Science.gov

Sample records for aquifers receiving livestock

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA has authority under the Safe Drinking Water Act to protect underground sources of drinking water from contamination by deep well injection. An aquifer, however, may be exempted from protection and used for injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Highland Rim aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Mississippian age carbonate rocks and occurs from the Valley and Ridge of East Tennessee to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer contains potable water and is an important source of drinking water for municipal and domestic supplies on the Highland Rim. The Highland Rim aquifer system under parts of the Cumberland Plateau is not currently used as a source of drinking water and is not expected to be used in the future. These areas meet parts of the EPA 's Underground Injection Control criteria for exempting aquifers to receive injected waste. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

  3. High estrogen concentrations in receiving river discharge from a concentrated livestock feedlot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-San; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C; Chao, How-Ran; Liaw, Ean-Tun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Yeh, Yi-Lung

    2010-07-15

    Environmental estrogenic chemicals interrupt endocrine systems and generate reproductive abnormalities in wildlife, especially natural and synthetic estrogenic steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) are of particular concern since large amounts of naturally excreted estrogens are discharged into aquatic environments. This study investigated E2, E1, E3, EE2, and DES with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass (HPLC-MS/MS) analyses along Wulo Creek in southern Taiwan, near a concentrated livestock feedlot containing 1,030,000 broiler chickens, 934,000 laying hens, 85,000 pigs, and 1500 cattle. Sampling was performed from December 2008 to May 2009, in which 54 samples were collected. Experimental results indicate that concentrations of EE2 were lower than the limit of detection (LOD), and concentrations of DES were only detected twice. Concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 1267 ng/L for E1, from not detected (ND) to 313.6 ng/L for E2, and from ND to 210 ng/L for E3. E1 had the highest average mass fraction (72.2 + or - 3.6%), which was significantly higher than E3 (16.2 + or - 1.7%) and E2 (11.5 + or - 2.6%). Additionally, the mean E2 equivalent quotient (EEQ) ranged from 17.3 to 137.9 ng-E2/L. Despite having a markedly lower concentration than E1, E2 more significantly contributed (52.4 + or - 6.0%) EEQ than E1 (19.7 + or - 3.5%). Moreover, the concentrations of E2, E1, and E3 upstream were significantly higher than concentrations downstream, suggesting a high attenuation effect and fast degradation in the study water. Most concentrations in winter season were higher than those of spring season due to the low dilution effect and low microbial activity in the winter season. Based on the results of this study, we recommend further treatment of the wastewater discharge from the feedlot.

  4. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes and their associations with bacterial community in livestock breeding wastewater and its receiving river water.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuyu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Miao, Yu; Zhao, Yanting; Ye, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in livestock breeding, which is the main driving factor contributing to the occurrence, spread and proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In this study, high-throughput sequencing based metagenomic approaches were employed to characterize the tempo-spacial changes of antibiotic resistome, bacterial community and their correlations in pig farming wastewater and its receiving river. A total of 194 ARG subtypes within 14 ARG types were detectable in all the samples, and their total relative abundance increased in the river water after receiving wastewater discharge, while decreased in the downstream river water. Network analysis showed that 25.26% ARGs within the same type or among the different types showed higher incidences of non-random co-occurrence. The wastewater discharge evidently increased bacterial diversity and induced bacterial community shift in the receiving river water. The genera of Treponema, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Oscillibacter and Acholeplasma dominated in the wastewater samples and almost disappeared in the receiving river water, but bacterial pathogens Clostridium difficile and Arcobacter butzleri still occurred in the receiving water. Correlation analysis and host analysis consistently showed that the changes in the abundances of several key genera like Prevotella and Treponema were significantly and positively correlated with the antibiotic resistome alteration. Variation partitioning analysis indicated that bacterial community played a more important role in the resistome alteration than mobile genetic elements. This study may help to understand the correlations among antibiotic resistome, microbiota and environmental conditions in the wastewater-receiving river water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solutions approximating solute transport in a leaky aquifer receiving wastewater injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Shyun

    1989-01-01

    A mathematical model amenable to analytical solution techniques is developed for the investigation of contaminant transport from an injection well into a leaky aquifer system, which comprises a pumped and an unpumped aquifer connected to each other by an aquitard. A steady state groundwater flow field is assumed, where the injected fluids move horizontally in the pumped aquifer and vertically in the aquitard. The unpumped aquifer is assumed to remain in hydrostatic condition due to its large transmissivity. Descriptions of groundwater velocities are based on appropriate leaky aquifer well hydraulics. The model assumes that contaminants are transmitted in the pumped aquifer by radial advection, and in the aquitard by vertical one-dimensional advection and longitudinal dispersion. Two coupled linear differential equations are formulated to deal with this transport problem; they involve variable coefficients dependent on Bessel functions. The unpumped aquifer is incorporated into the model as a boundary condition. Semianalytical transient solutions for concentration distributions in the pumped aquifer and the aquitard can be obtained by numerically inverting the Laplace domain solutions of the model with the Crump [1976] method. However, the steady state solutions of the model are determined in closed forms. In general, the modeling approach neglecting longitudinal dispersion in the pumped aquifer and lateral dispersion in the aquitard does not introduce significant error to the modelling results, as shown by the good agreement between numerical solutions including these two transport mechanisms and the solutions of the proposed model. Within the context of the assumed hydrogeological conditions, the proposed model appears to be a valid approximation to the problem of interest. Type curves for concentration evaluated at the well bore and the top of the aquitard are given, which can be employed to estimate whether the unpumped aquifer would be polluted as the

  6. SOLUTIONS APPROXIMATING SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A LEAKY AQUIFER RECEIVING WASTEWATER INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model amenable to analytical solution techniques is developed for the investigation of contaminant transport from an injection well into a leaky aquifer system, which comprises a pumped and an unpumped aquifer connected to each other by an aquitard. A steady state ...

  7. SOLUTIONS APPROXIMATING SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN A LEAKY AQUIFER RECEIVING WASTEWATER INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model amenable to analytical solution techniques is developed for the investigation of contaminant transport from an injection well into a leaky aquifer system, which comprises a pumped and an unpumped aquifer connected to each other by an aquitard. A steady state ...

  8. Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: A mass balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen transport and transformations were followed over the initial 3 years of development of a plume of wastewater-contaminated groundwater in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone and ammonium sorption in the saturated zone were predominant, while loss of fixed nitrogen through denitrification was minor. The major effect of transport was the oxidation of discharged organic and inorganic forms to nitrate, which was the dominant nitrogen form in transit to receiving systems. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone transformed 16-19% and 50-70%, respectively, of the total nitrogen mass discharged to the land surface during the study but did not attenuate the nitrogen loading. Nitrification in the unsaturated zone also contributed to a pH decrease of 2 standard units and to an N2O increase (46-660 ??g N/L in the plume). Other processes in the unsaturated zone had little net effect: Ammonium sorption removed <1% of the total discharged nitrogen mass; filtering of particulate organic nitrogen was less than 3%; ammonium and nitrate assimilation was less than 6%; and ammonia volatilization was less than 0.25%. In the saturated zone a central zone of anoxic groundwater (DO ??? 0.05 mg/L) was first detected 17 months after effluent discharge to the aquifer began, which expanded at about the groundwater-flow velocity. Although nitrate was dominant at the water table, the low, carbon-limited rates of denitrification in the anoxic zone (3.0-9.6 (ng N/cm3)/d) reduced only about 2% of the recharged nitrogen mass to N2. In contrast, ammonium sorption in the saturated zone removed about 16% of the recharged nitrogen mass from the groundwater. Ammonium sorption was primarily limited to anoxic zone, where nitrification was prevented, and was best described by a Langmuir isotherm in which effluent ionic concentrations were simulated. The initial nitrogen load discharged from the groundwater system may depend largely on

  9. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  11. Behaviour of a small sedimentary volcanic aquifer receiving irrigation return flows: La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Fuentes, T.; Heredia, J.; Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    2014-06-01

    In many arid and semi-arid areas, intensive cultivation is practiced despite water commonly being a limiting factor. Often, irrigation water is from local aquifers or imported from out-of-area aquifers and surface reservoirs. Irrigation return flows become a significant local recharge source, but they may deteriorate aquifer water quality. La Aldea valley, located in the western sector of Gran Canaria Island (Atlantic Ocean), is a coastal, half-closed depression in altered, low-permeability volcanics with alluvium in the gullies and scree deposits over a large part of the area. This area is intensively cultivated. Irrigation water comes from reservoirs upstream and is supplemented (average 30 %) by local groundwater; supplementation goes up to 70 % in dry years, in which groundwater reserves are used up to exhaustion if the dry period persists. Thus, La Aldea aquifer is key to the water-supply system, whose recharge is mostly from return irrigation flows and the scarce local rainfall recharge on the scree formations, conveyed to the gully deposits. To quantify the hydrogeological conceptual model and check data coherence, a simplified numerical model has been constructed, which can be used as a tool to help in water management.

  12. Carbonate aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  13. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  14. Orbivirus of livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Unit (ABADRU) mission is to solve major endemic, emerging, and exotic arthropod-borne disease problems in livestock. The ABADRU has four 5-year project plans under two ARS National Research Programs; Animal Health NP103 and Veterinary, Medical, and Urban Entomolog...

  15. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  16. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  17. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  18. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  19. Livestock. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 25 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 25 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in livestock production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-4 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  20. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  1. Brucellosis vaccines for livestock.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zakia I; Pascual, David W

    2016-11-15

    Brucellosis is a livestock disease responsible for fetal loss due to abortions. Worldwide, this disease has profound economic and social impact by reducing the ability of livestock producers to provide an adequate supply of disease-free meat and dairy products. In addition to its presence in domesticated animals, brucellosis is harbored in a number of wildlife species creating new disease reservoirs, which adds to the difficulty of eradicating this disease. Broad and consistent use of the available vaccines would contribute in reducing the incidence of brucellosis. Unfortunately, this practice is not common. In addition, the current brucellosis vaccines cannot provide sterilizing immunity, and in certain circumstances, vaccinated livestock are not protected against co-mingling Brucella-infected wildlife. Given that these vaccines are inadequate for conferring complete protection for some vaccinated livestock, alternatives are being sought, and these include genetic modifications of current vaccines or their reformulations. Alternatively, many groups have sought to develop new vaccines. Subunit vaccines, delivered as a combination of soluble vaccine plus adjuvant or the heterologous expression of Brucella epitopes by different vaccine vectors are currently being tested. New live attenuated Brucella vaccines are also being developed and tested in their natural hosts. Yet, what is rarely considered is the route of vaccination which could improve vaccine efficacy. Since Brucella infections are mostly transmitted mucosally, mucosal delivery of a vaccine has the potential of eliciting a more robust protective immune response for improved efficacy. Hence, this review will examine these questions and provide the status of new vaccines for livestock brucellosis.

  2. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  3. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  4. Streamlined Livestock Trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Bull Nose livestock trailer, manufactured by American Trailer, Inc. is one of a line of highway transport vehicles manufactured by American Trailers, Inc. The slant side front end is a streamlining feature based on a NASA Research Program which investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of trailer/tractor combinations and suggested ways of reducing air resistance. Application of NASA's aerodynamic research technology to the bull nose design resulted in a 10 percent reduction in air drag, which translates into annual fuel savings of several hundred dollars.

  5. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  7. 78 FR 2039 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...We are amending the regulations to establish minimum national official identification and documentation requirements for the traceability of livestock moving interstate. Under this rulemaking, unless specifically exempted, livestock belonging to species covered by the regulations that are moved interstate must be officially identified and accompanied by an interstate certificate of veterinary inspection or other documentation. These regulations specify approved forms of official identification for each species but allow the livestock covered under this rulemaking to be moved interstate with another form of identification, as agreed upon by animal health officials in the shipping and receiving States or Tribes. The purpose of this rulemaking is to improve our ability to trace livestock in the event that disease is found.

  8. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A.; Plastow, Graham S.; Wishart, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular “omics” approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed. PMID:28531195

  9. Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Guo, An Chi; Sajed, Tanvir; Steele, Michael A; Plastow, Graham S; Wishart, David S

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions. As a result, metabolomics has become an increasingly popular "omics" approach to assist with the robust phenotypic characterization of humans, crop plants and model organisms. Indeed, metabolomics is now routinely used in biomedical, nutritional and crop research. It is also being increasingly used in livestock research and livestock monitoring. The purpose of this systematic review is to quantitatively and objectively summarize the current status of livestock metabolomics and to identify emerging trends, preferred technologies and important gaps in the field. In conducting this review we also critically assessed the applications of livestock metabolomics in key areas such as animal health assessment, disease diagnosis, bioproduct characterization and biomarker discovery for highly desirable economic traits (i.e., feed efficiency, growth potential and milk production). A secondary goal of this critical review was to compile data on the known composition of the livestock metabolome (for 5 of the most common livestock species namely cattle, sheep, goats, horses and pigs). These data have been made available through an open access, comprehensive livestock metabolome database (LMDB, available at http://www.lmdb.ca). The LMDB should enable livestock researchers and producers to conduct more targeted metabolomic studies and to identify where further metabolome coverage is needed.

  10. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b)...

  11. 36 CFR 261.7 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Livestock. 261.7 Section 261... Prohibitions § 261.7 Livestock. The following are prohibited: (a) Placing or allowing unauthorized livestock to... unauthorized livestock from the National Forest System or other lands under Forest Service control...

  12. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  13. Livestock services and the poor.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Redmond, E

    2004-04-01

    This paper reviews the economic framework for the delivery of livestock services to the poor. It is argued that the demand for livestock products is likely to increase rapidly and the ability of the poor to participate in the opportunities presented by this growth is linked critically to the availability of good service support, both on the input and output side. Governments therefore have a responsibility to supply the necessary public goods (including the institutions and legal frameworks), and the market infrastructure for facilitating the emergence of efficient markets for livestock services. The paper further argues that the dynamics of public policy in developing countries are much more complex than the simple application of economic logic. It is the larger political economy that often dictates policy choices. It is therefore important to integrate political economy and governance issues into the economic debate on livestock service delivery. The paper also reviews the context in which the markets for livestock services will need to function. Different countries are facing very different sets of issues, and the identification of possible interventions in livestock service markets would require careful field research and analysis. In this context, the paper suggests the elements of a research agenda for the next few years.

  14. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Stoner, J.D.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as

  15. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Stoner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWOA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and shallow carbonate aquifers provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The agricultural system of corn, soybeans, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems, although mean nitrate concentrations in counties with dairy, poultry, cattle and grains, and horticulture systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as in Asia, may experience the greatest impact of

  16. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Burkart, M R; Stoner, J D

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as

  17. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Burkart, M R; Stoner, J D

    2002-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWOA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and shallow carbonate aquifers provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems, although mean nitrate concentrations in counties with dairy, poultry, cattle and grains, and horticulture systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as in Asia, may experience the greatest impact of this practice.

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs Aquifer in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Becker, M.F.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This diskette contains digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Rush Spring aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Stephens, and Washita Counties. These digital data sets were developed by Mark F. Becker to use as input into a computer model that simulated ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer (Mark F. Becker, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 1997). For the purposes of modeling the ground-water flow in the Rush Springs aquifer, Mark F. Becker (written commun., 1997) defined the Rush Springs aquifer to include the Rush Springs Formation, alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, and parts of the Marlow Formations, particularly in the eastern part of the aquifer boundary area. The Permian-age Rush Springs Formation consists of highly cross-bedded sandstone with some interbedded dolomite and gypsum. The Rush Springs Formation is overlain by Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits that consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Rush Springs Formation is underlain by the Permian-age Marlow Formation that consists of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, mudstones, gypsum-anhydrite, and dolomite beds (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). The parts of the Marlow Formation that have high permeability and porosity are where the Marlow Formation is included as part of the Rush Springs aquifer. The Rush Springs aquifer underlies about 2,400 square miles of western Oklahoma and is an important source of water for irrigation, livestock, industrial, municipal, and domestic use. Irrigation wells are reported to have well yields greater than 1,000 gallons per minute (Mark F. Becker, written commun., 1997). Mark F. Becker created some of the aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity, and recharge data sets by digitizing parts of previously published surficial geology

  19. Livestock waste: a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 118 papers presented at this conference provide guidelines for the design of livestock waste management systems. Topics discussed include waste collection, economics, lagoons, land application, methane generation, odor control, refeeding, runoff and storage, and waste treatment for stabilization. Twenty papers, dealing mostly with methane production, have been abstracted separately. 1166 references, 321 figures, 320 tables.

  20. Antibiotic use in livestock production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibiotic usage is a useful and commonly implemented practice in livestock and production agriculture that has progressively gained attention in recent years from consumers of animal products due to concerns about human and environmental health. Sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics has led to a con...

  1. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  2. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  3. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  4. 25 CFR 700.77 - Livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock. 700.77 Section 700.77 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.77 Livestock. The term livestock shall mean all domesticated animals of every...

  5. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration...

  6. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  7. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  8. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  9. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  10. 9 CFR 309.11 - Vaccine livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vaccine livestock. 309.11 Section 309.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.11 Vaccine livestock. Vaccine livestock with unhealed lesions of...

  11. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity.

  12. Human and livestock waste as a reduced carbon source contributing to the release of arsenic to shallow Bangladesh groundwater.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Mailloux, B J; van Geen, A; Bostick, B C; Ahmed, K M; Choudhury, I; Slater, G F

    2017-04-04

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the supply of relatively young organic carbon stimulates the release of arsenic to groundwater in Bangladesh. This study explores the potential role of human and livestock waste as a significant source of this carbon in a densely populated rural area with limited sanitation. Profiles of aquifer sediment samples were analyzed for phytosterols and coprostanol to assess the relative contributions of plant-derived and human/livestock waste-derived organic carbon at two well-characterized sites in Araihazar. Coprostanol concentrations increased with depth from non-detection (<10m at Site B and <23m at Site F) to maxima of 1.3 and 0.5ng/g in aquifer sands recovered from 17m (Site B) and 26m (Site F), respectively. The commonly used sewage contamination index ([5β-coprostanol]/([5α-cholestanol]+[5β-coprostanol])) exceeds 0.7 between 12 and 19m at Site B and between 24 and 26m at Site F, indicating input of human/livestock waste to these depths. Urine/fecal input within the same depth range is supported by groundwater Cl/Br mass ratios >1000 compared to Cl/Br <500 at depths >50m. Installed tube wells in the area's study sites may act as a conduit for DOC and specifically human/livestock waste into the aquifer during flood events. The depth range of maximum input of human/livestock waste indicated by these independent markers coincides with the highest dissolved Fe (10-20mg/L) and As (200-400μg/L) concentrations in groundwater at both sites. The new findings suggest that the oxidation of human/livestock waste coupled to the reductive dissolution of iron-(oxy)-hydroxides and/or arsenate may enhance groundwater contamination with As.

  13. Aquifer-nomenclature guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Davidson, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations for naming aquifers are presented to assist authors of geohydrological reports in the United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. The hierarchy of terms that is used for water- yielding rocks from largest to smallest is aquifer system, aquifer, and zone. If aquifers are named, the names should be derived from lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units, or geographic names. The following items are not recommended as sources of aquifer names: time-stratigraphic names, relative position, alphanumeric designations, depositional environment, depth of occurrence, acronyms, and hydrologic conditions. Confining units should not be named unless doing so clearly promotes understanding of a particular aquifer system. Sources of names for confining units are similar to those for aquifer names, i.e. lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units or geographic names. Examples of comparison charts and tables that are used to define the geohydrologic framework are included. Aquifers are defined in 11 hypothetical examples that characterize geohydrologic settings throughout the country. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Biscayne aquifer, southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Howard; Hull, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Peak daily pumpage from the highly permeable, unconfined Biscayne aquifer for public water-supply systems in southeast Florida in 1975 was about 500 million gallons. Another 165 million gallons was withdrawn daily for irrigation. Recharge to the aquifer is primarily by local rainfall. Discharge is by evapotranspiration, canal drainage, coastal seepage, and pumping. Pollutants can enter the aquifer by direct infiltration from land surface or controlled canals, septic-tank and other drainfields, drainage wells, and solid-waste dumps. Most of the pollutants are concentrated in the upper 20 to 30 feet of the aquifer; public supply wells generally range in depth from about 75 to 150 feet. Dilution, dispersion, and adsorption tend to reduce the concentrations. Seasonal heavy rainfall and canal discharge accelerate ground-water circulation, thereby tending to dilute and flush upper zones of the aquifer. The ultimate fate of pollutants in the aquifer is the ocean, although some may be adsorbed by the aquifer materials en route to the ocean, and some are diverted to pumping wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasi, Frank S.; Williams, Roy E.

    1984-12-01

    In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one R&D in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantitites of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy.

  16. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-06-16

    An improved receiver and receiver mount for calutrons are described. The receiver can be manipulated from outside the tank by a single control to position it with respect to the beam. A door can be operated exteriorly also to prevent undesired portions of the beam from entering the receiver. The receiver has an improved pocket which is more selective in the ions collected. (T.R.H.)

  17. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 760 RIN 0560-AH95 Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and... the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program... events or loss conditions must have occurred to be eligible losses of livestock, honeybee, crops, and...

  18. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  19. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  20. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  1. 25 CFR 167.15 - Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and introduction of... NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.15 Control of livestock disease and introduction of livestock. (a) The... contagious or infectious disease in the economic interest of the Navajo stock owners. Upon the...

  2. Mapping the global distribution of livestock.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Timothy P; Wint, G R William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.

  3. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations.

    PubMed

    Wielgus, Robert B; Peebles, Kaylie A

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.

  4. Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations

    PubMed Central

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Peebles, Kaylie A.

    2014-01-01

    Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, – but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987–2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5–6% for cattle with increased wolf control - up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered. PMID:25470821

  5. Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Timothy P.; Wint, G. R. William; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Ercoli, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Cinardi, Giuseppina; D'Aietti, Laura; Hay, Simon I.; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced. PMID:24875496

  6. Identifying aquifer type in fractured rock aquifers using harmonic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Khayyun A; Halihan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Determining aquifer type, unconfined, semi-confined, or confined, by drilling or performing pumping tests has inherent problems (i.e., cost and complex field issues) while sometimes yielding inconclusive results. An improved method to cost-effectively determine aquifer type would be beneficial for hydraulic mapping of complex aquifer systems like fractured rock aquifers. Earth tides are known to influence water levels in wells penetrating confined aquifers or unconfined thick, low-porosity aquifers. Water-level fluctuations in wells tapping confined and unconfined aquifers are also influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Harmonic analyses of water-level fluctuations of a thick (~1000 m) carbonate aquifer located in south-central Oklahoma (Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer) were utilized in nine wells to identify aquifer type by evaluating the influence of earth tides and barometric-pressure variations using signal identification. On the basis of the results, portions of the aquifer responded hydraulically as each type of aquifer even though there was no significant variation in lithostratigraphy. The aquifer type was depth dependent with confined conditions becoming more prevalent with depth. The results demonstrate that harmonic analysis is an accurate and low-cost method to determine aquifer type.

  7. Hydrogeological characterization of the Childress Creek basin, central Texas using aquifer testing and geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Scheerhorn, J.D. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Childress Creek Basin comprises about one-seventh of the Washita Prairie Edwards Aquifer which is a shallow aquifer easily susceptible to groundwater contamination. The purpose of this study is to characterize aquifer properties within Childress Creek Basin so that a better understanding can aid management and protection of its water quality. Although this aquifer is sparingly used by the largely rural inhabitants for livestock and domestic purposes, it contributes most of the stream flow in this area. The two formations comprising this aquifer are, in ascending order, the Edwards Limestone and the Georgetown Formation. The Edwards Limestone, uppermost formation of the Fredericksburg Group, is a massive, nearly pure calcium carbonate unit which ranges from about 30 to 45 feet in thickness. The Georgetown Formation consists of fossiliferous, nodular limestones interbedded with thin shale or marl beds. The Georgetown is comprised of seven members which total about 150 feet in thickness. Both formations are Early Cretaceous in age and typically dip 20--25 feet per mile to the east-southeast. Although this hydrogeologic investigation includes stratigraphic, structural, geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical description and quantification, it emphasizes aquifer testing and geophysical analysis. Aquifer characteristics such as transmissivity, storativity, heterogeneity, and anisotropy were obtained by performing aquifer tests, in particular, constant rate pumping tests. The effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity are controlled by fractures and bedding planes. Surface resistivity, borehole gamma logging, and seismic refraction were used to determine depth to groundwater, depth of weathering, orientation of fractures, and variations in the geologic materials.

  8. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  9. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Treesearch

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  10. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock...

  11. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which...

  12. Livestock waste-to-energy opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based livestock wastes as feedstocks for waste-to-energy production has the potential to convert the livestock waste treatment from a liability into a profit center that can generate annual revenues and diversify farm income. This presentation introduces tw...

  13. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Brunk, W.O.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given for an improved calutron receiver having a face plate lying at an angle to the direction of the entering ion beams but having an opening, the plane of which is substantially perpendicular to that of the entering ion beams. By so positioning the opening in the receiver, the effective area through which the desired material may enter the receiver is increased, and at the same time the effective area through which containattng material may enter the receiver is reduced.

