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Sample records for arab jamahiriya nigeria

  1. The Social Supervision and Its Role in Developing of the School Social Service in Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekali, Karima A. A.; zain, Abdul-Aziz

    2010-01-01

    The new direction of the social control over the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is a phase that began in Tripoli city in 1990. After opening of the Office of Education ministry, education and health as a result of the efforts made by the Department of Education, which affected the evolution of modern educational thought, which emphasizes the process of…

  2. Profile of diabetic ketoacidosis at a teaching hospital in Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

    PubMed

    Elmehdawi, R R; Elmagerhei, H M

    2010-03-01

    This study describes the profile of 100 cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at a teaching hospital in 1 Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. DKA was more frequent in young women with type 1 diabetes and mostly due to preventable causes, e.g., disrupted insulin treatment and/or infection. DKA also occurred in type 2 diabetics, with a higher mortality rate, as they were older patients with co-morbidity. Polyurea, fatigue, abdominal pain and vomiting were the most common clinical features, while coma was rarer. A high number of cases were first presentations of type 1 diabetes; hence this diagnosis should be considered in all patients with acute abdomen or decreased level of consciousness. The reasons for high mortality rate in this study (10%) were multifactorial. PMID:20795443

  3. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Smoke over Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea     ... document extensive smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color ... the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. ...

  4. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    This document presents information on Nigeria for use in the elementary classroom. A basic theme of the text is change. Nigeria is currently in a state of change, as are most developing countries. North American children often have an idea of African people as poor and backward. In this text, Nigerian people are presented as a people with a rich…

  5. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and

  6. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and

  7. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  8. DAMASCUS ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)

  9. Arabic Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This collection of 10 songs was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic. The songs appear in Arabic script with special vocabulary items glossed in English. The lyrics also appear in transliteration at the end of the text. Musical scores accompany some of the selections. [Not…

  10. Fertility-inhibiting indices in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Horne, A D

    1992-01-01

    Bongaart's model for estimating fertility levels that was not available in Arab countries. In this study, El-Khorazaty's model was used to determine fertility-inhibiting indices for the Arab countries with available age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and to compare differences regionally, residentially, and nationally. The value of total fecundity (TF) was set at 17 rather than at the Bongaart's recommended 15.3, in order to avoid the negative values for percentage reduction from TF obtained by Bulatao. Childbearing indices provided projected estimates of the mean age of first and last birth and the projected length of the reproductive period experienced by a new cohort of women with a specified ASFR. These estimated and UN estimates were used to indirectly estimate Bongaarts indices. Estimates were generated for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen Arab Republic. 8 of these 16 countries showed fertility decline for the periods indicated: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia with declines due top contraceptive use and lower proportions married; Bahrain and Kuwait due to lower proportions married; and Sudan and Yemen to lactational infecundability. Increases in fertility were found in Mauritania, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, due to lower lactational infecundability, higher proportions married, and lower contraceptive used; and in Libyan Arab Jamahiriyha due to shorter breast feeding durations, higher proportions married, and unmeasured factors. Little change was represented in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria until the late 1970s. The total fertility rate between 1980-85 for all Arabs was 6.2. The most important of Bongaart's intermediate fertility variables in reducing fecundity was proportion married, responsible for 27% of the decline in TF with an index of .760. The least important was contraceptive usage

  11. Fertility-inhibiting indices in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Horne, A D

    1992-01-01

    Bongaart's model for estimating fertility levels that was not available in Arab countries. In this study, El-Khorazaty's model was used to determine fertility-inhibiting indices for the Arab countries with available age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and to compare differences regionally, residentially, and nationally. The value of total fecundity (TF) was set at 17 rather than at the Bongaart's recommended 15.3, in order to avoid the negative values for percentage reduction from TF obtained by Bulatao. Childbearing indices provided projected estimates of the mean age of first and last birth and the projected length of the reproductive period experienced by a new cohort of women with a specified ASFR. These estimated and UN estimates were used to indirectly estimate Bongaarts indices. Estimates were generated for Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Qatar, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen Arab Republic. 8 of these 16 countries showed fertility decline for the periods indicated: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia with declines due top contraceptive use and lower proportions married; Bahrain and Kuwait due to lower proportions married; and Sudan and Yemen to lactational infecundability. Increases in fertility were found in Mauritania, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, due to lower lactational infecundability, higher proportions married, and lower contraceptive used; and in Libyan Arab Jamahiriyha due to shorter breast feeding durations, higher proportions married, and unmeasured factors. Little change was represented in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria until the late 1970s. The total fertility rate between 1980-85 for all Arabs was 6.2. The most important of Bongaart's intermediate fertility variables in reducing fecundity was proportion married, responsible for 27% of the decline in TF with an index of .760. The least important was contraceptive usage

  12. Arab observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoohi, L. J.

    There are two main medieval Arab sources of astronomical observations: chronicles and astronomical treatises. Medieval Arabs produced numerous chronicles many of which reported astronomical events that the chroniclers themselves observed or were witnessed by others. Astronomical phenomena that were recorded by chroniclers include solar and lunar eclipses, cometary apparitions, meteors, and meteor showers. Muslim astronomers produced many astronomical treatises known as zijes. Zijes include records of mainly predictable phenomena, such as eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Unlike chronicles, zijes usually ignore irregular phenomena such as the apparitions of comets and meteors, and meteor showers. Some zijes include astronomical observations, especially of eclipses. Not unexpectedly, records in zijes are in general more accurate than their counterparts in chronicles. However, research has shown that medieval Arab chronicles and zijes both contain some valuable astronomical observational data. Unfortunately, much of the heritage of medieval Arab chroniclers and astronomers is still in manuscript form. Moreover, most of the huge numbers of Arabic manuscripts that exist in various libraries, especially in Arab countries, are still uncatalogued. Until now there is only one catalogue of zijes which was compiled in the fifties and which includes brief comments on 200 zijes. There is a real need for systematic investigation of medieval Arab historical and astronomical manuscripts which exist in many libraries all over the world.

  13. 78 FR 75944 - Commencement of Claims Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    .... Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (D.D.C.) 06-cv-732. September 5, 1986 hijacking of Pan Am flight... Simpson v. Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (D.D.C.) 00-cv-1722. December 21, 1988 bombing of...

  14. Arabic Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Zahiruddin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the processing of Arabic materials at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) library and describes the creation of an Arabic online catalog that supplements the catalog for non-Arabic materials. User needs are reviewed, library automation is discussed, and search strategies in the Arabic catalog are described.…

  15. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad

    1987-06-01

    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  16. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--I. NEWSPAPER ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; YACOUB, ADIL I.

    THE FIRST IN A SERIES OF FIVE READERS, THIS VOLUME IS ON AN ADVANCED-ELEMENTARY/LOWER-INTERMEDIATE LEVEL AND ASSUMES A KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC ARABIC AS COVERED IN FERGUSON AND ANI'S "LESSONS IN CONTEMPORARY ARABIC, 1-8," CENTER FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS, WASHINGTON, D.C., 1960. THE 20 LESSONS (1-15 ARE NEWS REPORTS AND 16-20 ARE PROSE SELECTIONS) ARE…

  17. Verbal Complementizers in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Hossam Eldin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A class of Modern Standard Arabic complementizers known as "'?inna' and its sisters" demonstrate unique case and word order restrictions. While CPs in Arabic allow both Subject-Verb (SV) and Verb-Subject (VS) word order and their subjects show nominative morphology, CPs introduced by "?inna" ban a verb from directly following…

  18. Arab American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  19. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  20. Modern Standard Arabic vs. Non-Standard Arabic: Where Do Arab Students of EFL Transfer From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) by Arabic-speaking secondary school students. To see which variety students transferred from, they were asked to translate into English two versions of a short Arabic text: one Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and the other non-standard Arabic (NSA). Results indicate the importance of…

  1. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  2. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  3. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at Al-Garb,""Al…

  4. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  5. Dearborn: Modern Standard Arabic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundup of the Arabic language instruction offered in the Dearborn, Michigan, school district. Only one of the district's 22 elementary schools--Becker--offers Arabic. Pupils receive at least two 40 minute periods of Arabic a week. The school gave up a two-way immersion program, in which students were taught half their…

  6. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part I"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport,…

  7. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  8. Levantine Arabic: Introduction to Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James A.

    This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…

  9. The Use of the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankole, Beatrice S.

    Implementation of ISBD in Nigeria has successfully overcome problems with the diversities of 200 ethnic groups, 400 languages and dialects (in addition to English as the official language), arabic and roman alphabets, and the interface of two major religious systems--Islam and Christianity. This paper describes the adoption and uses of the ISBDs…

  10. A DICTIONARY OF IRAQI ARABIC--ARABIC-ENGLISH. THE RICHARD SLADE HARRELL ARABIC SERIES, NUMBER TEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOODHEAD, D.R., ED.; BEENE, WAYNE, ED.

    THE PRESENT DICTIONARY IS BASED ON THE EDUCATED COLLOQUIAL ARABIC OF BAGHDAD. INTENDED AS A COMPREHENSION DICTIONARY FOR AMERICAN ENGLISH SPEAKERS, ITS USE REQUIRES A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ARABIC STRUCTURE AND PHONOLOGY AS WELL AS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE STANDARD ARRANGEMENT OF AN ARABIC DICTIONARY. THE ENTRIES, WHICH APPEAR IN PHONEMIC…

  11. Spoken Chad Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This intensive course is designed to teach students to understand and speak Chad Arabic. The course is intended to be covered in approximately 360 hours in the classroom and the language laboratory. About 90 hours should be occupied with the pre-speech phase, which emphasizes passive recognition rather than active production. This phase consists…

  12. Yemeni Arabic II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    Instructional materials for advanced Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 25 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontaneous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the topics are: medical services, marriage, jobs, an interview, a car accident, proverbs…

  13. Arab World Almanac 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie S., Ed.; Hurd, Robert, Ed.

    This document is a collection of three lessons to assist high school teachers in introducing the Arab world to their classrooms. The intended purpose of the lessons is to promote greater cross cultural awareness, understanding of the interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciation for the different approaches other cultures may choose in…

  14. Arabic medicine and nephrology.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, G

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and artistic merit of those of Vesalius. PMID:7847454

  15. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  16. Teaching Islam and Arabic over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Chaim

    2004-01-01

    Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…

  17. United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  18. United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  19. Nigeria in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizea, F. D.

