium species. These results indicate the uptake and metabolism of vanadium by H. azteca. Because H. azteca are widely distributed in freshwater systems and are an important food supply for many fish, determining the uptake and metabolism of vanadium allows for a better understanding of the potential environmental effects on invertebrates.

  11. Novel catalytic effects of Mn3O4 for all vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jae; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jae-Hun; Hwang, Uk; Lee, Nam Jin; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2012-06-01

    A new approach for enhancing the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes by employing non-precious metal oxides is designed. The outstanding electro-catalytic activity and mechanical stability of Mn(3)O(4) are advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, leading to efficient operation of a vanadium redox flow battery.

  12. Effect of Sulfuric and Triflic Acids on the Hydration of Vanadium Cations: An ab Initio Study.

    PubMed

    Sepehr, Fatemeh; Paddison, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) may be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage applications, but the crossover of any of the redox active species V(2+), V(3+), VO(2+), and VO2(+) through the ion exchange membrane will result in self-discharge of the battery. Hence, a molecular level understanding of the states of vanadium cations in the highly acidic environment of a VRFB is needed. We examine the effects of sulfuric and triflic (CF3SO3H) acids on the hydration of vanadium species as they mimic the electrolyte and functional group of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes. Hybrid density functional theory in conjunction with a continuum solvation model was utilized to obtain the local structures of the hydrated vanadium cations in proximity to H2SO4, CF3SO3H, and their conjugate anions. The results indicate that none of these species covalently bond to the vanadium cations. The hydration structure of V(3+) is more distorted than that of V(2+) in an acidic medium. The oxo-group of VO2(+) is protonated by either acid, in contrast to VO(2+) which is not protonated. The atomic partial charge of the four oxidation states of vanadium varies from +1.7 to +2.0. These results provide the local solvation structures of vanadium cations in the VRFBs environment that are directly related to the electrolytes stability and diffusion of vanadium ions into the membrane.

  13. Model investigations for vanadium-protein interactions: vanadium(III) compounds with dipeptides and their oxovanadium(IV) analogues.

    PubMed

    Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J; Tolis, Evangelos J; Tsangaris, John M; Evangelou, Angelos; Woollins, DerekJ; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Pessoa, Costa; Correia, Isabel; Kabanos, Themistoklis A

    2002-04-01

    The reaction of VCl(3) with 1,10-phenanthroline and a series of dipeptides (H(2)dip), having aliphatic as well as aromatic side chains, in methyl alcohol and in the presence of triethylamine affords vanadium(III) compounds of the general formula [V(III)(dip)(MeOH)(phen)]Cl. Aerial oxidation/hydrolysis of the vanadium(III) species gives their oxovanadium(IV) analogues of the general formula [V(IV)O(dip)(phen)]. X-ray crystallographic characterization of the [V(IV)O(dip)(phen)] compounds (where dip(2-)=Gly- L-Ala, Gly- L-Val and Gly- L-Phe) revealed that the vanadium atom possesses a severely distorted octahedral coordination and is ligated to a tridentate dip(2-) ligand at the N(amine) atom, the deprotonated N(peptide) atom and one of the O(carboxylate) atoms, as well as an oxo group and two phenanthroline nitrogen atoms. Circular dichroism characterization of the V(III)/V(IV)O(2+)-dipeptide compounds revealed a strong signal for the V(IV)O(2+) species in the visible range of the spectrum, with a characteristic pattern which may be exploited to identify the N(am), N(pep) and O(car) ligation of a peptide or a protein to V(IV)O(2+) center, and a weak Cotton effect of opposite sign to their vanadium(III) analogues. The visible spectra of the V(III)-dipeptide compounds revealed two d-d bands with high intensity, thus indicating that the covalency of the metal-donor atoms is significant, i.e. the vanadium d orbitals are significantly mixed with the ligand orbitals, and this is confirmed by the low values of their Racah B parameters. The high-intensity band of the V(IV)O(2+)-dipeptide compounds at approximately 460 nm implies also a strong covalency of the metal with the equatorial donor atoms and this was supported by the EPR spectra of these compounds. Moreover, the V(III)/V(IV)O(2+)-dipeptide complexes were characterized by EPR and IR spectroscopies as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. PMID:11941494

  14. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  15. Investigation of the Electrolyte Effects on Formation of Vanadium Carbide via Plasma Electrolytic Saturation Method (pes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbanian, Babak; Khoie, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Rasouli, Mahmood; Doodran, Ramona Javadi

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important hardening methods of tool steel is the use of carbide coatings. During this process, vanadium atoms diffuse the specimen’s surface at high temperature and reacts with the available carbon in steel and create vanadium carbide with high hardness. During the plasma electrolytic saturation (PES) process, the vanadium element diffuses with the help of plasma and increases up to around 950∘ as a result of the temperature, providing conditions for the creation of vanadium carbide. The best combination of electrolyte is 4g vanadium oxide and 50mL hydrochloric acid and different concern of sodium hydroxide. The results indicate that the formed coating is about 30μm. As the conductivity increases, the condition for diffusion is provided; however, with increase in the temperature, the diffusion decreases. The coating formation is observed in the current at 9-11 A and hardness of this coating is about 1400vickers.

  16. Temperature-depended mechanical properties of microfabricated vanadium oxide mechanical resonators for thermal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Naoki; Pan, Libao; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    This study describes our newly fabricated resonant thermal sensors based on vanadium oxide and investigates the temperature dependences of their resonant frequencies and Q factor. The suspended vanadium oxide resonators are microfabricated using Au or SiO2 as the sacrificial layer. The resonant frequency of the fabricated vanadium oxide resonators linearly varies with temperature, and the value of temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency is -1308 ppm/K in the range of 20-100 °C. The averaged Q factor in this range was 540. The temperature and thermal resolution of the vanadium oxide resonator are estimated as 1.7 mK/\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}} and 4.3 nW/\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}} , respectively, which are higher than those of a Si resonator having similar dimensions and under similar conditions. Therefore, the feasibility that vanadium oxide is a promising material for resonant thermal sensors is indicated.

  17. Effects of Iron Sand Ratios on the Basic Characteristics of Vanadium Titanium Mixed Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-hui; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Wang, Yao-zu; Xue, Xun; Yan, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Effects of iron sand ratios on the basic characteristics of vanadium titanium mixed ores were investigated using micro-sinter and grey relational analysis methods. The results show that iron sand presents poor assimilability, poor liquid flow capability, and low bonding phase strength. As the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores increases, the mixed ore's assimilation temperature increases, the fluidity index of liquid decreases, and the bonding phase strength first rises and then decreases. The comprehensive index of basic characteristic (CI) improves and then deteriorates with increasing iron sand ratio. The CI of vanadium titanium mixed ores is optimized when the iron sand ratio is 9 wt.%. In order to make full use of low-price iron-bearing materials and improve the sintering characteristics of vanadium titanium magnetite, the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores should be controlled within 9-12 wt.%.

  18. The protective effect of vanadium against diabetic cataracts in diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Shi, De-Jing; Gao, Xiang-Chun; Mi, Shu-Yong; Yu, Ying; Han, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of vanadium in alloxan-induced diabetes and cataract in rats. Different doses of vanadium was administered once daily for 8 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. To know the mechanism of action of vanadium, lens malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities of aldose reductase (AR), and sorbitol levels were assayed, respectively. Supplementation of vanadium to alloxan-induced diabetic rats decreased the blood glucose levels due to hyperglycemia, inhibited the AR activity, and delayed cataract progression in a dose-dependent manner. The observed beneficial effects may be attributed to polyol pathway activation but not decreased oxidative stress. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that vanadium could effectively reduce the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and diabetic cataracts in rats.

  19. A comparison of hypoglycemic activity of three species of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunchao; Liu, Tongjun

    2009-02-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of three fungi of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium was studied in this paper. Alloxan- and adrenalin-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose and the sugar tolerance were determined. After the mice were administered (ig) with Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium, the blood glucose of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p < 0.05), ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin was inhibited (p < 0.01) and the sugar tolerance of the normal mice was improved. However, the same result did not occur in Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa group. Compared with Ganoderma rich in vanadium and Grifola frondosa rich in vanadium, the hypoglycemic effects of Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium on hyperglycemic animals are significant; it may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people.

  20. Effects of Iron Sand Ratios on the Basic Characteristics of Vanadium Titanium Mixed Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-hui; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Wang, Yao-zu; Xue, Xun; Yan, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effects of iron sand ratios on the basic characteristics of vanadium titanium mixed ores were investigated using micro-sinter and grey relational analysis methods. The results show that iron sand presents poor assimilability, poor liquid flow capability, and low bonding phase strength. As the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores increases, the mixed ore's assimilation temperature increases, the fluidity index of liquid decreases, and the bonding phase strength first rises and then decreases. The comprehensive index of basic characteristic (CI) improves and then deteriorates with increasing iron sand ratio. The CI of vanadium titanium mixed ores is optimized when the iron sand ratio is 9 wt.%. In order to make full use of low-price iron-bearing materials and improve the sintering characteristics of vanadium titanium magnetite, the iron sand ratio in vanadium titanium mixed ores should be controlled within 9-12 wt.%.