  14. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    York, H.F.

    1959-07-01

    A receiver construction is presented for calutrons having two or more ion sources and an individual receiver unit for each source. Design requirements dictate that the face plate defining the receiver entrance slots be placed at an angle to the approaching beam, which means that ions striking the face plate are likely to be scattcred into the entrance slots of other receivers. According to the present invention, the face plate has a surface provided with parallel ridges so disposed that one side only of each ridge's exposed directly to the ion beam. The scattered ions are directed away from adjacent receivers by the ridges on the lace plate.

  15. Effectiveness of pilot connector well in artificial recharge of the Floridan aquifer, western Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    A connector well pilot installation, in continuous operation in western Orange County since December 4, 1970, was transferring water from the lower of two shallow sand aquifers to the Floridan aquifer at a rate of 13 gallons per minute when measured on September 23, 1971. The recharge water is untreated and analyses show it to be chemically and physically compatible with the water in the Floridan aquifer. The temperatures of the recharging and receiving waters were identical, 23 deg C. The transfer of water from the lower sand aquifer to the Floridan aquifer caused only a small buildup of artesian pressure in the Floridan aquifer but it lowered the artesian head 4 feet in the lower sand aquifer near the well which supplied the recharge water. Water levels in the upper sand aquifer were not affected, probably because of the low permeability of an intervening hardpan layer. However, after six auger holes back-filled with sand connected the two sand aquifers on April 5, 1972, a rise of water levels in the lower sand aquifer was noted. The principal chemical and physical effects on the water in the Floridan aquifer were a general improvement in chemical quality and an increase in color. The color may decrease as more water moves through the sand aquifer and the material responsible for the high color is removed by flushing. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Aquifer-characteristics data for West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Mathes, Melvin V.

    2001-01-01

    Specific-capacity, storage-coefficient, and specific-yield data for wells in West Virginia were compiled to provide a data set from which transmissivity could be estimated. This data can be used for analytical and mathematical groundwater flow modeling. Analysis of available storage-coefficient and (or) specific-yield data indicates the Ohio River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.20, which is characteristic of an unconfined aquifer. The Kanawha River alluvial aquifer has a median specific yield of 0.003, which is characteristic of a semi-confined aquifer. The median storage coefficient of fractured-bedrock aquifers is only 0.007, which is characteristic of confined aquifers. The highest median transmissivity of a specific aquifer in West Virginia occurs in Ohio River alluvium (4,800 ft2/d); the second highest occurs in Kanawha River alluvium (1,600 ft2/d). The lowest median transmissivity (23 ft2/d) is for the McKenzie-Rose Hill-Tuscarora aquifer. Rocks of Cambrian age within the Waynesboro-Tomstown-Harpers-Weverton-Loudon aquifer had a low median transmissivity of only 67 ft2/d. Other aquifers with low transmissivities include the Hampshire Formation, Brallier-Harrell Formations, Mahantango Formations, Oriskany Sandstone, and the Conococheague Formation with median transmissivities of 74, 72, 92, 82, and 92 ft2/d, respectively. All other aquifers within the State had intermediate values of transmissivity (130-920 ft2/d). The highest median transmissivities among bedrock aquifers were those for aquifers within the Pennsylvanian age Pocahontas Formation (1,200 ft2/d) and Pottsville Group (1,300 ft2/d), and the Mississippian age Mauch Chunk Group (1,300 ft2/d). These rocks crop out primarily in the southern part of the State and to a lesser extent within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The highest mean annual ground-water recharge rates within West Virginia (24.6 in.) occur within a band that extends

  17. CALUTRON RECEIVERS

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.H.; Stone, K.F.

    1958-09-01

    S>This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and, more specifically, describes a receiver fer collecting the ion curreot after it is formed into a beam of non-homogeneous isotropic cross-section. The invention embodies a calutron receiver having an ion receiving pocket for separately collecting and retaining ions traveling in a selected portion of the ion beam and anelectrode for intercepting ions traveling in another selected pontion of the ion beam. The electrode is disposed so as to fix the limit of one side of the pontion of the ion beam admitted iato the ion receiving pocket.

  18. Agent Based Model of Livestock Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, D. J.; Emelyanova, I. V.; Donald, G. E.; Garner, G. M.

    The modelling of livestock movements within Australia is of national importance for the purposes of the management and control of exotic disease spread, infrastructure development and the economic forecasting of livestock markets. In this paper an agent based model for the forecasting of livestock movements is presented. This models livestock movements from farm to farm through a saleyard. The decision of farmers to sell or buy cattle is often complex and involves many factors such as climate forecast, commodity prices, the type of farm enterprise, the number of animals available and associated off-shore effects. In this model the farm agent's intelligence is implemented using a fuzzy decision tree that utilises two of these factors. These two factors are the livestock price fetched at the last sale and the number of stock on the farm. On each iteration of the model farms choose either to buy, sell or abstain from the market thus creating an artificial supply and demand. The buyers and sellers then congregate at the saleyard where livestock are auctioned using a second price sealed bid. The price time series output by the model exhibits properties similar to those found in real livestock markets.

  19. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    The livestock sector globally is highly dynamic. In developing countries, it is evolving in response to rapidly increasing demand for livestock products. In developed countries, demand for livestock products is stagnating, while many production systems are increasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been largely driven by human population growth, income growth and urbanization and the production response in different livestock systems has been associated with science and technology as well as increases in animal numbers. In the future, production will increasingly be affected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed and by the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Developments in breeding, nutrition and animal health will continue to contribute to increasing potential production and further efficiency and genetic gains. Livestock production is likely to be increasingly affected by carbon constraints and environmental and animal welfare legislation. Demand for livestock products in the future could be heavily moderated by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty as to how these factors will play out in different regions of the world in the coming decades. PMID:20713389

  20. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2908 Section...-Class II Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a) After notice and opportunity for a public hearing, the Administrator may designate any aquifer or part of an aquifer as an exempted aquifer. (b) An aquifer or...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2908 Section...-Class II Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a) After notice and opportunity for a public hearing, the Administrator may designate any aquifer or part of an aquifer as an exempted aquifer. (b) An aquifer or...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2908 Section...-Class II Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a) After notice and opportunity for a public hearing, the Administrator may designate any aquifer or part of an aquifer as an exempted aquifer. (b) An aquifer or...

  3. Infectious disease transmission and contact networks in wildlife and livestock

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Meggan E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of social and contact networks to answer basic and applied questions about infectious disease transmission in wildlife and livestock is receiving increased attention. Through social network analysis, we understand that wild animal and livestock populations, including farmed fish and poultry, often have a heterogeneous contact structure owing to social structure or trade networks. Network modelling is a flexible tool used to capture the heterogeneous contacts of a population in order to test hypotheses about the mechanisms of disease transmission, simulate and predict disease spread, and test disease control strategies. This review highlights how to use animal contact data, including social networks, for network modelling, and emphasizes that researchers should have a pathogen of interest in mind before collecting or using contact data. This paper describes the rising popularity of network approaches for understanding transmission dynamics in wild animal and livestock populations; discusses the common mismatch between contact networks as measured in animal behaviour and relevant parasites to match those networks; and highlights knowledge gaps in how to collect and analyse contact data. Opportunities for the future include increased attention to experiments, pathogen genetic markers and novel computational tools. PMID:25870393

  4. Aquifer stability investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.

    1981-09-01

    The study of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous rock reservoirs is carried out within the Reservoir Stability Studies Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the study is to establish criteria for long-term stability of aquifer CAES reservoirs. These criteria are intended to be guidelines and check lists that utilities and architect-engineering firms may use to evaluate reservoir stability at candidate CAES sites. These criteria will be quantitative where possible, qualitative where necessary, and will provide a focal point for CAES relevant geotechnical knowledge, whether developed within this study or available from petroleum, mining or other geotechnical practices using rock materials. The Reservoir Stability Studies Program had four major activities: a state-of-the-art survey to establish preliminary stability criteria and identify areas requiring research and development; numerical modeling; laboratory testing to provide data for use in numerical models and to investigate fundamental rock mechanics, thermal, fluid, and geochemical response of aquifer materials; and field studies to verify the feasibility of air injection and recovery under CAES conditions in an aquifer, to validate and refine the stability criteria, and to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical and experimental methodologies developed in previous work. Three phases of study, including preliminary criteria formulation, numerical model development, and experimental assessment of CAES reservoir materials have been completed. Present activity consists of construction and operation of the aquifer field test, and associated numerical and experimental work in support of that activity. Work is presently planned to be complete by 1983 at the end of the field test. At that time the final stability criteria for aquifers will be issued. Attached here also are preliminary criteria for aquifers.

  5. Global assessment of livestock intensification potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Stocking densities of livestock on pasture are below attainable rates in many parts of the world. Quantifying this "yield gap" in livestock would allow for targeting of interventions to reduce land use change while meeting demand for milk and meat products. Calculating such yield gaps with semi-empirical methods is more difficult for livestock than for crops for several reasons, including the existence of overstocked areas in global datasets. Here, we use measures of NDVI to exclude regions where overstocking may be associated with pasture degradation. We then use quantile regression methods to empirically determine maps of attainable livestock stocking densities. The resulting maps are compared with maps of actual stocking densities to estimate stocking density yield gaps.

  6. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  7. Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report describes relative exposures and hazards for different livestock carcass management options in the event of a natural disaster. A quantitative exposure assessment by which livestock carcass management options are ranked relative to one another for a hypothetical site setting, a standardized set of environmental conditions (e.g., meteorology), and following a single set of assumptions about how the carcass management options are designed and implemented. These settings, conditions, and assumptions are not necessarily representative of site-specific carcass management efforts. Therefore, the exposure assessment should not be interpreted as estimating levels of chemical and microbial exposure that can be expected to result from the management options evaluated. The intent of the relative rankings is to support scientifically-based livestock carcass management decisions that consider potential hazards to human health, livestock, and the environment. This exposure assessment also provides information to support choices about mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate specific exposure pathways.

  8. Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This research brief summarizes an evaluation of livestock carcass management options following a natural disaster through a comparative exposure assessment. This assessment helps to inform a scientifically-based selection of environmentally protective methods in times of emergency.

  9. Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report describes relative exposures and hazards for different livestock carcass management options in the event of a natural disaster. A quantitative exposure assessment by which livestock carcass management options are ranked relative to one another for a hypothetical site setting, a standardized set of environmental conditions (e.g., meteorology), and following a single set of assumptions about how the carcass management options are designed and implemented. These settings, conditions, and assumptions are not necessarily representative of site-specific carcass management efforts. Therefore, the exposure assessment should not be interpreted as estimating levels of chemical and microbial exposure that can be expected to result from the management options evaluated. The intent of the relative rankings is to support scientifically-based livestock carcass management decisions that consider potential hazards to human health, livestock, and the environment. This exposure assessment also provides information to support choices about mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate specific exposure pathways.

  10. Preserving an underground aquifer: More than meets the eye

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-11-01

    Odessa, Texas, is situated just along the southern fringes of North America`s largest aquifer. Commonly called a titanic underground sponge, the Ogallalla aquifer stretches from Texas to South Dakota and is comprised of several small aquifers, collectively termed the High Plains Aquifer. With concern for one of the area`s most abundant water resources on the rise, the aquifer has also become a priority for officials from the city of Odessa, especially those associated with the landfill. The Johnson Ranch Landfill, which receives approximately 100,000 tons per year (tpy) of municipal solid waste (MSW) from the 89,699 residents of the city of Odessa, has been in operation for about 10 years. The aquifer extends one-third of the way across the city of Odessa and lies just 65 to 70 feet below the surface, with landfill excavation reaching depths of about 40 feet. To help preserve the aquifer, the landfill contracted with Freese and Nichols, Inc. (Forth Worth, Texas), and S.W. Howell Engineering (Odessa) in 1993, to design a liner system with a primary goal of protecting the Ogallalla. One of the changes required under the new regulations was the installation of a linear system that would act as a barrier between groundwater and the leachate generated at the landfill.

  11. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions.

    PubMed

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-03-11

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y(-1)), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y(-1). Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y(-1) could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient--measured in "total abatement calorie cost"--than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.

  12. Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions

    PubMed Central

    Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Obersteiner, Michael; Schmid, Erwin; Rufino, Mariana C.; Mosnier, Aline; Thornton, Philip K.; Böttcher, Hannes; Conant, Richard T.; Frank, Stefan; Fritz, Steffen; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Notenbaert, An

    2014-01-01

    Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes. PMID:24567375

  13. Matching Livestock Production Systems and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, T.; Stackhouse, J.; Snell, L.; Lile, D.; George, H.; Harper, J. M.; Larson, S.; Mashiri, F.; Doran, M.; Barry, S.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock production systems vary greatly over the world. Producers try to match the resources they have with the demands of production, this can vary by species, class of animal, number of animals, and production goals, etc. Using California's diversity in production systems as an example, we explored how livestock producers best utilize the forage and feed found in different ecosystems and available in different parts of the state. Livestock grazing, the predominant land use in California and in much of the world, makes efficient use of the natural vegetation produced without additional water (irrigation), minimal inputs such as fertilizer while often supporting a variety of conservation objectives including vegetation management, fire fuels management, and habitat and open space conservation. The numerous by-products produced by other sectors of California's agriculture as well as food industries, such as brewer's grain, cottonseeds, and almond hulls are utilized as a feed source for livestock. These by-products are not only an important feed source especially in drought years but are diverted from our waste stream when utilized by livestock. The concept of matching available resources to livestock needs throughout the world is often overlooked and production systems are often over simplified in projects conducting a life cycle analysis or developing carbon foot prints for livestock production systems. This paper provides details on the various production systems found in California, the ecosystem they have adapted to, and how the producers use science and ecological knowledge to match the biological requirements of the livestock and conservation objectives to feed and forage resources.

  14. 29 CFR 780.617 - Adjunct livestock auction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adjunct livestock auction operations. 780.617 Section 780... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.617 Adjunct livestock auction operations. The livestock auction...

  15. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Rinella; Marty Vavra; Bridgett J. Naylor; Jennifer M. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Livestock often concentrate grazing in particular regions of landscapes while partly or wholly avoiding other regions. Dispersing livestock from the heavily grazed regions is a central challenge in grazing land management. Position data gathered from GPS-collared livestock hold potential for increasing knowledge of factors driving livestock aggregation patterns, but...

  16. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on...

  17. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on...

  18. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians... Movement of livestock. Annually, prior to the normal lamb buying season, the Central Grazing Committee... and the procedures and methods to be used in moving livestock to market. All movements of livestock...

  19. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  20. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  1. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  2. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  3. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  4. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-03-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    PubMed

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  6. Inquiry and Aquifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, Ted; Shepardson, Daniel; Harbor, Jon; Bell, Cheryl; Meyer, Jason; Klagges, Hope; Burgess, Willie

    2001-01-01

    Presents inquiry-oriented activities that acquaint students with groundwater sources, movement of water through aquifers, and contamination of groundwater by pollution. In one activity, students use well log data from web-based resources to explore groundwater systems. Provides sample well log data for those not having access to local information.…

  7. Inquiry and Aquifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, Ted; Shepardson, Daniel; Harbor, Jon; Bell, Cheryl; Meyer, Jason; Klagges, Hope; Burgess, Willie

    2001-01-01

    Presents inquiry-oriented activities that acquaint students with groundwater sources, movement of water through aquifers, and contamination of groundwater by pollution. In one activity, students use well log data from web-based resources to explore groundwater systems. Provides sample well log data for those not having access to local information.…

  8. Boise Geothermal Aquifer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the final product of a detailed review and quantitative evaluation of existing data for the Boise Front Geothermal Aquifer. Upon review of the many publications, and raw data for the Boise geothermal aquifer, it became clear that adequate data only exists for analysis of current and proposed development within a limited area. This region extends approximately 1.5 miles southeast of the State Capitol to 0.5 mile northwest. Though there are geothermal wells located along the Boise Front outside of this area, the lack of production and water level data preclude any detailed discussions and analysis of their relationship to the central resource. As a result, discussion will concentrate on major users such as the Capitol Mall (CM) Boise Geothermal LTD. (BGL), Veterans Administration (VA) and Boise Warm Springs Water District (BWSWD). The objectives of this study are: Define the inter-relationship of the existing wells and/or portions of the geothermal aquifer; evaluate the effects of current and proposed development on the geothermal aquifer; estimate longevity of the geothermal resource; and make recommendations for an on-going monitoring program. 44 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  10. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  11. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  12. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  13. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified...

  14. Maintaining ecosystem services through continued livestock production on California rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, S.; Becchetti, T.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 40% of California is rangeland comprising the largest land type in California and providing forage for livestock, primarily beef cattle. In addition to forage, rangelands provide a host of ecosystem systems services, including habitat for common and endangered species, fire fuels management, pollination services, clean water, viewsheds, and carbon sequestration. Published research has documented that most of these ecosystem services are positively impacted by managed livestock grazing and rancher stewardship. Ranchers typically do not receive any monetary reimbursement for their stewardship in providing these ecosystem services to the public. Markets have been difficult to establish with limited ability to adequately monitor and measure services provided. At the same time, rangelands have been experiencing rapid conversion to urbanization and more profitable and intensive forms of agriculture such as almond and walnut orchards. To prevent further conversion of rangelands and the loss of the services they provide, there needs to be a mechanism to identify and compensate landowners for the value of all products and services being received from rangelands. This paper considers two methods (opportunity cost and avoided cost) to determine the value of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for rangelands. PES can raise the value of rangelands, making them more competitive financially. Real estate values and University of California Cooperative Extension Cost Studies, were used to demonstrate the difference in value (lost opportunity cost) between the primary products of rangelands (livestock production) and the products of the converted rangelands (almond and walnut orchards). Avoided costs for vegetation management and habitat creation and maintenance were used to establish the value of managed grazing. If conversion is to be slowed or stopped and managed grazing promoted to protect the ecosystem services rangelands provide, this value could be compensated through

  15. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the carcasses... sale or transportation, in commerce, or import any dead livestock if its hide or skin has been removed; (b) Sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive for transportation, in...

  16. Revised spatially distributed global livestock emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; West, T. O.

    2015-12-01

    Livestock play an important role in agricultural carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Quantification and spatial distribution of methane and carbon dioxide produced by livestock is needed to develop bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring. These estimates serve as stand-alone international emissions estimates, as input to global emissions modeling, and as comparisons or constraints to flux estimates from atmospheric inversion models. Recent results for the US suggest that the 2006 IPCC default coefficients may underestimate livestock methane emissions. In this project, revised coefficients were calculated for cattle and swine in all global regions, based on reported changes in body mass, quality and quantity of feed, milk production, and management of living animals and manure for these regions. New estimates of livestock methane and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using the revised coefficients and global livestock population data. Spatial distribution of population data and associated fluxes was conducted using the MODIS Land Cover Type 5, version 5.1 (i.e. MCD12Q1 data product), and a previously published downscaling algorithm for reconciling inventory and satellite-based land cover data at 0.05 degree resolution. Preliminary results for 2013 indicate greater emissions than those calculated using the IPCC 2006 coefficients. Global total enteric fermentation methane increased by 6%, while manure management methane increased by 38%, with variation among species and regions resulting in improved spatial distributions of livestock emissions. These new estimates of total livestock methane are comparable to other recently reported studies for the entire US and the State of California. These new regional/global estimates will improve the ability to reconcile top-down and bottom-up estimates of methane production as well as provide updated global estimates for use in development and evaluation of Earth system models.

  17. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  18. Aquifers In Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, D.; Jaumann, R.

    The topographic information provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been used in combination with the Mars Observer Camera imagery to estimate the topo- graphic position of sapping pits and gully heads on the rim of Nirgal Vallis. Hence Nirgal Vallis is understood to be formed by groundwater sapping (1, 2, 3, 4) an aquifer is proposed as water supply. Gullies in the northern rim of Nirgal Vallis as discovered in Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images (5, 6) proof the existence of such an aquifer. Further evidence for sapping in Nirgal Vallis is demonstrated by short hanging tribu- taries with amphitheater-like heads. The basis of these sapping pits defines the con- tact of aquifer to aquiclude during the valley formation. The gully heads are much deeper under the local surface and the correlation of their topographic position with the valley depth indicate the subsidence of the groundwater level following the ver- tical erosion of the valley. This implies the existence of different groundwater tables over time confined by impermeable layers, whereas the gully head level is the most recent groundwater table which still may be erosional active under the conditions of increasing water pressure and ice barrier failure (5). The occurrence of more than one tilted sapping level at different topographic positions which are time-correlated with the erosional notching of the valley, either indicates different aquifers with litholog- ical aquicludes or a climate controlled subsidence of the permafrost layer acting as confining layer. References: (1) Baker et al., 1992, In: Mars, Univ. of Arizona Press. (2) Carr, 1995, JGR 100, 7479. (3) Malin and Carr, 1999, Icarus, 397, 589. (4) Jaumann and Reiss, 2002, LPSC. (5) Malin and Edgett, 2000, Science, 288, 2330. (6) Malin and Edgett, 2001, JGR 106, 23429.

  19. CALUTRON RECEIVER

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improvement in a calutron receiver for collecting the isotopes ts described. The electromagnetic separation of the isotopes produces a mass spectrum of closely adjacent beams of ions at the foci regions, and a dividing wall between the two pockets is arranged at an angle. Substantially all of the tons of the less abundant isotope enter one of the pockets and strike one side of the wall directly, while substantially none of the tons entering the other pocket strikes the wall directly.

  20. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth123

    PubMed Central

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, MK; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    Background: In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. Objective: We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. Methods: We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children <5 y of age into an ongoing linked human and animal surveillance cohort in rural western Kenya. Using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, and household wealth, we tested whether baseline household livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. Results: We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: −0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: −0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: −0.112, −0.016 cm/mo). Children <2 y of age in households with livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: −0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: −0.063, −0.003 kg/mo). Conclusion: In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to

  1. Relations between Household Livestock Ownership, Livestock Disease, and Young Child Growth.

    PubMed

    Mosites, Emily; Thumbi, Samuel M; Otiang, Elkanah; McElwain, Terry F; Njenga, M K; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; May, Susanne; Palmer, Guy H; Walson, Judd L

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited settings in which child malnutrition is prevalent, humans live in close proximity to household livestock. However, the relation between household livestock and child nutrition represents a considerable knowledge gap. We assessed whether household livestock ownership or livestock disease episodes were associated with growth in young children in western Kenya. We incorporated monthly anthropometric measurements for children <5 y of age into an ongoing linked human and animal surveillance cohort in rural western Kenya. Using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, and household wealth, we tested whether baseline household livestock ownership was related to baseline child height for age or prospective growth rate. We also evaluated whether livestock disease episodes were associated with child growth rate over 11 mo of follow-up. We collected data on 925 children over the course of follow-up. Greater household livestock ownership at baseline was not related to baseline child height-for-age z score (adjusted β: 0.01 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.04 SD) or child growth rate (adjusted β: 0.02 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.07 cm/y). Livestock disease episodes were not significantly associated with child growth across the entire cohort (adjusted β: -0.007 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.006 cm/mo). However, children in households with livestock digestive disease between June and November gained less height than did children in households that did not report livestock disease (β: -0.063 cm/mo; 95% CI: -0.112, -0.016 cm/mo). Children <2 y of age in households with livestock digestive disease gained less weight than did those who did not report disease (β: -0.033 kg/mo; 95% CI: -0.063, -0.003 kg/mo). In this cohort of young children in western Kenya, we did not find an association between ownership of livestock and child growth status. However, disease episodes in household livestock may be related to a lower child growth rate in some groups. © 2016 American Society for

  2. Integrating borehole logs and aquifer tests in aquifer characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Reese, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the surficial aquifer system in and around Big Cypress National Preserve in eastern Collier County, Florida. Borehole flowmeter tests provide qualitative permeability profiles in most of 26 boreholes drilled in the Study area. Flow logs indicate the depth of transmissive units, which are correlated across the study area. Comparison to published studies in adjacent areas indicates that the main limestone aquifer of the 000000Tamiami Formation in the study area corresponds with the gray limestone aquifer in western Dade County and the water table and lower Tamiami Aquifer in western Collier County. Four strategically located, multiwell aquifer tests are used to quantify the qualitative permeability profiles provided by the flowmeter log analysis. The hydrostratigraphic model based on these results defines the main aquifer in the central part of the study area as unconfined to semiconfined with a transmissivity as high as 30,000 m2/day. The aquifer decreases in transmissivity to less than 10,000 m2/day in some parts of western Collier County, and becomes confined to the east and northeast of the study area, where transmissivity decreases to below 5000 m2/day.Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the

  3. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    PubMed

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system.

  4. Trends and Collaboration in Transboundary Aquifer Management in the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salame, L.; Stephan, R. M.