    On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

  20. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  1. Arabic Language Handbook. Georgetown Classics in Arabic Language and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateson, Mary Catherine

    This handbook is designed to give the kind of information about Arabic that will be useful to students of the language, specialists in the region where Arabic is spoken, or linguists interested in learning about the structure and use of one of the world's principal language. Three sections present the following: (1) "An Outline of Arabic…

  2. How Arabs Read Roman Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mick; Meara, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Shows that native-speaking Arabic readers produce search functions that are radically different from the search functions of readers whose script uses the Roman alphabet (RAs). The processes used by Arabic readers are more akin to the processes used by RAs when searching arrays of shapes. (Author/LMO)

  3. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR PART 3 AND PART 4 OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON THE FIRST TWO PARTS AND SOME DETAIL ON THE OVERALL NATURE OF THE COURSE, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 861.) PART 3 COMPRISES A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE ARABIC ALPHABET AND THE…

  4. Arabization in the Maghreb: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    The Arabization process in the Maghreb countries--Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia--is unique in that these countries are officially committed to the use of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) while widespread use of French, a colonial language, persists, and the formal Arabic used in Arabization differs from the colloquial forms used in each country. The…

  5. Use of Arabic in Computerized Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Mohammed M.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies technical and linguistic problems associated with use of Arabic in input and output devices and describes efforts to introduce a unified code for the Arabic language (CODAR-U/FD). The Hydriyya Method, requirements for Arabic terminals suitable for library use, manufacturers of bilingual terminals, and Arabization of software are…

  6. Arab Contributions to Civilization. ADC Issues #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macron, Mary

    This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…

  7. Takayasu's arteritis in Arabs.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Khader N

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe epidemiological and clinical features of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) among Arab populations and to compare it to other populations. We conducted a systematic review of reports about TA from Arab countries published in English and French until 2013. All published papers were reviewed including original research and case reports. There were 197 patients (176 females) reported in 28 publications that comprised 8 original research publications (with a total of 163 patients) and 20 case reports (reporting 34 patients). These patients were from countries with a total population of approximately 80 million (Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain). The female to male ratio was 7:1. Mean age at disease onset was 28 years, and the mean delay in diagnosis was 3.5 years. Clinical manifestations are constitutional symptoms in 44 %, limb claudication in 64 %, Raynaud's in 6 %, erythema nodosum in 3.6 %, visual disturbances in 30 %, carotidynia in 7 %, neurologic manifestations in 56 %, and hypertension in 34.5 % of patients. Involvement of the aortic arch and its branches were observed in about 80 % of patients. The overall mortality was very low over a period of 5.4 years of follow-up, and the course of the disease was quite stable in about 50 % of patients. The demographical and clinical findings of TA in Arabs are similar to what has been reported from different parts of the world. A relatively long delay in diagnosis may be in part due to low awareness of a relatively rare disease.

  8. Consanguinity and dysmorphology in Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Incidence rates of congenital disorders among the 350 million inhabitants of Arab countries could be influenced via the people's demographic and cultural characteristics. Arabs usually marry at a young age and have large families. They share certain core cultural values and beliefs, with the family accepted as the central structure of society. Consanguineous marriage is favored and respected in most if not all Arab communities, and intrafamilial unions currently account for 20-50% of all marriages. First-cousin unions are especially popular and constitute almost one quarter of all marriages in many Arab countries. Consequently, autosomal recessive (AR) dysmorphic syndromes constitute a considerable proportion of all birth defects among Arabs. Arab geneticists, with their persistent commitment to advancing research, have contributed to the description of a number of rare and new AR syndromes with the identification of novel genes. The collaboration with research teams in high-income countries resulted in a plethora of data on pathogenic variants and their function in causing dysmorphic syndromes. There could still be a considerable number of rare dysmorphic syndromes that prevail among Arabs which are not hitherto described and whose underlying molecular pathologies are not yet defined. Arab countries should thus strive to deploy DNA diagnostics and to build research capability around local priorities. Furthermore, a characterization of the prevailing genetic disorders in each geographic location, together with their mutations, is needed to plan for appropriate screening and testing protocols. An overview of consanguinity in Arab countries and examples of dysmorphology syndromes associated with consanguinity with their available molecular bases will be discussed.

  9. [Adult Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odokara, Elijah O.

    Focusing on eastern Nigeria, these studies describe educational planning to combat anomia (uncertainty and despair) in war-ravaged rural areas; the role of the University of Nigeria in social action, womens education, young farmers' clubs, and other activities aimed at postwar reconstruction; a proposal for improving family life education for…

  10. Welcome to Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

    This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

  11. Energy sources for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Okoroji, C.E.I.

    1982-09-01

    A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the deposits of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.

  12. A Basic Course in Iraqi Arabic. The Richard Slade Harrell Arabic Series: Number Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Wallace M.

    This text in basic Arabic is audiolingual in approach and is based specifically on Muslim Baghdad Arabic, which can generally be understood throughout Iraq and to some extent throughout the Arab world. Units 1-10 present a description of the phonological system of Iraqi Arabic, with detailed explanations and drills designed to help the student…

  13. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peoples Dem Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia Madagascar Malawi ... Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, R.O.C Tajikistan Tanzania, United ...

  14. Find an Audiologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia, the former ... and Jan Mayen Islands Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, Republic of China Tajikistan Tanzania, United ...

  15. Find a Hematologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Demo Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia, Republic of ... Svalbard & Jan Mayen Isl Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania-United Republic Thailand Togo ...

  16. Find an Allergist/Immunologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... People's Dem Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia Madagascar Malawi ... Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Togo ...

  17. Physics Education in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Jefferson L.

    2006-12-01

    For the last year and half I have been teaching at ABTI-American University of Nigeria (AAUN) in Yola, Nigeria (a small rural town in eastern Nigeria). One of the primary goals of AAUN is to offer American-style higher education in West Africa. Before coming to AAUN, I taught beginning physics using lecture/discussion and Real-Time Physics laboratories in the USA for ten years. I will discuss the differences and difficulties I have found in trying to use these teaching methods with West African students.

  18. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is…

  1. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  2. Printed Arabic optical character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.

  3. Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    The government of the Yemen Arab Republic does not have a population policy, but promotes family planning for health reasons since one of its goals is to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The 2nd 5-Year Plan (1982-86) aims for increased gross domestic product and per capita income, regional development, infrastructure development, job creation, and human resources mobilization. The population increased from 4.8 million in 1970 to 5.8 million in 1980 and is projected to reach 6.5 million by 1985 (indicating a 2.4% growth rate from 1980-1985). Life expectancy is 44 years for both sexes; infant mortality now stands at a high 156/1000 due largely to early marriage and little maternal care. The government concentrates on improving health care, mainly through its national health plans, by emphasizing immunization, education, and training doctors abroad. Current total fertility is 6.7, the birth rate is 48.5/1000, and the average age at marriage for girls is 13. Contraceptives and sterilization are available; abortion for contraceptive purposes is illegal. Up to 30% of Yemen's labor force may have emigrated to neighboring Gulf states and Saudi Arabia. The shortage in labor is partially made up by immigrants from the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, but the government still considers emigration too high since many of those who leave are the most skilled. There is no policy on international migration, due to the great value of remittances, but the government would like to encourage return migration. Yemen's urban population increased from 1.9% in 1950 to 15.3% in 1980. 4/5 of the population live in 5 of Yemen's 10 governorates. The government's policy seeks to strengthen the agricultural sector, improve living quality in rural areas, build up a balanced regional infrastructure, and establish more educational opportunities in small cities and villages. PMID:12314236

  4. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  5. Ending Discrimination Against Arab Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abourezk, James G.; Revell, Oliver B.

    1983-01-01

    Abourezk holds that Arab Americans are victims of much racial hatred and stereotyping and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been the primary governmental agency abusing the civil rights of this group. Revell, an official of the FBI, counters Abourezk's contentions. (GC)

  6. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  7. Canavan disease: an Arab scenario.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-04-10

    The autosomal recessive Canavan disease (CD) is a neurological disorder that begins in infancy. CD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the ASPA enzyme. It has been reported with high frequency in patients with Jewish ancestry, and with low frequency in non-Jewish patients. This review will shed light on some updates regarding CD prevalence and causative mutations across the Arab World. CD was reported in several Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, Kuwait, and Tunisia. The population with the highest risk is in Saudi Arabia due the prevalent consanguineous marriage culture. In several studies, four novel mutations were found among Arabian CD patients, including two missense mutations (p.C152R, p.C152W), a 3346bp deletion leading to the removal of exon 3 of the ASPA gene, and an insertion mutation (698insC). Other previously reported mutations, which led to damage in the ASPA enzyme activities found among CD Arab patients are c.530 T>C (p.I177T), c.79G>A (p.G27R), IVS4+1G>T, and a 92kb deletion, which is 7.16kb upstream from the ASPA start site. This review will help in developing customized molecular diagnostic approaches and promoting CD carrier screening in the Arab world in areas where consanguineous marriage is common particularly within Saudi Arabia.

  8. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  9. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  10. Moroccan Arabic Textbook. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Rabat (Morocco).