  1. The enrichment of biomass of cyanobacteria with vanadium using the cation and anion forms of its compounds.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, Svetlana Gennadievna; Tambiev, Alexander Khapachevich; Sedykh, Ivelina Maximovna; Lukyanov, Alexander Andrievich; Bannikh, Lidia Nicolaevna

    2011-04-01

    Compounds of the trace element vanadium have been shown to mimic insulin effects in in vitro and in vivo systems. Vanadium compounds have emerged as agents for potential use in diabetes therapy. In our work we show the possibility of obtaining enriched biomass of cyanobacteria genus Spirulina (S. platensis and S. maxima) with vanadium in organic form. We have investigated the accumulation of vanadium by the cells of cyanobacteria S. platensis and S. maxima by adding to cultural medium both the forms of vanadium in various concentrations and have defined the optimal concentrations of vanadium in the medium for maximum enrichment of the cells. We defined that S. maxima is more steady to increased concentration of vanadium(IV) and (V) in medium. Optimal concentration of vanadium(IV) in the medium for enrichment of S. platensis and S. maxima biomass was 1.5 g/L, at this vanadium concentration in medium the content of vanadium in the cells of S. platensis was 1245±105 μg/g and in the cells of S. maxima was 1550±75 μg/g. In the case of vanadium(V) addition, the optimal concentration for S. platensis enrichment was 1.5 g/L vanadium(V) in medium, and the intracellular concentration was 2855±254 μg/g. For S. maxima the optimal concentration was 1.0 g/L vanadium(V) in medium, at that concentration the content of vanadium in cells was 2650±206 μg/g. In addition, we revealed the alterations in macro- and microelemental compositions of both cultures caused by the increased concentration of vanadium compounds in cultural medium.

  2. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  3. A vanadium and iron cluster accumulates on VnfX during iron-vanadium-cofactor synthesis for the vanadium nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Staples, C R; Rangaraj, P; Shah, V K; Ludden, P W

    1999-06-18

    The vnf-encoded nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii contains an iron-vanadium cofactor (FeV-co) in its active site. Little is known about the synthesis pathway of FeV-co, other than that some of the gene products required are also involved in the synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of the widely studied molybdenum-dinitrogenase. We have found that VnfX, the gene product of one of the genes contained in the vnf-regulon, accumulates iron and vanadium in a novel V-Fe cluster during synthesis of FeV-co. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and metal analyses of the V-Fe cluster accumulated on VnfX are consistent with a VFe7-8Sx precursor of FeV-co. The EPR spectrum of VnfX with the V-Fe cluster bound strongly resembles that of isolated FeV-co and a model VFe3S4 compound. The V-Fe cluster accumulating on VnfX does not contain homocitrate. No accumulation of V-Fe cluster on VnfX was observed in strains with deletions in genes known to be involved in the early steps of FeV-co synthesis, suggesting that it corresponds to a precursor of FeV-co. VnfX purified from a nifB strain incapable of FeV-co synthesis has a different electrophoretic mobility in native anoxic gels than does VnfX, which has the V-Fe cluster bound. NifB-co, the Fe and S precursor of FeMo-co (and presumably FeV-co), binds to VnfX purified from the nifB strain, producing a shift in its electrophoretic mobility on anoxic native gels. The data suggest that a precursor of FeV-co that contains vanadium and iron accumulates on VnfX, and thus, VnfX is involved in the synthesis of FeV-co.

  4. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dancsak, Stacia E; Silva, Sidnei G; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Jones, Bradley T; Donati, George L

    2014-01-01

    High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg(-1) for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg(-1) for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg(-1) for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated. Powers of detection are comparable to other traditional methods.

  5. Leaching of vanadium, sodium, and silicon from molten V-Ti-bearing slag obtained from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan-yuan; Yi, Ling-yun; Zhao, Wei; Chen, De-sheng; Zhao, Hong-xin; Qi, Tao

    2016-08-01

    The water leaching process of vanadium, sodium, and silicon from molten vanadium-titanium-bearing (V-Ti-bearing) slag obtained from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was investigated systematically. The results show that calcium titanate, sodium aluminosilicate, sodium oxide, silicon dioxide and sodium vanadate are the major components of the molten V-Ti-bearing slag. The experimental results indicate that the liquid-solid (L/S) mass ratio significantly affects the leaching process because of the respective solubilities and diffusion rates of the components. A total of 83.8% of vanadium, 72.8% of sodium, and 16.1% of silicon can be leached out via a triple counter-current leaching process under the optimal conditions of a particle size below 0.074 mm, a temperature of 90°C, a leaching time of 20 min, an L/S mass ratio of 4:1, and a stirring speed of 300 r/min. The kinetics of vanadium leaching is well described by an internal diffusion-controlled model and the apparent activation energy is 11.1 kJ/mol. The leaching mechanism of vanadium was also analyzed.

  6. Enrichment, Distribution of Vanadium-Containing Protein in Vanadium-Enriched Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Ameliorative Effect on Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Zhao, Yanlei; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Jingfeng; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers are a potential source of natural organic vanadium that may improve insulin resistance. In this work, vanadium was accumulated rapidly in blood, body wall, and intestine by sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Furthermore, water-soluble vanadium-containing proteins, the main form of the organic vanadium, were tentatively accumulated and isolated by a bioaccumulation experiment. It was also designed to evaluate the beneficial effect of vanadium-containing proteins (VCPs) from sea cucumber rich in vanadium on the development of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD). HFSD mice treated with VCPs significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR values as compared to HFSD mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, and leptin levels in insulin-resistant mice were dramatically reduced by a VCP supplement. These results show an ameliorative effect on insulin resistance by treatment with VCPs. Such compound seems to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Study and characterization of positive electrolytes for application in the aqueous all-copper redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Laura; Lloyd, David; Magdalena, Eva; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2015-03-01

    In recent studies, the employment of the aqueous solution system comprised of Cu(II)-Cu(I)-Cl system was addressed for massive energy storage in Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) [5,6], providing important practical advantages compared to the widespread all-vanadium or Zn/Br systems [5]. The substitution of vanadium electrolytes by copper-chloride electrolytes allows the simplification of the process and notably reduces the cost, allowing for a better commercialization of RFBs. Here, a complete physico-chemical characterization of positive copper electrolytes and their electrochemical performance using different supporting electrolytes, HCl and CaCl2, is presented. Once the physical properties and the electrochemical performance of each one of the supporting electrolytes were determined, the final composition of supporting electrolyte for this Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple could be optimized by mixing different sources of chloride, regarding its practical application in the all-copper RFB.

  8. Electron affinity of cubic boron nitride terminated with vanadium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yu; Sun, Tianyin; Shammas, Joseph; Hao, Mei; Nemanich, Robert J.; Kaur, Manpuneet

    2015-10-28

    A thermally stable negative electron affinity (NEA) for a cubic boron nitride (c-BN) surface with vanadium-oxide-termination is achieved, and its electronic structure was analyzed with in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The c-BN films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing BF{sub 3} and N{sub 2} as precursors. Vanadium layers of ∼0.1 and 0.5 nm thickness were deposited on the c-BN surface in an electron beam deposition system. Oxidation of the metal layer was achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment. After 650 °C thermal annealing, the vanadium oxide on the c-BN surface was determined to be VO{sub 2}, and the surfaces were found to be thermally stable, exhibiting an NEA. In comparison, the oxygen-terminated c-BN surface, where B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was detected, showed a positive electron affinity of ∼1.2 eV. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3} evidently acts as a negatively charged layer introducing a surface dipole directed into the c-BN. Through the interaction of VO{sub 2} with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer, a B-O-V layer structure would contribute a dipole between the O and V layers with the positive side facing vacuum. The lower enthalpy of formation for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} is favorable for the formation of the B-O-V layer structure, which provides a thermally stable surface dipole and an NEA surface.

  9. Optimized anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A; Agar, Ertan; Kumbur, E Caglan

    2013-08-14

    In order to understand the properties of low vanadium permeability anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), quaternary ammonium functionalized Radel (QA-Radel) membranes with three ion exchange capacities (IECs) from 1.7 to 2.4 mequiv g(-1) were synthesized and 55-60 μm thick membrane samples were evaluated for their transport properties and in-cell battery performance. The ionic conductivity and vanadium permeability of the membranes were investigated and correlated to the battery performance through measurements of Coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency in single cell tests, and capacity fade during cycling. Increasing the IEC of the QA-Radel membranes increased both the ionic conductivity and VO(2+) permeability. The 1.7 mequiv g(-1) IEC QA-Radel had the highest Coulombic efficiency and best cycling capacity maintenance in the VRFB, while the cell's voltage efficiency was limited by the membrane's low ionic conductivity. Increasing the IEC resulted in higher voltage efficiency for the 2.0 and 2.4 mequiv g(-1) samples, but the cells with these membranes displayed reduced Coulombic efficiency and faster capacity fade. The QA-Radel with an IEC of 2.0 mequiv g(-1) had the best balance of ionic conductivity and VO(2+) permeability, achieving a maximum power density of 218 mW cm(-2) which was higher than the maximum power density of a VRFB assembled with a Nafion N212 membrane in our system. While anion exchange membranes are under study for a variety of VRFB applications, this work demonstrates that the material parameters must be optimized to obtain the maximum cell performance.

  10. Pentavalent vanadium at concentration of the underground water level enhances the sweet taste sense to glucose in college students.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masanori; Saitoh, Junko; Ohno, Hiromi; Hitomi, Chiaki; Wada, Maki

    2006-02-01

    Underground water in volcanic areas contains vanadium when the basalt layer exists among igneous rocks. The concentration of vanadium in drinking water sometimes exceeds 0.8 microM in these areas, however, the physiological effects of vanadium, especially non-toxic effects, at concentrations lower than 1 microM are unknown. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of pentavalent vanadium and tetravalent vanadium at 0.8 and 8.0 microM concentrations on the recognition threshold to taste substances in healthy college students. Pentavalent vanadium, ammonium vanadate, lowered the sweet taste threshold to glucose at 0.8 and 8.0 microM as well. Tetravalent vanadium, vanadium sulfate, did not alter the threshold to glucose either at 8.0 microM or at 0.8 microM. Ammonium vanadate also decreased the sweet taste threshold to L-proline at 8.0 microM. Ammonium vanadate did not influence the sour taste threshold to hydrogen chloride. Neither ammonium sulfate nor ammonium bicarbonate altered the sweet taste threshold to glucose. Therefore, the effect of ammonium vanadate on the sweet taste threshold is attained by vanadium but not by ammonium. It was concluded that pentavalent vanadium at 0.8 microM intensifies the sweet taste sense to glucose rather specifically. We have first shown the physiological effect of vanadium at the concentration of the underground water level.