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO/OAS ISARM Americas project, a questionnaire on Sustainable Socioeconomic and Environmental Aspects of Transboundary Aquifers was addressed to the participating countries. The questionnaire inquired about interactions between countries sharing one or more aquifers, during the past twenty years. Forty nine transboundary aquifers are considered, based on the answers received. Very few interactions are reported; with a majority of positive ones. When competition is reported, its main reason is the quantity of water, and in some cases its quality. However the level of competition is sometimes assessed differently depending on the way it is interpreted. Reported cooperative interactions differ not only in intensity and level of success, but also in the field and range of subjects and objectives on which it has been developed; it ranges from information exchange to a complex strategic management on several subjects. In some cases, while no interactions are reported at the level of the governments, scientific cooperation is reported as a positive interaction between countries sharing an aquifer, such as in the case of most aquifers shared by Mexico and Guatemala. Countries indeed find many reasons to cooperate. The most often mentioned activities to foster cooperation are the conduction of bi or multilateral projects. The information collected lead to the conclusion that the balance of interactions over the use of shared aquifers leans towards cooperation.

  5. Effects of ochratoxin a on livestock production.

    PubMed

    Battacone, Gianni; Nudda, Anna; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2010-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1) the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2) the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep); and (3) the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs.

  6. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  7. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many plants worldwide contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death in livestock. These plants are primarily found in the southern continents of Africa, Australia and South America where they negatively impact livestock production. This review highlights past and current research investigating: ...

  8. 6. Southeast view of livestock market: south elevation, looking through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Southeast view of livestock market: south elevation, looking through the south exterior cattle pens - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  9. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) The covered livestock categories are: (1) Adult beef cows or bulls, (2) Adult buffalo or beefalo cows or bulls, (3) Adult dairy cows or bulls, (4) Alpacas, (5) Deer, (6) Elk, (7) Emu, (8) Equine, (9..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry,...

  10. Advanced Livestock Production: A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    With the introduction of specialized courses of study in the third and fourth year of high school, it has become necessary to do more specialized work in the area of livestock production. The course is designed to provide a guideline to encourage intensified studies in this area, and outlines materials and methods, time allotment, and the use of…

  11. Is Continued Genetic Improvement of Livestock Sustainable?

    PubMed

    Hill, William G

    2016-03-01

    Large genetic improvements in the quantitative traits of growth, production, and efficiency of farmed livestock have been made over recent decades, and by introduction of genomic technology these are being enhanced. Such continued improvement requires that there be available variation to utilize. The evidence is that little variation has been lost and such rates are indeed sustainable in the future.

  12. 25 CFR 700.725 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 700.725 Section 700.725 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands... of $1 per head per day for each cow, bull, horse, mule or donkey and 25¢ per head per day for each...

  13. Livestock grazing and wildlife: developing compatabilities.

    Treesearch

    Martin. Vavra

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing has been considered detrimental to wildlife habitat. Managed gazing programs, however, have the potential to maintain habitat diversity and quality. In cases in which single-species management predominates (sage-grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus] or elk [Cervus elaphus nelsoni] winter range), grazing systems...

  14. 7 CFR 1416.203 - Eligible livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eligible county in accordance with 7 CFR 760.101, must meet all the following: (i) Be catfish or crawfish... meet all the following: (i) Be adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, catfish... and any other Federal program for the same loss. Except catfish and crawfish, livestock that died in...

  15. Baccharis Pteronioides Toxicity in Livestock and Hamsters.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the early 1900’s, Baccharis pteronioides DC has been intermittently associated with livestock poisoning in the southwestern United States. In 2004, nearly 100 free ranging cows were reported poisoned by B. pteronioides in southern New Mexico. Initial field studies and post mortem examination...

  16. Biological control of livestock pests : Parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests on livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. ...

  17. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating

  18. Livestock GRACEnet: A workgroup dedicated to evaluating and mitigating emissions from livestock production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia, greenhouse gases, and other emissions (e.g., particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide) from livestock production systems are being increasingly scrutinized by regulatory agencies. These pollutants, which are also generated by energy, industrial, and transportation se...

  19. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    PubMed

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  20. Alluvial aquifers in the Mzingwane catchment: Their distribution, properties, current usage and potential expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyce, William; Mangeya, Pride; Owen, Richard; Love, David

    The Mzingwane River is a sand filled channel, with extensive alluvial aquifers distributed along its banks and bed in the lower catchment. LandSat TM imagery was used to identify alluvial deposits for potential groundwater resources for irrigation development. On the false colour composite band 3, band 4 and band 5 (FCC 345) the alluvial deposits stand out as white and dense actively growing vegetation stands out as green making it possible to mark out the lateral extent of the saturated alluvial plain deposits using the riverine fringe and vegetation . The alluvial aquifers form ribbon shaped aquifers extending along the channel and reaching over 20 km in length in some localities and are enhanced at lithological boundaries. These alluvial aquifers extend laterally outside the active channel, and individual alluvial aquifers have been measured with area ranging from 45 ha to 723 ha in the channels and 75 ha to 2196 ha on the plains. The alluvial aquifers are more pronounced in the Lower Mzingwane, where the slopes are gentler and allow for more sediment accumulation. Estimated water resources potential ranges between 175,000 m 3 and 5,430,000 m 3 in the channels and between 80,000 m 3 and 6,920,000 m 3 in the plains. Such a water resource potential can support irrigation ranging from 18 ha to 543 ha for channels alluvial aquifers and 8 ha to 692 ha for plain alluvial aquifers. Currently, some of these aquifers are being used to provide water for domestic use, livestock watering and dip tanks, commercial irrigation and market gardening. The water quality of the aquifers in general is fairly good due to regular recharge and flushing out of the aquifers by annual river flows and floodwater. Water salinity was found to increase significantly in the end of the dry season, and this effect was more pronounced in water abstracted from wells on the alluvial plains. During drought years, recharge is expected to be less and if the drought is extended water levels in the

  1. Wolf depredation on livestock in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Depredation by wolves (Canis lupus) on cattle, sheep, and other livestock in Minnesota currently is a minor problem except to a few individual farmers. Indices to the seriousness of the problem are available only from recent years, so historical trends cannot be detected. From 1976 through 1980 the number of farms in the wolf range suffering verified losses to wolves ranged from 9 to 19 (mean of x = 13) per year out of about 12,230. From 1977 through 1980, the highest cattle losses claimed by farmers were 0.45 per 1,000 cattle available in 1979; the highest sheep losses claimed were 1.18 per 1,000 available in 1980. Many claims of losses (especially of calves) are based on missing animals, and few wolves are involved in the verified losses. Most losses occur in summer when livestock are released to graze in open and wooded pasture. Herd management practices, such as calving in forested or brushy pastures and disposal of carcasses in or near pastures, are responsible for many instances of wolf depredation. Failure to distinguish wolves from coyotes (Canis latrans) has contributed to an exaggerated view of the importance of wolves as livestock predators. Recently the number of wolves killed in depredation control has declined, whereas the number of livestock killed has remained fairly stable. Results of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's depredation- control program in 1979 and 1980 suggest that highly restricted trapping, coupled with other management methods, has potential for reducing both livestock losses and the number of wolves that need to be killed.

  2. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    PubMed

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2017-05-29

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17 Section 309.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock...

  4. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17 Section 309.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock...

  5. Identifying plant poisoning in livestock: Diagnostic approaches and laboratory tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant poisoning is often associated with a variety of livestock diseases and unexplained animal deaths. Although toxic plants commonly poison livestock and it is estimated to cost the livestock industry in the western United States more than $340 million every year, obtaining a definitive diagnosis ...

  6. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock used in any research investigation involving an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical...

  7. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.17 Livestock used for research. (a) No livestock used in any research investigation involving an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical...

  8. The Use of and Need for Livestock Market News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Herman M.

    This publication reports the practices of 46 livestock producers relating to their use of market news as reported in personal interviews made in September, 1969, in three counties in Illinois. The questionnaire provided for information for: volume of livestock, type, location, frequency of use of various media used to obtain livestock market news;…

  9. The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

  10. 76 FR 62313 - Traceability for Livestock Moving Interstate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Livestock Moving Interstate AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... livestock moving interstate. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit... requirements for the traceability of livestock moving interstate. Comments on the proposed rule were...

  11. 7 CFR 53.15 - Accessibility to livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility to livestock. 53.15 Section 53.15... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 53.15 Accessibility to livestock. (a) The applicant...

  12. 9 CFR 85.4 - Interstate movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of livestock. 85.4 Section 85.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Interstate movement of livestock. (a) Livestock showing clinical evidence of pseudorabies shall not be moved...

  13. Sustainable livestock production on rangelands: Emerging trends in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent review of statistics published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showed that global livestock numbers have increased steadily over the past 30 years. By 2030, livestock numbers in the developing world are expected to reach record highs that will surpass livestock popu...

  14. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  15. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  16. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Marcinko, Sarah E; Goewert, Ann E; Mitchell, Charles E

    2008-07-15

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ("CAFO") lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH(3)), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km(2) grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH(3) yr(-1), 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain nearest to sensitive water

  17. 40 CFR 147.1952 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1952 Section....1952 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in... future exempt other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying...

  18. 40 CFR 147.3003 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.3003 Section..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3003 Aquifer exemptions. (a) Aquifer... described in appendix A are hereby exempted. The exempted aquifers are defined by a one-quarter mile...

  19. 40 CFR 147.3003 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.3003 Section..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3003 Aquifer exemptions. (a) Aquifer... described in appendix A are hereby exempted. The exempted aquifers are defined by a one-quarter mile...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2554 Section... Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with §§ 144.7(b) and 146.4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers... injection activity. This exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below, and includes those...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1652 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  2. 40 CFR 147.302 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.302 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers of their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions according to applicable procedures without codifying such exemptions in...

  3. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.102 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1952 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1952 Section....1952 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in... future exempt other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3003 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.3003 Section..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3003 Aquifer exemptions. (a) Aquifer... described in appendix A are hereby exempted. The exempted aquifers are defined by a one-quarter mile...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1952 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1952 Section....1952 Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in... future exempt other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2554 Section... Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with §§ 144.7(b) and 146.4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers... injection activity. This exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below, and includes those...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3003 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.3003 Section..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3003 Aquifer exemptions. (a) Aquifer... described in appendix A are hereby exempted. The exempted aquifers are defined by a one-quarter mile...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1652 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1652 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1652 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1652 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifer or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  12. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.102 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2554 Section... Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with §§ 144.7(b) and 146.4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers... injection activity. This exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below, and includes those...

  14. 40 CFR 147.102 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.102 Section... Aquifer exemptions. (a) This section identifies any aquifers or their portions exempted in accordance with... other aquifers or portions, according to applicable procedures, without codifying such exemptions...

  15. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2554 Section... Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with §§ 144.7(b) and 146.4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers... injection activity. This exemption applies only to the aquifers tabulated below, and includes those...

  16. 40 CFR 147.3003 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.3003 Section..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3003 Aquifer exemptions. (a) Aquifer... described in appendix A are hereby exempted. The exempted aquifers are defined by a one-quarter mile radius...

  17. Hydrogeology and simulation of flow between the alluvial and bedrock aquifers in the upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Anticipated increases in pumping from the bedrock aquifers in El Paso County potentially could affect the direction and rate of flow between the alluvial and bedrock aquifers and lower water levels in the overlying alluvial aquifer. The alluvial aquifer underlies about 90 square miles in the upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin of eastern El Paso County. The alluvial aquifer consists of unconsolidated alluvial deposits that unconformably overlie siltstones, sandstones, and conglomerate (bedrock aquifers) and claystone, shale, and coal (bedrock confining units) of the Denver Basin. The bedrock aquifers (Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers) are separated by confining units (upper and lower Denver and the Laramie confining units) and overlie a relatively thick and impermeable Pierre confining unit. The Pierre confining unit is assumed to be a no-flow boundary at the base of the alluvial/ bedrock aquifer system. During 1949-90, substantial water-level declines, as large as 50 feet, in the alluvial aquifer resulted from withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation and municipal supplies. Average recharge to the alluvial aquifer from infiltration of precipitation and surface water was an estimated 11.97 cubic feet per second and from the underlying bedrock aquifers was an estimated 0.87 cubic foot per second. Water-level data from eight bedrock observation wells and eight nearby alluvial wells indicate that, locally, the alluvial and bedrock aquifers probably are hydraulically connected and that the alluvial aquifer in the upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin receives recharge from the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers but-locally recharges the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer. Subsurface-temperature profiles were evaluated as a means of estimating specific discharge across the bedrock surface (the base of the alluvial aquifer). However, assumptions of the analytical method were not met by field conditions and, thus, analyses of subsurface-temperature profiles

  18. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia.

    PubMed

    Seo, S Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-10-19

    This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data.

  19. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Mohanamba, T.; Kumari, L. Rathna

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06). Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48) and feed ingredients (49) samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits. PMID:27047050

  20. Livestock and microbiological risk (a review).

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Soardo, Vincenzo; Rivetti, Daniela; Cerrato, Elena; Russo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The presence of pathogens in animal manure depends on several factors such as, for example, the species, age, type of power supply, state of health, methods and times of storage, treatments administered. Currently there are no specific requirements for the minimum sanitary standards of livestock manure to be used in agriculture, or even of the digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion, such as cattle slurry and plant matrices (e.g. maize). While there are some indications for products fermented aerobically (compost deriving also from manure) and the sludge resulting from wastewater treatment and intended for use as fertilizers. In this paper we sum up the information given in the scientific literature on the viability of some microorganisms and on the effects of the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and plant matter, such as maize, on the microbial concentrations.

  1. Application of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James W.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Searle, Laura E. J.

    The advent of antibiotics and their use for treatment of clinical manifestations of infections has had a profound impact on animal health and welfare. In addition to direct application in the control of infection, low concentrations of antibiotics given in animal feed has been shown to correlate with higher health status and improved performance in terms of feed conversion (productive weight gain). Thus it is that antibiotics have been used as “growth promoters” in feed for livestock since the 1940s (Cromwell, 2001). Since the inception of this growth promotion concept there has been a debate on precisely how low level antibiotics mediate their action and whether or not this contributes to the acquisition of resistance in the bacterial flora of livestock.

  2. Effects of Ochratoxin A on Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Battacone, Gianni; Nudda, Anna; Pulina, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination often causes large economic losses on livestock production. The intake of feed contaminated by OTA also represents a potential risk for animal health and a food safety issue due to the transfer of the toxin through the food chain to humans. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on: (1) the frequency and degree of occurrence of OTA in different feedstuffs; (2) the toxicological effects of OTA intake on the performance of the main livestock (i.e., poultry, swine, cattle, goats and sheep); and (3) the transfer of OTA, or its metabolites, from animal feed into animal products such as milk, meat and eggs. PMID:22069661

  3. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  4. Contrasting definitions for the term `karst aquifer'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Alexander, E. Calvin; Davies, Gareth J.; Schindel, Geary M.

    2017-08-01

    It is generally considered that karst aquifers have distinctly different properties from other bedrock aquifers. A search of the literature found five definitions that have been proposed to differentiate karst aquifers from non-karstic aquifers. The five definitions are based upon the presence of solution channel networks, hydraulic conductivities >10-6 m/s, karst landscapes, channels with turbulent flow, and caves. The percentage of unconfined carbonate aquifers that would classify as `karst' ranges from <1 to >50%.

  5. Managing Livestock Species under Climate Change in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Seo, S. Niggol; McCarl, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary World communities are concerned about the impacts of a hotter and drier climate on future agriculture. By examining Australian regional livestock data on sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs, the authors find that livestock production will expand under such conditions. Livestock revenue per farm is expected to increase by more than 47% by 2060 under the UKMO, the GISS, and a high degree of warming CSIRO scenario. The existence of a threshold temperature for these species is not evident. Abstract This paper examines the vulnerabilities of major livestock species raised in Australia to climate change using the regional livestock profile of Australia of around 1,400 regions. The number of each species owned, the number of each species sold, and the aggregate livestock revenue across all species are examined. The four major species analyzed are sheep, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs. The analysis also includes livestock products such as wool and milk. These livestock production statistics are regressed against climate, geophysical, market and household characteristics. In contrast to crop studies, the analysis finds that livestock species are resilient to a hotter and more arid climate. Under the CSIRO climate scenario in which temperature increases by 3.4 °C, livestock revenue per farm increases significantly while the number of each species owned increases by large percentages except for dairy cattle. The precipitation reduction by about 8% in 2060 also increases the numbers of livestock species per farm household. Under both UKMO and GISS scenarios, livestock revenue is expected to increase by around 47% while the livestock population increases by large percentage. Livestock management may play a key role in adapting to a hot and arid climate in Australia. However, critical values of the climatic variables for the species analyzed in this paper are not obvious from the regional data. PMID:26486620

  6. Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, M. C.; Brandt, P.; Herrero, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-10-01

    Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data. Even though feed availability and quality varies across seasons, most studies use constant livestock excretion rates, and excreta are usually assumed to be uniformly distributed onto the land. Major uncertainties originate in the fraction of manure managed, and emission factors which may not reflect the situation of Africa. N budgets use coarse assumptions on production, availability, and use of crop residues as livestock feed. No flows between croplands-livestock and rangelands reflect the lack of data. Joint efforts are needed for spatial data collection of livestock data, crowdsourcing appears to be a promising option. The focus of the assessment of N budgets must go beyond croplands to include livestock and crop-livestock flows. We propose a nested systems definition of livestock systems to link local, regional level, and continental level and to increase the usefulness of point measurements of N losses. Scientists working at all levels should generate data to calibrate process-based models. Measurements in the field should not only concentrate on greenhouse gas emissions, but need to include crop and livestock production measurements, soil stock changes and other N loss pathways such as leaching, run-off and volatilization to assess management practices and trade-offs. Compared to the research done in other continents on N flows in livestock systems, there are few data for Africa, and therefore concerted effort will be needed to generate sufficient data for modelling.

  7. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Ducey, Thomas; Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G

    2008-11-01

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary objective of this work is to present established and emerging energy conversion opportunities that can transform the treatment of livestock waste from a liability to a profit center. While biological production of methanol and hydrogen are in early research stages, anaerobic digestion is an established method of generating between 0.1 to 1.3m3m(-3)d(-1) of methane-rich biogas. The TCC processes of pyrolysis, direct liquefaction, and gasification can convert waste into gaseous fuels, combustible oils, and charcoal. Integration of biological and thermal-based conversion technologies in a farm-scale hybrid design by combining an algal CO2-fixation treatment requiring less than 27,000m2 of treatment area with the energy recovery component of wet gasification can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and efficiently recycle nutrients. These designs have the potential to make future large scale confined animal feeding operations sustainable and environmentally benign while generating on-farm renewable energy.

  8. Identification of selection signatures in livestock species.

    PubMed

    de Simoni Gouveia, João José; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; de Oliveira, Sônia Maria Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    The identification of regions that have undergone selection is one of the principal goals of theoretical and applied evolutionary genetics. Such studies can also provide information about the evolutionary processes involved in shaping genomes, as well as physical and functional information about genes/genomic regions. Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics. The advances in genomics in the last five years have enabled the development of several methods to detect selection signatures and have resulted in the publication of a considerable number of studies involving livestock species. The aims of this review are to describe the principal effects of natural/artificial selection on livestock genomes, to present the main methods used to detect selection signatures and to discuss some recent results in this area. This review should be useful also to research scientists working with wild animals/non-domesticated species and plant biologists working with breeding and evolutionary biology.

  9. Identification of selection signatures in livestock species

    PubMed Central

    de Simoni Gouveia, João José; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; de Oliveira, Sônia Maria Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The identification of regions that have undergone selection is one of the principal goals of theoretical and applied evolutionary genetics. Such studies can also provide information about the evolutionary processes involved in shaping genomes, as well as physical and functional information about genes/genomic regions. Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics. The advances in genomics in the last five years have enabled the development of several methods to detect selection signatures and have resulted in the publication of a considerable number of studies involving livestock species. The aims of this review are to describe the principal effects of natural/artificial selection on livestock genomes, to present the main methods used to detect selection signatures and to discuss some recent results in this area. This review should be useful also to research scientists working with wild animals/non-domesticated species and plant biologists working with breeding and evolutionary biology. PMID:25071397

  10. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  11. An overview of the transboundary aquifers in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu

    2010-11-01

    A transboundary aquifer is a body of groundwater intersected by two or more countries with the potential threat of dispute over a shared groundwater resource. A large portion of the population in East Africa relies on surface water resources for day-to-day activities; in turn, this is dependent on episodic rainfall. Surface water in the region is vulnerable to pollution and potential climate change. Consequently, frequent conflict over the water use is a regular event in the region. This paper examines the transboundary aquifers and their significance for water supply in the six adjacent Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti). Analysis of available literature and short field visits to accessible areas were undertaken in order to examine the geology, hydrogeological dynamics, and water use. The geology of the transboundary aquifers is mainly represented by Precambrian basement, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Cenozoic volcanics and recent alluvial deposits. Taking into consideration the topographic setting and water circulation, the Ethiopian highlands are the major sources of recharge to the transboundary aquifers of the adjacent countries. The surface runoff drains through 11 major rivers into the neighbouring countries. The groundwater contained in the transboundary aquifers is yet to receive attention by the various countries, but the future trend is towards exploiting the resources to alleviate water shortages in the region. It is hoped that the systematic development of these groundwater resources would strengthen cooperation in this conflict-dominated region.

  12. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity. PMID:26442116

  13. Epigenetic marks: regulators of livestock phenotypes and conceivable sources of missing variation in livestock improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in animal productivity has been achieved over the years through careful breeding and selection programs. Today, variations in the genome are gaining increasing importance in livestock improvement strategies. Genomic information alone, however, explains only a part of the phenotypic variance in traits. It is likely that a portion of the unaccounted variance is embedded in the epigenome. The epigenome encompasses epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and other molecules that can transmit epigenetic information such as non-coding RNA species. Epigenetic factors respond to external or internal environmental cues such as nutrition, pathogens, and climate, and have the ability to change gene expression leading to emergence of specific phenotypes. Accumulating evidence shows that epigenetic marks influence gene expression and phenotypic outcome in livestock species. This review examines available evidence of the influence of epigenetic marks on livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, and pig) traits and discusses the potential for consideration of epigenetic markers in livestock improvement programs. However, epigenetic research activities on farm animal species are currently limited partly due to lack of recognition, funding and a global network of researchers. Therefore, considerable less attention has been given to epigenetic research in livestock species in comparison to extensive work in humans and model organisms. Elucidating therefore the epigenetic determinants of animal diseases and complex traits may represent one of the principal challenges to use epigenetic markers for further improvement of animal productivity.

  14. Statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Angel; Early, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report, prepared as part of the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project, presents a compilation, summarization, and statistical analysis of aquifer-test results for nine regional aquifers in Louisiana. These are from youngest to oldest: The alluvial, Pleistocene, Evangeline, Jasper, Catahoula, Cockfield, Sparta, Carrizo, and Wilcox aquifers. Approximately 1,500 aquifer tests in U.S. Geological Survey files in Louisiana were examined and 1,001 were input to a computer file. Analysis of the aquifer test results and plots that describe aquifer hydraulic characteristics were made for each regional aquifer. Results indicate that, on the average, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) generally tends to decrease from the youngest aquifers to the oldest. The most permeable aquifers in Louisiana are the alluvial and Pleistocene aquifers; whereas, the least permeable are the Carrizo and Wilcox aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Assessment of hydrochemical processes and groundwater hydrodynamics in a multilayer aquifer system under long-term irrigation condition: A case study of Nefzaoua basin, southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Tarki, M; Ben Hammadi, M; El Mejri, H; Dassi, L

    2016-04-01

    The hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of the Nefzaoua aquifer system demonstrates that groundwater mineralization in is controlled by natural and anthropogenic processes including water-rock interaction and irrigation return flow. It identifies all of the water bodies that flow within the aquifer system and their circulation patterns. The isotopically depleted paleowaters, identified within the deep and intermediate aquifers, undergo significant enrichment by evaporation during irrigation and recharged the shallow aquifer by return flow. Subsequently, they infiltrate to the intermediate aquifer which receives also rainfall modern recharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aquifer thermal energy storage program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Demonstration Program is to stimulate the interest of industry by demonstrating the feasibility of using a geological formation for seasonal thermal energy storage, thereby, reducing crude oil consumption, minimizing thermal pollution, and significantly reducing utility capital investments required to account for peak power requirements. This purpose will be served if several diverse projects can be operated which will demonstrate the technical, economic, environmental, and institutional feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage systems.

  17. In Brief: Assessing carbonate aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    An assessment of water quality in 12 carbonate aquifers, mostly in the eastern and central United States, found that while water quality in the aquifers was highly variable, most of the samples met drinking water standards. The study, “Factors affecting water quality in selected carbonate aquifers in the United States, 1993-2005,” was released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on 26 June. According to the study, carbonate aquifers provide about 20% of the groundwater used as drinking water in the United States. The study, which included sample results for 151 chemical constituents or physical properties in 1042 wells and springs across 20 states, found that contaminants “were most often detected at concentrations less than human-health benchmarks except for nitrate.” The study also indicated that “the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants was related to contaminant sources but also was affected by degree of aquifer confinement, ground-water age, and redox status. Areas with higher amounts of agricultural or urban land in unconfined aquifers were the most likely to have elevated concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.”