    The textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers learning the variety of Arabic mostly widely spoken in Morocco. It contains 10 lessons, each consisting of a dialogue, vocabulary list, grammar notes, a popular proverb, and supplementary dialogue and/or idiomatic and socially correct expressions. Dialogue topics include introductions and…

  11. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    AN ELEMENTARY COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS REPORT IS THE TEXT FOR THE FIRST TWO PARTS OF THAT COURSE. (FOR INFORMATION ON OTHER PARTS, REFER TO ACCESSION NUMBERS ED 003 860 AND ED 003 862.) THE COURSE USES THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD FOR TEACHING WHICH ATTEMPTS TO FAMILIARIZE THE STUDENT WITH ORAL SKILLS OF A LANGUAGE BEFORE…

  12. Country Profiles, United Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croley, H. T.

    A profile of the United Arab Republic is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  13. Arab World Almanac, Volume 2, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie Schmida, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three issues of this volume of "Arab World Almanac" features a self-contained lesson plan on one aspect of the Arab world. The Fall, 1990 issue focuses on "Oil and the Arab World." The Winter, 1991 issue looks at "The Arab World in the World Wars." The Spring, 1991 issue examines "Islamic Revival in the Arab World." Each issue includes…

  14. Nigeria: too many children?

    PubMed

    Mbachu, D

    1987-04-01

    Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs.

  15. Ambivalence, Modernisation and Language Attitudes: French and Arabic in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the ambivalent attitude toward the major speech varieties used in Tunisia (French, Classical Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic) and seeks to show the effects of that ambivalence on language policy, especially with regard to Arabization and bilingualism. (EKN)

  16. Guiding Digital and Media Literacy Development in Arab Curricula through Understanding Media Uses of Arab Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Jad P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…

  17. Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…

  18. How Muslim Arab-Israeli Teachers Conceptualize the Israeli-Arab Conflict in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Gamal, Eshan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how Muslim Arab-Israeli teachers conceptualize the Israeli-Arab conflict with their students. The findings show that Arab schools are in a constant state of tension between opposing poles of identity and belonging. The teachers emphasize their students' alienation from the Israeli establishment and their…

  19. Pemphigus in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Marwah A

    2015-01-01

    The Arab world lies geographically between the Atlantic coasts of northern Africa and the Arabian Gulf. This area has wide latitudinal differences as well as variable environmental conditions ranging from deserts to forests. Approximately 370 million individuals who share the Arabic language live in this area. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are the main subtypes of the pemphigus disease. Both pemphigus subtypes are present in many Arab countries; however, there is variation in the predominant subtype among countries. PV is the most common subtype in Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Syria, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. On the other hand, PF is more prevalent in Libya and is endemic in Tunisia. Interestingly, there is variation in the dominant subtype in some cities within Morocco. For example, PF is more common in Marrakech which is the second largest city. The presence of anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies in the sera of normal Tunisians and the presence of anti-desmoglein 3 in normal Egyptians' sera suggested that environmental factors played a role in the disease pathogenesis in those areas. Further researches detected that traditional cosmetics were among the risk factors in Tunisia. Moreover, farming was suggested as a risk factor in Egypt, Tunisia and Sudan. Because there is no consensus for pemphigus treatment among the Arab countries, there is diversity in their pemphigus treatment regimens. Studying the demographic characteristics and the environmental conditions which caused the variations in the prevailing clinical phenotype will help us fill the gaps to understand the pathogenesis of the pemphigus disease. PMID:25558949

  20. Student Loans in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuta, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the operation of the student loan program in Nigeria, including its past problems and current attempts of the Nigerian Students Loans Board to improve efficiency of loan collection. It proposes the establishment of a new Education Bank to finance student loans and other forms of investment in higher education. (Author/DB)

  1. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    1998-04-20

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  2. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498

  3. The Arab World Notebook. Secondary School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbas, Audrey, Ed.; Al-Qazzaz, Ayad, Ed.

    The Arab world holds a storied place in western history and is a significant area today culturally, economically, and politically, with its more than 190 million people sharing a common heritage with the West. The Arab world merits serious study in U.S. schools; however, it is often misrepresented in U.S. textbooks. This notebook is written as an…

  4. PHONOLOGY AND SCRIPT OF LITERARY ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-ANI, SALMAN H.; SHAMMAS, JACOB Y.

    THIS WORKBOOK IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE THE SOUND SYSTEM AND WRITING SYSTEM OF LITERARY ARABIC. THE MATERIAL IS LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND ARABIC. ACCOMPANYING TAPES FOR EACH UNIT PROVIDE THE STUDENT WITH PRACTICE IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION. READING, WRITING, AND HOMEWORK EXERCISES…

  5. Computer Program To Transliterate Into Arabic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual program for TRS-80, Model 12 (or equivalent) computer transliterates from English letters of computer keyboard to Arabic characters in output of associated printer. Program automatically changes character sequence from left-to-right of English to right-to-left of Arabic.

  6. Linguistic Features of Pidgin Arabic in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds the light on Asian pidgin Arabic, particularly linguistic features of pidgin Arabic in Kuwait. The phonology, syntax and lexicon of the language are described on the basis of interviews conducted with forty Asian informants. The data are discussed in its relation to other studies. Also, the researcher discussed the implication of…

  7. Challenges in Learning to Speak Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmed, Ismaiel Hassanien; Mamat, Arifin; Ahmad, Wan Rusli Wan; Rawash, Fouad Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a study to investigate the challenges and obstacles to speaking Arabic faced by good and poor Malay speakers of Arabic. The study used individual and focus group interviews with 14 participants to elicit data. The findings revealed 2 types of obstacles, namely, internal and external obstacles. Internal obstacles refer to the…

  8. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  9. On Bidirectional English-Arabic Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljlayl, M.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.

    2002-01-01

    Machine-Readable Dictionaries (MRD) and Machine Translation (MT) systems are important resources for query translation in Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR). Investigates use of MT systems and MRD to Arabic-English and English-Arabic CLIR. Translation ambiguity is the key problem. Presents three methods of query translation using a…

  10. Urbanization in contemporary Arab Gulf states.

    PubMed

    Qutub, I Y

    1983-01-01

    Urbanization in the Arab Gulf states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates is analyzed. Topics discussed include the historical background to urbanization; current demographic trends in the region; urban characteristics and growth; socioeconomic factors influencing urbanization, with an emphasis on labor force structure; future urban strategy; and the need for urban research.

  11. Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Gassick, Trevor

    This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…

  12. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  13. Patriarchy and development in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S

    1996-06-01

    The author defines patriarchy in the Arab context as the prioritizing of the rights of males and elders, and the justification of those rights within kinship values which are usually supported by religion. She considers the systematic impact of patriarchy throughout Arab society in the attempt to understand the persistence of patriarchy in the Arab world. Patriarchy in the Arab world, and other regions, is an obstacle for women, children, families, and states. It affects health, education, labor, human rights, and democracy. The author argues that patriarchy is powerful in the Arab world because age-based kinship values and relationships are crucial socially, economically, politically, ideologically, and psychologically. Sections discuss social patriarchy, economic patriarchy, political patriarchy, religious patriarchy, patriarchy in the self, and development planners, practitioners, and patriarchy.

  14. Selective impairment in manipulating Arabic numerals.

    PubMed

    Cipolotti, L; Warrington, E K; Butterworth, B

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes an acalculic patient (B.A.L.) with an unusual selective deficit in manipulating arabic numerals. The patient was unimpaired in reading aloud letters, words and written number names but unable to read aloud single arabic numerals. Furthermore, his ability to produce the next number in the sequence and his ability to produce answers to simple addition and subtraction was relatively spared when the stimuli were presented as number names but impaired when the stimuli were presented as arabic numerals. Using magnitude comparison tasks it was demonstrated that his knowledge of cardinal values of arabic numerals was preserved. His impairment in manipulating arabic numerals was interpreted in terms of a deficit in the connection between format specific number codes and the verbal numeral production system.

  15. The Talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Hanna; Khalil, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Since Israel's independence in 1948 Arab females were the main beneficiaries of the law of mandatory education. Arab women aged 65+ have, on average, less than one year of formal education. Their granddaughters, aged 18-24, have about 12.5 years of schooling--a number that increases each year. As in many Arab countries, Arab girls in Israel tend…

  16. Teaching about Arab Americans: What Social Studies Teachers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    External influences in the universal culture have significantly affected the image of Arab Americans and their children. Although Arab Americans are less visible than other minorities, the anti-Arab perception in the media makes them more visible in a negative way. Based on an ethnographic study investigating the experiences of Arabic-speaking…

  17. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  18. The Learning of Hebrew by Israeli Arab Students in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    Examines Israeli Arab students' attitudes and cultural backgrounds in relation to their reading comprehension of Jewish and Arab stories. States Arab students' motivation toward learning Hebrew as a second language is instrumental. Finds students comprehend texts from their own culture (Arab) better than those from the unfamiliar culture…

  19. Arab nations: attitudes to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kandela, P

    1993-04-01

    In the Arab world the number of people infected with HIV is uncertain, but official figures underreport the disease, even in Lebanon where public information is credible. The Ministry of Health figure of 130 recorded cases of AIDS since 1984 has been disputed by doctors, who also disclosed that a recent traffic-accident victim acquired HIV after a blood transfusion in a large Beirut hospital. In Marrakesh the blood bank releases figures on proportions of HIV-positive cases among blood donors only under special permission from the Ministry of Health. However, public health, education material is being produced in Morocco in a joint venture between the Pasteur Foundation and the Moroccan Association against AIDS. In Tunisia disputable figures released in January 1993 state that there are only 350 known cases of AIDS. In Jordan a Ministry of Health ruling mandates graduates of foreign medical schools seeking appointments at government hospitals to undergo pre-employment tests for HIV. In the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia similar rules apply to foreign medical workers, and those found to be HIV-positive are deported. The chairman of the Egyptian Medical Association disclosed that his association is testing doctors regularly to ensure their safety. Doctors found to be HIV-positive should be isolated from society with suitable medical care. A specialist at Abasa Fever Hospital has proposed the establishment of an AIDS colony for all infected persons and a national screening program for all Egyptians. Aswan district is to institute a pilot scheme of annual HIV testing for all hotel employees because of their contact with foreigners. According to WHO figures, Egypt's AIDS rate is not high, and the HIV seropositivity rate among blood donors was 1 in 110,254 in 1991. More health education is being carried out in Egypt than in any other Arab country except Lebanon, and the availability of condoms for family planning purposes helps in the protection against HIV

  20. Fertility differentials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogum, G E

    1980-01-01

    A review of the numerous fertility studies carried out in Nigeria during the last 3 decades. Evidence of differences in fertility among subgroups of the population is gleaned from these studies, as very few have addressed this issue specifically. Results still need to be evaluated. The only strong indication of possible geographic fertility differentials remains Van de Walle's analysis of age data from the census of 1952-53. 2 studies among populations of southwestern Nigeria yielded conflicting results with regard to urban-rural differentials, 1 finding lower fertility among urban residents while the other found no differences. Similarly, 2 studies with regard to religious differences yielded somewhat conflicting results, 1 showing Moslems and traditional worshippers having higher fertility than Christians, the other showing Moslems with lower fertility than traditional believers. There is some consensus among researchers that education has some depressing effect on fertility.