  11. Pentavalent vanadium at concentration of the underground water level enhances the sweet taste sense to glucose in college students.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masanori; Saitoh, Junko; Ohno, Hiromi; Hitomi, Chiaki; Wada, Maki

    2006-02-01

    Underground water in volcanic areas contains vanadium when the basalt layer exists among igneous rocks. The concentration of vanadium in drinking water sometimes exceeds 0.8 microM in these areas, however, the physiological effects of vanadium, especially non-toxic effects, at concentrations lower than 1 microM are unknown. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of pentavalent vanadium and tetravalent vanadium at 0.8 and 8.0 microM concentrations on the recognition threshold to taste substances in healthy college students. Pentavalent vanadium, ammonium vanadate, lowered the sweet taste threshold to glucose at 0.8 and 8.0 microM as well. Tetravalent vanadium, vanadium sulfate, did not alter the threshold to glucose either at 8.0 microM or at 0.8 microM. Ammonium vanadate also decreased the sweet taste threshold to L-proline at 8.0 microM. Ammonium vanadate did not influence the sour taste threshold to hydrogen chloride. Neither ammonium sulfate nor ammonium bicarbonate altered the sweet taste threshold to glucose. Therefore, the effect of ammonium vanadate on the sweet taste threshold is attained by vanadium but not by ammonium. It was concluded that pentavalent vanadium at 0.8 microM intensifies the sweet taste sense to glucose rather specifically. We have first shown the physiological effect of vanadium at the concentration of the underground water level. PMID:16502326

  12. Characteristics of a new all-vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychcik, M.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction and performance of an all-vanadium redox flow system is described. The battery employs vanadyl sulphate in sulphuric acid solution as the electrolyte, carbon felt as the electrode material, and an ion-selective membrane as the separator. Working parameters, strorage life, and a comparison of the characteristics with other battery systems are also presented. The cost of manufacture of a 1 kW battery of 5 kW h, 15 kw h, or 50 kW h capacity has been evaluated and the practical application of the system in large stationary installations and electric vehicles is also discussed.

  13. X-ray-induced persistent photoconductivity in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, S. H.; Marsh, M. J.; Wang, Siming; Ramírez, J. -G.; Cai, Z. -H.; Mohanty, J. R.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2014-10-08

    The resistivity of vanadium dioxide (VO2) decreased by over one order of magnitude upon localized illumination with x rays at room temperature. Despite this reduction, the structure remained in the monoclinic phase and had no signature of the high-temperature tetragonal phase that is usually associated with the lower resistance. Once illumination ceased, relaxation to the insulating state took tens of hours near room temperature. However, a full recovery of the insulating state was achieved within minutes by thermal cycling. We show that this behavior is consistent with random local-potential fluctuations and random distribution of discrete recombination sites used to model residual photoconductivity.

  14. Pulsating electrolyte flow in a full vanadium redox battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, C. Y.; Cao, H.; Chng, M. L.; Han, M.; Birgersson, E.

    2015-10-01

    Proper management of electrolyte flow in a vanadium redox battery (VRB) is crucial to achieve high overall system efficiency. On one hand, constant flow reduces concentration polarization and by extension, energy efficiency; on the other hand, it results in higher auxiliary pumping costs, which can consume around 10% of the discharge power. This work seeks to reduce the pumping cost by adopting a novel pulsing electrolyte flow strategy while retaining high energy efficiency. The results indicate that adopting a short flow period, followed by a long flow termination period, results in high energy efficiencies of 80.5% with a pumping cost reduction of over 50%.

  15. Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g−1, 739 F g−1) and cycling stability (704 F g−1 retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors. PMID:25023373

  16. Development of analytical techniques of vanadium isotope in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Owens, J. D.; Sarafian, A.; Sen, I. S.; Huang, K. F.; Blusztajn, J.; Nielsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal with isotopes of 50V and 51V, and oxidation states of +2, +3, +4 and +5. The average concentration in seawater is 1.9 ppb, which results in a marine residence time of ~50 kyrs. Its various oxidation states make it a potential tool for investigating redox conditions in the ocean and sediments due to redox related changes in the valance state of vanadium. In turn, chemical equilibrium between different oxidation states of V will likely cause isotopic fractionation that can potentially be utilized to quantify past ocean redox states. In order to apply V isotopes as a paleo-redox tracer, it is required that we know the isotopic composition of seawater and the relation to marine sources and sinks of V. We developed a novel method for pre-concentrating V and measuring the isotope ratio in seawater samples. In our method, we used four ion exchange chromatography columns to separate vanadium from seawater matrix elements, in particular titanium and chromium, which both have an isobaric interference on 50V. The first column uses the NOBIAS resin, which effectively separates V and other transition metals from the majority of seawater matrix. Subsequent columns are identical to those utilized when separating V from silicate samples (Nielsen et al, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 2011). The isotopic composition of the purified V is measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in medium resolution mode. This setup resolves all molecular interferences from masses 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53 including S-O species on mass 50. To test the new method, we spiked an open ocean seawater sample from the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) station with 10-25 μg of Alfa Aesar vanadium solution, which has an isotopic composition of δ51V = 0 [where δ51V = 1000 × [(51V/50Vsample - 51V/50VAA)/51V/50VAA]. The average of six spiked samples is -0.03±0.19‰, which is within error of the true

  17. Low temperature electrolytes for lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuhovak, Denise R.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1991-01-01

    Combinations of methyl formate (MF) and propylene carbonate (PC) using salt concentrations of 0.6 to 2.4 M, with lithium hexafluoroarsenate and lithium tetrafluoroborate in a five to one molar ratio, were investigated as electrolytes in lithium/silver vanadium oxide batteries. The composition of the electrolyte affected cell performance at low temperature, self-discharge and abuse resistance as characterized by short circuit and crush testing. The electrolyte that provided the best combination of good low temperature performance, low cell self-discharge and abuse resistance was 0.6 M salt in 10:90 PC/MF.

  18. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  19. Effects of vanadium on population growth and Na-K-ATPase activity of the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    SciTech Connect

    Ringelband, U.; Karbe, L.

    1996-07-01

    Vanadium, a relatively abundant heavy metal, enters the environment naturally through rock weathering. A large fraction of vanadium input is of human origin. The combustion of petroleum- and coal-products, which contain relatively high concentrations of vanadium, is one of the most important sources of the enrichment of vanadium in the environment. As it is used as an alloy, and vanadium rich iron-ores of various origin are used in steel production, the residual slag-stones of the steel industry can contain considerable vanadium concentrations. Wherever slag-stones serve as a cheap and convenient material in riverbank reinforcement, vanadium can leach into the aquatic environment. Vanadium is regarded as an essential trace element for higher animals. Cantley et al. indicated a regulatory function of vanadate in vivo. Although considerable information is available on the toxic effects of vanadium on humans, very little is known about the toxicity of vanadium towards aquatic organisms, especially invertebrates. Bell and Sargent have shown an inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in gills of the eel Anguilla anguilla. Holleland and Towle have demonstrated the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium towards the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Hydroids are known to be particularly sensitive to heavy metals and their asexual reproduction can be used in a well-established population growth test. Furthermore, the effects of vanadium on Na-K-ATPase activity in hydroids were studied in in vivo experiments, wherein the animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of vanadium. In addition, the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase was measured in vitro, by adding vanadium to a microsomal preparation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Investigation of structure-dielectric property relationships in zirconium oxide, tantalum pentoxide, and oxide-polymer laminate films for high energy density capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Guneet

    Pulsed power applications involve transformation of electrical energy into high-peak power pulses through capacitors. There is an immediate need for fast-response capacitors with decreased volume, weight, and cost for pulsed power applications and power distribution systems. This research challenge is dominated by energy density. Energy density is directly related to dielectric properties such as dielectric polarization, conductivity and breakdown strength of the capacitor dielectric. This research work correlates processing and microstructure of single and multiple component dielectric films with their dielectric properties. The inorganic materials studied in this dissertation include zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and tantalum pentoxide (Ta 2O5) reactive sputtered films. Film crystallization & structure was studied as a function of sputtering growth variables such as sputtering power, sputtering pressure, source frequency, oxygen pressure, substrate temperature, substrate material, and post-deposition annealing temperature. Polycrystalline phase of ZrO2 and amorphous phase of Ta2O 5 were obtained for most sputtering growth variables. Although the amorphous films have lower permittivity (32 for amorphous & 51 for polycrystalline at 1 kHz), they also have lower AC and DC conductivities (3.4x10-8 S/m for amorphous & 12.2x10 -8 S/m for polycrystalline at 1 kHz), which result in high breakdown strength than polycrystalline films. Amorphous Ta2O5 films are found to be ideal for high-energy density capacitors with energy density of 14 J/cm3 because of their high permittivity, low leakage current density, and high dielectric breakdown strength. Oxide films were combined with different polymers (polyvinyldene flouride-triflouroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate) to produce two different kinds of laminate composites---oxide on polymer and polymer on oxide. Permittivity and conductivity differences in the polymer and oxide films result in an impedance contrast

  1. Oxidative stress of vanadium-mediated oxygen free radical generation stimulated by aluminium on human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Abou-Seif, M A