  18. Rapid Recharge of Parts of the High Plains Aquifer Indicated by a Reconnaissance Study in Oklahoma, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Osborn, Noel I.; Luckey, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including about 7,100 square miles in northwestern Oklahoma (fig. 1). This aquifer consists of the saturated part of the Ogallala Formation and saturated materials of Quaternary Age that are hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The High Plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma is the primary source of water to an important agricultural region. Most water is withdrawn from the aquifer for irrigating wheat and other grain crops, with the remainder used for livestock (primarily cattle and swine), municipal, and domestic needs. Historically, water from precipitation was thought to take hundreds or thousands of years to reach the water table because the depth of the water table is greater than 100 feet over most of the aquifer and the low-permeability beds in the Ogallala would impede downward flow. It also was thought that land uses would take a similar period of time to affect water quality in the aquifer.

  19. Karst connections between unconfined aquifers and the Upper Floridan aquifer in south Georgia: geophysical evidence and hydrogeological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, D. M.; Denizman, C.

    2011-12-01

    Buried karst features in sedimentary rocks of the south Georgia Coastal Plain present a challenge for hydrogeological models of recharge and confined flow within the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The Withlacoochee River, the trunk stream for the area, frequently disappears into subsurface caverns as it makes its way south to join the Suwannee River in northern Florida. The Withlacoochee also receives inputs from small ponds and bays which in turn receive spring and seep groundwater inputs. We have mapped karst topography at the "top of rock" using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Up to seven meters of relief is indicated for the paleotopography on Miocene to Pliocene rocks, contrasting with the more subdued relief of the modern landscape. Current stratigraphic and hydrogeological reconstructions do not incorporate this amount of relief or lateral variation in the confining beds. One "pipe" which is approximately four meters in diameter is being mapped in detail. We have field evidence at this location for rapid movement of surficial pond and river water with a meteoric signature through several separate strata of sedimentary rock into an aquifer in the Hawthorn formation. We use our geophysical and hydrological field evidence to constrain quantitative hydrogeological models for the flow rates into and out of both this upper aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer, which is generally considered to be confined by the clays of the Hawthorn.

  20. Integrating cotton and beef production to reduce water withdrawal from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Southern High Plains: I. Ten-years of effect on water use and productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Texas High Plains agriculture, largely dependent on water from the Ogallala aquifer for irrigation, exemplifies semi-arid agricultural regions where irrigation is used at non-sustainable rates of extraction. Integrating crop and livestock systems has been suggested to conserve water and to achieve o...

  1. Characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Page, D; Dillon, P; Toze, S; Sidhu, J P S

    2010-01-01

    In this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during Aquifer Storage Transfer Recovery (ASTR) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methodology. The ASTR project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. In this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter respectively based on pathogen diffusion chamber results. The aquifer treatment barrier was found to vary in importance vis-à-vis the pre-treatment via a constructed wetland and potential post-treatment options of UV-disinfection and chlorination for the reference pathogens. The risk assessment demonstrated that the human health risk associated with potable reuse of stormwater can be mitigated (disability adjusted life years, DALYs <1 × 10(-6)) if the aquifer is integrated with suitable post treatment options into a treatment train to attenuate pathogens and protect human health.

  2. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in livestock in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Suepaul, Sharianne M; Carrington, Christine V; Campbell, Mervyn; Borde, Gustave; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and infecting serovars across livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs) in Trinidad using the microscopic agglutination test with an international panel of 23 serovars. Of a total of 590 cattle tested, 21.5% were seropositive with agglutinations to 13 of the 23 antigens used in the panel. Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.3%), Sejroe (4.1%), Ballum (4.1%), and Autumnalis (1.9%) were the predominant serogroups detected in the cattle sampled (n = 590). Of 222 sheep tested, 5.0% were seropositive with agglutinations to five serovars belonging to two serogroups. These serogroups were Autumnalis at 2.7%, and Icterohaemorrhagiae at 2.3% of all sheep tested (n = 222). Of a total of 180 goats tested, 3.3% were seropositive, all agglutinating to the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup, 1.7% to serovar Copenhageni, 1.1% to serovar Mankarso, and 0.6% to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. Among pigs (n = 200), 5.0% were seropositive for five serovars belonging to three serogroups. These serogroups were Icterohaemorrhagiae at 2.5%, Australis at 2%, and Ballum at 0.5%. Overall, age and sex of animals were not significantly associated with leptospirosis with the exception of cattle where age was a significant factor for seropositivity. It was concluded that for livestock, leptospirosis may be an important zoonotic and economic disease, particularly in the case of cattle. It is imperative that the impact of leptospirosis on abortion, stillbirths, and decreased milk production in livestock in the country be assessed.

  3. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances.

  4. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  5. Impact of BSE on livestock production system.

    PubMed

    Nardone, A

    2003-09-01

    The small number of BSE cases diagnosed in Italy from January 2001 to 12 September 2001 (a total of 28, one every 9000 head) does not allow for a statistical analysis of the relationship between this disease and the livestock systems. However, some indications can be noted: (a) only dairy cattle, which represent three-quarters of the cattle raised in Italy, are involved; (b) 58% of the cases belong to medium-large farms that breed 27% of all head; (c) 13 out of 28 cases are 5-year-old animals and 26 out of 28 are between 5 and 7 years of age; (d) 15 of 28 cases come from Lombardia, where 27% of Italian dairy cattle are raised. The following factors may have affected the livestock system: (1) trends of beef meat consumption; (2) changes in livestock management; (3) changes in animal feeding; (4) possible effects on selection. A strong decline in beef meat consumption (4 kg/year) has been observed in the UK and other European countries since 1996 (the year of the discovery of the relationship between BSE and nvCJD). In Italy, from January 2001 the consumption of beef meat has declined as well as slaughter: a drop of 31% in the total slaughtered head in the period January-February, a drop of 14% in January-May. A fall in the price of calves has promoted, in some dairy farms, the start of the production of light beef less than one year old (advantages in the marketing of meat favour this initiative), a phenomenon which is not yet well established. Traceability and certification of meat have improved, thanks to breeders' associations and interprofessional agreements. The breeders associations have also started insurance initiatives against BSE risks. In Italy the employment of plant protein meals would increase the total feedstuff consumption by about 7%. Direct effects of BSE could slow down the genetic progress (GP) of cattle populations within breed and country. Indirect effects on GP may also happen as a consequence of an increase in the replacement rate (rr). This

  6. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  7. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  8. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  9. Impact of exporting dependence on livestock production systems, industry structure, and research.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K L; Kirton, A H

    1997-02-01

    From 84 to 93% of New Zealand's annual production from livestock is exported to over 100 markets throughout the world. This export dependence has produced production systems that are low-cost because the Mediterranean maritime climate allows animals to graze outdoors throughout the year without provision for housing and with minimal requirements for cropping, harvesting, and forage storage. These systems exploit the inherent tendencies for ruminants to have annual production cycles that can be synchronized to use the seasonal availability of pasture, but this means that processing facilities must handle peak supply for brief periods. Processing technology can reduce the impact of peaks in supply that may not match market demand. The disadvantages of seasonality in processing costs are outweighed by lower production costs, as well as by the opportunity to manage large numbers of animals per labor unit. Cooperative structures that are owned by livestock producers are a common feature, especially in New Zealand's dairy industry. This continued preference for cooperatives may reflect the need to have a guaranteed processor for a perishable product such as milk, as well as sharing the risk in an export industry that has scant control over prices received. In addition, management systems for ruminant livestock can only respond slowly to changes in market demand because their production cycles last at least 12 mo and only one or two offspring are produced in each cycle. Export marketing of livestock products is complicated by trade barriers and by dumping of subsidized surpluses. Negotiations to eliminate these practices may mean that livestock production systems in many countries will have to adopt some principles similar to those developed in New Zealand, not because of export dependence but because this dependence has created low-cost systems.

  10. Stress Affected Livestock As Seen By Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Garry B.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared thermography, down through the years, has most typically been applied to inanimate objects, for example; building enclosures, roof assemblies and several others. With the significant advancements in computers, thermographic software/hardware and scanning techniques, the application field has advanced dramatically. Recently, the Canadian Government's Public Works Regional Facilities Maintenance and Agriculture branches have devoted numerous man-hours to thermographically scanning various livestock, such as; cattle and swine. These totally new research experiments are possibly embarking on new solutions for Agriculture Canada's livestock exporting ventures. The primary influencing factor which Agriculture Canada is trying to analyze and manipulate is stress. Significant research into human related stress has proved invaluable. In comparison, little is known concerning animal stress. The end result which all wholesalers, retailers and consumers are concerned with is, top quality meat products. These high quality products are especially desired by foreign countries. Thermography has given the scientists at Agriculture Canada the inside track for inspecting an animal prior to and during the initial meat processing process, for monitoring meat quality related to stress. This paper reveals the present day innovative research techniques which the Canadian Government is conducting on beef cattle.

  11. 36 CFR 262.10 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized livestock. 262.10 Section 262.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock or livestock in excess of those authorized by a grazing permit... officer determines that such livestock use is occurring, has definite knowledge of the kind of...

  12. Suggested Operating Procedures for Aquifer Pumping Tests

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended as a primer, describing the process for the design and performance of an “aquifer test” (how to obtain reliable data from a pumping test) to obtain accurate estimates of aquifer parameters.

  13. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  14. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  15. The Citronelle aquifers in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    The Citronelle aquifers consist of sand and gravel of Pliocene age that forms a discontinuous outcrop area of about 6,000 square miles in southern Mississippi. The beds dip to the south at an average rate of about 6 feet per mile. The unconfined aquifers are used mostly for domestic and farm use but also supply water to several municipalities and industries. The average saturated thickness of the aquifers is about 45 feet. This physically limits drawdown space and, although specific capacities are high, yields generally do not exceed a few hundred gallons per minute. Water levels have not declined significantly because withdrawals are small. Water quality is generally good although in some places there are objectionally high concentrations iron and in some the water is acidic.

  16. Confined aquifers as viral reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee J; Jeffries, Thomas C; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin R; Fitch, Alison J; Simons, Keryn L; Speck, Peter G; Newton, Kelly; Brown, Melissa H; Mitchell, James G

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about viral diversity and abundance in deep groundwater reserves is limited. We found that the viral community inhabiting a deep confined aquifer in South Australia was more similar to reclaimed water communities than to the viral communities in the overlying unconfined aquifer community. This similarity was driven by high relative occurrence of the single-stranded DNA viral groups Circoviridae, Geminiviridae and Microviridae, which include many known plant and animal pathogens. These groups were present in a 1500-year-old water situated 80 m below the surface, which suggests the potential for long-term survival and spread of potentially pathogenic viruses in deep, confined groundwater. Obtaining a broader understanding of potentially pathogenic viral communities within aquifers is particularly important given the ability of viruses to spread within groundwater ecosystems.

  17. 40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1352 Section 147.1352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing Class II wells...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1352 Section 147.1352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing Class II wells...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1352 Section 147.1352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing Class II wells...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1352 Section 147.1352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing Class II wells...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1352 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.1352 Section 147.1352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Aquifer exemptions. Those portions of aquifers within one-quarter mile of existing Class II wells are...

  2. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  3. Virtual herding for flexible livestock management - a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Free-ranging livestock play a pivotal role globally in the conversion of plant tissue into products and services that support man’s many and changing lifestyles. With domestication came the task of providing livestock with an adequate plane of nutrition while simultaneously managing vegetation for s...

  4. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bellarby, Jessica; Tirado, Reyes; Leip, Adrian; Weiss, Franz; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also reviewed available mitigation options and estimated their potential. The focus of this review is on the beef and dairy sector since these contribute 60% of all livestock production emissions. Particular attention is paid to the role of land use and land use change (LULUC) and carbon sequestration in grasslands. GHG emissions of all livestock products amount to between 630 and 863 Mt CO2 e, or 12-17% of total EU27 GHG emissions in 2007. The highest emissions aside from production, originate from LULUC, followed by emissions from wasted food. The total GHG mitigation potential from the livestock sector in Europe is between 101 and 377 Mt CO2 e equivalent to between 12 and 61% of total EU27 livestock sector emissions in 2007. A reduction in food waste and consumption of livestock products linked with reduced production, are the most effective mitigation options, and if encouraged, would also deliver environmental and human health benefits. Production of beef and dairy on grassland, as opposed to intensive grain fed production, can be associated with a reduction in GHG emissions depending on actual LULUC emissions. This could be promoted on rough grazing land where appropriate. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Wolf-livestock interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since reintroduction in 1995, gray wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Although rough tallies of livestock death/injury losses resulting from wolf predation are made each year, we know almost nothing about the indirect effects of wolf-livestock interactions...

  6. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operations as the breeding, fattening, feeding, and care of domestic animals ordinarily raised or used on... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  7. Biogas production from livestock waste anaerobic digesters: evaluation and optimization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. However, feedstocks from livestock re...

  8. An economic evaluation of livestock odor regulation distances.

    PubMed

    Bazen, Ernest F; Fleming, Ronald A

    2004-01-01

    Setback regulations-legislated distances that livestock production facilities must be removed from surrounding properties-are meant to mitigate odor impacts. If the setback length is too short, then there is evidence that surrounding properties and people suffer uncompensated damages. If, on the other hand, setback lengths are too long, then livestock producers may be paying more than that required to compensate for odor-related environmental damages. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of Kentucky's livestock production facility setbacks on the value of surrounding properties and farm financial management decisions. This paper develops a model of the benefits of livestock odor reduction and the livestock odor abatement cost associated with setback lengths paid by producers. The results of this investigation indicate that the mandated setback lengths for Kentucky are too short. Livestock production firms are worse off under longer setback lengths, but the losses to surrounding home owners far exceed the firm gains at the mandated setbacks. A finding of this study is that the firm has no incentive to completely protect the legislated setback length. Livestock producers in compliance with the relevant setback length may feel protected from odor lawsuits despite damage being done to surrounding property. This suggests that the perceived threat of lawsuit is currently low in the state of Kentucky. Both industry and public goals could be met from further research including location and economic impact of livestock production.

  9. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  10. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  11. 9 CFR 309.13 - Disposition of condemned livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of condemned livestock. 309.13 Section 309.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.13 Disposition of condemned livestock. (a) Except...

  12. Radiation effects on livestock: physiological effects, dose response

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.C.

    1985-06-01

    Farm livestock show no measurable effects from being exposed to ionizing radiation unless the level is greatly in excess of the natural background radiation. Possible sources of ionizing radiation which might affect livestock or contribute to radioactivity in the food chain to humans are reactor accidents, fuel reprocessing plant accidents and thermonuclear explosions. Most data on ionizing radiation effects on livestock are from whole body gamma doses near the LD 50/60 level. However, grazing livestock would be subjected to added beta exposure from ingested and skin retained radioactive particles. Results of attempts to simulate exposure of the Hereford cattle at Alamogardo, NM show that cattle are more sensitive to ingested fallout radiation than other species. Poultry LD 50/60 for gamma exposure is about twice the level for mammals, and swine appear to have the most efficient repair system being able to withstand the most chronic gamma exposure. Productivity of most livestock surviving an LD 50/60 exposure is temporarily reduced and longterm effects are small. Livestock are good screeners against undesirables in our diet and with the exception of radiosotopes of iodine in milk, very little fission product radioactivity would be expected to be transferred through the food chain in livestock products for humans. Feeding of stored feed or moving livestock to uncontaminated pastures would be the best protective action to follow. 29 references.

  13. Lymphoma risk in livestock farmers: results of the Epilymph study.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Pierluigi; Satta, Giannina; D'Andrea, Ileana; Nonne, Tinucia; Udas, Giuseppe; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Becker, Nikolaus; Sanjosé, Silvia de; Foretova, Lenka; Staines, Anthony; Maynadié, Marc; Nieters, Alexandra; Brennan, Paul; Ennas, Maria G; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    We explored the risk of lymphoma and its most prevalent subtypes associated with occupational contact with livestock, and whether risk was modified by age at first contact, in 2,348 incident lymphoma cases and 2,462 controls who participated in the EPILYMPH case-control study. A detailed occupational history was collected in cases and controls, including working in a livestock farm, species of livestock, its approximate number and circumstances of contact. For each disease outcome, and each type of livestock, odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, education and center. Lymphoma risk (all subtypes combined) was not increased amongst those exposed to contact with any livestock (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.2). Overall, we did not observe an association between occupational contact with livestock and risk of lymphoma (all types) and B-cell lymphoma. The risk of diffuse large B cell lyphoma (DLBCL) was significantly lower amongst subjects who started occupational contact with any species of livestock before or at age 12 (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9), but not at older ages. A significant heterogeneity in risk of B cell lymphoma by age at first contact was detected for contact with cattle, poultry and swine. Early occupational contact with livestock might be associated with a decrease in risk of B cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  15. The effect of multiple plant toxins on livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When livestock are poisoned by plants in a range setting, there is normally more than one poisonous plant in that area. Additionally, many plants contain more than one compound that is toxic to livestock. Frequently, much is known regarding the toxicity of the individual plants and their individual ...

  16. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  18. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  19. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  20. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  2. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 1002.60 Section 1002.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a) The running-at-large, herding,...

  4. 36 CFR 2.60 - Livestock use and agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Livestock use and agriculture. 2.60 Section 2.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.60 Livestock use and agriculture. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... livestock producer. (a) To be considered an eligible livestock producer, the eligible producer on a farm... agreement calls for payment based in whole or in part on the amount of weight gained by the animals that use...

  6. Developing a Mobile Extension Course for Youth Livestock Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…

  7. 19 CFR 4.71 - Inspection of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of livestock. 4.71 Section 4.71 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.71 Inspection of livestock. A proper...

  8. 25 CFR 168.7 - Kind of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of livestock. 168.7 Section 168.7 Indians BUREAU OF... LANDS AREA § 168.7 Kind of livestock. Unless determined otherwise by the Area Director for conservation purposes, the Hopi Tribe may determine, subject to the authorized carrying capacity, the kind of...

  9. Viewpoint: needed research on domestic and recreational livestock in wilderness

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    1989-01-01

    The issue of domestic livestock grazing will become more controversial as wilderness areas managed by the Bureau of Land Management are added to the system. Many of these areas are likely to have little recreational use, leaving livestock grazing as the most serious potential threat to wilderness values. My intent is to point out the importance of...

  10. 1. North view of livestock market: east and north elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. North view of livestock market: east and north elevations, showing the 1960 wing at the left, the 1937 main section in the center, and the 1993 exterior pens - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  11. 3. Southwest view of livestock market: west and south elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southwest view of livestock market: west and south elevations, with remnants of the 1937 west exterior pens (adjoining 1937 main section) at right center - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  12. 7. West view of livestock market: west elevation, showing remnants ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West view of livestock market: west elevation, showing remnants of the 1937 west exterior cattle pens in the center and circa 1970 south exterior pens at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-04-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH4+), phosphate (PO43-) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH4+ and PO43-. In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH4+ and PO43- contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater.

  14. Hydrogeologic atlas of aquifers in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Bobay, K.E.; Greeman, T.K.; Hoover, M.E.; Cohen, D.A.; Fowler, K.K.; Woodfield, M.C.; and Durbin, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in 12 water-management basins of Indiana are identified in a series of 104 hydrogeologic sections and 12 maps that show the thickness and configuration of aquifers. The vertical distribution of water-bearing units and a generalized potentiometric profile are shown along 3,500 miles of section lines that were constructed from drillers' logs of more than 4,200 wells. The horizontal scale of the sections is 1:125,000. Maps of aquifers showing the areal distribution of each aquifer type were drawn at a scale of 1:500,000. Unconsolidated aquifers are the most widely used aquifers in Indiana and include surficial, buried, and discontinuous layers of sand and gravel. Most of the surficial sand and gravel is in large outwash plains in northern Indiana and along the major rivers. Buried sand and gravel aquifers are interbedded with till deposits in much of the northern two-thirds of Indiana. Discontinuous sand and gravel deposits are present as isolated lenses, primarily in glaciated areas. The bedrock aquifers generally have lower yields than most of the sand and gravel aquifers; however, bedrock aquifers are areally widespread and are an important source of water. Bedrock aquifer types consist of carbonates; sandstones; complexly interbedded sandstones, siltstones, shales, limestones, and coals; and an upper weathered zone in low permeability rock. Carbonate aquifers underlie about one-half of Indiana and are the most productive of the bedrock aquifers. The other principal bedrock aquifer type, sandstone, underlies large areas in the southwestern one-fifth of Indiana. No aquifer is known to be present in the southeastern corner of Indiana.

  15. Groundwater pollution by nitrates from livestock wastes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, V M

    1989-11-01

    Utilization of wastes from livestock complexes for irrigation involves the danger of groundwater pollution by nitrates. In order to prevent and minimize pollution, it is necessary to apply geological-hydrogeological evidence and concepts to the situation of wastewater irrigation for the purposes of studying natural groundwater protectiveness and predicting changes in groundwater quality as a result of infiltrating wastes. The procedure of protectiveness evaluation and quality prediction is described. With groundwater pollution by nitrate nitrogen, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen noticeably increases. One of the reasons for this change is the process of denitrification due to changes in the hydrogeochemical conditions in a layer. At representative field sites, it is necessary to collect systematic stationary observations of the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in groundwater and changes in redox conditions and temperature.

  16. Groundwater pollution by nitrates from livestock wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, V.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Utilization of wastes from livestock complexes for irrigation involves the danger of groundwater pollution by nitrates. In order to prevent and minimize pollution, it is necessary to apply geological-hydrogeological evidence and concepts to the situation of wastewater irrigation for the purposes of studying natural groundwater protectiveness and predicting changes in groundwater quality as a result of infiltrating wastes. The procedure of protectiveness evaluation and quality prediction is described. With groundwater pollution by nitrate nitrogen, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen noticeably increases. One of the reasons for this change is the process of denitrification due to changes in the hydrogeochemical conditions in a layer. At representative field sites, it is necessary to collect systematic stationary observations of the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in groundwater and changes in redox conditions and temperature.

  17. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  18. Comparative features of retroviral infections of livestock.

    PubMed

    Evermann, J F

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral infections of livestock have become of increasing importance due to their usefulness as comparative models for human retroviral infections and their effects upon animal health and marketability of animals and animal products nationally and internationally. This paper presents a perspective on the retroviruses of economic concern in veterinary medicine with emphasis on the importance of understanding the modes of virus transmission and the species specificity of the viruses. The retroviruses reviewed include the oncovirus, bovine leukosis virus, and the lentiviruses, equine infectious anemia virus; maedi/visna virus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and bovine visna-like virus. The comparative features amongst these animal retroviruses and those of humans must be recognized by the veterinary and medical professions since the similarities in virus replication and spread by blood transfer can provide important clues in controlling and perhaps preventing human retroviruses infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus.

  19. Clinical assessment of selenium status of livestock.

    PubMed

    Stowe, H D; Herdt, T H

    1992-12-01

    Assessment of the selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine, but variations in reported values between laboratories and between methods may be > 30%. Reliable interpretations require considerable experience with an assay and an extensive database from field and research case samples of a variety of species. The Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (MSU-ADHL) has offered Se analyses by acid-digestion and fluorometric detection since 1982. This laboratory expects serum Se values (nanograms per milliliter) of livestock to increase gradually with age from starting ranges for neonates of 50 to 80 for calves and sheep and 70 to 90 for foals and pigs. Expected or "normal" values for the adults are in the ranges of 70 to 100 for cattle, 120 to 150 for sheep, 130 to 160 for horses, and 180 to 220 for swine. Normal liver Se concentrations are considered to range between 1.2 and 2.0 micrograms/g on a dry weight basis, regardless of the species or age. Based on samples submitted to MSU-AHDL between September 1990 and August 1991, contemporary feeding practices in the Michigan area resulted in mean serum Se values (nanograms per milliliter) of 75 +/- 19 for adult Holsteins, 170 +/- 27 for adult swine (mixed breeds), and 137 +/- 30 for adult race horses. Within that period of time, two field cases of Se toxicity were diagnosed. One involved feeder pigs with a recorded high serum Se value of 1,525 ng/mL due to a commercial premix manufacturing error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  1. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  2. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  3. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who determines...

  4. 25 CFR 166.309 - Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who determines livestock class and livestock ownership requirements on permitted Indian land? 166.309 Section 166.309 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.309 Who...

  5. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    , and E. coli, we anticipate subsequent sample analyses may reveal, E. coli or pathogenic (i.e. Salmonella) contamination due to livestock and anthropogenic wastes in the area. With farmers using shallow depth aquifers to irrigate crops, there is a very real threat of foodborne illness and the risk to public health is great.

  6. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    PubMed

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  7. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of ten aquifers separated by nine confining units. From top to bottom the aquifers are: the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and the Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. Confining units between aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. The stratigraphic continuity is determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers' and geologists' logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs plus water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the Coastal Plain.