  1. Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

    2010-01-01

    This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

  2. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  3. Krabbe Disease in the Arab World.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-03-01

    The autosomal recessive inherited Krabbe disease (KD) is a devastating pediatric lysosomal storage disorder affecting white matter of the brain. It is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase. While most patients present with symptoms within the first 6 months of life, others present later in life throughout adulthood. The early infantile form of KD (EIKD) is frequent in the Muslim Arab population in Israel, with a very high prevalence of approximately 1/100 to 1/150 live births. The homozygous variant c.1582G > A (p.D528N) was found to be responsible for EIKD in Palestinian Arab patients. KD was reported in different Arab countries with much lower frequency. While most Arab patients presented with EIKD, late infantile and late onset KD forms were also reported. Most Arab patients presented with variable symptoms ranging from EIKD to late onset KD, with variable clinical findings. Based on literature studies, this review focuses on the clinical and molecular findings of KD patients with Arab ancestry, and highlights the need for developing universal genetic screening programs to overcome the under-reported status of KD prevalence in Arabia. This is expected to improve the prognosis of the disease and promote targeted molecular diagnostics to the Arab patients. PMID:27617109

  4. Krabbe Disease in the Arab World

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    The autosomal recessive inherited Krabbe disease (KD) is a devastating pediatric lysosomal storage disorder affecting white matter of the brain. It is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase. While most patients present with symptoms within the first 6 months of life, others present later in life throughout adulthood. The early infantile form of KD (EIKD) is frequent in the Muslim Arab population in Israel, with a very high prevalence of approximately 1/100 to 1/150 live births. The homozygous variant c.1582G > A (p.D528N) was found to be responsible for EIKD in Palestinian Arab patients. KD was reported in different Arab countries with much lower frequency. While most Arab patients presented with EIKD, late infantile and late onset KD forms were also reported. Most Arab patients presented with variable symptoms ranging from EIKD to late onset KD, with variable clinical findings. Based on literature studies, this review focuses on the clinical and molecular findings of KD patients with Arab ancestry, and highlights the need for developing universal genetic screening programs to overcome the under-reported status of KD prevalence in Arabia. This is expected to improve the prognosis of the disease and promote targeted molecular diagnostics to the Arab patients. PMID:27617109

  5. Krabbe Disease in the Arab World

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    The autosomal recessive inherited Krabbe disease (KD) is a devastating pediatric lysosomal storage disorder affecting white matter of the brain. It is caused by mutations in the gene coding for the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase. While most patients present with symptoms within the first 6 months of life, others present later in life throughout adulthood. The early infantile form of KD (EIKD) is frequent in the Muslim Arab population in Israel, with a very high prevalence of approximately 1/100 to 1/150 live births. The homozygous variant c.1582G > A (p.D528N) was found to be responsible for EIKD in Palestinian Arab patients. KD was reported in different Arab countries with much lower frequency. While most Arab patients presented with EIKD, late infantile and late onset KD forms were also reported. Most Arab patients presented with variable symptoms ranging from EIKD to late onset KD, with variable clinical findings. Based on literature studies, this review focuses on the clinical and molecular findings of KD patients with Arab ancestry, and highlights the need for developing universal genetic screening programs to overcome the under-reported status of KD prevalence in Arabia. This is expected to improve the prognosis of the disease and promote targeted molecular diagnostics to the Arab patients.

  6. Vowelling and semantic priming effects in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Mountaj, Nadia; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Himmi, Majid; Lakhdar Ghazal, Faouzi; Besson, Mireille; Boudelaa, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In the present experiment we used a semantic judgment task with Arabic words to determine whether semantic priming effects are found in the Arabic language. Moreover, we took advantage of the specificity of the Arabic orthographic system, which is characterized by a shallow (i.e., vowelled words) and a deep orthography (i.e., unvowelled words), to examine the relationship between orthographic and semantic processing. Results showed faster Reaction Times (RTs) for semantically related than unrelated words with no difference between vowelled and unvowelled words. By contrast, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealed larger N1 and N2 components to vowelled words than unvowelled words suggesting that visual-orthographic complexity taxes the early word processing stages. Moreover, semantically unrelated Arabic words elicited larger N400 components than related words thereby demonstrating N400 effects in Arabic. Finally, the Arabic N400 effect was not influenced by orthographic depth. The implications of these results for understanding the processing of orthographic, semantic, and morphological structures in Modern Standard Arabic are discussed. PMID:25528401

  7. Migration for employment among the Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Birks, S; Sinclair, C

    1979-10-01

    The large-scale recent migrations from Arab countries for jobs in the Persian Gulf and Libya are examined with analyses of the problems from the perspectives of both the importing and the exporting countries. In 1975 there were more than 2.5 million Arab workers living in Arab states other than their own, about 1/2 of whom were employed. Since that time the numbers have increased by about 9% annually; an estimated 1,570,000 Arab workers were living abroad in early 1979. It is estimated that another 975,000 non-Arab migrant workers were employed within the Arab world in January 1979, a total of over 2,500,000 migrants for employment in the Arab Near East. The sheer volume of this migration for employment and its relative importance within the labor markets of the Arab world, the impact that migration for employment has upon economic development, and the mutual independence among countries that labor exporting and importing brings about have made migrant labor movements a leading issue in the Near East. Focus is on the distribution of wealth in the Near East, population and workforce in the Arab states, economic development of the capital-rich and the capital-poor states, the international transfers of labor, and impacts on the labor-supply countries. The impacts of an emigrant workforce vary considerably with the conditions in the different exporting countries. Some of these effects are highlighted by citing examples from Egypt, Jordan, the Yemen and Sudan. PMID:12336017

  8. Phonological development of Kuwaiti Arabic: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Ayyad, Hadeel; Bernhardt, B May

    2009-11-01

    An overview of Kuwaiti Arabic is presented, with very preliminary data from two typically developing brothers (ages 2;4 and 5;2) and a 6-year-old with a severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The siblings show early mastery of many aspects of the complex Arabic phonological system, with universally expected later mastery of coronal fricatives and /r/. The 6-year-old shows patterns typical of children with hearing impairments, e.g. hypernasality, a prevalence of 'visible' segments, particularly labials, and simplified syllable structure. Her accurate use of /l/, /r/, and some gutturals, however, raise questions about the enhanced perceptibility and functionality of these segments in Arabic. PMID:19891521

  9. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  10. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-01

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases.

  11. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation. PMID:15301318

  12. Environmental Education in Some Arab States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Za'rour, George I.

    1981-01-01

    Briefly summarizes environmental education goals and topics as identified in elementary and secondary education curricula in four Arab states (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan) and describes environmental education nonformal efforts in Lebanon. (DC)

  13. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-01

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases. PMID:27393651

  14. Nigeria using more condoms.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" PMID:12321241

  15. Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

  16. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  17. Arab women and the labour market.

    PubMed

    Bint Talal, B

    1996-01-01

    This article provides a summary and excerpts from a speech given by Her Royal Highness Basma bint Talal, sister of His Majesty King Hussein of Jordan, before the International Institute for Labor Studies of the International Labour Organization on March 26, 1996. Princess Talal spoke about the conditions among Arab women, their contributions to work and political life, and suggestions for the increased participation of women. Reference is made to the UN Development Report for 1995 that indicates a very low (under 20%) level of participation among Arab women in the labor force and a modest literacy rate of 40%. The developing country averages are higher than the averages for Arab women. Arab family networks and practices have benefitted women. Even the poorest Arab countries have less hunger and starvation than other developing countries. Rape is almost "nonexistent" and drugs and prostitution are limited. There are few births outside of marriage and few single parent families. Community violence is generally low, except within less-advantaged groups. Labor statistics do not count women engaged in farming and other domestic production activities. Low labor force participation rates among Arab women are attributed to high illiteracy, high fertility, and social customs. Almost 50% of Arab women are under 15 years old, and there is difficulty in creating opportunities for new female labor entrants due to the high unemployment rates for men (12.6%) and women (29.4%). The future looks more hopeful as literacy rates among women rise and school enrollment rates for women rise. Arab women are legally entitled to equal opportunities for work with men of the same qualifications. Women need to be encouraged to take up productive work and income generation and to assume political leadership roles. The Jordanian National Forum for Women and the Jordanian National Committee for Women are active at the grassroots and national levels. PMID:12347373

  18. Parkinson's disease in Arabs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Hani T S; de Silva, Rajith; Siddiqui, Khurram A; Grosset, Donald G

    2008-07-15

    Studies of specific populations have provided invaluable knowledge about Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in the field of genetics. The present report systematically reviews the medical literature on PD in Arabs. Medline and Embase were searched, and 24 article were identified: genetic (n = 17), epidemiological (n = 3), and clinical series (n = 5). Both autosomal dominant and recessive forms of inherited PD are described, associated with four genes (Parkin, PINK1, LRRK2, and PARK9). The G2019S LRRK2 mutation is more common in both familial (37-42%) and apparently sporadic PD (41%) in North African Arabs than in Europeans and North Americans (2-3%). The incidence of PD is reported at 4.5 per 100,000 person-years and reported prevalence at 27 to 43 per 100,000 persons. Hospital-based clinical series suggest that parkinsonism is the commonest movement disorder. Clinical features of PD in Arabs are not significantly different from those reported elsewhere. PD was reported as the cause of dementia in around 7% of Arabs. The majority of studies relate to the role of genes in the etiology of PD in North African Arabs. Further genetic, epidemiological and clinical studies from the majority of Arabic countries may enhance our understanding of PD.