    1998-03-01

    It has been suggested that aluminium stimulates vanadium-mediated superoxide radical generation. The oxidative stress of generated superoxide radicals on antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidation of NADH and NADPH, membrane lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility in human red blood cells (RBC) was investigated. RBC were incubated with varying concentrations of vanadium and aluminium ions at 37 degrees C for 2 h. RBC incubated with vanadium ions showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and oxidized NADH and NADPH concentrations compared with control RBC preparations. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactivity. RBC incubated with elevated levels of vanadium showed significantly increased membrane lipid peroxidation when compared with control RBC; it increased further on addition of aluminium. A significant positive correlation was observed between the extent of vanadium induced membrane lipid peroxidation and the osmotic fragility of treated RBC. In the presence of vanadium, aluminium stimulates superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. NADH and NADPH oxidation and membrane lipid peroxidation, as well as increasing osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes. The stimulatory effect of aluminium was dependent on concentration. These results may have implications for the mechanism of toxicity of aluminium and vanadium in haemodialysis patients. PMID:9547897

  2. Vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Trester, P.W.; Smith, D.; Bloom, E.

    1995-10-01

    Vanadium alloys provide an attractive solution for fusion power plants as they exhibit a potential for low environmental impact due to low level of activation from neutron fluence and a relatively short half-life. They also have attractive material properties for use in a reactor. General Atomics along with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has developed a plan to utilize vanadium alloys as part of the Radiative Divertor Project (RDP) modification for the DIII-D tokamak. The goal for using vanadium alloys is to provide a meaningful step towards developing advanced materials for fusion power applications by demonstrating the in-service behavior of a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) in a tokamak in conjunction with developing essential fabrication technology for the manufacture of full-scale vanadium alloy components. A phased approach towards utilizing vanadium in DIII-D is being used starting with small coupons and samples, advancing to a small component, and finally a portion of the new double-null, slotted divertor will be fabricated from vanadium alloy product forms. A major portion of the program is research and development to support fabrication and resolve key issues related to environmental effects.

  3. Directed synthesis of bio-inorganic vanadium oxide composites using genetically modified filamentous phage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Baik, Seungyun; Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Yuchan; Kim, Jungtae; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-05-01

    The growth of crystalline vanadium oxide using a filamentous bacteriophage template was investigated using sequential incubation in a V2O5 precursor. Using the genetic modification of the bacteriophage, we displayed two cysteines that constrained the RSTB-1 peptide on the major coat protein P8, resulting in vanadium oxide crystallization. The phage-driven vanadium oxide crystals with different topologies, microstructures, photodegradation and vanadium oxide composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quartz microbalance and dissipation (QCM-D) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Non-specific electrostatic attraction between a wild-type phage (wt-phage) and vanadium cations in the V2O5 precursor caused phage agglomeration and fiber formation along the length of the viral scaffold. As a result, the addition of recombinant phage (re-phage) in V2O5 precursors formed heterogeneous structures, which led to efficient condensation of vanadium oxide crystal formation in lines, shown by QCM-D analysis. Furthermore, re-phage/VxOx composites showed significantly enhanced photodegradation activities compared with the synthesized wt-phage-V2O5 composite under illumination. This study demonstrates that peptide-mediated vanadium oxide mineralization is governed by a complicated interplay of peptide sequence, local structure, kinetics and the presence of a mineralizing aid, such as the two cysteine-constrained peptides on the phage surface, and has potential for use in nanotechnology applications.

  4. Simulation of the self-discharge process in vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Dongjiang; Zhang, Huamin; Sun, Chenxi; Ma, Xiangkun

    A simple mathematical model is established to predict the self-discharge process in a kilowatt-class vanadium redox flow battery stack. The model uses basic mass transport theory to simulate the transfer of vanadium ions in the battery. The simulation results agree reasonably with the experimental values, confirming the validity of the model. It is found that the diffusion rate of vanadium ions depends on the diffusion coefficient, the partition coefficient and the concentration gradient of the vanadium ions between the two half cells. For the self-discharge process at the initial SOC of 0, the net transfer direction of vanadium ions is towards the negative electrolyte until the diffusion flux of V 3+ becomes larger than that of VO 2+. For the self-discharge process at the initial SOC of 65%, the net transfer direction of vanadium ions is towards the positive electrolyte at the initial 20 h and then turns to the negative electrolyte. There are two obvious changes in the diffusion flux of vanadium ions at about 33 h and 43 h, corresponding to the vanishing time of VO 2 + and V 2+ respectively.

  5. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  6. Elimination of the interferences of anions in the kinetic spectrophotometric determination of vanadium (V) solution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Said H; Hassanin, Hanaa A; El-Shahat, Mohamed F

    2003-01-01

    Accurate determination of vanadium (V) in industrial waste water is of great importance in environmental, biological and toxicological studies. Most of kinetic spectrophotometric methods based on the catalytic effect of vanadium (V), when applied to real samples for determination of trace levels of vanadium (V) lack the satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity. This may be attributed to the serious interferences of various anions which are common pollutants in industrial waste water. The oxidation of gallic acid by ammonium persulphate, catalysed by vanadium (V) was chosen for our study. The effect of the serious interferences of various anions such as chloride, bromate, bromide, chromate, iodide, iodate, molybdate, carbonate and sulphate on the net absorbance given by 4 microg l(-1) of vanadium (V) solution were studied. The minimum concentrations of citric acid, EDTA, ascorbic acid and oxalic acid as leveling off agents required to level off interfering effects due to the aforementioned anions in the kinetic determination of vanadium (V) were 50, 70, 80 and 120 microg ml(-1), respectively. In the presence of optimum concentrations of effective leveling off agents, the dynamic range can be extended and sensitivity increased as compared with the proposed method without levelling off agents. The proposed method is a rapid, sensitive and selective method for the determination of ultra trace amounts of vanadium (V) in real samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide electro-optic modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Markov, Petr; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-03-01

    Small-footprint, low-power devices that can modulate optical signals at THz speeds would transform next-generation onchip photonics. We describe a hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide (Si-VO2) electro-optic ring resonator modulator as a candidate platform for achieving this performance benchmark. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a strongly correlated material exhibiting a semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) accompanied by large changes in electrical and optical properties. While VO2 can be switched optically on a sub-picosecond time scale, the ultimate electrical switching speed remains to be determined. In a 5 μm radius Si-VO2 ring resonator, we achieve 1.5 dB modulation in response to a 10 ns square voltage pulse of 2.5 V. In the steady state regime, we report a modulation depth of 10 dB. The larger modulation depth at longer timescales is attributed to a Joule heating contribution. Experimental results, corroborated by FDTD simulations, reveal the relationship between the portion of a VO2 patch undergoing the SMT and the resulting effects on the Si-VO2 device performance. This work indicates that with further reduction of VO2 patch sizes and increase in resonator Q factor, there is promise for the Si-VO2 ring resonator electro-optic modulator as a competitive option for on-chip photonics technology.

  8. Growth of ultrathin vanadium oxide films on Ag(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Sugizaki, Yuichi; Ishida, Shuhei; Edamoto, Kazuyuki; Ozawa, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium oxide films were grown on Ag(100) by vanadium deposition in O2 and subsequent annealing at 450 °C. It was found that at least three types of ordered V oxide films, which showed (1 × 1), hexagonal, and (4 × 1) LEED patterns, were formed on Ag(100) depending on the O2 pressure during deposition and conditions during postannealing. The films with the hexagonal and (1 × 1) periodicities were characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. The film with the (1 × 1) periodicity was ascribed to a VO(100) film. On the other hand, the film with the hexagonal periodicity was found to be composed of V2O3, and the analysis of the LEED pattern revealed that the lattice parameter of the hexagonal lattice is 0.50 nm, which is very close to that of corundum V2O3(0001) (0.495 nm).

  9. Mechanical and electrochemical characterization of vanadium nitride (VN) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, J. C.; Zambrano, G.; Aperador, W.; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camps, E.

    2011-10-01

    Vanadium nitride (V-N) thin films were grown using a reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering process, from a vanadium target (99.999%) in an Ar/N 2 gas mixture at different deposition bias voltage. Films were deposited onto silicon (1 0 0) and RUS-3 steel substrates at 400 °C. Structural, compositional, mechanical and electrochemical characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), elastic forward analysis (EFA), nanoindentation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Tafel polarization curves, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns show the presence of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) crystallographic orientations associated to the V-N cubic phase. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that when the bias voltage increases from 0 V to -150 V the hardness and elastic modulus are increased from 11 GPa to 20 GPa and from 187 GPa to 221 GPa, respectively. EIS and Tafel curves showed that the corrosion rate of steel, coated with V-N single layer films deposited without bias voltage, diminishes 90% compared to the steel without this coating. On the other hand, when the V-N coating was deposited at the highest d.c. bias voltage (-150 V), the corrosion rate was greater than in the steel coated with zero-voltage (0 V) V-N films. This last result could be attributed to the formation of porosities produced by the ion bombardment during the deposition process.

  10. Structural investigation of phosphate - bismuth glasses with vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Stănescu, R.; Vedeanu, N.; Cozar, I. B.; Măgdaş, A.