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  9. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  10. Groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, 1900 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott C.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an often overlooked freshwater resource compared to surface water, but groundwater is used widely across the United States, especially during periods of drought. If groundwater models can successfully simulate past conditions, they may be used to evaluate potential future pumping scenarios or climate conditions, thus providing a valuable planning tool for water-resource managers. Quantifying the groundwater-use component for a groundwater model is a vital but often challenging endeavor. This dataset includes groundwater withdrawal rates modeled for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system) from 1900 to 2010 by groundwater model cell (2.6 square kilometers) for five water-use divisions—agriculture (including irrigation and aquaculture), livestock, public supply (including municipal and rural water districts), and non-agriculture (including thermoelectric power generation, mining, commercial, and industrial)—and by country for domestic (self-supplied) use. Two child items are included with the dataset: “Domestic groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, 1900 to 2010” and “Public supply, non-agriculture, livestock, and agriculture groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, 1900 to 2010”. The Ozark system is located in the central United States and is composed of interbedded Cambrian to Pennsylvanian clastic and carbonate lithologies. In stratigraphic order, the Ozark system includes the Basement confining unit, St. Francois aquifer, St. Francois confining unit, Ozark aquifer, Ozark confining unit, Springfield Plateau aquifer, and Western Interior Plains confining system. Generally, the lower portion of the Ozark aquifer is the primary source of groundwater across much of Missouri and the Springfield Plateau aquifer is used across northern Arkansas. A full description of the methods used to model groundwater withdrawal rates from the Ozark system are available in Knierim et al., IN

  11. Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Schlink, A C; Nguyen, M L; Viljoen, G J

    2010-12-01

    Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop-livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.

  12. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Allen, Jeremy G; Colegate, Steven M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Taylor, Charlotte M

    2014-07-30

    Many plants worldwide contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death in livestock. These plants are primarily found in the southern continents of Africa, Australia, and South America, where they negatively affect livestock production. This review highlights past and current research investigating (1) the plants reported to contain monofluoroacetate and cause sudden death; (2) the mode of action, clinical signs, and pathology associated with poisoning by monofluoroacetate-containing plants; (3) chemical methods for the analysis of monofluoroacetate in plants; (4) the coevolution of native flora and fauna in Western Australia with respect to monofluoroacetate-containing plants; and (5) methods to mitigate livestock losses caused by monofluoroacetate-containing plants.

  13. Identifying plant poisoning in livestock: diagnostic approaches and laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2011-07-01

    Plant poisoning is often associated with a variety of livestock diseases and unexplained animal deaths. Although toxic plants commonly poison livestock and it is estimated to cost the livestock industry in the western United States more than $340 million every year, obtaining a definitive diagnosis is difficult and challenging. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework to help veterinarians and diagnosticians make an accurate definitive diagnosis of plant poisoning. We provide suggestions for investigating and sampling field cases of suspected plant poisoning, for where and how to analyze diagnostic samples, and for integrating information and recruiting appropriate expertise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips is gaining momentum in recent years. Hence, it is possible to design customized microarray chip for viruses infecting livestock in India. Customized microarray chips identified Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Canine Adeno Virus-1 (CAV-1), and Canine Parvo Virus-2 (CPV-2) in clinical samples. Microarray identified specific probes were further confirmed using RT-PCR in all clinical and known samples. Therefore, the application of microarray chips during viral disease outbreaks in Indian livestock is possible where conventional methods are unsuitable. It should be noted that customized application requires a detailed cost efficiency calculation.

  15. Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips is gaining momentum in recent years. Hence, it is possible to design customized microarray chip for viruses infecting livestock in India. Customized microarray chips identified Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Canine Adeno Virus-1 (CAV-1), and Canine Parvo Virus-2 (CPV-2) in clinical samples. Microarray identified specific probes were further confirmed using RT-PCR in all clinical and known samples. Therefore, the application of microarray chips during viral disease outbreaks in Indian livestock is possible where conventional methods are unsuitable. It should be noted that customized application requires a detailed cost efficiency calculation. PMID:26912948

  16. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Critical Aquifer Protection Areas. 149... (CONTINUED) SOLE SOURCE AQUIFERS Criteria for Identifying Critical Aquifer Protection Areas § 149.3 Critical Aquifer Protection Areas. A Critical Aquifer Protection Area is either: (a) All or part of an area...

  17. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Critical Aquifer Protection Areas. 149... (CONTINUED) SOLE SOURCE AQUIFERS Criteria for Identifying Critical Aquifer Protection Areas § 149.3 Critical Aquifer Protection Areas. A Critical Aquifer Protection Area is either: (a) All or part of an area...

  18. 40 CFR 149.3 - Critical Aquifer Protection Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Critical Aquifer Protection Areas. 149... (CONTINUED) SOLE SOURCE AQUIFERS Criteria for Identifying Critical Aquifer Protection Areas § 149.3 Critical Aquifer Protection Areas. A Critical Aquifer Protection Area is either: (a) All or part of an area...

  19. Reduced-complexity probabilistic reconstruction of alluvial aquifer stratigraphy, and application to sedimentary fans in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Wout M.; Densmore, Alexander L.; Sinha, Rajiv; Singh, Ajit; Voller, Vaughan R.

    2016-10-01

    Generating a realistic model of subsurface stratigraphy that fits data from multiple well locations is a well-established problem in the field of aquifer characterisation. This is particularly critical for the alluvial fan-hosted aquifers in northwestern India, as they have some of the highest rates of groundwater extraction in the world and spatially limited subsurface observations. The objective of this study is to develop a reduced-complexity model that generates probabilistic estimates of aquifer body occurrence within a sedimentary fan, based loosely on the northwestern Indian aquifer system. We propose a parsimonious, inverse-weighted random walk model that reconstructs potential channel belt pathways within a discrete depth range or slice by (i) connecting known aquifer locations with the fan apex, (ii) filling adjacent cells with non-aquifer material based on estimated channel-body dimensions, and (iii) random filling of the remaining cells until the model fraction of aquifer material is comparable to the bulk aquifer fraction observed from well data. Once filled, individual depth slices can be stacked to produce a three-dimensional representation of aquifer-body geometry, allowing informed inference and testable predictions about the configuration of aquifer units in the subsurface. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve shows that the model performs better than fully random filling, both in matching the locations of aquifer material in the subsurface and in reconstructing the geometry of relict channel bodies preserved on the fan surface. The model differs from purely statistical-empirical approaches by incorporating some geomorphic knowledge of fluvial channel belt geometry within the fan system. In contrast to a fully process-based approach, the model is computationally fast and is easily refined as new subsurface data become available.

  20. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  1. Livestock handling--minimizing worker injuries.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Morrow, W E Morgan

    2010-07-01

    Numerous hazards may occur on farms raising livestock. Animal contact is often ranked as the first or second leading cause of injuries on the farm. In addition to direct trauma from the animal, other injuries may occur from injection of medications, chemical splashes from cleaning the facility, and repetitive motion injuries. Exposures to toxic gases from decomposition of animal waste such as in manure pits and exposure to animal allergens may cause adverse health effects in humans. One additional consideration is the risk of developing various zoonotic infections. Human injuries happen more often when people are handling animals than during any other activity performed in pork production. The National Pork Board of the United States, in response to a request from pork producers, has developed a program designed to improve worker safety, pig welfare, and pork quality when pigs are moved for whatever reason. The objective of the Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) program is to help all those who transport, produce, or handle swine to do so in a way that is optimal for the pigs' well-being, the health of the handler, and to improve the quality of the pork produced. Understanding basic pig behavior, proper handling practices, and using proper handling equipment will help animal handling be a safe activity. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  2. The anterior pituitary gland: lessons from livestock.

    PubMed

    Scanes, C G; Jeftinija, S; Glavaski-Joksimovic, A; Proudman, J; Arámburo, C; Anderson, L L

    2005-07-01

    There has been extensive research of the anterior pituitary gland of livestock and poultry due to the economic (agricultural) importance of physiological processes controlled by it including reproduction, growth, lactation and stress. Moreover, farm animals can be biomedical models or useful in evolutionary/ecological research. There are for multiple sites of control of the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. These include the potential for independent control of proliferation, differentiation, de-differentiation and/or inter-conversion cell death, expression and translation, post-translational modification (potentially generating multiple isoforms with potentially different biological activities), release with or without a specific binding protein and intra-cellular catabolism (proteolysis) of pituitary hormones. Multiple hypothalamic hypophysiotropic peptides (which may also be produced peripherally, e.g. ghrelin) influence the secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones. There is also feedback for hormones from the target endocrine glands. These control mechanisms show broadly a consistency across species and life stages; however, there are some marked differences. Examples from growth hormone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone will be considered. In addition, attention will be focused on areas that have been neglected including the role of stellate cells, multiple sub-types of the major adenohypophyseal cells, functional zonation within the anterior pituitary and the role of multiple secretagogues for single hormones.

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Following Contact with Livestock

    PubMed Central

    Suler, Denis; Mullins, David; Rudge, Travis; Ashurst, John

    2016-01-01

    Context: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once. Case Report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female farmer who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea after taking care of ill cattle with similar symptoms. Fecal cultures were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum. Given the patient was immunocompetent, no further treatment was warranted. Conclusion: Confirmed cases should be reported, however, treatment is only recommended in children and immunocompromised adults. Clinicians should educate patients on the importance of proper hygiene and handling techniques in order to decrease transmission and recurrence of the protozoan infection. PMID:27583243

  4. Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production.

    PubMed

    Picard, Brigitte; Berri, Cécile; Lefaucheur, Louis; Molette, Caroline; Sayd, Thierry; Terlouw, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    Proteomics allows studying large numbers of proteins, including their post-translational modifications. Proteomics has been, and still are, used in numerous studies on skeletal muscle. In this article, we focus on its use in the study of livestock muscle development and meat quality. Changes in protein profiles during myogenesis are described in cattle, pigs and fowl using comparative analyses across different ontogenetic stages. This approach allows a better understanding of the key stages of myogenesis and helps identifying processes that are similar or divergent between species. Genetic variability of muscle properties analysed by the study of hypertrophied cattle and sheep are discussed. Biological markers of meat quality, particularly tenderness in cattle, pigs and fowl are presented, including protein modifications during meat ageing in cattle, protein markers of PSE meat in turkeys and of post-mortem muscle metabolism in pigs. Finally, we discuss the interest of proteomics as a tool to understand better biochemical mechanisms underlying the effects of stress during the pre-slaughter period on meat quality traits. In conclusion, the study of proteomics in skeletal muscles allows generating large amounts of scientific knowledge that helps to improve our understanding of myogenesis and muscle growth and to control better meat quality.

  5. Aquifer Salinization by Storm Overwash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. P.; Evans, D. G.

    2001-12-01

    Overwash processes not only affect the morphology of barrier islands, they also introduce saltwater to surficial coastal aquifers by infiltration (saltwater intrusion from the top). Hatteras Island, North Carolina, USA is particularly susceptible to saltwater overwash because of its geography and the frequency with which tropical and extra-tropical storms strike the area. Hurricane Emily inundated the island in 1993 with saline water from Pamlico Sound. The floodwaters from overwash reached as far as 1000 meters into the interior of the island and recharged the shallow Buxton Woods Aquifer, raising salinity levels from approximately 40 mg/L prior to flooding to nearly 280 mg/L within several weeks of flooding. By 1997, chloride levels still had not returned to pre-storm levels. We use one-dimensional analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation to simulate chloride transport within the aquifer utilizing a pulse source with linear superposition. We calibrate this model using chloride breakthrough curves observed from water wells on the island. Initial simulations show that a pulse duration of five days provides the best fit to the data. Simulation of chloride breakthrough at two locations demonstrates that higher gradients advect chloride further into the aquifer, causing higher chloride concentrations and increasing the duration of contamination. The Cape Hatteras region historically is susceptible to several hurricanes in a single season. In order to analyze the effect of multiple overwash events on water quality, we use predictive simulations to show the effect of two overwash events separated by different time lags. Simulations indicate that higher gradients and short time lags between overwash events result in chloride MCL violations that persist for more than four months.

  6. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  7. Aquifer storage capacity and maximum annual yield from long-term aquifer fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2008-03-01

    Long-term time series data of aquifer recharge, groundwater extraction, and discharge are used to estimate aquifer storage capacity and maximum annual yield. Aquifer storage capacity is defined as the maximum volume of water that can be stored in an aquifer. It is estimated using a transient water-balance approach. The maximum annual yield is defined as the maximum combined groundwater extraction plus discharge that can be sustained in an aquifer judged by the historical record of recharge. It is determined according to a graphical mass-curve method. These two quantities are useful in aquifer characterization and groundwater management, the apportionment of groundwater rights and aquifer storage and recovery operations being two frequent applications. Time series data from the Edwards Aquifer, Texas, USA, illustrate the application of the methods presented.

  8. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  9. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) To be considered eligible, livestock must meet all the following conditions: (1) Be adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats,...

  10. 1. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  11. Livestock Waste Management in a Quality Environment. Circular 1074.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedele, D. G., Ed.

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of livestock operations. It discusses a systematic approach to resolving problems through feedlot runoff control, liquid manure handling, hauling and lagooning, and ditching. (CS)

  12. Human anthrax outbreak associated with livestock exposure: Georgia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Navdarashvili, A; Doker, T J; Geleishvili, M; Haberling, D L; Kharod, G A; Rush, T H; Maes, E; Zakhashvili, K; Imnadze, P; Bower, W A; Walke, H T; Shadomy, S V

    2016-01-01

    Human anthrax cases reported in the country of Georgia increased 75% from 2011 (n = 81) to 2012 (n = 142). This increase prompted a case-control investigation using 67 culture- or PCR-confirmed cases and 134 controls matched by residence and gender to investigate risk factor(s) for infection during the month before case onset. Independent predictors most strongly associated with disease in the multivariable modelling were slaughtering animals [odds ratio (OR) 7·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9-18·1, P 1 km; 15 (12%) of 125 had sick livestock; and 11 (9%) of 128 respondents reported finding dead livestock. We recommend joint public health and veterinary anthrax case investigations to identify areas of increased risk for livestock anthrax outbreaks, annual anthrax vaccination of livestock in those areas, and public awareness education.

  13. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program; Access to Pasture... National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... for pasture, incorporate the pasture management plan into their organic system plan (OSP), provide...

  14. Current knowledge of water quality and safety for livestock.

    PubMed

    Carson, T L

    2000-11-01

    Basic laboratory evaluation of water quality for livestock should include measurement of TDS, sulfate, nitrate-nitrite, and coliform bacteria. Supplementary water tests may include pH, sodium, iron, magnesium, chloride, calcium, potassium, manganese, and contaminants specific to the situation. Using the best-quality drinking water available contributes to the optimal production of livestock. Restricted quantity of drinking water or drinking water containing excessive levels of nitrate, TDS, sulfate, and other constituents can affect growth and production of all classes of animals. Drinking-water quality and availability should be evaluated as a cause of poor performance or nonspecific disease conditions in livestock. It is important that attempts to evaluate water quality include obtaining a thorough history, making astute observations, and asking intelligent questions. A thorough laboratory examination of animal specimens and water samples should be evaluated in view of existing standards for livestock drinking-water quality.

  15. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operations as the breeding, fattening, feeding, and care of domestic animals ordinarily raised or used on farms. A fuller discussion of the meaning of raising livestock is contained in §§ 780.119 through 780...

  16. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operations as the breeding, fattening, feeding, and care of domestic animals ordinarily raised or used on farms. A fuller discussion of the meaning of raising livestock is contained in §§ 780.119 through 780...

  17. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  18. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to engage in the raising of livestock as a prerequisite for the exemption of an employee employed in the operations described in section 13(b) (13). Engagement by the farmer in one or more of the other...

  19. Livestock Waste Management in a Quality Environment. Circular 1074.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedele, D. G., Ed.

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of livestock operations. It discusses a systematic approach to resolving problems through feedlot runoff control, liquid manure handling, hauling and lagooning, and ditching. (CS)

  20. 5. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) hog division, sheep barn, horse barn. View to southwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  1. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  2. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  3. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  4. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  5. 7 CFR 760.209 - Livestock payment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... losses due to wildfires on non-Federal land, will be calculated based on 60 percent of the lesser of: (1...) Payments for an eligible livestock producer for grazing losses due to a wildfire on non-Federal land...

  6. Nutritive value of bamboo as browse for livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small farms in Appalachia need management options that diversify income opportunities; are adaptable to new livestock management strategies; and help maintain environmental integrity. Plantings of temperate bamboo (Poaceae), including species native to West Virginia, were established to determine p...

  7. 1. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) cattle pens and Buckingham Road, which terminates at "L" Street. View to north. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  8. 6. Detail of light standards, sidewalk, and railing, with livestock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of light standards, sidewalk, and railing, with livestock exchange building to right. View to southwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  9. 8. Detail of viaduct, livestock exchange building to left, stock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of viaduct, livestock exchange building to left, stock yards autopark right. View to north. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  10. 2. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) Buckingham Road, cattle pens, and Stock yards Autopark. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  11. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... roaming animals or animals used for recreational purposes, such as pleasure, hunting, pets, or for show...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section. (ii...

  12. The Sparta aquifer system in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcome, Roy

    1976-01-01

    A large amount of information is available on the aquifers of Mississippi.  Reports resulting from various areal studies have described the ground-water resources of the areas concerned, but no reports dealing specifically with the entire Mississippi occurrence of individual aquifer systems have previously been prepared.  A series of "aquifer atlases" was deemed the most effective way to describe the character, the potential, and the extent of development of the aquifers and thereby provide water managers with data needed for efficient utilization of available resources.  This report on the Sparta aquifer system is the third in the series.  Information on the aquifers was obtained in the cooperative programs of the U.S. Geological Survey with the Mississippi Board of Water Commissioners and other State and Federal agencies.

  13. Aquifer thermal-energy-storage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzle, W. J.; Lecroy, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    A model aquifer was constructed to simulate the operation of a full size aquifer. Instrumentation to evaluate the water flow and thermal energy storage was installed in the system. Numerous runs injecting warm water into a preconditioned uniform aquifer were made. Energy recoveries were evaluated and agree with comparisons of other limited available data. The model aquifer is simulated in a swimming pool, 18 ft by 4 ft, which was filled with sand. Temperature probes were installed in the system. A 2 ft thick aquifer is confined by two layers of polyethylene. Both the aquifer and overburden are sand. Four well configurations are available. The system description and original tests, including energy recovery, are described.

  14. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Namgail, Tsewang; Fox, Joseph L; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer

    2007-04-01

    The loss of livestock to wild predators is an important livelihood concern among Trans-Himalayan pastoralists. Because of the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, few studies have been carried out to quantify livestock depredation by wild predators. In the present study, we assessed the intensity of livestock depredation by snow leopard Uncia uncia, Tibetan wolf Canis lupus chanku, and Eurasian lynx Lynx l. isabellina in three villages, namely Gya, Rumtse, and Sasoma, within the proposed Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary in Ladakh, India. The three villages reported losses of 295 animals to these carnivores during a period of 2.5 years ending in early 2003, which represents an annual loss rate of 2.9% of their livestock holdings. The Tibetan wolf was the most important predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock loss because of predation, followed by snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Domestic goat was the major victim (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horse (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance. Snow leopards also killed horses significantly more than expected, whereas they killed other livestock types in proportion to their abundance. The three villages combined incurred an estimated annual monetary loss of approximately $USD 12,120 amounting to approximately $USD 190/household/y. This relatively high total annual loss occurred primarily because of depredation of the most valuable livestock types such as yak and horse. Conservation actions should initially attempt to target decrease of predation on these large and valuable livestock species.

  15. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  16. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  17. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  18. 25 CFR 161.707 - When will BIA impound unauthorized livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will BIA impound unauthorized livestock or other... unauthorized livestock or other property? BIA will impound unauthorized livestock or other property under the... livestock or other property refuses to accept delivery of a written notice of trespass and the...

  19. 9 CFR 201.200 - Sale of livestock to a packer on credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of livestock to a packer on... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.200 Sale of livestock to a packer on credit. (a) No packer whose average annual purchases of livestock exceed $500,000 shall purchase livestock...

  20. Estimate of livestock water use in Nebraska during 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which ‘infiltrated’ livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa. PMID:26295347

  2. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  3. Livestock biodiversity: from genes to animal products through safeguard actions.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Anna Maria; Pizzi, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The 'livestock' term refers to animals domesticated for producing commodities for man such as food, fiber and draught. Livestock biodiversity is integral to our culture, history, environment, and economy. Thousands of livestock breeds have evolved over time to suit particular environments and farming systems. Conservation of these genetic resources relies on demographic characterization and correct breeding schemes. In addition, molecular genetic studies allow to identify and monitor the genetic diversity within and across breeds and to reconstruct their evolution history. The conservation of livestock variability is also a crucial element in order to preserve and valorise specific nutritional and nutraceutical properties of animal products. Efficient ex situ and in situ conservation strategies are obligatory tools in order to implement an appropriate action for the conservation of livestock biodiversity. The main issues concerning different species are summarised, with particular reference to'the livestock biodiversity still existing. Some examples of ex situ conservation strategies developed in Italy are presented, and the different actions in defense of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) developed within the European Community are illustrated.

  4. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  5. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides.

  6. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-02

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required.

  7. Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Godfroid, Jacques; Nielsen, Klaus; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe and discuss the merits of various direct and indirect methods applied in vitro (mainly on blood or milk) or in vivo (allergic test) for the diagnosis of brucellosis in animals. Methods The recent literature on brucellosis diagnostic tests was reviewed. These diagnostic tests are applied with different goals, such as national screening, confirmatory diagnosis, certification, and international trade. The validation of such diagnostic tests is still an issue, particularly in wildlife. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. Results Measuring the kinetics of antibody production after Brucella spp. infection is essential for analyzing serological results correctly and may help to predict abortion. Indirect ELISAs help to discriminate 1) between false positive serological reactions and true brucellosis and 2) between vaccination and infection. Biotyping of Brucella spp. provides valuable epidemiological information that allows tracing an infection back to the sources in instances where several biotypes of a given Brucella species are circulating. Polymerase chain reaction and new molecular methods are likely to be used as routine typing and fingerprinting methods in the coming years. Conclusion The diagnosis of brucellosis in livestock and wildlife is complex and serological results need to be carefully analyzed. The B. abortus S19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccines are the cornerstones of control programs in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. There is no vaccine available for pigs or for wildlife. In the absence of a human brucellosis vaccine, prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. PMID:20718082

  8. Using geochemical data to identify sources of salinity to the freshwater Navajo aquifer in southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Peterman, Zell E.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is an important freshwater source for domestic and livestock uses in southeastern Utah because of the arid climate and unavailability of surface water from the San Juan River. The study area includes about 1,200 square miles in the southeastern corner of Utah (fig. 1). Precipitation on mountainous areas north, south, and east of the study area (fig. 2) seeps into the Navajo and overlying aquifers where the sandstones that contain the aquifers are exposed at the surface along mountain flanks. The ground water then moves slowly away from the mountainous areas toward the area of lowest elevation 109°30' in the region, the San Juan River. The ground water reappears at land surface where it discharges as seepage to the San Juan River or is consumed by vegetation on the flood plain. Generally, wells finished in the Navajo aquifer near the San Juan River do not require pumping because water flows freely from the well casing when it is not sealed.

  9. The Impact of Stakeholders' Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-25

    Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that motivated them to improve animal welfare (in particular their religion, knowledge levels, monetary gain, the availability of tools and resources, more pressing community issues, and the approval of their supervisor and peers) were assessed for their relationships to stakeholder role and ranked according to their importance. Stakeholder roles influenced attitudes to animal welfare during livestock transport and slaughter. Farmers were more motivated by their peers compared to other stakeholders. Business owners reported higher levels of motivation from monetary gain, while business managers were mainly motivated by what was prescribed by the company for which they worked. Veterinarians reported the highest levels of perceived approval for improving animal welfare, and all stakeholder groups were least likely to be encouraged to change by a 'western' international organization. This study demonstrates the differences in

  10. Possible Processes For Acidity And Metal Contaminant Attenuation In A Polluted Estuarine Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, E.; Xiaomin, M.; Andrew, B.; Ling, L.; Andrew, B.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemical data obtained from an estuarine sandy aquifer situated below an old industrial landfill (Ayrshire, Scotland) indicated that acidic groundwater (pH <2) exists 100 meters from the estuary bank. Associated with this acidic plume, elevated concentrations of dissolved heavy metals (Al, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd) were observed. Water table monitoring and chemical data showed that the groundwater is intruded by estuarine water and is tidally influenced. While geochemical processes associated with acidic plumes and related metal contamination have been widely studied in inland aquifer systems, they have received much less attention in near shore aquifers. Rarely have processes taking place in tidally influenced acidic aquifers been investigated in detail in the field. The aim of the study was to identify the key processes controlling the migration of the acidic plume and reactive transport of contaminants on the path from the aquifer to the estuary. More specifically, the research work has focused on the role played by estuarine water intrusion on the geochemical processes occurring in the aquifer. Through integration of intense geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical Investigations, a comprehensive field-monitoring program and laboratory experiments have been carried out. Data obtained were analysed using a geochemical modelling code, PHREEQC-2. In parallel, a model for multi-components reactive transport with density dependent flow was developed and applied to the site. Results from the field, laboratory, and modelling work indicated that oxidation of sulphurous waste located in the landfill at the pollution source is the origin of the groundwater acidity. The low pH plume and associated contaminants are slowly migrating towards the estuary. Retardation of the plume and pH buffering processes are clearly occurring in the aquifer. Ion exchange, precipitation, buffering mineral dissolution, and tidal forcing on the advective-dispersive transport were identified

  11. Putting the "receive" in accounts receivable.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, John W; Baum, Neil

    2006-01-01

    There isn't a practice in the United States that doesn't have a concern about accounts receivable. The financial success of any practice depends on the care and feeding of the accounts receivable. This is not an area of practice management that can be taken lightly or delegated to someone who is not attentive to detail and doggedly persistent. In this article, we will discuss how to identify problematic accounts receivable and what can be done to bring the accounts receivable under control. We will provide you with a plan of action that can be adopted by any practice regardless of size, number of physicians, or whether the practice uses in-house billing or outsources its billing arrangements.