  19. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 2. NOTES AND GLOSSARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    "PART 2" OF THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES CONTAINS THE GRAMMATICAL NOTES AND INDIVIDUAL ARABIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES FOR THE ESSAYS INCLUDED IN "PART 1." PREFACING EACH GLOSSARY IS A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON THE AUTHOR OF THE ESSAY. ALL WORDS OF THE FIRST TEN SELECTIONS ARE GLOSSED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST 200 ITEMS IN…

  20. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--III. FORMAL ARABIC, PART 2. NOTES AND GLOSSARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS COMPANION BOOK TO "FORMAL ARABIC, PART 1" CONTAINS THE GRAMMATICAL NOTES AND AN INDIVIDUAL VOCABULARY LISTING FOR EACH OF THE 26 SELECTIONS INCLUDED IN "PART 1." ALL WORDS ARE GLOSSED EXCEPT FOR THE FIRST 500 WORDS OF LANDAU'S "A WORD COUNT OF MODERN ARABIC PROSE," AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES, NEW YORK, 1959, AND PRONOUNS, NUMERALS,…

  1. Terms of Address in Libyan Arabic Compared to Other Arabic Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugharsa, ?Azza B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the terms of address used mainly in Libyan Arabic, and how they are similar and/or different from the terms used in other Arabic societies. In addition, the current paper describes how the use of such terms is determined by various social factors and perceptions, and how it is emphasized that these titles…

  2. Etudes de linguistique semitique et arabe (Studies of Semitic and Arabic Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    Various aspects of Arabic and Semitic linguistics are discussed in this text. The nine chapters include: (1) fundamental Semitic vocabulary and the classification of southern dialects; (2) observations on nominal derivation by affixation in several Semitic languages; (3) an automatic analysis of literary Arabic; (4) "Addad" and linguistic…

  3. The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA): Its Development, Validation, and Results in Three Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) was constructed and validated in a sample of undergraduates (17-33 yrs) in 3 Arab countries, Egypt (n = 418), Kuwait (n = 509), and Syria (n = 709). In its final form, the ASDA consists of 20 statements. Each item is answered on a 5-point intensity scale anchored by 1: No, and 5: Very much. Alpha…

  4. Teacher Education Programme in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunsola, A. F.

    1975-01-01

    A historical review of teacher education development in Nigeria from 1890 to the present covers periods of experimentation, reorganization, and consolidation and independence. The lack of progress as well as the national potential for solving the problems are noted. (LBH)

  5. Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics

    PubMed Central

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Sastry, Konduru S.; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic disorders are not equally distributed over the geography of the Arab region. While a number of disorders have a wide geographical presence encompassing 10 or more Arab countries, almost half of these disorders occur in a single Arab country or population. Nearly, one-third of the genetic disorders in Arabs result from congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are also responsible for a significant proportion of neonatal and perinatal deaths in Arab populations. Strikingly, about two-thirds of these diseases in Arab patients follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. High fertility rates together with increased consanguineous marriages, generally noticed in Arab populations, tend to increase the rates of genetic and congenital abnormalities. Many of the nearly 500 genes studied in Arab people revealed striking spectra of heterogeneity with many novel and rare mutations causing large arrays of clinical outcomes. In this review we provided an overview of Arab gene geography, and various genetic abnormalities in Arab populations, including disorders of blood, metabolic, circulatory and neoplasm, and also discussed their associated molecules or genes responsible for the cause of these disorders. Although studying Arab-specific genetic disorders resulted in a high value knowledge base, approximately 35% of genetic diseases in Arabs do not have a defined molecular etiology. This is a clear indication that comprehensive research is required in this area to understand the molecular pathologies causing diseases in Arab populations. PMID:25780794

  6. Space Solutions To Sustainable Development In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    The fact that data from NigeriaSat-1 is timely accessible and entirely owned by Nigeria has stimulated research and development, directed towards socio-economic development activities, by many relevant institutions of government and private sectors in Nigeria. To date, over 1000 requests for images have been granted and a number of research projects have being carried out using images from NigeriaSat-1. These and other related issues are documented in this paper.

  7. Arabic Language Planning in the Age of Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkhafaifi, Hussein M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Arabic language planning efforts, which so far have not been very successful, and suggests Arabic language planning agencies must closely examine the work of other planning organizations that have succeeded in achieving many of their goals. (Author/VWL)

  8. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O; Nair, Pratibha; Obeid, Tasneem; Al Ali, Mahmoud T; Al Khaja, Najib; Hamamy, Hanan A

    2009-01-01

    Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  9. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O; Nair, Pratibha; Obeid, Tasneem; Al Ali, Mahmoud T; Al Khaja, Najib; Hamamy, Hanan A

    2009-01-01

    Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity. PMID:19811666

  10. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries.

  11. Faculty research productivity in six Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-10-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Jordan. The study revealed a lack of capacity of HEIs to provide quality data, raising issues concerning institutional excellence and transparency. Those data which were available were analysed using a number of statistical methods. The result is that faculty research output in the Arab world is relatively low, confirming the existing notion of a lagging knowledge sector in the region. While traditional scholarship has focused on institutional factors such as budgetary allocation as one prime determinant of research productivity, this study claims that other factors need to be considered in explaining the low output, with broad implications for policy formulation. Such factors include overall satisfaction levels of academic staff, socialisation of faculty staff members into a research climate, and university mission vis-à-vis academic research. Given the distinct paucity of studies on faculty research productivity in HEIs in the Arab region, this study seeks to bridge this gap in the literature by providing original data derived from six Arab countries. The authors aim to provide a basis for further research into this topic.

  12. The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Yasir

    This study of Arabic culture, language, history, and nationalism provides an inside view of key issues in understanding the Arab world. It combines detailed readings of Arabic nationalist literature, the scholarly literature on nationalism, and sociolinguistics work on language and national identity. Seven chapters focus on the following issues:…

  13. The Internationalization of the Business Administration Curricula in Arab Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of the extent of the internationalization of the business administration curricula in Arab universities. It is based on a survey of 110 Arab colleges of business that comprise more than half of the overall population, 35% of whom responded. The study found that Arab colleges of business appear to be only moderately…

  14. Correlates of Reading Fluency in Arabic: Diglossic and Orthographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2005-01-01

    Arabic native speaking children are born into a unique linguistic context called diglossia (Ferguson, "word", 14, 47?56, [1959]). In this context, children grow up speaking a Spoken Arabic Vernacular (SAV), which is an exclusively spoken language, but later learn to read another linguistically related form, Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Forty-two…

  15. Cultures in Conflict: Arab Students in American Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Anne

    Cultural differences between Arabs and Americans may cause misunderstandings when Arab students come to study in American universities. As part of the author's plan to write a guidebook for Arab students who are new to American university life, this paper presents preliminary analysis of differences in the two cultures. The author hopes her…

  16. Lessons in Contemporary Arabic. Lessons 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.; Ani, Moukhtar

    This course of lessons in Arabic is intended for use in semi-intensive or intensive courses (6 to 8 hours a week) at the college level for Americans who want to learn the kind of Arabic used today throughout the Arab world for writing and formal speaking. This volume consists of eight lessons, about half of the full textbook as planned. The course…

  17. Building Arab Americans' Cultural Identity and Acceptance with Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Bucher, Katherine T.

    2008-01-01

    Literature can help children develop their own cultural identity, as it helps them understand and appreciate the culture of others. Research shows that in elementary schools some Arab American students are not exposed to stories that represent their culture. In addition, many teachers are not familiar with literature about Arabs or Arab Americans.…

  18. The Problems of Translating Oriental Texts into Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Ma'Abrah, Mohamdd Akash

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the problems and difficulties that face the students of Arabic Language at Mu'tah University when translating oriental texts from English into Arabic in the academic year 2011-2012. The difficulties facing Arabic students when translating oriental texts has never been studied, rising an urgent need…

  19. Along Freedom's Double Edge: The Arab Press Under Israeli Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Munir K.

    This paper examines the Arab press under Israeli occupation and presents two hypotheses: freedom of the press under occupation serves both Israeli interests and the Arab population, and freedom of the Arab press under occupation is "relative" and "controlled." By allowing freedom of expression, the Israelis achieve several aims: a free press will…

  20. Cross-Language Phonetic Interference: Arabic to English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flege, James Emil; Port, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Compares phonetic implementation of the stop-voicing contrast produced in Arabic by Saudi Arabians and by both Americans and Saudis in English. Saudis used temporal aspects of voicing in Arabic while speaking English. This caused few communication problems, with the exception of the phoneme (p), which has no Arabic counterpart. (Author/PJM)

  1. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  2. The Education of Women in the Arab States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustaffa-Kedah, Omar

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of education and educational opportunities for women in Arab States includes formal education and literacy (examining formal education, primary school enrollment, and women's illiteracy) and non-formal education (examining a Saudi Arabian literacy program, joint action by Arab States, and the Arab Literacy and Adult Education…

  3. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia, family Leguminosae. (b) The ingredient meets...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  8. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  9. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…

  10. Development and Evaluation of the Arabic Filial Piety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the validity and reliability of a new Arabic Filial Piety scale (AFPS) for use with informal Arab caregivers. Background: Filial piety, a term used to describe a set of family values in relation to parental care. This is the first measure of this construct for use with Arab populations in Israel. Method: A random sample of…

  11. The Problem of Translating English Linguistic Terminology into Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2003-01-01

    Arabic Linguistics has been a full-fledged descriptive science for a long time. However modern Linguistics, as a distinct empirical science, entailed that Arab linguists review their methods of dealing with the linguistic phenomenon. One of the major challenges for this new approach was to create equivalent genuine Arabic terms in modern…