    2013-11-13

    The xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}(1−dx)[0.5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅0.5Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}] glass system with 0 ≤ x ≤ 50 mol% is investigated by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Both P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are known as network formers, but Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an unconventional one. At low content of vanadium oxide (x ≤ 5 mol%), both IR and Raman spectra are dominated by vibration bands characteristics to structural groups of phosphate and bismuthate lattices. Due to the network modifier role, vanadium oxide acts mainly on the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} network allowing the phosphate groups to impose their characteristics absorption bands in spectra. These bands are strongly reduced for x ≥ 20 mol% due to the phosphate network depolymerization and the appearance of new vibrations characteristic to P-O-V, Bi-O-V and V-O-V groups showing the network former role of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  11. Reactivity of molybdovanadophosphoric acids: Influence of the presence of vanadium in the primary and secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Casarini, D.; Centi, G.; Lena, V.; Tvaruzkova, Z. ); Jiru, P. )

    1993-10-01

    The catalytic behavior in butadiene and n-butane oxidation of molybdovanadophosphoric acids with vanadium localized inside the primary (oxoanion) and/or the secondary structure is reported. The samples are characterized by infrared, [sup 31]P-NMR, [sup 51]V-NMR, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopies in order to obtain information on the nature and localization of vanadium in the samples before reaction and the possible changes occurring during the course of the catalytic reaction. In particular, it is shown that vanadium localized initially in the secondary structure can exchange with the molybdenum atoms of the oxoanion during the catalytic reaction. Introduction of vanadium in the molybdophosphoric acid structure enhances the selective formation of maleic anhydride from the butadiene when vanadium is present both inside the oxoanion or localized in the secondary structure (before the catalytic tests), but the maximum in catalytic performance is found for different amounts of vanadium, depending on where the vanadium is localized initially. However, when present in the secondary structure, vanadium also has a negative influence on the activity of the heteropoly acid. On the contrary, in n-butane oxidation, the presence of vanadium enhances the rate of alkane activation due to the different rate-determining step. The presence of V ions also affects the maximum selectivity and yield to maleic anhydride from butane. V ions in the secondary structure are more selective at low conversion, while V ions inside the oxoanion are more selective at higher conversions and thus allow better maximum yields to maleic anhydride. 40 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. MCM-41-supported oxo-vanadium(IV) complex: a highly selective heterogeneous catalyst for the bromination of hydroxy aromatic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Susmita; Saha, Debraj; Koner, Subratanath

    2011-12-20

    An ecofriendly solid catalyst has been synthesized by anchoring vanadium(IV) into organically modified MCM-41. First, the surface of Si-MCM-41 was modified with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (3-APTES), the amine group of which upon condensation with ortho-hydroxy-acetophenone affords a N(2)O(2)-type Schiff base moiety in the mesoporous matrix. The Schiff base moieties were used to anchor oxo-vanadium(IV) ions. The prepared catalyst has been characterized by UV-vis, IR spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAX), nitrogen sorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. It is observed that the mesostructure has not been destroyed in the multistep synthesis procedure, as evidenced by SAX and TEM measurements. The catalyst has shown unprecedented high conversion as well as para selectivity toward the bromination of hydroxy aromatic compounds using aqueous 30% H(2)O(2)/KBr in water. The reaction proceeds according to the stoichiometric ratio, and the monobrominated product was obtained as the major product using a stoichiometric amount of the bromine source. The immobilized complex does not leach or decompose during the catalytic reactions, showing practical advantages over the free metal complex.

  13. Antidiabetic Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV): Conversion of inactive trans- to bioactive cis-BMOV for possible binding to target PTP-1B

    PubMed Central

    Scior, Thomas; Mack, Hans-Georg; García, José Antonio Guevara; Koch, Wolfhard

    2008-01-01

    The postulated transition of Bis-Maltolato-OxoVanadium(IV) (BMOV) from its inactive trans- into its cis-aquo-BMOV isomeric form in solution was simulated by means of computational molecular modeling. The rotational barrier was calculated with DFT – B3LYP under a stepwise optimization protocol with STO-3G, 3-21G, 3-21G*, and 6-31G ab initio basis sets. Our computed results are consistent with reports on the putative molecular mechanism of BMOV triggering the insulin-like cellular response (insulin mimetic) as a potent inhibitor of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B). Initially, trans-BMOV is present in its solid dosage form but in aqueous solution, and during oral administration, it is readily converted into a mixture of “open-type” and “closed-type” complexes of cis-aquo-BMOV under equilibrium conditions. However, in the same measure as the “closed-type” complex binds to the cytosolic PTP-1B, it disappears from solution, and the equilibrium shifts towards the “closed-type” species. In full accordance, the computed binding mode of cis-BMOV is energetically favored over sterically hindered trans-BMOV. In view of our earlier report on prodrug hypothesis of vanadium organic compounds the present results suggest that cis-BMOV is the bioactive species. PMID:19920909

  14. Rheology of aqueous foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Raufaste, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Aqueous foams are suspensions of bubbles inside aqueous phases. Their multiphasic composition leads to a complex rheological behavior that is useful in numerous applications, from oil recovery to food/cosmetic processing. Their structure is very similar to the one of emulsions, so that both materials share common mechanical properties. In particular, the presence of surfactants at the gas-liquid interfaces leads to peculiar interfacial and dissipative properties. Foam rheology has been an active research topics and is already reported in several reviews, most of them covering rheometry measurements at the scale of the foam, coupled with interpretations at the local scale of bubbles or interfaces. In this review, we start following this approach, then we try to cover the multiscale features of aqueous foam flows, emphasizing regimes where intermediate length scales need to be taken into account or regimes fast enough regarding internal time scales so that the flow goes beyond the quasi-static limit. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium and its application to gas-turbine fuel-oils.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Sinha, B P; Dutta, R K

    1975-08-01

    A very sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of vanadium in furnace oils is described. The intense indigo-blue colour developed by the reaction of vanadium with tannin and thioglycollic acid is measured at a wavelength of 600 nm at pH 4 and obeys Beer's law between 0.5 and 5 ppm vanadium. The method is applicable to gas-turbine fuel-oil and special navy fuel-oils. The common mineral constituents usually present in such oils do not interfere.

  16. Protection by vanadium, a contemporary treatment approach to both diabetes and focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenquan; Li, Pengtao; Zhao, Dan; Tang, Huiling; Guo, Jianyou

    2012-01-01

    There is now substantial epidemiological evidence that diabetes is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The protection by vanadium from focal cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats was studied in this paper. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 4 weeks of administration of 0.6 mg/ml sodium orthovanadate in drinking water. Vanadium significantly improved the outcome in diabetic rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. Vanadium reduces brain damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by imitating action of insulin.

  17. Processing of Egyptian boiler-ash for extraction of vanadium and nickel.

    PubMed

    Amer, A M

    2002-01-01

    Proposed technique in this investigation is given for vanadium and nickel enrichment in the Egyptian boiler ash. Among the various concepts for recovery of vanadium and nickel from boiler ash, the pyro-metallurgical approach is technically feasible, but is not cost-effective from an operational economy standpoint. Another technically viable process which, however, needs further development and presented in this investigation, is the hydrometallurgical processing that involves acid leaching under oxygen pressure of ground ash, followed by electrolytic separation of nickel from sulphate solution and vanadium is then neutralized and precipitated by adjustment the pH value and calcined to produce V2O5.

  18. Technology of smelting steel 35FL in a basic arc furnace using metallic vanadium screenings

    SciTech Connect

    Modylevskii, B.B.; Abbasov, M.I.; Grigoryan, S.A.; Mamedov, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the technology of smelting steel 35FL using the slag metal fraction of converter slag in the form of vanadium metal screenings MV-1, instead of conventional alloying with ferro-vanadium. This method greatly reduces the cost of casting and guarantees stable properties. When developing the smelting technology, vanadium screenings were added in admixture with deoxidizing agents, i.e., ferromanganese, silicomanganese, ferrosilicon, and lime. The new smelting technology reduces the content of gases and nonmetallic inclusions in the metal and improves the quality of the castings.

  19. Influence of vanadium-doping on the magnetism of FeCo/SiO2 nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Desautels, Ryan D; Rowe, Michael P; Freeland, John W; Jones, Michael; van Lierop, Johan

    2016-06-21

    FeCo nanoparticles (4 ± 1 nm), encapsulated by SiO2, were synthesized with and without a 2% (atomic ratio) vanadium doping. The impact from the presence of vanadium, an additive often used in the bulk to alter both physical and mechanical properties, on the nanomagnetism was probed by element-specific X-ray spectroscopy and magnetometry techniques. While the nanostructure was unaffected by the addition of 2% vanadium, the temperature dependent magnetic properties were altered significantly, such as the increased coercivity and an exchange bias field shift. PMID:27232274

  20. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  1. Phase formation at bonded vanadium and stainless steel interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, T.S.E.

    1992-01-01

    The interface between vanadium bonded to stainless steel was studies to determine whether a brittle phase formed during three joining operations. Inertia friction welds between V and 21-6-9 stainless steel were examined using TEM. In the as-welded condition, a continuous, polygranular intermetallic layer about 0.25 {mu}m thick was present at the interface. This layer grew to about 50 {mu}m thick during heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C for two hours. Analysis of electron diffraction patterns confirmed that this intermetallic was the {omega} phase. The interface between vanadium and type 304, SANDVIK SAF 2205, and 21-6-9 stainless steel bonded by a co-extrusion process had intermetallic particles at the interface in the as-extruded condition. Heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C for two hours caused these particles to grow into continuous layers in all three cases. Based on the appearance, composition and hardness of this interfacial intermetallic, it was also concluded to be {omega} phase. Bonding V to type 430 stainless steel by co-extrusion caused V-rich carbides to form at the interface due to the higher concentration of C in the type 430 than in the other stainless steels investigated. The carbide particles initially present grew into a continuous layer during a two-hour heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C. Co-hipping 21-6-9 stainless steel tubing with V rod resulted in slightly more concentric specimens than the co-extruded ones, but a continuous layer of the {omega} phase formed during the hipping operation. This brittle layer could initiate failure during subsequent forming operations. The vanadium near the stainless steel interface in the co-extruded and co-hipped tubing in some cases was harder than before heat treatment. It was concluded that this hardening was due to thermal straining during cooling following heat treatment and that thermal strains might present a greater problem than seen here when longer tubes are used in actual applications.