  12. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in fractured-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Bedford County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Kurt J.; White, Bradley A.; Yager, Richard M.; Harlow, George E.

    2015-09-11

    A steady-state groundwater-flow simulation for Bedford County was developed to test the conceptual understanding of flow in the fractured-rock aquifers and to compute a groundwater budget for the four major drainages: James River, Smith Mountain and Leesville Lakes, Goose Creek, and Big Otter River. Model results indicate that groundwater levels mimic topography and that minimal differences in aquifer properties exist between the Proterozoic basement crystalline rocks and Late Proterozoic-Cambrian cover crystalline rocks. The Big Otter River receives 40.8 percent of the total daily groundwater outflow from fractured-rock aquifers in Bedford County; Goose Creek receives 25.8 percent, the James River receives 18.2 percent, and Smith Mountain and Leesville Lakes receive 15.2 percent. The remaining percentage of outflow is attributed to pumping from the aquifer (consumptive use).

  13. Direct and indirect impacts of crop-livestock organization on mixed crop-livestock systems sustainability: a model-based study.

    PubMed

    Sneessens, I; Veysset, P; Benoit, M; Lamadon, A; Brunschwig, G

    2016-11-01

    Crop-livestock production is claimed more sustainable than specialized production systems. However, the presence of controversial studies suggests that there must be conditions of mixing crop and livestock productions to allow for higher sustainable performances. Whereas previous studies focused on the impact of crop-livestock interactions on performances, we posit here that crop-livestock organization is a key determinant of farming system sustainability. Crop-livestock organization refers to the percentage of the agricultural area that is dedicated to each production. Our objective is to investigate if crop-livestock organization has both a direct and an indirect impact on mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) sustainability. In that objective, we build a whole-farm model parametrized on representative French sheep and crop farming systems in plain areas (Vienne, France). This model permits simulating contrasted MC-L systems and their subsequent sustainability through the following indicators of performance: farm income, production, N balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (/kg product) and MJ consumption (/kg product). Two MC-L systems were simulated with contrasted crop-livestock organizations (MC20-L80: 20% of crops; MC80-L20: 80% of crops). A first scenario - constraining no crop-livestock interactions in both MC-L systems - permits highlighting that crop-livestock organization has a significant direct impact on performances that implies trade-offs between objectives of sustainability. Indeed, the MC80-L20 system is showing higher performances for farm income (+44%), livestock production (+18%) and crop GHG emissions (-14%) whereas the MC20-L80 system has a better N balance (-53%) and a lower livestock MJ consumption (-9%). A second scenario - allowing for crop-livestock interactions in both MC20-L80 and MC80-L20 systems - stated that crop-livestock organization has a significant indirect impact on performances. Indeed, even if crop-livestock interactions permit

  14. Drainage of Southeast Greenland firn aquifer water through crevasses to the bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinar, Kristin; Joughin, Ian; Lilien, David; Brucker, Ludovic; Kehrl, Laura; Nowicki, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    A firn aquifer in the Helheim Glacier catchment of Southeast Greenland lies directly upstream of a crevasse field. Previous measurements show that a 3.5-km long segment of the aquifer lost a large volume of water (26,000 - 65,000 m2 in cross section) between spring 2012 and spring 2013, compared to annual meltwater accumulation of 6000 - 15,000 m2. The water is thought to have entered the crevasses, but whether the water reached the bed or refroze within the ice sheet is unknown. We used a thermo-visco-elastic model for crevasse propagation to calculate the depths and volumes of these water-filled crevasses. We compared our model output to data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), which reveals the near-surface geometry of specific crevasses, and WorldView images, which capture the surface expressions of crevasses across our 1.5-km study area. We found a best fit with a shear modulus between 0.2 and 1.5 GPa within our study area. We show that surface meltwater can drive crevasses to the top surface of the firn aquifer ( 20 m depth), whereupon it receives water at rates corresponding to the water flux through the aquifer. Our model shows that crevasses receiving firn-aquifer water hydrofracture through to the bed, 1000 m below, in 10-40 days. Englacial refreezing of firn-aquifer water raises the average local ice temperature by 4°C over a ten-year period, which enhances deformational ice motion by 50 m/yr, compared to the observed surface velocity of 200 m/yr. The effect of the basal water on the sliding velocity remains unknown. Were the firn aquifer not present to concentrate surface meltwater into crevasses, we find that no surface melt would reach the bed; instead, it would refreeze annually in crevasses at depths <500 m. The crevasse field downstream of the firn aquifer likely allows a large fraction of the aquifer water in our study area to reach the bed. Thus, future studies should consider the aquifer and crevasses as part of a common system. This

  15. Evolution of Crevasses Fed by Water from the East Greenland Firn Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinar, K.; Joughin, I. R.; Lilien, D.; Brucker, L.; Kehrl, L. M.; Nowicki, S.

    2016-12-01

    A firn aquifer in the Helheim Glacier area of East Greenland lies directly upstream of a crevasse field. New meltwater enters this firn aquifer annually and is thought to displace aquifer water into the crevasses; however, it is not known whether the crevasses carry the water to the bed or refreeze it entirely within the ice sheet. We investigate the englacial drainage of the firn-aquifer water using a thermo-visco-elastic model for the propagation of water-filled crevasses. The model calculates crevasse shape, depth, and refreezing rates as a function of water input, which we take from existing field measurements of the water flux through the aquifer, and the local stress and temperature fields. We validate our model output with data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper, which reveals the near-surface geometry of the crevasses. We find that meltwater available at the ice-sheet surface can initially drive the crevasses to the top of the firn aquifer at 15 meters depth. After tapping the aquifer, the modeled crevasses receive a steady and sizable influx of water, which causes them to penetrate 1000 meters to the bed below within 20-300 days. This wide range results from our relatively poor constraints on the water flux through the aquifer and on the shear modulus of Greenland ice. Not all combinations of these parameters cause crevasses to reach the bed. Crevasses that do reach the bed refreeze approximately 2-10% of their water, raising the average local ice temperature by approximately 1°C and enhancing deformational ice motion by 5%. We find that the crevasse field downstream of the firn aquifer likely allows a large fraction of the surface-sourced aquifer water to reach the bed. Thus, future studies should consider the aquifer and crevasses as part of a common system. This system may play an important role in ice-sheet dynamics by routing to the bed a continuous high volume of water that could channelize a distributed basal hydrologic system.

  16. Foodborne illness associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock.

    PubMed

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2011-11-01

    Waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well documented, while the public health implications for foodborne illness from these parasites have not been adequately considered. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in domestic livestock, where young animals can have a high prevalence of infection, shedding large numbers of oocysts and cysts. Molecular epidemiological studies have advanced our knowledge on the distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in specific livestock. This has enabled better source tracking of contaminated foods. Livestock generate large volumes of fecal waste, which can contaminate the environment with (oo)cysts. Evidence suggests that livestock, particularly cattle, play a significant role in food contamination, leading to outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. However, foodborne giardiasis seems to originate primarily from anthroponotic sources. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are underreported because of the limited knowledge of the zoonotic potential and public health implications. Methods more sensitive and cheaper are needed to detect the often-low numbers of (oo)cysts in contaminated food and water. As the environmental burden of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from livestock waste increases with the projected increase in animal agriculture, public health is further compromised. Contamination of food by livestock feces containing Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts could occur via routes that span the entire food production continuum. Intervention strategies aimed at preventing food contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia will require an integrated approach based on knowledge of the potential points of entry for these parasites into the food chain. This review examines the potential for foodborne illness from Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock sources and discusses possible mechanisms for prevention and control.

  17. Diversity in livestock resources in pastoral systems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, B A; Lelea, M A; Hulsebusch, C G

    2016-11-01

    Pastoral systems are important producers and repositories of livestock diversity. Pastoralists use variability in their livestock resources to manage high levels of environmental variability in economically advantageous ways. In pastoral systems, human-animal-environment interactions are the basis of production and the key to higher productivity and efficiency. In other words, pastoralists manage a production system that exploits variability and keeps production costs low. When differentiating, characterising and evaluating pastoral breeds, this context-specific, functional dimension of diversity in livestock resources needs to be considered. The interaction of animals with their environment is determined not only by morphological and physiological traits but also by experience and socially learned behaviour. This high proportion of non-genetic components determining the performance of livestock means that current models for analysing livestock diversity and performance, which are based on genetic inheritance, have limited ability to describe pastoral performance. There is a need for methodological innovations to evaluate pastoral breeds and animals, since comparisons based on performance 'under optimal conditions' are irrelevant within this production system. Such innovations must acknowledge that livestock or breed performance is governed by complex human-animal-environment interactions, and varies through time and space due to the mobile and seasonal nature of the pastoral system. Pastoralists' breeding concepts and selection strategies seem to be geared towards improving their animals' capability to exploit variability, by - among other things - enhancing within-breed diversity. In-depth studies of these concepts and strategies could contribute considerably towards developing methodological innovations for the characterisation and evaluation of pastoral livestock resources.

  18. Linking human health and livestock health: a “one-health” platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communitities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in minimizing the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. Although these relationships are recognized, they are complex and there is limited data on the...

  19. Selected aquifer-test information for the coastal plain aquifers of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, W.R.; Newcome, Roy

    1986-01-01

    Aquifer and well hydraulic characteristics were determined from more than 100 multiple-well and single-well aquifer tests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and tabulated by county. Multiple-well aquifer tests were analyzed by the This method for nonleaky aquifers and the Hantush-Jacob method for leaky aquifers. Single-well tests were analyzed by straight line solution techniques for drawdown and recovery tests. Specific-capacity data are presented for many areas where aquifer-test information is sparse. The characteristics determined are based largely on well performance tests conducted by well drillers and consulting engineers. Although use of this information has many limitations, it has value in establishing transmissivity and storage coefficient values for the Coastal Plain aquifers. (Peters-PTT)

  20. Forensic Hydrogeography: Assessing Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water, Livestock, and Agricultural Wells in Harney County, Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitherman, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between elevated arsenic levels in groundwater and the regional geography within the Harney Basin in Eastern Oregon. There are multiple aquifers within this region used for public consumption, livestock production, and agriculture. Initial observations by the United States Geological Survey and independent residential water quality assessments have identified some wells containing arsenic concentrations an order of magnitude greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 parts per billion for drinking water. However, these data are inadequate to characterize the spatial extent of arsenic contamination throughout the basin; it remains unclear which aquifers are contaminated. The basin contains a geology comprised of tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and basalt formations with extensive faulting. Productive wells range in depth from 6 to 240 meters. The present study examines the spatial extent and seasonal variation of arsenic concentrations due to changing water levels stemming from agricultural pumping. These data will aid in the development of a regional model of arsenic contamination throughout the basin.

  1. Multidisciplinary approach to identify aquifer-peatland connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, Marie; Pellerin, Stéphanie; Cloutier, Vincent; Ferlatte, Miryane; Munger, Julie; Quillet, Anne; Paniconi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In southern Quebec (Canada), wetlands sustain increasing pressures from agriculture, urban development, and peat exploitation. To protect both groundwater and ecosystems, it is important to be able to identify how, where, and to what extent shallow aquifers and wetlands are connected. This study focuses on peatlands which are especially abundant in Quebec. The objective of this research was to better understand aquifer-peatland connectivity and to identify easily measured indicators of this connectivity. Geomorphology, hydrogeochemistry, and vegetation were selected as key indicators of connectivity. Twelve peatland transects were instrumented and monitored in the Abitibi (slope peatlands associated with eskers) and Centre-du-Quebec (depression peatlands) regions of Quebec (Canada). Geomorphology, geology, water levels, water chemistry, and vegetation species were identified/measured on all transects. Flow conditions were simulated numerically on two typical transects. Results show that a majority of peatland transects receives groundwater from a shallow aquifer. In slope peatlands, groundwater flows through the organic deposits towards the peatland center. In depression peatlands, groundwater flows only 100-200 m within the peatland before being redirected through surface routes towards the outlet. Flow modeling and sensitivity analysis have identified that the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of permeable deposits close to the peatland and beneath the organic deposits influence flow directions within the peatland. Geochemical data have confirmed the usefulness of total dissolved solids (TDS) exceeding 14 mg/L as an indicator of the presence of groundwater within the peatland. Vegetation surveys have allowed the identification of species and groups of species that occur mostly when groundwater is present, for instance Carex limosa and Sphagnum russowii. Geomorphological conditions (slope or depression peatland), TDS, and vegetation can be measured

  2. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    in forages, which are sufficient for optimum crop yields, are not adequate to meet the needs of livestock. Selenium is a trace mineral, which is not required by plants, and maximum forage yields can be obtained on soils with very low amounts of soil Se. However, if animals are fed feed crops and forages with low Se, they could suffer from serious muscular disorders and other diseases. White muscle disease caused by Se deficiency is the most common disorder and is found in calves and lambs. Sufficiency levels of micronutrients for crops have been discussed in relation to the animal requirement.

  3. SIMULATION OF SURFACTANT-ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) is currently under active investigation as one of the most promising alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat remediation for aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase organic liquids. An existing three-dimensional finite-di...

  4. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  5. Overview of the Ogallala Aquifer Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation increased markedly on the Southern High Plains during the second half of the 20th century, drawing water primarily from the Ogallala Aquifer. During this time, irrigation sustained regional farm incomes and rural economies. Withdrawals from the aquifer, however, have exceeded recharge, re...

  6. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  7. SIMULATION OF SURFACTANT-ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) is currently under active investigation as one of the most promising alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat remediation for aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase organic liquids. An existing three-dimensional finite-di...

  8. The Sparta Aquifer: A Sustainable Water Resource?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The Sparta aquifer is an aquifer of regional importance within the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. It consists of varying amounts of unconsolidated sand, inter-stratified with silt and clay lenses within the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group. It extends from south Texas, north into Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, and eastward into Mississippi and Alabama (fig. 1). On both the west and east sides of the Mississippi embayment, the Sparta aquifer is exposed at the surface (outcrops) and is locally unconfined; it becomes confined as it dips toward the axis of the embayment, (generally corresponding with the Mississippi River) and southward toward the Gulf of Mexico where it is deeply buried in the subsurface (Hosman, 1968). Generalized ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer is from the outcrop areas to the axis (center) of the embayment (fig. 2). In Arkansas, the Sparta aquifer outcrops parallel to the Fall Line at the western extreme of the Mississippi embayment (the Fall Line is a line dividing the mountainous highlands of Arkansas from the lowland area); and the formation dips from its outcrop area to the southeast. The Sparta aquifer supplies water for municipalities, industries such as paper production, and to a lesser degree, irrigation of agricultural crops (fig. 3). This report highlights hydrologic conditions of the aquifer in Arkansas County as an example of how water use is affecting water levels.

  9. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2908 Section 147.2908 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a) After notice and opportunity for a public hearing,...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2908 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquifer exemptions. 147.2908 Section 147.2908 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...-Class II Wells § 147.2908 Aquifer exemptions. (a) After notice and opportunity for a public hearing,...

  11. Mitigating climate change: the role of domestic livestock.

    PubMed

    Gill, M; Smith, P; Wilkinson, J M

    2010-03-01

    Livestock contribute directly (i.e. as methane and nitrous oxide (N2O)) to about 9% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and around 3% of UK emissions. If all parts of the livestock production lifecycle are included (fossil fuels used to produce mineral fertilizers used in feed production and N2O emissions from fertilizer use; methane release from the breakdown of fertilizers and from animal manure; land-use changes for feed production and for grazing; land degradation; fossil fuel use during feed and animal production; fossil fuel use in production and transport of processed and refrigerated animal products), livestock are estimated to account for 18% of global anthropogenic emissions, but less than 8% in the UK. In terms of GHG emissions per unit of livestock product, monogastric livestock are more efficient than ruminants; thus in the UK, while sheep and cattle accounted for 32% of meat production in 2006, they accounted for 48% of GHG emissions associated with meat production. More efficient management of grazing lands and of manure can have a direct impact in decreasing emissions. Improving efficiency of livestock production through better breeding, health interventions or improving fertility can also decrease GHG emissions through decreasing the number of livestock required per unit product. Increasing the energy density of the diet has a dual effect, decreasing both direct emissions and the numbers of livestock per unit product, but, as the demands for food increase in response to increasing human population and a better diet in some developing countries, there is increasing competition for land for food v. energy-dense feed crops. Recalculating efficiencies of energy and protein production on the basis of human-edible food produced per unit of human-edible feed consumed gave higher efficiencies for ruminants than for monogastric animals. The policy community thus have difficult decisions to make in balancing the negative contribution of

  12. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

    2009-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

  13. Livestock-Associated MRSA Carriage in Patients without Direct Contact with Livestock

    PubMed Central

    van Rijen, Miranda M. L.; Bosch, Thijs; Verkade, Erwin J. M.; Schouls, Leo; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Livestock-associated MRSA (MC398) has emerged and is related to an extensive reservoir in pigs and veal calves. Individuals with direct contact with these animals and their family members are known to have high MC398 carriage rates. Until now it was assumed that MC398 does not spread to individuals in the community without pig or veal calf exposure. To test this, we identified the proportion of MC398 in MRSA positive individuals without contact with pigs/veal calves or other known risk factors (MRSA of unknown origin; MUO). Methods In 17 participating hospitals, we determined during two years the occurrence of MC398 in individuals without direct contact with livestock and no other known risk factor (n = 271) and tested in a post analysis the hypothesis whether hospitals in pig-dense areas have higher proportions of MC398 of all MUO. Results Fifty-six individuals (20.7%) without animal contact carried MC398. In hospitals with high pig-densities in the adherence area, the proportion of MC398 of all MUO was higher than this proportion in hospitals without pigs in the surroundings. Conclusions One fifth of the individuals carrying MUO carried MC398. So, MC398 is found in individuals without contact to pigs or veal calves. The way of transmission from the animal reservoir to these individuals is unclear, probably by human-to-human transmission or by exposure to the surroundings of the stables. Further research is needed to investigate the way of transmission. PMID:25000521

  14. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  15. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  16. Ischaemic heart disease among livestock and agricultural workers

    PubMed Central

    Sjogren, B; Weiner, J; Larsson, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among male and female livestock and agricultural workers with gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. Methods: Male and female livestock and agricultural workers were identified in the Swedish National Censuses of 1970 and 1990 and were followed until the end of 1995. The IHD mortality among the livestock and agricultural workers was compared with that of gainfully employed men and women. Information of smoking habits was gathered from a previous national survey. Results: Male as well as female livestock workers had slightly higher standardised mortality ratios (SMR) regarding IHD compared with all gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. The SMR for male workers was 1.06 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.18). The SMR for female workers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.23). Agricultural workers had lower SMRs. Adjustments for smoking habits would further increase the SMRs by about 9% in male workers and about 5% in female workers. Conclusion: The present data suggest a slightly increased risk for IHD among both male and female livestock workers, which may be the result of organic dust exposure. PMID:12883028

  17. A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals.

  18. Analytical Analyses of Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Infiltrated Water for Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Ledder, G.; Kacimov, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disposal of excessive runoff or treated sewage into wadis and ephemeral streams is a common practice and an important hydrological problem in many Middle Eastern countries. While chemical and biological properties of the injected treated wastewater may be different from those of the receiving aquifer, the density contrast between the two fluids can be small. Therefore, studies of the fluid interface for variable density fluids or water intrusion are not directly relevant in many Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) problems. Other factors, such as the transient nature of injection and lack of detailed aquifer information must be considered. The disposed water reaching the water table through the vadose zone creates groundwater mounds, deforms the original water table, and develops finite-size convex-concave lenses of treated water over receiving water. After cessation of infiltration, these mounds flatten, water levels become horizontal, and infiltrated water becomes fully embedded in the receiving aquifer. The shape of the treated water body is controlled by the aquifer parameters, the magnitude of ambient flow, and the duration, rate, and cyclicity of infiltration. In case of limited aquifer data, advective transport modeling offers the most appropriate tools for predicting plume shapes over time, but surprisingly little work has been done on this important 3D flow problem. We investigate the lateral and vertical spreading of infiltrated water combining techniques of spatial velocity analyses by Zlotnik and Ledder (1992, 1993) with particle tracking. This approach allows for evaluating the geometry of the plume and the protection zone, the flow development phases, and other temporal and spatial effects and results can be used in conditions of limited data availability and quality. (Funding was provided by the USAID, DAI Subcontract 1001624-12S-19745)

  19. Aquifer Vulnerability maps and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela

    2017-04-01

    The aquifer vulnerability maps to contamination are used worldwide by environmental agencies and water-resource managers with the aim of preserving the water resources and of evaluating the most suitable areas where to locate new settlements. In the parametric methods, more used to assess the groundwater contamination vulnerability, e.g. the DRASTIC and the AVI methods, an important role is played by the protective capacity of cover layers to the introduction and transport of contaminants into the aquifer. Therefore, these methods point out the importance of the "Depth to water" parameter, which represents, where the aquifer is unconfined, the depth of the piezometric level and, where the aquifer is confined, the top of the aquifer. This parameter is rarely variable in confined aquifers and in deep unconfined aquifers, as karst aquifers, where the piezometric oscillations are low, compared with the depth of the water table. On the contrary, in shallow aquifers of flat areas, where in addition a large number of human activities are practiced and the contamination risk is high, the piezometric level varies suddenly with the rainfall, and it is very sensitive to drought periods and climatic changes. This affects noticeably the "Depth to water" parameter and consequently the vulnerability maps (e.g. 3 m of piezometric lowering can produce a change in the DRASTIC index from 10 to 7…). To validate this hypothesis, the DRASTC and AVI methods have been applied on a shallow aquifer located in a flat area in Campania (Italy,) considering data corresponding to an average rainfall period and to a drought period.

  20. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  1. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  2. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  3. The Impact of Stakeholders’ Roles within the Livestock Industry on Their Attitudes to Livestock Welfare in Southeast and East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Michelle; Zito, Sarah; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. We compared the attitudes of different stakeholders within the livestock industries in east (E) and southeast (SE) Asia. Farmers were more motivated to improve animal welfare during transport and slaughter by peer pressure, business owners by monetary gain, and business managers by what is prescribed by their company. Veterinarians showed the most support for improving animal welfare. The results suggest that the role that stakeholders play in their sector of the livestock industry must be considered when attempting to change attitudes towards animal welfare during transport and slaughter. Abstract Stakeholders in the livestock industry are in a position to make critical choices that directly impact on animal welfare during slaughter and transport. Understanding the attitudes of stakeholders in livestock-importing countries, including factors that motivate the stakeholders to improve animal welfare, can lead to improved trade relations with exporting developed countries and improved animal welfare initiatives in the importing countries. Improving stakeholder attitudes to livestock welfare may help to facilitate the better welfare that is increasingly demanded by the public for livestock. Knowledge of the existing attitudes towards the welfare of livestock during transport and slaughter provides a starting point that may help to target efforts. This study aimed to investigate the animal welfare attitudes of livestock stakeholders (farmers, team leaders, veterinarians, business owners, business managers, and those working directly with animals) in selected countries in E and SE Asia (China, Thailand, Viet Nam, and Malaysia). The factors that

  4. An Aquifer Storage and Recovery system with reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhuping

    2005-06-01

    The traditional concept of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) has been emphasized and extensively applied for water resources conservation in arid and semi-arid regions using groundwater systems as introduced in Pyne's book titled Groundwater Recharge and Wells. This paper extends the ASR concept to an integrated level in which either treated or untreated surface water or reclaimed wastewater is stored in a suitable aquifer through a system of spreading basins, infiltration galleries and recharge wells; and part or all of the stored water is recovered through production wells, dual function recharge wells, or by streams receiving increased discharge from the surrounding recharged aquifer as needed. In this paper, the author uses the El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) ASR system for injection of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer as an example to address challenges and resolutions faced during the design and operation of an ASR system under a new ASR system definition. This new ASR system concept consists of four subsystems: source water, storage space-aquifer, recharge facilities and recovery facilities. Even though facing challenges, this system has successfully recharged approximately 74.7 million cubic meters (19.7 billion gallons) of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer through 10 recharge wells in the last 18 years. This ASR system has served dual purposes: reuse of reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater, and restoration of groundwater by artificial recharge of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer.