  12. The Linguistic Affiliation Constraint and Phoneme Recognition in Diglossic Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Levin, Iris; Hende, Nareman; Ziv, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effect of the phoneme's linguistic affiliation (Standard Arabic versus Spoken Arabic) on phoneme recognition among five-year-old Arabic native speaking kindergarteners (N=60). Using a picture selection task of words beginning with the same phoneme, and through careful manipulation of the phonological properties of target…

  13. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

  14. Writing arabic numerals in an agraphic patient.

    PubMed

    Delazer, M; Denes, G

    1998-09-01

    We report on the writing of Arabic numerals in a patient whose alphabetical script was restricted to graphemic jargon (Schonauer & Denes, 1994). The analysis of writing errors in Arabic script over three testing sessions (4, 10, and 13 months after stroke) confirmed the separate processing of syntactic and lexical information in number production proposed by current models. The changing error pattern over time reflected some difficulties observed in developmental studies on the acquisition of Arabic numeral writing. Errors were mostly of the syntactic type and (at a certain stage) were based on the verbal form of the numerals. As reported in neuropsychological (Noel & Seron, 1995) and developmental (Power & Dal Martello, 1990; Seron & Fayol, 1994) studies, sum relations were more difficult to transcode than product relations within complex numerals. PMID:9710492

  15. Arabs turn their eyes to the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, J.

    1980-02-01

    The present status of solar energy development in the Arab world is discussed. The Arab world receives solar energy equivalent to an average of 275 W/sq m. A total of 30 million MW is potentially available, which could be converted to usable electricity at an efficiency of at least 10% to produce over 3 million MW or the equivalent of the output of 3000 large power stations generating 1 GW each. Attention is given to the solar projects undertaken by Saudi Arabia as the most deeply involved and perhaps the most important country. The joint SOLERAS program with the U.S.A. is briefly outlined. Of the other Arab states, Kuwait, Jordan, Egypt and Algeria are also backing solar research. Work done in these countries is examined. At present the various research projects are uncoordinated and there is much duplication between states.

  16. Attitudes towards Bilingual Arab-Hebrew Education in Israel: A Comparative Study of Jewish and Arab Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad

    2011-01-01

    This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…

  17. Obesity in Arabic-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the globe, and this has also impacted people of the Arabic-speaking countries, especially those in higher-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. There is a significant increase in the incidence of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% in adult females and 1%–30% in adult males. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and multiple pregnancies may be important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity engulfing the Arabic-speaking countries. PMID:22175002

  18. La situation des traducteurs dans les pays arabes (The Role of Translators in the Arab Countries).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanafi, Benaissa

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the services provided by translators under colonialism, as compared with their new role in independent Algeria. Stresses the socioeconomic and political importance of translation as a tool for the diffusion of technological and scientific information in Arabic. (MES)

  19. Obesity-linked diabetes in the Arab world: a review.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, B; Laher, I

    2015-09-08

    The Arab world is experiencing an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the major pathological factors linking obesity to diabetes, focussing on current epidemiological data related to obese diabetic patients in the Arab world, the etiology of the disease and the genetic determinants of diabetes and obesity. There are alarming data related to the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children of Arab ethnicity. Replication studies identify several genetic variants in Arabs with obesitylinked diabetes. For example, variants of the ADIPOQ gene (the rs266729 single-nucleotide polymorphism) are associated with obesity and diabetes in various Arab countries. Gaps exist in our information about diabetes and obesity in Arab populations in relation to ethnic-specific cut-off points for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Further genome-wide association studies in obese and diabetic Arab populations could add to our understanding of the pathophysiology, prevention and reversal of this disease.

  20. Is literary Arabic a second language for native Arab speakers?: Evidence from semantic priming study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The mother tongue of the absolute majority of native Arabic speakers is Spoken Arabic (SA), which is a local dialect that does not have a written form. For reading and writing, as well as for formal communication Literary Arabic (LA) is used For the literate Arabs, these two languages are extensively inter-twined in every day life. Consequently, it is possible that, despite the difference between them, LA is not processed like a regular second language by the cognitive system of the native Arabic speakers but rather as an enhancement of the spoken lexicon. In the present study we examined this possibility comparing semantic priming effects in auditory lexical decision within SA (L1), with the effects found across languages with LA or in Hebrew (L2). Hebrew is doubtlessly a second language for native Arabic speakers. In this study we have manipulated semantic priming In Experiment 1 the targets were in Spoken Arabic and the primes in any of the three languages. The semantic priming effect was twice as large within L1 as between languages and there was no difference between Hebrew and LA. In Experiment 2, all primes were in SA whereas the targets were in any of the three languages. The priming effects in that experiment were doubled relative to the previous experiment, but the inter-language relationships were the same. For both language pairings, the semantic priming was larger when the primes were presented in SA (and the targets in either Hebrew or LA) than when the primes were presented in one of the second languages and the targets in SA. The conclusion is that, despite the intensive daily use adult native Arabic speakers make of SA and LA, and despite their shared origin, the two languages retain their status as first and second languages in the cognitive system.

  1. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people. PMID:22610082

  2. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  3. The physiologic climate of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  4. Teaching Political Science in the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habiby, Raymond

    There are many impediments to the development of political science as a true academic discipline in the Arab world. Each nation has its own ideological and political framework, and freedoms are determined within this framework. To operate outside this framework is considered an attack on the legality of the system and a possible threat to national…

  5. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  6. Arabic Poetry: Guzzle a Ghazal! [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Bedouins of ancient Arabia and Persia made poetry a conversational art form, and several poetic forms developed from the participatory nature of tribal poetry. Today in most Arab cultures, people may still experience public storytelling and spontaneous poetry challenges in the streets. The art of turning a rhyme into sly verbal sparring is…

  7. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  8. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaber, Abeer; Al-Nasser, Lubna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the oral cancer (OC) studies that were conducted in Arab countries with regard to epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis. Methods: A computer-based PubMed literature search was performed to retrieve studies conducted in the Arab world on epidemiology of OC. After screening for exclusion criteria, cross-referencing, and searching local journals, a total of 19 articles were included. Results: Eight prevalence studies found an OC prevalence ranging from 1.8 to 2.13 per 100,000 persons. Oral cancer patients were mostly in their fifth to sixth decade of life, and the incidence in younger age was reported in some Arab countries. Yemenis have an alarming high prevalence of OC among people younger than 45 years. Eleven studies explored determinants or prognosis of OC. Behavioral determinants such as smokeless tobacco (Shamma and Qat), and cigarette smoking were strongly associated with OC. Alcohol drinking and solar radiation exposures were cited as possible risk factors. The most affected sites were tongue, floor of the mouth, and lower lip variations in the affected site were attributed to the socio-cultural behavior of the populations under study. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequently detected cancer, and usually patients were in late stages (III and IV) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: No solid evidence exists regarding the true OC prevalence/incidence in most Arab countries due to the lack of national cancer registries and population-based studies. PMID:26905345

  9. Introducing Literary Arabic, Volume II: Grammatical Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sami A.; Greis, Naguib

    This volume, designed as a companion to "Introducing Literary Arabic" provides basic grammatical explanations essential in first-year courses. Each of the 15 units, with the exception of the first, contains related grammatical notes, paradigms, and illustrations. The grammatical rules are intended to make explicit general underlying structures.…

  10. Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…

  11. Basic Chad Arabic: The Active Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This third volume in the course on Chad Arabic emphasizes the active development of speaking skills in the target language. The active participation of the student requires imitation and induction of linguistic structures to a large extent. Some 45 units present grammatical material on gender, parts of speech, and verbs. Each unit contains a…

  12. Intensive Versus Non-Intensive Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sami A.

    This paper investigates the difference in achievement among 20 University of Utah students of modern standard Arabic. One group of 11 students followed an intensive eight-week summer course, and a second group of nine students studied the same course during a regular academic year. Also reported on is the correlation between achievement and…

  13. Arabic Spelling: Errors, Perceptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosh, Hezi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated common spelling errors among first language English speakers who study Arabic at the college level. A sample of 63 students (45 males and 18 females) was asked to write texts about a variety of topics and then to answer survey questions regarding their perceptions and strategies. Their writing produced 457 spelling errors,…

  14. Commitment and Evidence in Arabic Complementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Maher

    The study examines one component of the system of complementation in Palestinian Arabic. It is argued that the complementizer in question has an inherent semantics capable of influencing the meaning of sentences in which it is embedded. Specifically, its presence in a complex sentence communicates modal meanings distinct from those communicated by…

  15. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  16. The Linguistics of Loanwords in Hadrami Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saqqaf, Abdullah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore loanwords in Hadrami Arabic (Yemen). Most of these words, which are now diminishing due to the social and economical development in the region, reflect some stage of bilingualism when the Hadramis (natives of Hadramawt, Yemen) migrated to different parts of the world. The donor languages range from the tongues…

  17. Dearborn Forms Elementary Arabic Language Program Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabrizi, Shereen

    2009-01-01

    The Dearborn Public Schools, with 18,300 students, is located in the Detroit urban area with the largest concentration of Arabic-speaking people in the United States. In order to prepare the students for the 21st century skills and global awareness and in response to parents' requests, the author in collaboration with the school principal and…

  18. The Changing Role of Arab Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayani, Ibrahim

    1980-01-01

    In most Arab countries, the emancipation of women has been retarded due to social conditions that are alien to Islamic precepts. Improvements in women's status are being made under the impact of modernization, mass education, and national struggles for liberation. (SK)

  19. A Beginner's Course in Tunisian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amor, Taoufik Ben

    This guide is designed for the Arabic language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Tunisia and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 15 lessons, each made up of: a teacher's guide sheet, which outlines specific objectives, contents, and materials needed; a dialogue introducing the lesson's theme; a…

  20. Arab oil and gas directory 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The directory provides detailed statistics and information on aspects of oil and gas production, exploration and developments in the 24 Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa and in Iran. It includes the texts of relevant new laws and official documents, official surveys, current projects and developments, up-to-date statistics covering OPEC and OAPEC member countries, and has 26 maps.