  2. Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of vanadium(V) in steels and titanium base alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yerramilli, A.; Kavipurapu, C.S.; Manda, R.R.; Pillutla, C.M.

    1986-06-01

    Vanadium(V) forms anionic chelates with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5.0-7.8, which can be quantitatively extracted into nitrobenzene as an ion pair with xylometazolonium cation (XMH). The ternary system has an absorption maximum at 540 nm and obeys Beer's law in the range 0-1.8 /sup +/g of vanadium/mL with a molar absorptivity 4.56 x 10/sup 4/ L mol/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The Job's method of continuous variations indicated a composition of 1:1:1 for vanadium: PAR:XMH for the extracting species. In the presence of 1,3-diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid as a masking agent, the extraction becomes highly selective, and this method can be applied for the determination of vanadium(V), in the presence of various metal ions in synthetic mixtures, in steels, and in titanium base alloy.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in metallurgical products with carminic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Babenko, N.L.; Blokh, M. Sh.; Guseva, T.D.

    1985-11-01

    According to the authors, there is an increasing demand for sensitive, selective, and rapid methods of determining low levels of vanadium in metallurgical products, and solvent-extraction methods do not meet the requirements. The authors used an anthraquinone dye carminic acid (CA) as a chromophoric organic reagent: 1, 3, 4, 6-tetrahydroxy-2-R-5carboxy-8-methylanthra-9, 10-quinone. The CSA was cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTA. The three-component system was examined in order to devise a reasonably sensitive and rapid method of determining vanadium in metallurgical products. A study is made of the complexing in the system formed by vanadium (IV) with CA and the CSA. The optimum conditions for the formation of the complex have been established together with the spectrophotometric characteristics. A spectrophotometric method has been devised for determining from 0.05 to 5% of vanadium in metallurgical products with a relative standard deviation of not more than 0.04.

  4. 77 FR 46712 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From the Russian Federation: Negative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Russian Federation, 60 FR 35550 (July 10, 1995). \\3\\ See Preliminary Negative Determination... International Trade Administration Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From the Russian Federation: Negative... in the Federal Register its negative preliminary determination that Evraz's imports of...

  5. Molten salt synthesis and localized surface plasmon resonance study of vanadium dioxide nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fu; Liu Yun; Liu Chunyan

    2009-12-15

    Rutile-type vanadium dioxide nanopowders with four different sizes were successfully synthesized by carbothermal reducing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in KCl-LiCl molten salt. XRD and TEM characterizations suggested that vanadium dioxide particles formed by a broken and reunited process of vanadium oxide. Molten salt and organic carbon sources are crucial to the size of final particles. In the presence of the molten salt, the organic carbon with a shorter chain length would induce smaller particles. The UV-VIS-IR spectral measurements for as-prepared vanadium dioxide announced an obvious localized surface plasmon resonance band in the near infrared region at 90 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the formation mechanism of VO{sub 2}(M) nanoparticles in molten salt, particles size can be controlled by choosing organic carbon sources with different chain length.

  6. A disposable alkaline phosphatase-based biosensor for vanadium chronoamperometric determination.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-02-24

    A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 µM, a repeatability of 7.7% (n = 4) and a reproducibility of 8% (n = 3). A study of the possible interferences shows that the presence of Mo(VI), Cr(III), Ca(II) and W(VI), may affect vanadium determination at concentration higher than 1.0 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in spiked tap water.

  7. Unusual phase transition in a natural heterostructure of iron pnictides and vanadium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Jong Mok; Baek, S.-H.; Eom, Man Jin; Hoch, C.; Kremer, R. K.; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Chun-Fu; Ko, Kyung-Tae; Park, Sang-Youn; Ji, Sung Dae; Büchner, B.; Park, Jae-Hoon; Shim, J. H.; Mazin, I. I.; Kim, Jun Sung

    We report the unusual phase transition in Sr2VO3FeAs single crystal, where the Mott-insulating vanadium oxides and the high-Tc superconducting iron pnictides form a natural heterostructure. Clear evidence of the phase transition at T0 = 155 K was observed in the iron pnictide layer, not in the vanadium oxide layer, using bulk and NMR measurements. Neither magnetic ordering with sufficient spin moment nor symmetry change in the crystal structure has been detected at T0. At Tmag ~ 45 K, far below T0, magnetic transition occurs in the iron pnictide layer, while the vanadium oxide layer remains nonmagnetic at low temperatures. The complex evolution of various phases in Sr2VO3FeAs is drastically distinct from the phase transitions found in other iron pnictides or vanadium oxides, highlighting the importance of the additional interlayer coupling between the layers. Equal contribution, corresponding author.

  8. Correlation between molten vanadium salts and the structural degradation of HK-type steel superheater tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho Nunes, Frederico; de Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Ribeiro, André Freitas

    2006-12-01

    HK steels are among the most used heat-resistant cast stainless steels, being corrosion-resistant and showing good mechanical properties at high service temperatures. These steels are widely used in reformer furnaces and as superheater tubes. During service, combustion gases leaving the burners come in contact with these tubes, resulting in corrosive attack and a large weight loss occurs due to the presence of vanadium, which forms low melting point salts, removing the protective oxide layer. In this work the external surface of a tube with dramatic wall thickness reduction was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The identification of the phases was achieved by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The results showed oxides arising from the external surface. In this oxidized region vanadium compounds inside chromium carbide particles were also observed, due to inward vanadium diffusion during corrosion attack. A chemical reaction was proposed to explain the presence of vanadium in the metal microstructure.

  9. Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, F.; Dittberner, M.; Novotny, L.; Passarello, D.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Spieser, M.; Riel, H.; Gotsmann, B.

    2016-04-01

    The thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide at submicron distances is expected to exhibit a strong dependence on the state of vanadium dioxide which undergoes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature. We report the measurement of near field thermal transport between a heated silicon oxide micro-sphere and a vanadium dioxide thin film on a titanium oxide (rutile) substrate. The temperatures of the 15 nm vanadium dioxide thin film varied to be below and above the metal-insulator-transition, and the sphere temperatures were varied in a range between 100 and 200 °C. The measurements were performed using a vacuum-based scanning thermal microscope with a cantilevered resistive thermal sensor. We observe a thermal conductivity per unit area between the sphere and the film with a distance dependence following a power law trend and a conductance contrast larger than 2 for the two different phase states of the film.

  10. ATR-A1 irradiation experiment on vanadium alloys and low activation steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, H.; Strain, R.V.; Gomes, I.; Hins, A.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    To study the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys under neutron irradiation at low temperatures, an experiment was designed and constructed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment contained Charpy, tensile, compact tension, TEM, and creep specimens of vanadium alloys. It also contained limited low-activation ferritic steel specimens as part of the collaborative agreement with Monbusho of Japan. The design irradiation temperatures for the vanadium alloy specimens in the experiment are {approx}200 and 300{degrees}C, achieved with passive gap-gap sizing and fill gas blending. To mitigate vanadium-to-chromium transmutation from the thermal neutron flux, the test specimens are contained inside gadolinium flux filters. All specimens are lithium-bonded. The irradiation started in Cycle 108A (December 3, 1995) and is expected to have a duration of three ATR cycles and a peak influence of 4.4 dpa.

  11. Disassembly of irradiated lithium-bonded capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.

    1996-04-01

    Capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens from irradiation experiments in FFTF and EBR-II are being processed to remove the lithium bond and retrieve the specimens for testing. The work has progressed smoothly.

  12. Vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, J.M.; de Boer, E.; Garner, C.D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Wever, R. )

    1989-09-19

    Bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodusum was the first vanadium-containing enzyme to be isolated. X-ray absorption spectra have now been collected in order to investigate the coordination of vanadium in the native, native plus bromide, native plus hydrogen peroxide, and dithionite-reduced forms of the enzyme. The edge and X-ray absorption near-edge structures show that, in the four samples studied, it is only on reduction of the native enzyme that the metal site is substantially altered. In addition, these data are consistent with the presence of vanadium(IV) in the reduced enzyme and vanadium(V) in the other samples. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data confirm that there are structural changes at the metal site on reduction of the native enzyme, notably a lengthening of the average inner-shell distance, and the presence of terminal oxygen together with histidine and oxygen-donating residues.

  13. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Michael E.A.; Binions, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  14. A Disposable Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Biosensor for Vanadium Chronoamperometric Determination

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-01-01

    A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 μM, a repeatability of 7.7% (n = 4) and a reproducibility of 8% (n = 3). A study of the possible interferences shows that the presence of Mo(VI), Cr(III), Ca(II) and W(VI), may affect vanadium determination at concentration higher than 1.0 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in spiked tap water. PMID:24569772

  15. Analysis and measurement of the electrolyte imbalance in a vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamsai, Kittima; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2015-05-01

    Electrolyte imbalance in vanadium redox flow batteries is an important problem for its long-term operation as it leads to loss of energy. To address this problem, a modified open circuit voltage (OCV) cell is developed by adding a middle half cell between the negative and positive half cells of a conventional OCV cell and used to predict the oxidation state of vanadium in the electrolyte solution from the measured voltage in each side of the electrolyte (positive and negative). The correlation between the oxidation state of vanadium and cell voltage is explained by a basic electrochemical principle and the Nernst equation. The experimental results show that at different oxidation states of vanadium, the predicted OCV agrees reasonably with the experimental data. In addition, the effect of the state of charge (SOC) and electrolyte imbalance on the energy capacity of a cell is discussed.