  5. A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Valéria Cristina; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Vieira, Frederico Márcio Corrêa; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares

    2011-05-01

    Researchers working with thermal comfort have been using enthalpy to measure thermal energy inside rural facilities, establishing indicator values for many situations of thermal comfort and heat stress. This variable turned out to be helpful in analyzing thermal exchange in livestock systems. The animals are exposed to an environment which is decisive for the thermoregulatory process, and, consequently, the reactions reflect states of thermal comfort or heat stress, the last being responsable for problems of sanity, behavior and productivity. There are researchers using enthalpy as a qualitative indicator of thermal environment of livestock such as poultry, cattle and hogs in tropical regions. This preliminary work intends to check different enthalpy equations using information from classical thermodynamics, and proposes a direct equation as thermal comfort index for livestock systems.

  6. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-12-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development.

  7. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  8. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    PubMed

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  10. A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Cristina; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Vieira, Frederico Márcio Corrêa; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares

    2011-05-01

    Researchers working with thermal comfort have been using enthalpy to measure thermal energy inside rural facilities, establishing indicator values for many situations of thermal comfort and heat stress. This variable turned out to be helpful in analyzing thermal exchange in livestock systems. The animals are exposed to an environment which is decisive for the thermoregulatory process, and, consequently, the reactions reflect states of thermal comfort or heat stress, the last being responsable for problems of sanity, behavior and productivity. There are researchers using enthalpy as a qualitative indicator of thermal environment of livestock such as poultry, cattle and hogs in tropical regions. This preliminary work intends to check different enthalpy equations using information from classical thermodynamics, and proposes a direct equation as thermal comfort index for livestock systems.

  11. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  12. Genetically engineered livestock: ethical use for food and medical models.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the production of genetically engineered (GE) livestock have resulted in a variety of new transgenic animals with desirable production and composition changes. GE animals have been generated to improve growth efficiency, food composition, and disease resistance in domesticated livestock species. GE animals are also used to produce pharmaceuticals and as medical models for human diseases. The potential use of these food animals for human consumption has prompted an intense debate about food safety and animal welfare concerns with the GE approach. Additionally, public perception and ethical concerns about their use have caused delays in establishing a clear and efficient regulatory approval process. Ethically, there are far-reaching implications of not using genetically engineered livestock, at a detriment to both producers and consumers, as use of this technology can improve both human and animal health and welfare.

  13. Creating the Livestock Guru: ICTs to enhance livestock-related knowledge among poor households in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yibo; Heffernan, Claire

    2010-10-01

    The following paper details the creation and dissemination of a multi-media learning program for poor livestock keepers in Orissa, India: the Livestock Guru. To devise the learning content, interviews were held with 240 poor livestock-keeping households in four districts in Orissa State. Methods for measuring user demand and assessing disease priorities are detailed in addition to a description of the software content, design, and dissemination strategy. The software was based on situated learning theory. Following this approach, the Livestock Guru was created to be contextually specific to the learning environment of the users. Further, to support a demand-led paradigm, the software was designed to be fully inter-active, where users have a choice over the learning material on offer. The results demonstrate that appropriately designed information and communication technologies can help alleviate barriers to knowledge acquisition by poor livestock keepers at the community level. As such, the overall aim of the paper is to enable the software to be replicated in other contexts.

  14. International livestock markets and the impact of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Morgan, N; Prakash, A

    2006-08-01

    Escalating and pervasive outbreaks of animal diseases are posing considerable challenges to livestock producers, industries, and policy-makers around the globe in a context of steadily rising demand for locally produced and imported livestock products. This paper reviews the factors and trends underpinning the growth in meat trade over the past decade and assesses the impact of animal diseases on international markets. The factors shaping the transmission of the impact of animal disease to global markets and back into domestic markets are identified and the potential global market impact of further animal disease outbreaks evaluated.

  15. Direction of rational use of water at livestock facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potseluev, A. A.; Nazarov, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article notes the world water shortage problem. Against this background, Russia’s agricultural production is considered, in particular the livestock sector as the main consumer of water resources. The structure of the main technological processes at livestock facilities is given and possible technological damage is indicated in case of the lack of technological processes for servicing animals and poultry with water. The direction of rational use of water based on the introduction of new technical and technological solutions of water supply systems and means is substantiated. Constructive solutions of systems and facilities that help to reduce water consumption are presented, and as well a possible positive effect.

  16. Protistan communities in aquifers: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novarino, G.; Warren, A.; Butler, H.; Lambourne, G.; Boxshall, A.; Bateman, J.; Kinner, N.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Mosse, R.A.; Teltsch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms (protists) are a very important component of microbial communities inhabiting groundwater aquifers This is not unexpected when one considers that many protists feed heterotrophically, by means of either phagotrophy (bacterivory) or osmotrophy. Protistan numbers are usually low (<102 per g dw of aquifer material) in pristine, uncontaminated aquifers but may increase by several orders of magnitude in aquifers subject to organic pout on Stoa flagellates (typically 2-3(5) ??m in size in situ) are by far the dominant protists in aquifers although amoebae and occasionally ciliates may also be present much lower numbers. A though a wealth of new taxonomic information is waiting to be brought to light, interest in the identity of aquifer protists is not exclusively academic If verified, the following hypotheses may prove to be important towards our understanding of the functioning of microbial communities in aquifers: (1) Differences in swimming behavior between species of flagellates lead to feeding heterogeneity and niche differentiation, implying that bacterivorous flagellates graze on different subsets of the bacterial community, and therefore play different roles in controlling bacterial densities. (2) Bacterivorous flagellates grazing on bacteria capable of degrading Organic compounds have an indirect effect on the overall rates of biodegradation.

  17. The Winona-Tallahatta Aquifer in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiers, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    This aquifer atlas describing the Winona-Tallahatta aquifer is the seventh in a series prepared in cooperation with the Mississippi Board of Water Commissioners. The atlas summarizes the large amount of unpublished data available in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and it describes the extent, character, and present utilization of the aquifer and its potential for additional development. The Winona-Tallahatta aquifer, which contains freshwater having less than 1,000 mg/liter of dissolved solids in about 25 percent of the State occurs in northwestern and central Mississippi. The water-bearing zones extend into Tennessee and become part of the Memphis aquifer. In Arkansas and Louisiana the aquifer is in the Cane River Formation. The Tallahatta Formation which is the basal unit of the Claiborne Group includes, in ascending order, the Meridian Sand, Basic City Shale, and Neshoba Sand Members. The Winona-Tallahatta aquifer is the source of water for only a few large water users, but is the source of water for hundreds of small-yield domestic and stock wells less than 200 feet deep. Total water use in the State in 1977 from the Winona-Tallahatta is estimated to be about 3 mdg. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Hydrology of the Claiborne aquifer and interconnection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Gonthier, Gerard

    2017-04-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, to define the hydrologic properties of the Claiborne aquifer and evaluate its connection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia. The effort involved collecting and compiling hydrologic data from the aquifer in subarea 4 of southwestern Georgia. Data collected for this study include borehole geophysical logs in 7 wells, and two 72-hour aquifer tests to determine aquifer properties.The top of the Claiborne aquifer extends from an altitude of about 200 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) in Terrell County to 402 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County, Georgia. The base of the aquifer extends from an altitude of about 60 feet above NAVD 88 in eastern Sumter County to about 750 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County. Aquifer thickness ranges from about 70 feet in eastern Early County to 400 feet in Decatur County.The transmissivity of the Claiborne aquifer, determined from two 72-hour aquifer tests, was estimated to be 1,500 and 700 feet squared per day in Mitchell and Early Counties, respectively. The storage coefficient was estimated to be 0.0006 and 0.0004 for the same sites, respectively. Aquifer test data from Mitchell County indicate a small amount of leakage occurred during the test. Groundwater-flow models suggest that the source of the leakage was the underlying Clayton aquifer, which produced about 2.5 feet of drawdown in response to pumping in the Claiborne aquifer. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining unit between the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers was simulated to be about 0.02 foot per day.Results from the 72-hour aquifer tests run for this study indicated no interconnection between the Claiborne and overlying Upper Floridan aquifers at the two test sites. Additional data are needed to monitor the effects that increased withdrawals from the Claiborne aquifer may have on future water resources.

  19. Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Aquifer properties determined from two analytical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Ayers, J.F.

    1998-09-01

    Many ground water flow and contaminant transport studies involve unconfined aquifers. Determination of reliable hydraulic properties of unconfined aquifers is therefore important. In the analysis of pumping test data, the quality of the determined aquifer parameters can be greatly improved by using a proper model of the aquifer system. Moench (1995) provided an analytical solution for flow to a well partially penetrating an unconfined aquifer. His solution, in contrast to the Neuman solution (1974), accounts for the noninstantaneous decline of the water table (delayed yield). Consequently, the calculated drawdown in these two solutions is different under certain circumstances, and this difference may therefore affect the computation of aquifer properties from pumping test data. This paper uses an inverse computational method to calculate four aquifer parameters as well as a delayed yield parameter, {alpha}{sub 1}, from pumping test data using both the Neuman (1974) and Moench (1995) solutions. Time-drawdown data sets from a pumping test in an unconfined alluvial aquifer near Grand Island, Nebraska, were analyzed. In single-well analyses, horizontal hydraulic conductivity values derived from the Moench solution are lower, but vertical hydraulic conductivity values are higher than those calculated from the Neuman solution. However, the hydraulic conductivity values in composite-well analyses from both solutions become very close. Furthermore, the Neuman solution produces similar hydraulic conductivity values in the single-well and composite-well analyses, but the Moench solution does not. While variable {alpha}{sub 1} seems to play a role in affecting the computation of aquifer parameters in the single-well analysis, a much smaller effect was observed in the composite-well analysis.

  1. Contribution of the aquitard to the regional groundwater hydrochemistry of the underlying confined aquifer in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Cherry, John A; Lee, Chun Ming

    2013-09-01

    Aquitards are capable of generating and preserving large amounts of chemicals. The release of the chemicals from the aquitards poses a potential contamination risk to groundwater that may be used as a drinking water source. This work aimed to identify the contribution of hydrogeochemical processes in the aquitards to groundwater hydrochemistry in the underlying confined basal aquifer by studying the coastal Quaternary aquifer-aquitard system of the Pearl River Delta, China. The system was submerged by paleo-seawater in the early Holocene and mainly receives infiltration of precipitation at present, as indicated by investigations on stable isotopes (δ(2)H, δ(18)O), water chemistry (SO4(2-) and Cl(-)) and salinity. Significant correlations between total dissolved solids in the basal aquifer and the thickness of the overlying aquitard further suggested the contribution of the aquitard to the groundwater hydrochemistry in the aquifer. Significant correlations between the chloride concentrations in aquitard porewater and that in groundwater in the aquifer, and between the thickness of the aquitard and the chloride concentrations in groundwater indicated the strong influence of the aquitard on the chloride in the aquifer. This is probably because the low-permeability aquitard is capable of preserving the paleo-seawater in the aquifer and releasing the salinity from the aquitard down to the aquifer via downward flow or diffusion. Isotopic and geochemical studies revealed that the aquitard is also responsible for generating and preserving large amounts of naturally occurring ammonium. Analysis between the concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in the basal aquifer and the total available ammonium in aquitard sediments suggested that the former is significantly controlled by the latter.

  2. Hydrochemistry of the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Katz, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrochemistry of the surficial and intermediate aquifer systems in Florida reflects the lithology and mineralogy of units within each aquifer and sources of water to each aquifer. The surficial aquifer system consists of sand, sandstone, clay, limestone, and shell units that are recharged primarily by precipitation. Calcium bicarbonate was the major-ion water type for 53 percent of the surficial aquifer determinations; a mixed water type (no dominant ions) accounted for 37 percent of the determinations. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the surficial aquifer system was 341 milligrams per liter. The intermediate aquifer system consists of limestone, dolomite, sand, and sandstone, and sources of water include downward leakage from the surficial aquifer system and, in some areas, upward leakage from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In northeastern and panhandle areas of Florida, water from the intermediate aquifer system had major-ion and dissolved-solids concentrations similar to water from the surficial aquifer system. In southwestern Florida, the water type in 67 percent of analyses was mixed, and the median dissolved-solids concentration was 642 milligrams per liter. In a northern area of southwestern Florida, hydrochemistry in the limestone aquifer of the intermediate aquifer system is similar to downward leakage from the surficial aquifer system. In a southern area, downward leakage from the surficial aquifer system has calcium and bicarbonate concentrations five times higher than in the northern area, and upward leakage from the Upper Floridan aquifer contains sodium chloride type water from mixing with seawater. In southern southwest Florida, both the limestone aquifer and the overlying sandstone aquifer within the intermediate aquifer system had higher calcium, sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate concentrations than the limestone aquifer in northern southwest Florida.

  3. Data-fusion receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelmann, Jeffrey M.; Kattner, J. Stephen; Houston, Robert A.

    2006-12-19

    This invention is an ultra-low frequency electromagnetic telemetry receiver which fuses multiple input receive sources to synthesize a decodable message packet from a noise corrupted telemetry message string. Each block of telemetry data to be sent to the surface receiver from a borehole tool is digitally encoded into a data packet prior to transmission. The data packet is modulated onto the ULF EM carrier wave and transmitted from the borehole to the surface and then are simultaneously detected by multiple receive sensors disbursed within the rig environment. The receive sensors include, but are not limited to, electric field and magnetic field sensors. The spacing of the surface receive elements is such that noise generators are unequally coupled to each receive element due to proximity and/or noise generator type (i.e. electric or magnetic field generators). The receiver utilizes a suite of decision metrics to reconstruct the original, non noise-corrupted data packet from the observation matrix via the estimation of individual data frames. The receiver will continue this estimation process until: 1) the message validates, or 2) a preset "confidence threshold" is reached whereby frames within the observation matrix are no longer "trusted".

  4. Hybrid receiver study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M. S.; Mcadam, P. L.; Saunders, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a 4 month study to design a hybrid analog/digital receiver for outer planet mission probe communication links. The scope of this study includes functional design of the receiver; comparisons between analog and digital processing; hardware tradeoffs for key components including frequency generators, A/D converters, and digital processors; development and simulation of the processing algorithms for acquisition, tracking, and demodulation; and detailed design of the receiver in order to determine its size, weight, power, reliability, and radiation hardness. In addition, an evaluation was made of the receiver's capabilities to perform accurate measurement of signal strength and frequency for radio science missions.

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.; Runkle, D.L.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export and nonproprietary format files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers approximately 82 square miles and supplies water for irrigation, domestic, municipal, and industrial use for the City of Enid and western Garfield County. The Quaternary-age Enid isolated terrace aquifer is composed of terrace deposits that consist of discontinuous layers of clay, sandy clay, sand, and gravel. The aquifer is unconfined and is bounded by the underlying Permian-age Hennessey Group on the east and the Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation of the Permian-age El Reno Group on the west. The Cedar Hills Sandstone Formation fills a channel beneath the thickest section of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in the midwestern part of the aquifer. All of the data sets were digitized and created from information and maps in a ground-water modeling thesis and report of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer. The maps digitized were published at a scale of 1:62,500. Ground-water flow models are numerical representations that simplify and aggregate natural systems. Models are not unique; different combinations of aquifer characteristics may produce similar results. Therefore, values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge used in the model and presented in this data set are not precise, but are within a reasonable range when compared to independently collected data.

  6. Solute changes during aquifer storage recovery testing in a limestone/clastic aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirecki, J.E.; Campbell, B.G.; Conlon, K.J.; Petkewich, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) was tested in the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo Aquifer near Charleston, South Carolina, to assess the feasibility for subsurface storage of treated drinking water. Water quality data obtained during two representative ASR tests were interpreted to show three things: (1) recovery efficiency of ASR in this geological setting; (2) possible changes in physical characteristics of the aquifer during ASR testing; and (3) water quality changes and potability of recovered water during short (one- and six-day) storage durations in the predominantly carbonate aquifer. Recovery efficiency for both ASR tests reported here was 54%. Successive ASR tests increased aquifer permeability of the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo Aquifer. It is likely that aquifer permeability increased during short storage periods due to dissolution of carbonate minerals and amorphous silica in aquifer material by treated drinking water. Dissolution resulted in an estimated 0.3% increase in pore volume of the permeable zones. Ground water composition generally evolved from a sodium-calcium bicarbonate water to a sodium chloride water during storage and recovery. After short duration, stored water can exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) for chloride (250 mg/L). However, sulfate, fluoride, and trihalomethane concentrations remained below MCLs during storage and recovery.Aquifer storage recovery (ASR) was tested in the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo Aquifer near Charleston, South Carolina, to assess the feasibility for subsurface storage of treated drinking water. Water quality data obtained during two representative ASR tests were interpreted to show three things: (1) recovery efficiency of ASR in this geological setting; (2) possible changes in physical characteristics of the aquifer during ASR testing; and (3) water quality changes and potability of recovered water during short (one- and six-day) storage durations in the predominantly

  7. Comparison of aquifer characteristics derived from local and regional aquifer tests.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.; Maslia, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the aquifer parameter values obtained through the analysis of a local and a regional aquifer test involving the same area in southeast Georgia is made in order to evaluate the validity of extrapolating local aquifer-test results for use in large-scale flow simulations. Time-drawdown and time-recovery data were analyzed by using both graphical and least-squares fitting of the data to the Theis curve. Additionally, directional transmissivity, transmissivity tensor, and angle of anisotropy were computed for both tests. -from Authors Georgia drawdown transmissivity regional aquifer tests

  8. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  9. The sustainability, feasibility and desirability of breeding livestock for disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Bishop, S C; Mallard, B A; Raadsma, H

    2001-08-01

    Selective breeding for disease resistance utilises proven animal breeding methods to improve animal health, welfare and productivity. Unsurprisingly, it is receiving more and more attention from livestock breeders. However, there are a number of largely theoretical arguments that have been raised as potential problems in selection for disease resistance. These can be classified under sustainability, feasibility and desirability. This review considers each of these areas in turn. Several examples show that enhanced resistance to disease is stable under natural selection and therefore deliberate selection for disease resistance should also be stable and sustainable. The feasibility of selective breeding depends in part upon the heritability of the trait or traits used to measure disease resistance, as well as the amount of variation among animals. The heritability of traits associated with resistance to many important diseases is often high and considerable variation among animals exists. Consequently, selective breeding for enhanced disease resistance is certainly feasible. The desirability of breeding for disease resistance depends upon whether there are trade-offs with other economically important traits. By and large these remain to be defined. However, even if unfavourable associations exist, breeders can create selection indices that include traits with unfavourable associations and maximise the desired responses while attempting to minimise undesirable effects. In conclusion, so long as one or more diseases exert a significant influence on livestock production, selective breeding will be a useful tool to assist in disease control.

  10. Productive Spillovers of the Take-Up of Index-Based Livestock Insurance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Does the provision of livestock insurance raise the unintended consequence of stimulating excessive herd accumulation and less environmentally-sustainable herd movement patterns? The impact of insurance is theoretically ambiguous: if precautionary savings motives for holding livestock assets domina...

  11. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., employees exclusively engaged in feeding and fattening livestock in stock pens where the livestock remains..., that animals are not being “raised” in the pens of stockyards or the corrals of meat packing plants...

  12. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., employees exclusively engaged in feeding and fattening livestock in stock pens where the livestock remains..., that animals are not being “raised” in the pens of stockyards or the corrals of meat packing plants...

  13. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., employees exclusively engaged in feeding and fattening livestock in stock pens where the livestock remains..., that animals are not being “raised” in the pens of stockyards or the corrals of meat packing plants...

  14. What have we learned from the current state of genomics in livestock?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock genomics is leveraging the genomic information, methods, and technology spawned from the human genome sequencing project. This conference has addressed the following critical areas of research in livestock: genome evolution, genomic variation, epigenomics, food security, and sequencing a...

  15. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of livestock... panel the following terms: (1) The statement, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to...

  16. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of livestock... panel the following terms: (1) The statement, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable,...

  17. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... as organic. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: (1) Sell, label, or represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics,...

  18. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... as organic. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: (1) Sell, label, or represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics,...

  19. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... as organic. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: (1) Sell, label, or represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics,...

  20. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of livestock... panel the following terms: (1) The statement, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable,...

  1. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of livestock... panel the following terms: (1) The statement, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable,...

  2. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling... as organic. (c) The producer of an organic livestock operation must not: (1) Sell, label, or represent as organic any animal or edible product derived from any animal treated with antibiotics,...

  3. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention.

  4. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section 780.616 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS...

  5. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  6. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  7. 9 CFR 71.20 - Approval of livestock facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... as 9 CFR 54.7(e)(2) if the disease of concern is scrapie and the quarantined animal gave birth or... establishment or to the home farm of the reactor in accordance with 9 CFR part 75. (iv) Fly Control Program: The livestock facility shall have in effect a fly control program utilizing at least one of the following: Baits...

  8. 25 CFR 167.14 - Movement of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of livestock. 167.14 Section 167.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.14... after consultation with District Grazing Committees shall issue regulations covering the buying...

  9. Partnering with the Local Livestock Market in Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jamie H.; Newman, Michael E.; Castellaw, Jimmy C.; Lane, Clyde D., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 62 of 96 cattle producers evaluated educational methods of the extension service and the livestock market. Methods included tips distributed with the sale check, monthly and sale day programs, and Second Saturday cattle working program. The combination of programs offered influenced them to make changes in their production…

  10. 2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog sheds to right. View to east. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  11. 9 CFR 309.17 - Livestock used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock used for research. 309.17 Section 309.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Veterinary Services unit of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the Department of Agriculture...

  12. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... livestock living conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of animals, including: (1) Year-round access for all animals to the outdoors, shade, shelter, exercise areas, fresh air, clean... the environment: Except, that, animals may be temporarily denied access to the outdoors in accordance...

  13. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  14. Developing livestock odor reduction system using biochar/hydrochar characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malodorous emissions from livestock operations disrupt quality of life in rural and urban communities. The objective of this study is to characterize various biochars, both made from wet and dry pyrolysis of biomass, in terms of their potential capacity to be used as a sorbent for removing odorous c...

  15. 3. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of stockyards from livestock exchange building showing (l-r) Stock yards Autopark, motor truck cattle division, "O" Street viaduct, hog sheds, and motor truck #3. View to southeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  16. 7 CFR 205.239 - Livestock living conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with §§ 205.239(b) and (c). Yards, feeding pads, and feedlots may be used to provide ruminants with.... Yards, feeding pads, and feedlots shall be large enough to allow all ruminant livestock occupying the.... Continuous total confinement of any animal indoors is prohibited. Continuous total confinement of...

  17. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teratology, as a scientific discipline, is relatively new and recognition of poisonous plants that cause birth defects in livestock only came to the forefront in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Veratrum-induced “monkey faced” lamb syndrome and lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”, both studied extensive...

  18. Does livestock grazing influence spatial patterns of woody plant proliferation?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patterns of woody plant proliferation in grasslands and savannas influence rates of erosion, spread of disturbance, and nutrient pools.  Spatial pattern is the outcome of plant dispersal, recruitment, competition/facilitation, and disturbance. We quantified effects of livestock grazing, a widely cit...

  19. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect wild horses or burros from...

  20. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7 Section 293.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS... National Forests and in accordance with special provisions covering grazing use in units of National...

  1. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7 Section 293.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS... National Forests and in accordance with special provisions covering grazing use in units of National...

  2. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.14 Trade...

  3. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of livestock... panel the following terms: (1) The statement, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to...

  4. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  5. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  6. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  7. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  8. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  9. 29 CFR 780.327 - Production of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production of livestock. 780.327 Section 780.327 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  10. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  11. 29 CFR 780.328 - Meaning of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meaning of livestock. 780.328 Section 780.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  12. Effects of livestock management on Southwestern riparian ecosystems

    Treesearch

    David J. Krueper

    1996-01-01

    Riparian habitats historically constituted 1% of the land mass in western North America. Within the past 100 years, an estimated 95% of this habitat has been altered, degraded or destroyed due to a wide variety of land use practices such as river channelization, clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, water impoundments and urbanization. Many authors now concur...

  13. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Livestock Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Arsdall, Roy N.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in livestock production and gives examples of cutting costs of field equipment use, grinding and preparing feed, managing range and herd, ventilating and heating, lighting, drying grain, and irrigating with sprinklers. Recordkeeping and estimating energy use is also discussed. (BB)

  14. Livestock Nutrition and Feeding. Student Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This manual is designed to help agricultural education students and teachers to apply scientific facts and principles to problem-solving procedures in determining nutritious and economical livestock feeding programs. The manual provides applied scientific activities in biological science and chemistry, mathematics, and communication skills. It…

  15. Producer survey of bird-livestock interactions in commercial dairies.

    PubMed

    Shwiff, S A; Carlson, J C; Glass, J H; Suckow, J; Lowney, M S; Moxcey, K M; Larson, B; Linz, G M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this producer survey was to identify and estimate damage caused by bird-livestock interactions in commercial dairies. The interactions between birds and livestock have previously been implicated in causing economic damage while contributing to the environmental dissemination of microorganisms pathogenic to livestock and humans. Very little research exists to help producers understand what bird species use dairies, why they use dairies, or the scope and nature of damage created as a result of bird-livestock interactions. To better characterize these interactions, we surveyed dairy operators within Pennsylvania, New York, and Wisconsin. Survey results suggest that the most common and destructive bird species found on commercial dairies are invasive to North America, and their use of dairies is associated with the loss of cattle feed, increased operating costs, and an increase in dairies self-reporting Salmonella spp. and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Cattle feed loss estimates generated from this survey were used to parameterize an input-output (IO) economic model using data from 10 counties in the state of Pennsylvania (Bedford, Berks, Blair, Bradford, Chester, Cumberland, Franklin, Lancaster, Lebanon, and Somerset). This IO model allowed us to estimate direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of feed loss from bird damage to dairies within these counties. The IO model output suggests that feed loss costs Pennsylvania between $4.11 and $12.08 million (mean $10.6 million) in total economic damage, with approximately 43 to 128 jobs (mean 112) forgone statewide in 2009.