  1. Faculty Research Productivity in Six Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouchedid, Kamal; Abdelnour, George

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the research output of a sample of higher education institutions (HEIs) in six Arab countries in order to start quantifying academic research productivity in the wider region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). A questionnaire classifying HEIs was administered to 310 institutions in Lebanon, Qatar, the United Arab…

  2. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  3. Conceptual Change among Arab Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rass, Ruwaida Abu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a qualitative research study designed to examine the effectiveness of an attempt to make a conceptual change among pre-service teachers to their role as trainees and the role of their pedagogical advisor. The participants are six Arab-Muslim female student teachers who are highly influenced by their first learning…

  4. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  5. Image Making of Arab Americans: Implications for Teachers in Diverse Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud F.

    Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media…

  6. "Arab Labor"'s Alternative Vision: The "Liberal Bargain" in the Welfare State of Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli citizens are either depicted…

  7. Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    1995-10-30

    The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`s oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.

  8. Multilinguisme et education au Nigeria (Multilingualism and Education in Nigeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann, Conrad Max Benedict

    The linguistic situation in Nigeria might be represented as a pyramid with a base composed of 400-500 native languages of which about 100 have been alphabetized. Of these, 51 with more than 100,000 speakers each, are considered regional languages; ten, with more than 1 million speakers each, are considered inter-regional languages; and three…

  9. Vitamin d deficiency in Saudi Arabs.

    PubMed

    Elsammak, M Y; Al-Wosaibi, A A; Al-Howeish, A; Alsaeed, J

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone metabolism and many cellular and immunological processes. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with various chronic diseases especially rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Adequate vitamin D intake is of paramount importance to protect against bone metabolic diseases and prevent the occurrence of complications (e. g., fracture and bone pains). This study aimed at the evaluation of vitamin D levels in a cohort of healthy Saudi Arabs. The comprised 139 healthy subjects coming for regular blood donation. Participants had full clinical examination and evaluation of their calcium and vitamin D intake and the degree of exposure to sunlight. Serum 25-OH vitamin D was determined using Liasion chemiluminescent immunoassay and serum parathormone levels were determined using the Architect 2,000 immunochemiluminescent assay. Our results showed increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between Saudi Arabs (both males and females) in the studied group of subjects. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not correlate with serum vitamin D level in either male or female groups (p<0.01). Our data illustrate a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between Saudi Arabs and the importance for screening for vitamin D deficiency (irrespective of PTH level). We hypothesize that the reported vitamin D deficiency in the studied group of Saudi Arabs may reflect a possible inadequacy of the current level of vitamin D fortification of food products. We suggest that higher level of fortification of food products with vitamin D may be needed to compensate for the reduced skin vitamin D synthesis due to poor exposure to sunlight and to reverse this state of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabs.

  10. Aeromonas in Arab countries: 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Tawil, Khaled; Al Tomi, Abdurazzaq; Franka, Ezzadin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical syndromes, and antimicrobial resistance and therapy of Aeromonas spp. infections in Arab countries. The data were obtained by an English language literature search from 1995 to 2014 of Medline and PubMed for papers using the search terms "Aeromonas+name of Arab country (i.e. Algeria, Egypt, etc.)". Additional data were obtained from a Google search using the aforementioned terms. The organisms have been reported from diarrheal children, patients with cholera-like diarrhea, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and from different types of animals, foods and water source in several Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa with predominance of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria. Using molecular techniques few studies reported genes encoding several toxins from aeromonads isolated from different sources. Among the antimicrobials examined in the present review third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides showed excellent activity and can be employed in the treatment of Aeromonas-associated human infections in Arabic countries. Whenever possible, treatment should be guided by the susceptibility testing results of the isolated organism. In the future, studies employing molecular testing methods are required to provide data on circulating genospecies and their modes of transmission in the community, and on their mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials. Microbiology laboratories and research centers are encouraged to look for these organisms in clinical, food and water sources to attain a better understanding of the public health risks from these organisms in Arab countries. PMID:26577192

  11. Prenatal testing for genetic disorders among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Zlotogora, J; Reshef, N

    1998-03-01

    Since, at least in the near future, prenatal testing and abortion of affected fetuses will remain the main way of the prevention of genetic diseases, knowledge about the way of its acceptance in different cultures is important. The Israeli population includes two major groups: Jewish and Arabs, but while there is wide experience about the Jewish population and its attitude towards prenatal testing, little is known about the Arab population. This knowledge is particularly important, since genetic disorders are relatively frequent in the Arab world (Teebi and Farag, 1997). From 1992 to 1996, 816 prenatal tests were performed in our department on Arab women [143 chorionic villus sampling (CVS) procedures and 673 amniocenteses]. The indication for an early prenatal test was a high risk for a monogenic disorder in 140 out of the 146 tests performed (143 CVS procedures and three early amniocenteses). In 26 cases, the fetus was found to be affected and early abortion was chosen by the couple in 25 cases (96 per cent). The 670 late prenatal tests were done for various reasons including monogenic disorders (13 per cent), increased risk because of a previous child affected with Down syndrome or a neural tube defect (4.8 per cent), and an increased risk for a chromosomal aberration (78 per cent). In 31 cases of a late prenatal test, the fetus was found to be affected and only 21 couples (70 per cent) opted for an abortion. The major reason for this observation is probably related to religious and cultural factors. Since Arab women do not wish to have prenatal testing for only knowledge or reassurance, these factors should be taken into consideration during pre-amniocentesis counselling. PMID:9556038

  12. A segmentation-free approach to Arabic and Urdu OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbour, Nazly; Shafait, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generic Optical Character Recognition system for Arabic script languages called Nabocr. Nabocr uses OCR approaches specific for Arabic script recognition. Performing recognition on Arabic script text is relatively more difficult than Latin text due to the nature of Arabic script, which is cursive and context sensitive. Moreover, Arabic script has different writing styles that vary in complexity. Nabocr is initially trained to recognize both Urdu Nastaleeq and Arabic Naskh fonts. However, it can be trained by users to be used for other Arabic script languages. We have evaluated our system's performance for both Urdu and Arabic. In order to evaluate Urdu recognition, we have generated a dataset of Urdu text called UPTI (Urdu Printed Text Image Database), which measures different aspects of a recognition system. The performance of our system for Urdu clean text is 91%. For Arabic clean text, the performance is 86%. Moreover, we have compared the performance of our system against Tesseract's newly released Arabic recognition, and the performance of both systems on clean images is almost the same.

  13. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  14. Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Eleri, E.O.

    1993-12-31

    Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by its role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.

  15. [Cultural heritage and audiovisual creation in the Arab world].

    PubMed

    Aziza, M

    1979-01-01

    Audiovisual creation is facing in Arab countries problems arising from the use of imported techniques in order to reconstitute or transform their own reality. Arab audiovisual producers see this technique as an easy and efficient way to reproduce reality or construct conventionally an artificial universe. Sometimes, audiovisuals have an absolute suggestion power; sometimes, these techniques are faced with total incredulity. From a diffusion point of view, audiovisuals in the Arab world have a very specific status. The effects of television, studied by western researchers in their cultural environment, are not reproduced in the same fashion in the Arab cultural world. In the Arab world, the word very often still competes successfully with the picture, even after the appearance and adoption of mass media. Finally, one must mention a very interesting situation resulting from a linguistic phenomenon which is specific to the Arab world: the existence of 2 communication languages, one noble but little used, the other dialectical but popular. In all Arab countries, the News, the most political program, is broadcasted in the classical language, despite the danger of meaning distortion in the least educated public. The reason is probably that the classical Arab language enjoys a sacred status. Arab audiovisuals are facing several obstacles to their total and autonomous realization. The contribution of the Arab audiovisual producers is relatively modest, compared to some other areas of cultural creation. Arab film-making is looking more and more for the cooperation of contemporary writers. Contemporary literature is a considerable source for the renewal of Arab audiovisual expression. A relationship between film and popular cultural heritage could be very usefully established in both directions. Audiovisuals should treat popular cultural manifestations as a global social fact on several significant levels. PMID:12261391

  16. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  17. Women migrants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1994-06-01

    The prevailing notion in Nigeria is that female migration is associational migration. This survey of the towns of Ibadan, Enugu, Lagos, and Kaduna examines the need for female paid employment and the reasons for migration based on marital status among 2316 migrant women with comparisons to 1363 nonmigrant women. A primary motivation for migration is dissatisfaction with living conditions. Families are support groups providing transportation and initial reinforcement for moves to urban areas. Remittances to families in the place of origin reinforce the investment. The expectation is that women will use migration as an option for advanced education, paid employment, and increased income. The survey found that only 8.2% of migrants made the decision to migrate alone. 82.7% make migration decisions jointly with family members: husbands, parents, and other relatives. Single women were more likely to make sole decisions or decisions with parents. 94% indicated family support for the decision to migrate. About 18% of single women paid the cost of transportation and the move themselves. 70% made the move in the company of parents and other relatives. Married women's costs were underwritten by husbands, except for 9.5% who paid for it themselves. 82.6% did not have a prearranged job before migrating. The average stay ranged from three months to several years. About 33% stayed less than a year. Most migrants with wage employment in the formal sector secured their positions with the help of relatives. 55.4% of migrants in the survey stayed with relatives on arrival, 8.6% were in rented units, and 2.5% stayed in employer housing. Slightly more than 50% of migrants staying with relatives and received free board. Female migration between 1971 and 1981 was influenced by modernization and greater advancement in education. Transportation and communication improvements made it easier to migrate. The economic recession and structural adjustment measures during the 1980s stimulated

  18. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  19. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5th leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10th as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  20. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome among Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Owain, M; Imtiaz, F; Shuaib, T; Edrees, A; Al-Amoudi, M; Sakati, N; Al-Hassnan, Z; Bamashmous, H; Rahbeeni, Z; Al-Ameer, S; Faqeih, E; Meyer, B; Al-Hashem, A; Garout, W; Al-Odaib, A; Rashed, M; Al-Aama, J Y

    2012-08-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of variable presentation caused by the deficiency of the 3β- hydroxycholesterol Δ(7) - reductase. Over the past 10 years, our biochemical laboratory has screened 191 plasma samples for possible SLOS, measuring the plasma cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The SLOS was confirmed in only five Arab patients with growth retardation, global developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and 2-3 toe syndactyly, among other findings. All cases represented moderate to severe form of SLOS. One patient had a unique cardiovascular malformation (cor triatriatum with significant obstruction of the right pulmonary veins). Two previously reported N287K (861 C>A) and R352Q (1055 G>A) and a novel R352L (1055 G>T) mutations were identified in the DHCR7 gene in these patients. The paper sheds light on this rare disease among Arabs and reviews all reported SLOS cases in the Arab population.