  16. The high-temperature analytical uses of vanadium(V) oxide.

    PubMed

    Nebesar, B

    1978-04-01

    The review surveys the available representative information from several fields, on high-temperature analytical uses of vanadium(V) oxide during the last half-century. A brief historical background is included. The three main fields of use are organic microchemical analysis, macrocombustion determinations, and pyrohydrolysis, and the review covers apparatus and equipment, reagents, chemical considerations, characteristics of vanadium(V) oxide, procedural details, and evaluation of the results. PMID:18962239

  17. Determination of trace vanadium (V) in seawater and fresh water by the catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; Sha, Yuanyuan; Xin, Huizhen; Li, Shuang

    2010-12-01

    A new kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of vanadium (V). The method is based on the catalytic effect of vanadium (V) on the oxidation of weak acid brilliant blue dye (RAWL) by KBrO3 using the citric acid as activation reagent. The obtained optimum conditions are: c (RAWL) = 1×10-4 molL-1, c (KBrO3) = 3×10-2 molL-1, c (citric acid) = 9×10-3 molL-1, pH = 2.50, the reaction time being 7.0 min and the temperature being 25.0°C. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method allows the determination of vanadium (V) in the range of 0-70.0 ng mL-1 and the detection limit is down to 0.407 ng mL-1. For standard vanadium (V) solution determination, the recovery efficiency is in the range of 98.5%-102% and the RSD ranges from 0.76%-1.25%. Moreover, it is demonstrated that most cations and anions do not interfere with the determination of vanadium (V) under the analytical condition. The new method was successfully applied in the determination of vanadium (V) in fresh water and seawater samples with satisfactory results. Vanadium (V) in the seawater samples from Qingdao offshore was determined using the method and the distribution of vanadium (V) was mapped. Compared with other instrumental analytical methods, the proposed method shows good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity, lower cost and rapidity. It can be employed on shipboard easily.

  18. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Morin, Brian G.

    1998-01-01

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors.

  19. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, A.J.; Morin, B.G.

    1998-10-13

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors. 21 figs.

  20. Cracking catalyst deactivation by nickel and vanadium contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, M. ); Farag, H.; de Lasa, H. ); Ng, S. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the unsteady-state pulse technique applied to the catalytic cracking of gas oils with several commercial catalysts. Experimental runs were performed in a pulse microcatalytic fixed bed reactor to closely mimic the short contact times of commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) riser reactors. Equilibrium catalyst was simulated by steaming in a fluidized bed, artificial impregnation with metal naphthenates under vacuum, and calcination. Analytical techniques were used to confirm the effectiveness of the artificial aging method. The poisoning effects of nickel and vanadium have been demonstrated on different catalysts through the changes obtained in overall conversions and product selectivities. The kinetic constants evaluated for a three- and a five-lump model clearly showed a decreasing trend, with the increment of metal loading being from 0 to 5000 ppm nickel equivalent. Moreover, the activation energies calculated presented a consistent tendency, decreasing with increasing metal concentration.

  1. The permanent electric dipole moment of vanadium monosulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2010-06-01

    A number of low-J lines of the C Σ4-←X Σ4- (0,0) band of a supersonic molecular beam sample of vanadium monosulfide (VS) have been recorded at a resolution of approximately 50 MHz by laser excitation spectroscopy. The electric field induced shift and splitting have been analyzed to give the permanent electric dipole moments μ of the C Σ4-(υ =0) and X Σ4-(υ =0) states as 2.38(13) and 5.16(5) D, respectively. An electrostatic model is used to predict μ for VS and VO. A molecular orbital correlation diagram is used to rationalize the trends in experimentally observed μ values of the 3d-monosulfides and 3d-monoxides. A comparison with theoretical predictions is made.

  2. Atomic hydrogen doping in single-crystal vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Heng; Hardy, Will; Wei, Jiang; Lin, Jian; Paik, Hanjong; Schlom, Darrell; Natelson, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide is a strongly correlated material with a bulk metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) near 340 K. Previous experiments in single-crystal nanowires (J. Wei et al., Nature Nano. 7, 357-362 (2012)) have shown that catalytic doping with atomic hydrogen can stabilize the high temperature metallic state. In this experiment, we used a hot filament source to split hydrogen molecules and directly dope atomic hydrogen into VO2 material, including epitaxial films and nanowires, without any catalyst. From observations of the wire samples, we infer the relative diffusion rates of H in the monoclinic and rutile crystal structures. Transport measurements of the doped film samples show no temperature-driven transition, but rather a conducting state down to 2K. We present Hall and magnetoresistance measurements on macroscale and mesoscale devices fabricated from the doped films.

  3. Low temperature performance of lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Tuhovak, D. R.; Post, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells for low temperature applications have been developed. Prismatic and spirally wound AA cells were tested under constant load discharge of 0.3 to 1.8 amps or pulse discharge of 0.225 or 1.0 amps at temperatures from -40 to 25 C. At -40 C with current densities of 2.5 mA/cm2, 23 percent of theoretical capacity was achieved under constant load discharge and 40 percent of theoretical capacity was achieved under pulse test. Self-discharge estimates of 0.7 percent per year at 25 C were obtained from microcalorimetry. Preliminary safety testing of the cells revealed no violent performance under short circuit or crush tests.

  4. Thermochromic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in vanadium dioxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jostmeier, Thorben; Mangold, Moritz; Zimmer, Johannes; Karl, Helmut; Krenner, Hubert J; Ruppert, Claudia; Betz, Markus

    2016-07-25

    We propose and implement a new concept for thermochromic plasmonic elements. It is based on vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanocrystals located in the near field of surface plasmon polaritons supported by an otherwise unstructured gold thin film. When the VO2 undergoes the metal-insulator phase transition, the coupling conditions for conversion of light into propagating surface plasmon polaritons change markedly. In particular, we realize thermochromic plasmonic grating couplers with substantial switching contrast as well as tunable plasmonic couplers in a Kretschmann configuration. The use of VO2 nanocrystals permits highly repetitive switching and room temperature operation. Simulations based on the actual dielectric function of our VO2 nanocrystals agree well with the experiment. PMID:27464181

  5. Vanadium, recent advancements and research prospects: A review.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Xiong, Shuanglian; Li, Hailan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Tu, Shuxin

    2015-07-01

    Metal pollution is an important issue worldwide, with various documented cases of metal toxicity in mining areas, industries, coal power plants and agriculture sector. Heavy metal polluted soils pose severe problems to plants, water resources, environment and nutrition. Among all non-essential metals, vanadium (V) is becoming a serious matter of discussion for the scientists who deals with heavy metals. Due to its mobility from soil to plants, it causes adverse effects to human beings. This review article illustrates briefly about V, its role and shows the progress about V research so far done globally in the light of the previous work which may assist in inter-disciplinary studies to evaluate the ecological importance of V toxicity. PMID:25898154

  6. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Lasers do not require a vacuum (as do electron beam welders) and the welds they produce high depth-to-width ratios. Scoping with a small pulsed 50 J YAG laser indicated that lasers could produce successful welds in vanadium alloy (V-5%Cr-5%Ti) sheet (1 mm thick) when the fusion zone was isolated from air. The pulsed laser required an isolating chamber filled with inert gas to produce welds that did not contain cracks and showed only minor hardness increases. Following the initial scoping tests, a series of tests were preformed with a 6 kW continuous CO{sub 2} laser. Successful bead-on-plate welds were made on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys to depths of about 4 mm with this laser.

  7. Vanadium oxychloride/magnesium electrode systems for chloride ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ping; Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-12-24

    We report a new type of rechargeable chloride ion battery using vanadium oxychloride (VOCl) as cathode and magnesium or magnesium/magnesium chloride (MgCl2/Mg) as anode, with an emphasis on the VOCl-MgCl2/Mg full battery. The charge and discharge mechanism of the VOCl cathode has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements, demonstrating the chloride ion transfer during cycling. The VOCl cathode can deliver a reversible capacity of 101 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 10 mA g(-1) and a capacity of 60 mAh g(-1) was retained after 53 cycles in this first study.

  8. Vanadium, recent advancements and research prospects: A review.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Xiong, Shuanglian; Li, Hailan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Tu, Shuxin

    2015-07-01

    Metal pollution is an important issue worldwide, with various documented cases of metal toxicity in mining areas, industries, coal power plants and agriculture sector. Heavy metal polluted soils pose severe problems to plants, water resources, environment and nutrition. Among all non-essential metals, vanadium (V) is becoming a serious matter of discussion for the scientists who deals with heavy metals. Due to its mobility from soil to plants, it causes adverse effects to human beings. This review article illustrates briefly about V, its role and shows the progress about V research so far done globally in the light of the previous work which may assist in inter-disciplinary studies to evaluate the ecological importance of V toxicity.

  9. Experimental investigation of radiative thermal rectifier using vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-12-22

    Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) exhibits a phase-change behavior from the insulating state to the metallic state around 340 K. By using this effect, we experimentally demonstrate a radiative thermal rectifier in the far-field regime with a thin film VO{sub 2} deposited on the silicon wafer. A rectification contrast ratio as large as two is accurately obtained by utilizing a one-dimensional steady-state heat flux measurement system. We develop a theoretical model of the thermal rectifier with optical responses of the materials retrieved from the measured mid-infrared reflection spectra, which is cross-checked with experimentally measured heat flux. Furthermore, we tune the operating temperatures by doping the VO{sub 2} film with tungsten (W). These results open up prospects in the fields of thermal management and thermal information processing.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys after thermomechanical treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyaev, Konstantin V. Ditenberg, Ivan A.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Tyumentsev, Alexander N.; Tsverova, Anastasiya S.; Chernov, Vyacheslav M.; Potapenko, Mikhail M.