  16. Postfire Succession in Big Sagebrush Steppe With Livestock Grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prescribed fire in rangeland ecosystems is applied for a variety of management objectives including enhancing productivity of forage species for domestic livestock. In big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) steppe of the western United States, fire has been a natural and prescribed disturbance ...

  17. Sensitivity of soil microbial processes to livestock antimicrobials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strong public concern that the overuse of livestock antimicrobials produce greater antibiotic resistance and pose a risk for human health have led to new regulations on the use of antimicrobials. Manure runoff containing trace levels of antimicrobials is usually applied to crop fields, but their im...

  18. 9 CFR 309.13 - Disposition of condemned livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of condemned livestock. 309.13 Section 309.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... official establishment, if not already dead. Such animals shall not be taken into the...

  19. 9 CFR 309.13 - Disposition of condemned livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of condemned livestock. 309.13 Section 309.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... official establishment, if not already dead. Such animals shall not be taken into the...

  20. Development of a livestock feeding behavior monitoring system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding behavior contains valuable information that can be used for various needs including: managing livestock, identifying animals that are sick, and determining genetic differences within a herd. Feeding behavior initially was recorded only in individual or small group pens. Currently there are ...

  1. ANT COMMUNITIES AND LIVESTOCK GRAZING IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine if metrics for ant species assemblages can be used as indicators of rangeland condition, and to determine the influence of vegetation and ground cover variables, factors often influenced by livestock grazing, on ant communities. The ...

  2. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  3. Database Application for a Youth Market Livestock Production Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horney, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…

  4. Partnering with the Local Livestock Market in Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jamie H.; Newman, Michael E.; Castellaw, Jimmy C.; Lane, Clyde D., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 62 of 96 cattle producers evaluated educational methods of the extension service and the livestock market. Methods included tips distributed with the sale check, monthly and sale day programs, and Second Saturday cattle working program. The combination of programs offered influenced them to make changes in their production…

  5. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., dealers, and packers who operate scales on which livestock is weighed in purchase or sales transactions...) Balancing the empty scale. (1) The empty scale shall be balanced each day before weighing begins, and... balance of the scale shall be verified whenever a weigher resumes weighing duties after an absence...

  6. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., dealers, and packers who operate scales on which livestock is weighed in purchase or sales transactions...) Balancing the empty scale. (1) The empty scale shall be balanced each day before weighing begins, and... balance of the scale shall be verified whenever a weigher resumes weighing duties after an absence...

  7. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect...

  8. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect...

  9. Estimating influence of stocking regimes on livestock grazing distributions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ungulates often concentrate grazing at small hotspots in the larger landscape, and dispersing livestock away from these intensively grazed areas is one of the central challenges in range management. We evaluated a technique based on shifting the stocking date to prevent overgrazing of small areas co...

  10. 43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary to provide habitat for wild horses or burros, to implement herd management actions, or to protect...

  11. Livestock Models for Exploiting the Promise of Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R. Michael; Yuan, Ye; Genovese, Nicholas; Ezashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Livestock species are widely used as biomedical models. Pigs, in particular, are beginning to have a significant role in regenerative medicine for testing the applicability, success, and safety of grafts derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Animal testing must always be performed before any clinical trials are performed in humans, and pigs may sometimes be the species of choice because of their physiological and anatomical similarities to humans. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have been generated with some success from livestock species by a variety of reprogramming procedures, but authenticated embryonic stem cells (ESC) have not. There are now several studies in which porcine iPSC have been tested for their ability to provide functional grafts in pigs. Pigs have also served as recipients for grafts derived from human iPSC. There have also been recent advances in creating pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Like SCID mice, these pigs are expected to be graft tolerant. Additionally, chimeric, partially humanized pigs could be sources of human organs. Another potential application of pluripotent stem cells from livestock is for the purpose of differentiating the cells into skeletal muscle, which, in turn, could be used either to produce cultured meat or to engraft into damaged muscle. None of these technologies has advanced to a stage that they have become mainstream, however. Despite the value of livestock models in regenerative medicine, only a limited number of institutions are able to use these animals. PMID:25991700

  12. Livestock odors: implications for human health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential effects of livestock odors on the health and well-being of neighbors. Complaints of odor nuisance have become more frequent in communities surrounding areas with high concentrations of livestock. This increase in complaints from livestock odors parallels increased complaints of odor in general, including ammonia, diesel exhaust, beauty products, cleaners, and paints. Persons who report symptoms from odors generally find problems with many different types of odorous compounds. A review of recent studies suggests that the main complaints of health symptoms from odors are eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and drowsiness. Sensory irritation (pungency) can be produced by a broad range of odorous volatile organic compounds from trees, flowers, foods (pepper and ginger) as well as emissions from livestock operations. Odors can also potentially affect mood and memory. Further research is required to assess fully the health impact of odors in order to establish recommendations for air quality guidelines based on scientific data.

  13. ANT COMMUNITIES AND LIVESTOCK GRAZING IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine if metrics for ant species assemblages can be used as indicators of rangeland condition, and to determine the influence of vegetation and ground cover variables, factors often influenced by livestock grazing, on ant communities. The ...

  14. The challenges and importance of structural variation detection in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Liu, George E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs) comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to copy number variations (CNVs) in cattle, sheep, and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the agouti signaling protein gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection. PMID:24600474

  15. Salmonella in livestock and animal by-products in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Pegram, R G; Roeder, P L; Hall, M L; Rowe, B

    1981-11-01

    Samples derived from farm livestock, an abattoir and a bone factory, were examined for salmonella. Twenty-seven serotypes were detected in 130 infected samples. A bone factory product was heavily infected. Salmonellosis is considered to be an important disease of dromedary calves and poultry in Ethiopia.

  16. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  17. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  18. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  19. 7 CFR 760.303 - Eligible livestock producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must: (1) During the 60 days prior to the beginning date of a qualifying drought or fire, own, cash or... county affected by a qualifying drought during the normal grazing period for the county or (ii) Rangeland... qualifying drought or fire to be eligible for LFP payments. (c) An eligible livestock producer does not...

  20. Recent Developments in Livestock and Wildlife Brucellosis Vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Live attenuated brucellosis vaccines have been available for protecting domestic livestock against B. melitensis or B. abortus for more than 60 years. Current vaccines are effective in preventing abortion and transmission of brucellosis, but poor at preventing infection or seroconversion. In addit...

  1. 9 CFR 71.20 - Approval of livestock facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall signify the class or classes of livestock that the facility will handle.) (14) Cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison known to be brucellosis reactors, suspects, or exposed: —This facility will not handle cattle and bison known to...

  2. 9 CFR 71.20 - Approval of livestock facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall signify the class or classes of livestock that the facility will handle.) (14) Cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison known to be brucellosis reactors, suspects, or exposed: —This facility will not handle cattle and bison known to...

  3. 9 CFR 71.20 - Approval of livestock facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall signify the class or classes of livestock that the facility will handle.) (14) Cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison known to be brucellosis reactors, suspects, or exposed: —This facility will not handle cattle and bison known to...

  4. 9 CFR 71.20 - Approval of livestock facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... years, and for cattle and bison, sheep and goats, cervids, and equines, for at least 5 years. APHIS... classes of livestock that the facility will handle.) (14) Cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison: —This facility will handle cattle and bison known to be brucellosis reactors,...

  5. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  6. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section....

  7. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section....

  8. 7 CFR 1416.102 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine...; and (2) Suffered a loss of feed: (i) From produced or purchased forage or feedstuffs which was: (A...) Intended for use as feed for only the livestock found eligible under paragraph (a) of this section....

  9. Targeted livestock grazing to improve and restore rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Targeted grazing is the application of a specific kind of livestock at the appropriate season, duration, and intensity to accomplish defined vegetation or landscape goals. Grazing by wild and domestic animals is a powerful natural force working in all ecosystems. The ability of selective herbivory t...

  10. Towards better-informed consent: Research with livestock-keepers and informal traders in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Tarni Louisa; Kirino, Yumi; Alonso, Silvia; Lindahl, Johanna; Grace, Delia

    2016-06-01

    With the rise of the One Health paradigm, ethicists have called for new research approaches, considering the interdependent relationships of humans, animals, and their environment. These relationships can be particularly complex within resource-poor, smallholder livestock systems, necessitating a rigorous informed-consent process. Little has been published on informed consent beyond human-subject research. This paper outlines two studies on informed consent, for research identifying diseases of animal and human importance, within smallholder livestock value chains. Firstly, a randomized independent-group study compared three communication tools (written, cartoons, and photographs) for informing 22 Tanzanian livestock-keepers before seeking their consent. A significant difference in comprehension and engagement in the informed-consent process was found between tools, and cartoons had the highest (i.e. best combined comprehension and engagement) scores. Most (21 out of 22) farmers answered half or more the questions correctly, but none were able to answer all questions. Comprehension testing allowed identification of common misunderstandings, such as immediate benefits the farmers would receive and the process to be used for relaying research results. Dialogue stimulated by cartoons and photographs allowed researchers to determine and respond to participants' varied relationships with their livestock. The second study assessed preferred methods for indicating consent among informal-sector milk vendors in Nairobi, Kenya. Of consenting participants, 61% (140/230) indicated consent verbally, 39% (90/230) signed consent and none chose thumbprint. There was a significant enumerator-effect on both overall consent and the methods chosen. Several of these findings echo those published in human-medical research. Additionally, highlighted here is the importance of facilitating dialogue during the informed-consent process in One Health research, for a more nuanced understanding

  11. Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces.

    PubMed

    Zolzaya, Baljinnyam; Selenge, Tsend; Narangarav, Tsegeen; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Erdenechimeg, Dashzevge; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2014-09-01

    Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P < 0.0014). Human seroprevalence was not associated with small ruminant and cattle seroprevalence at the nomadic camp (hot ail) level. Annual incidence of clinical brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to

  12. Effects on the shallow artesian aquifer of withdrawing water from the deep artesian aquifer near Sugarville, Millard County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, R.W.

    1963-01-01

    Ground water occurs in a shallow (unconfined) aquifer and in at least two artesian (confined) aquifers in the unconsolidated alluvial material composing the valley fill near Sugarville, Utah. No wells are known to withdraw water from the unconfined aquifer, and this report is limited to a discussion of the effects of pumping a well tapping one artesian aquifer on the piezometric surfaces of the water in both artesian aquifers.

  13. Brucellosis in pastoral and confined livestock: prevention and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Smits, H L

    2013-04-01

    The traditional lifestyle and beliefs of pastoralists and small-scale farmers with confined livestock, together with certain farming environments, create favourable conditions for the spread and transmission of brucellosis. The risks associated with these practices are difficult to control because of a lack of alternatives and simple and/or affordable solutions. Brucellosis affects the health and productivity of livestock as well as that of their owners and caretakers and can have a deep economic impact. The control of brucellosis is likely to be cost effective. Good quantitative information on brucellosis in livestock and the human population is essential for demonstrating the benefits of intervention. Effective vaccines for the control of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants are available and cheap, and in high-risk areas there is an urgent need to start large-scale vaccination programmes. Risks for the spread and transmission of brucellosis, such as the migration of herds with frequent contacts with other herds at common feeding grounds and near water sources, are inherent in the way of life of pastoralists. Such risks may need to be accepted when developing a control programme. Thus, the control of brucellosis by vaccination is expected to be more effective for confined livestock. Essential to the success of mass vaccination in controlling brucellosis is achieving a high degree of protection of adult livestock in a very short period and vaccinating young stock before natural infection can occur. To reduce the risk of transmission of infection from neighbouring areas where animals are not vaccinated, a region-wide approach is important. Because shepherds and farmers may have very little knowledge of infectious diseases and the consequences of infection, providing disease information and education is important to help them understand the need for control measures. Public health services can also assist in encouraging acceptance of control programmes in

  14. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  15. Simulation of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.L.; Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Abriola, L.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper demonstrates that surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) can be modeled in two and three dimensions using a finite-difference simulator and incorporating realistic heterogenieties in aquifer properties and complex surfactant chemistry based upon a multicomponent, multiphase compositional description of the experimental chemistry. The presented simulations provide significant new insights into the SEAR process. The effectiveness of SEAR is sensitive to many variables including the initial infiltration rate of DNAPL, the natural hydraulic gradient, well locations, well pumping and injection rates, aquifer heterogenieties, and properties such as cappillary pressure, relative permeability, and surfactant chemistry. In this paper a comprehensive model for SEAR is presented and applied to explore the potential performance of this technology on an aquifer scale. This study illustrates the value of modeling in SEAR design, how this modeling can be accomplished, what information is necessary, and what kinds of results modeling can be expected to produce.

  16. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  17. Vulnerability of unconfined aquifers to virus contamination.

    PubMed

    Schijven, J F; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2010-02-01

    An empirical formula was developed for determining the vulnerability of unconfined sandy aquifers to virus contamination, expressed as a dimensionless setback distance r(s)(*). The formula can be used to calculate the setback distance required for the protection of drinking water production wells against virus contamination. This empirical formula takes into account the intrinsic properties of the virus and the unconfined sandy aquifer. Virus removal is described by a rate coefficient that accounts for virus inactivation and attachment to sand grains. The formula also includes pumping rate, saturated thickness of the aquifer, depth of the screen of the pumping well, and anisotropy of the aquifer. This means that it accounts also for dilution effects as well as horizontal and vertical virus transport. Because the empirical model includes virus source concentration it can be used as an integral part of a quantitative viral risk assessment.

  18. The allocation of aquifer resources in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, N. S.

    1987-02-01

    The traditional role of aquifers for groundwater supply may not be appropriate in some areas of Scotland where high rainfall, low evapotranspiration, and abundant upland catchments and storage areas yield more than adequate surface water supplies. Some groundwater will always be required to satisfy specific needs but much aquifer potential will remain untapped. It is suggested that some of this potential could usefully be allocated to the disposal of wastes including oiled beach material, or the storage of heat or fluids, any of which could contaminate the aquifer. Care will be required to ensure that surface waters and other amenities are not put at risk. Resolution of conflicts between water supply and waste disposal usage of an aquifer requires guidelines; suggestions are made for their formulation and the need for legislative and planning controls is outlined.

  19. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    PubMed

    Thumbi, S M; Njenga, M Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F; Palmer, Guy H; McElwain, Terry F

    2015-01-01

    For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling for household size, the

  20. Linking Human Health and Livestock Health: A “One-Health” Platform for Integrated Analysis of Human Health, Livestock Health, and Economic Welfare in Livestock Dependent Communities

    PubMed Central

    Thumbi, S. M.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L.; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F.; Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. Method We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Findings Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling

  1. A multi-tracer study in the Hutton Sandstone aquifer, Australia: How "wrong ages" give us deeper insights into aquifer structure and effective deep recharge to a double porosity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckow, Axel; Taylor, Andrew; Davies, Phil; Leaney, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Depressurisation of coal seams in the Walloon Coal Measures in Queensland, Australia, may influence aquifers both over- and underlying the formation. The Gubberamunda Sandstone aquifer, which overlies the Walloon Coal Measures, is the starting point of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) flow system and has been the focus of numerous recharge studies. In comparison, the Hutton Sandstone aquifer, which underlies the Walloon Coal Measures, has received much less attention. This aquifer however, is the main supply of stock water for the beef industry in the area. A multi-environmental tracer study of the Hutton Sandstone aquifer was undertaken at the Mimosa Syncline and was complemented by a few samples taken from the underlying Precipice Sandstone aquifer. This multi-tracer study (comprising 18O, 2H, 3H, CFCs, SF6, 14C, 36Cl, and 4He) demonstrated that the Hutton Sandstone aquifer behaves as a double porosity system. At the regional scale, the system features a relatively small fraction of conductive rock within a fairly large fraction of low permeability rock. Tracer migration therefore occurs mainly by advection in the conductive fraction and mainly by diffusion in the low-permeability fraction of the aquifer. Groundwater flow velocities, derived from exponential decrease of 14C and 36Cl concentrations with distance, differ by a factor of ten and therefore do not indicate the real groundwater flow velocity. However, accounting for a double porosity interpretation of the tracer data leads to a single groundwater flow velocity that is consistent with all observed data. Advective velocity in this double porosity model differs from face value flow velocities derived from 14C and 36Cl by a factor of 4 and 40 respectively. As a consequence of this interpretation, the deeper groundwater flow system of the Hutton Sandstone aquifer is estimated to receive only 3% of the recharge previously estimated using the Chloride Mass Balance approach at the intake beds. The other 97% is

  2. Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial

  3. Right to Receive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oborn, Richard

    The concept of a United States citizen's right to receive information is acquiring increased judicial recognition. This report traces the evolution of that right from its philosophical basis in the United States Consitution, through its interpretation by the Supreme Court, up to the current concern that the public receive certain economic…

  4. Flight termination receiver catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-02-01

    This catalog provides reference information on ultra-high frequency flight termination receivers used at various U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all available flight termination receivers. Inclusion in this catalog does not constitute approval or endorsement for use at any government installation. Information in this catalog was extracted from manufacturers' specifications.

  5. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

  6. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Indian livestock.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan K

    2012-10-26

    Greenhouse gas (GHG; methane and nitrous oxide) emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management of Indian livestock were estimated from the last two Indian livestock census datasets (2003 and 2007) using IPCC Tier 2 (2006) guidelines. The total annual GHG emissions from Indian livestock increased in 2007 compared to the year 2003 with an annual growth rate of 1.52% over this period. The contributions of GHG by dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep and other animals (yak, mithun, horse, donkeys, pigs and poultry) were 30.52, 24.0, 37.7, 4.34, 2.09 and 3.52%, respectively, in 2007. Enteric fermentation was the major source of methane, accounting for 89.2% of the total GHG emissions, followed by manure methane (9.49%). Nitrous oxide emissions accounted for 1.34%. GHG emissions (CO(2)-eq. per kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM)) by female animals were considerably lower for crossbred cows (1161 g), followed by buffaloes (1332 g) and goats (2699 g), and were the highest for indigenous cattle (3261 g) in 2007. There was a decreasing trend in GHG emissions (-1.82% annual growth rate) in relation to milk production from 2003 to 2007 (1818 g and 1689 g CO(2)-eq. per kg FPCM in 2003 and 2007, respectively). This study revealed that GHG emissions (total as well as per unit of products) from dairy and other categories of livestock populations could be reduced substantially through proper dairy herd management without compromising animal production. In conclusion, although the total GHG emissions from Indian livestock increased in 2007, there was a decreasing trend in GHG production per kg of milk production or animal products.

  7. OXIDATION-REDUCTION CAPACITIES OF AQUIFER SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the oxidation (i.e., of aqueous Cr2+) and reduction (i.e., of aqueous Cr2O72- and H202) capacities of aquifer solids and groundwater have been made on samples from a sand-and-gravel aquifer. The gro...

  8. Hydraulic behavior of two areas of the Floridan aquifer system characterized by complex hydrogeologic settings and large groundwater withdrawals

    SciTech Connect

    Maslia, M.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Two areas of the Florida aquifer system (FAS) that are characterized by complex hydrogeologic settings and exceedingly large ground-water withdrawals are the Dougherty Plain area of southwest GA and the Glynn County area of southeast GA. In southwest GA, large scale withdrawals of ground water for agricultural and livestock irrigation amounted to about 148 million gallons per day (mg/d) during 1990. Large scale pumping in Glynn County, primarily used for industrial purposes and centered in the City of Brunswick, amounted to about 88 mg/d during 1990. In southwest GA, the FAS consists primarily of the Ocala Limestone (OL) of late Eocene age. Confining the aquifer from above is a residual layer (50 ft thick) of sand and clay containing silicified boulders which is derived from the chemical weathering of the OL. This area is characterized by karst topography marked by numerous depressions and sinkholes, high transmissivity (generally greater than 50,000 feet squared per day), and significant hydraulic connections to overlying streams and lakes. These characteristics, along with the seasonal nature of pumping and mean annual recharge of about 10 inches per year have prevented permanent, long-term water-level declines. In the Glynn County area, the FAS can be more than 2,600 ft thick, consisting of a sequence of calcareous and dolomitic rocks that are of Late Cretaceous to early Miocene in age. The aquifer system is confined above by clastic rocks of Middle Miocene age, having an average thickness of 400 ft. This area is characterized by post-depositional tectonic modification of the subsurface as opposed to simple karst development, thick confinement of the aquifer system, and significant amounts of vertical leakage of water from below. These characteristics and heavy-long term pumping from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) have caused a broad, shallow cone of depression to develop and the upward migration of saltwater to contaminate the freshwater zones of the UFA.

  9. Flight termination receiver catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    This catalog provides reference information on ultrahigh-frequency flight termination receivers used at various U.S. missile ranges and test facilities. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all available flight termination receivers, and inclusion of hardware in this catalog does not constitute approval or endorsement for use at any government installation. Use of a specific receiver at a missile range or test facility requires the approval of the Commander of that installation. Approval for use of a particular receiver on a given missile at one installation does not constitute automatic approval for use of the same receiver on other missiles at the same installation or on the same missile at other installations. The information in this catalog has been extracted from manufacturers' specifications. It is provided as reference material only and is not intended as an endorsement of any model.

  10. Aquifers of the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topper, R.

    2004-01-01

    Development of the Denver Basin for water supply has been ongoing since the late 1800s. The Denver Basin aquifer system consists of the water-yielding strata of Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within four overlying formations. The four statutory aquifers contained in these formations are named the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills. For water rights administrative purposes, the outcrop/subcrop of the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer defines the margins of the Basin. Initial estimates of the total recoverable groundwater reserves in storage, under this 6700-mi2 area, were 295 million acre-ft. Recent geologic evidence indicates that the aquifers are very heterogeneous and their composition varies significantly with distance from the source area of the sediments. As a result, available recoverable reserves may be one-third less than previously estimated. There is no legal protection for pressure levels in the aquifer, and water managers are becoming increasingly concerned about the rapid water level declines (30 ft/yr). Approximately 33,700 wells of record have been completed in the sedimentary rock aquifers of the Denver Basin for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and domestic uses.

  11. Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1982-01-01

    An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

  12. Estimating aquifer thickness using multiple pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Dewandel, Benoit

    2010-12-01

    A method to estimate aquifer thickness and hydraulic conductivity has been developed, consisting of multiple pumping tests. The method requires short-duration pumping cycles on an unconfined aquifer with significant seasonal water-table fluctuations. The interpretation of several pumping tests at a site in India under various initial conditions provides information on the change in hydrodynamic parameters in relation to the initial water-table level. The transmissivity linearly decreases compared with the initial water level, suggesting a homogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth. The hydraulic conductivity is estimated from the slope of this linear relationship. The extrapolation of the relationship between transmissivity and water level provides an estimate of the aquifer thickness that is in good agreement with geophysical investigations. The hydraulically active part of the aquifer is located in both the shallow weathered and the underlying densely fractured zones of the crystalline basement. However, no significant relationship is found between the aquifer storage coefficient and initial water level. This new method contributes to filling the methodological gap between single pumping tests and hydraulic tomography, in providing information on the variation of the global transmissivity according to depth. It can be applied to any unconfined aquifer experiencing large seasonal water-table fluctuations and short pumping cycles.

  13. Greenhouse gas fluxes from integrated crop-livestock systems in central North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems have shown potential to achieve environmentally sustainable production of crop and livestock products with regards to improved soil health. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to crop and/or livestock only production systems would increase sus...

  14. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and..., or for show. (g) For honeybee losses to be eligible, the honeybee colony must meet the following...

  15. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and... purposes, such as pleasure, hunting, roping, pets, or for show. (g) For honeybee losses to be eligible, the...

  16. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and..., or for show. (g) For honeybee losses to be eligible, the honeybee colony must meet the following...

  17. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and..., or for show. (g) For honeybee losses to be eligible, the honeybee colony must meet the following...

  18. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and... purposes, such as pleasure, hunting, roping, pets, or for show. (g) For honeybee losses to be eligible, the...

  19. Selenium biofortification in North America: Using naturally selenium-rich feeds for livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective is to demonstrate how livestock feed manufactures could lead the way in North America for large-scale Se biofortification of livestock using naturally Se-rich products. With this in mind, a cooperative group, which included researchers, a feed manufacture, a livestock association, and ...

  20. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...