    2015-10-27

    The results of investigation of dispersion strengthening effect on parameters of structural-phase states and characteristics of short-term strength and ductility of vanadium alloys of V–4Ti–4Cr, V–2.4Zr–0.25C, V–1.2Zr–8.8Cr and V–1.7Zr–4.2Cr–7.6W systems with different concentration of interstitial elements after optimized thermomechanical treatment mode were summarized. It was shown that for effective realization of dispersion strengthening by Orowan-type mechanism at least 25–50% of the initial volume fraction of coarse particles should be transformed into fine-disperse state and redistributed over the volume of material.

  11. Development of vanadium redox flow battery for photovoltaic generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Akira; Sato, Kanji; Nakajima, Masato

    1994-12-31

    Photovoltaic power generation system (PV) requires a battery for night and rainy day. A redox flow battery has advantage over a lead acid one on this application for the capability of deep discharge and needlessness of equalized charge. The authors have developed the high performance vanadium redox flow battery for this purpose and inexpensive production technology of electrolyte which occupies the majority in the battery cost by chemical reduction from boiler plant by-product. The 2 kW (10 kWh) battery, the minimum unit for practical size battery (50 kW x 50 h), achieved 1.2 kW/cm{sup 2}-electrode area at the 100 mA/cm{sup 2} current density.

  12. Calculation of 3s photoemission spectra of vanadium on graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, P.; Taguchi, M.; Parlebas, J.C.; Kotani, A.

    1997-06-01

    A few years ago, a satellite structure in the vanadium 3s x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum of V clusters upon graphite was observed and attributed to the presence of magnetic moments on the V surface. Here, we present calculations of these spectra using a cluster model that takes into account intra-atomic d-d and d{endash}core electron correlation and hybridization between V d and graphite {pi} states. When the V-graphite distance is increased from 1.5 to 2.0 {Angstrom} the system undergoes a low-to-high spin transition, which is clearly evidenced in the evolution of the XPS line shape. Although direct comparison with experiment is difficult, our study suggests that the observed satellite is due to core hole screening rather than a magnetic moment on the V atom. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Decomposition of peracetic acid catalyzed by vanadium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, A.P.; Gekhman, A.E.; Moiseev, I.I.; Polotryuk, O.Y.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of peracetic acid (AcOOH) in acetic acid (AcOH) catalyzed by vanadium complexes. It is shown that peractic acid in acetic acid solutions of ammonium anadate decomposes with the predominant formation of 0/sub 2/ and small amounts of CO/sub 2/, the yield of which increases with increasing temperature and peracetic acid concentration. Both reactions proceed without the formation of free radicals in amounts detectable by ESR spectroscopy. The rate of oxygen release under conditions in which the formation of CO/sub 2/ is insignificant obeys a kinetic equation indicating the intermediate formation of a complex between V/sup 5 +/ ions and peracetic acid and the slow conversion of this complex into the observed products.

  14. Tantalum and vanadium response to shock-wave loading at normal and elevated temperatures. Non-monotonous decay of the elastic wave in vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2014-06-28

    The evolution of the elastic precursor waves in pure tantalum and vanadium is presented at normal and elevated temperatures over propagation distances that ranged from 0.125 to 3 mm. Measurements were performed in order to obtain experimental data about the temperature-rate dependence of the yield stress of the two metals. With increasing propagation distance, the rate of the decay of elastic precursor decreases, as the shear stress in the elastic precursor wave approaches the Peierls stresses. It has been found that the decay, with propagation distance, of the post-spike minimum of the spike-like elastic precursor wave in vanadium is essentially non-monotonous. The experiments also revealed that annealing of tantalum and vanadium increases their Hugoniot elastic limit. The anomalous increase of the high strain rate yield stress with temperature, as observed earlier for some FCC and HCP metals, has not been detected in these measurements.

  15. Evaluation of Solid-Solution Hardening of Fe-27 at. pct Al by Vanadium and Comparison to Precipitation Strengthening by Vanadium Carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvíl, Petr; Pešička, Josef; Král, Robert; Švec, Martin; Palm, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The compressive yield stress of Fe-27Al- xV(-C) ( x = 0 to 4 at. pct) at 1073 K (800 °C) has been determined. The increase of the yield stress of Fe-Al by increasing vanadium content is explained by solid-solution hardening. The experimentally observed values of the yield stress at 1073 K (800 °C) are compared with the strengthening given by theories evaluating the interaction between solute atoms and dislocations. The experimental results fit well the increase of the yield stress by the interaction of the solute atoms with screw dislocations. Further increase in yield strength in similar alloys due to vanadium carbides is documented. Precipitated carbides were identified by transmission electron microscopy and Kikuchi patterns. Although precipitation of vanadium carbides increases the compressive yield stress, they also could result in premature failure in tension as their highly anisotropic shape may facilitate crack nucleation.

  16. Oxidation potential and state of some vanadium ores and the relation of woody material to their deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, Alfred Michael

    1956-01-01

    Oxidation potential studies with a multiple pH-potential recorder designed and constructed for this purpose demonstrated that some uranium-vanadium ores in the Colorado Plateau were in a reduced state when deposited. Any oxidation which took place occurred after deposition. Experimental and theoretical reducing studies on fresh wood, wood degraded by burial for 450 years, and lignite, indicate that such ores may have been deposited by reduction of oxidized vanadium solutions by woody material. A vanadium (III) mineral, V2O(OH)4, was prepared synthetically by reduction of a vanadium (V) solution with wood. This is the only reported synthesis of any reduced vanadium mineral by any method. It was shown that the origin of almost all vanadium deposits currently of commercial importance involves life processes and products.

  17. A novel comprehensive utilization of vanadium slag: As gamma ray shielding material.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mengge; Xue, Xiangxin; Yang, He; Liu, Dong; Wang, Chao; Li, Zhefu

    2016-11-15

    New exploration of vanadium slag as gamma ray shielding material was proposed, the shielding properties of vanadium slag was higher than concrete when the energy of photons was in 0.0001MeV-100000MeV. Vanadium slag/epoxy resin composites were prepared, shielding and material properties of materials were tested by (60)Co gamma ray, simultaneous DSC-TGA, electronic universal testing machine and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed that the shielding properties of composite would be better with the increase of vanadium slag addition amount. The HVL (half value layer thickness) of vanadium slag was between Lead and concrete while composite was higher than concrete when the addition amount of vanadium slag was 900 used as material to shield (60)Co gamma ray, also the resistance temperature of composite was about 215°C and the bending strength was over 10MPa. The composites could be used as injecting mortar for cracks developed in biological concrete shields, coating for the floor of the nuclear facilities, and shielding materials by itself. PMID:27343141

  18. Influence of intoxication with vanadium compounds on the intestinal absorption of calcium in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowska, D.; Oledzka, R.; Pietrzyk, B.

    1986-12-01

    Calcium is transferred to the plasma after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and by resorption from the bone. It is recognized that many environmental poisons, e.g. heavy metal, pesticides etc. cause alterations in calcium homeosthasis in human beings and experimental animals. Although vanadium is not considered to be as important a health hazard to man as lead or cadmium it must be nevertheless regarded as a dangerous pollutant. There exists an obvious risk of pollution by and poisoning due to the high vanadium content of crude oil and the industrial use of vanadium as a steel additive. The toxic effects of this element and its compounds in many biological systems have been reviewed in detail but little is known about vanadium influence on calcium metabolism. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of various treatments with vanadium compounds, containing vanadium as VO/sup 2 +/ (VOSO/sub 4/) and VO/sub 3/ (NaVO/sub 3/) ions, exert on calcium transport through the rat duodenum.

  19. Review of Advances in Development of Vanadium Alloys and MHD Insulator Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Muroga, T.; Chen, J. M.; Chernov, V. M.; Fukumoto, Kenichi; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Nagasaka, T.; Pint, Bruce A.; Satou, M.; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Watanabe, Hideo

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, recent progress in the development of low activation vanadium alloys and MHD insulator coatings for Li-self cooled blanket is overviewed. The research progress in vanadium alloys is highlighted by technology of fabricating creep tubes, comparison of thermal creep in vacuum and Li, understanding on impurity transfer between vanadium alloys and Li and its impact on mechanical properties, behavior of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes, low dose irradiation effects on weld joints and exploration for advanced vanadium alloys. Major remaining issues of vanadium alloys are thermal and irradiation creep, helium effects on high temperature mechanical properties and radiation effects on low temperature fracture properties. A new promising candidate of Er2O3, which showed good compatibility with Li, was identified for MHD insulator coating on vanadium alloys. The coating technology has made a significant progressed for the new candidate material. Recent efforts are being focused on multi-layer coating and in-situ coating. Tests in flowing lithium conditions with temperature gradient are necessary for quantitative examination of the performance.

  20. Effects of diabetes, vanadium, and insulin on glycogen synthase activation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Semiz, Sabina; Orvig, Chris; McNeill, John H

    2002-02-01

    In vivo effects of insulin and vanadium treatment on glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) activity were determined in Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The skeletal muscle was freeze-clamped before or following an insulin injection (5 U/kg i.v.). Diabetes, vanadium, and insulin in vivo treatment did not affect muscle GSK-3beta activity as compared to controls. Following insulin stimulation in 4-week STZ-diabetic rats muscle GS fractional activity (GSFA) was increased 3 fold (p < 0.05), while in 7-week diabetic rats it remained unchanged, suggesting development of insulin resistance in longer term diabetes. Muscle PP1 activity was increased in diabetic rats and returned to normal after vanadium treatment, while muscle GSFA remained unchanged. Therefore, it is possible that PP1 is involved in the regulation of some other cellular events of vanadium (other than regulation of glycogen synthesis). The lack of effect of vanadium treatment in stimulating glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle suggests the involvement of other metabolic pathways in the observed glucoregulatory effect of vanadium.