  1. Metropolitan population growth in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1977-01-01

    A study or urban population growth in Arab countries has 3 objectives: 1) examination at the micro level of recent demographic trends in selected metropolitan areas of the Arab world and their relationship to changes in the total and urban populations in the respective countries; 2) estimation of net migration by sex and broad age groups for each metropolitan area; and 3) analysis of the pattern of variation in the metropolitan growth rates and their components, migration and natural increase. The study covers the cities proper or urban agglomerations, which includes the suburbs, whose population exceeded 100,000 in the most recent census. Altogether, the study covers 49 metropolitan areas from 9 Arab countries--Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Sudan; Syria; Iraq; and Kuwait. Analysis revealed that metropolitan growth rates do follow geographic patterns. In countries with an oil-based economy, metropolitan growth rates are high; in countries with unexploited resources they are slightly below the 1st group; and countries which have pressure on land have low metropolitan growth rates. Population size of the metropolitan area appears to be an important factor associated with variations in metropolitan growth rates and net migration rates. Natural increase emerges as the predominant factor in metropolitan growth, but the differentials in the growth rates are more clearly associated with variations in net migration rates. As all the possibilities of analysis of relationships of metropolitan growth have not been exhausted, it is proposed to examine additional variables as possible factors associated with the speed of metropolitan growth.

  2. Arabic writer identification based on diacritic's features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Natural languages like Arabic, Kurdish, Farsi (Persian), Urdu, and any other similar languages have many features, which make them different from other languages like Latin's script. One of these important features is diacritics. These diacritics are classified as: compulsory like dots which are used to identify/differentiate letters, and optional like short vowels which are used to emphasis consonants. Most indigenous and well trained writers often do not use all or some of these second class of diacritics, and expert readers can infer their presence within the context of the writer text. In this paper, we investigate the use of diacritics shapes and other characteristic as parameters of feature vectors for Arabic writer identification/verification. Segmentation techniques are used to extract the diacritics-based feature vectors from examples of Arabic handwritten text. The results of evaluation test will be presented, which has been carried out on an in-house database of 50 writers. Also the viability of using diacritics for writer recognition will be demonstrated.

  3. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  4. Spotting words in handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish; Babu, Pavithra; Bhole, Chetan

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a system for spotting handwritten Arabic words in scanned document images is presented. Three main components of the system are a word segmenter, a shape based matcher for words and a search interface. The user types in a query in English within a search window, the system finds the equivalent Arabic word, e.g., by dictionary look-up, locates word images in an indexed (segmented) set of documents. A two-step approach is employed in performing the search: (1) prototype selection: the query is used to obtain a set of handwritten samples of that word from a known set of writers (these are the prototypes), and (2) word matching: the prototypes are used to spot each occurrence of those words in the indexed document database. A ranking is performed on the entire set of test word images-- where the ranking criterion is a similarity score between each prototype word and the candidate words based on global word shape features. A database of 20,000 word images contained in 100 scanned handwritten Arabic documents written by 10 different writers was used to study retrieval performance. Using five writers for providing prototypes and the other five for testing, using manually segmented documents, 55% precision is obtained at 50% recall. Performance increases as more writers are used for training.

  5. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  6. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease.

  7. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  8. “We are Arabs:” The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women’s Lived Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and “We are Arabs.” To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society’s perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society’s honor. “We are Arabs” describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being. PMID:26865811

  9. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  10. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed. PMID:25457094

  11. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  12. Journalism Education and Newspaper Work in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyedike, Emmanuel U.

    To help improve formal journalism education in Nigeria, a study asked 165 editors at Nigeria's 32 major papers to compare journalists with and without degrees on issues relating to knowledge, competency, and personal attributes needed to work on the newspaper. It was hypothesized that editors with college degrees would rate journalists holding…

  13. Rights of the Child in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…

  14. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  15. The schistosomiasis problem in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ejezie, G C; Gemade, E I; Utsalo, S J

    1989-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria as revealed by several prevalence studies but the degree of endemicity is low. The proliferation of several irrigation projects all over the country has stabilized the infection in Northern Nigeria while in the West rapid urbanisation, supply of portable water and mass chemotherapy have combined to reduce the prevalence rates. Human infection is measured by the determination of incidence, prevalence and intensity of infection. Heavy infections can rapidly be detected by use of urinalysis reagent strips to measure haematuria and protein levels in urine. The prevalence of severe pathological forms of the disease is very low and schistosomiasis is not associated with bacteriuria or hypertension in Nigeria, although isolated cases of ectopic lesions of the genitalis and uterus have been reported. Nodular filling defects occur early during infection, while bladder calcification comes at a later stage. The severity of the disease is related to the intensity of infection. Clinical trials with metrifonate and niridazole among other drugs have been carried out, with varying results. A new drug, praziquantel has been assessed and found suitable for mass use. Three methods of control include adequate provision of safe water, selective or targeted mass chemotherapy and use of molluscicides to kill the snails. Each method has its advantages and drawbacks, but the therapeutic approach is cheap, effects quicker result and treats the infected patients. PMID:2504814

  16. Arab Contributions to World Knowledge: A Contemporary Curriculum Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Lucking, Robert

    2015-01-01

    American K-12 school curricula are often bereft of acknowledgements of the historical contributions of Arab societies to our present-day intellectual heritage, an oversight most apparent in the sciences. Teachers in a thriving democracy are obliged to introduce contemporary scholarship that reflects the contributions of Arab scientists between the…

  17. Word Count of Elementary Modern Literary Arabic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarus, Ernest N.; Rammuny, Raji M.

    A computerized word count is presented of 11 elementary Modern Literary Arabic textbooks used in the United States. The word count was started in 1967 to provide a practical vocabulary base for a fully-programmed self-instructional course on the phonology and script of Modern Literary Arabic. The first part of the count is a cumulative list…

  18. "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature: Arabic and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamir, Sara; Baratz, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a…

  19. Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zughoul, Basem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…

  20. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  1. Bringing the Arab World to U.S. Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    When Loren Siebert struggled to learn vocabulary for his introductory Arabic class three years ago, he figured he would buy tapes or a software package. Those kinds of aids had helped him learn French in high school and, more recently, conversational Indonesian. What he was disappointed to discover was a scarcity in offerings for Arabic, despite…

  2. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study…

  3. Cross-dialectical Variation in Arabic: Competing Prestigious Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-el-Jawad, H. R.

    1987-01-01

    Sociolinguistic studies of spoken Arabic show at least three varieties at different levels of prestige: (1) Modern Standard Arabic (MSA); (2) regional standard with local prestige; and (3) vernacular varieties. The social function of the local prestigious nonstandard features can override the influence of the prestige of MSA. (Author/LMO)

  4. Introduction to Modern Standard Arabic Pronunciation and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud, Peter F.; And Others

    This volume consists of ten lessons covering the fundamentals of the phonological and the writing systems of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Objectives include the ability to: (1) read fully vocalized Arabic script; (2) write in an intelligible manner; and (3) distinguish and produce the sounds of MSA. The phonological system used is that of the…

  5. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  6. Validation and cultural modification of Arabic voice handicap index.

    PubMed

    Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Farahat, Mohamed; Bukhari, Manal; Murry, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    The voice handicap index (VHI) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring a patient's self-assessment of voice severity. In some ways, it reflects the patient's quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied to populations in European countries and to English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in the Arabic speaking countries due to the specific language constraints of Euro-American terminology. The purposes of this study were to generate an Arabic version of VHI, to assess its reliability, and to apply it to a wide variety of normal and dysphonic individuals of Arabic descent. The Arabic version of VHI was derived in the standard way for test translation. The translated version was then administered to 65 patients with voice disorders and 65 control subjects. Participants' responses were statistically analyzed to assess the validity, and to compare the pathological group with the control group. The Arabic VHI showed a significant high internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.97 and r = 0.89, respectively), high item-domain and domain-total correlation (r = 0.73-0.94). There was a statistically significant difference between the control and the voice-disordered groups (P < 0.001). The results of this study demonstrated strong internal consistency of the Arabic VHI. Thus, the Arabic version of VHI is considered to be a valid and reliable self-assessment tool for the severity of voice disorders in Arabic language speaking patients.

  7. Arabic Supervised Learning Method Using N-Gram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanan, Majed; Rammal, Mahmoud; Zreik, Khaldoun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, classification of Arabic documents is a real problem for juridical centers. In this case, some of the Lebanese official journal documents are classified, and the center has to classify new documents based on these documents. This paper aims to study and explain the useful application of supervised learning method on Arabic texts…

  8. Speed of Lexical Access to Arabic and English Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasali, Hesham H.; Aljomaa, Suliman S.

    2015-01-01

    To examining the role of cultural differences in speed of lexical access, we employed two types of Posner (1967) name matching task: Arabic and English types. We have conducted an experiment on 30 native Arabic speakers from King Saud University. The results showed that the lexical access to physically identical letters is faster than lexical…

  9. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.; Shammas, Jacob Y.

    The material presented in this workbook, which is in preliminary form under revision, has been designed to introduce the basic aspects of the morphology and syntax of literary Arabic. It is intended to be used with and as a continuation of "The Phonology and Script of Literary Arabic," by the same authors. (See ED 012 912.) These two volumes,…

  10. Contrastive Analysis of American and Arab Nonverbal and Paralinguistic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…

  11. Political Tides in the Arab World. Headline Series No. 296

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muslih, Muhammad; Norton, Augustus Richard

    This booklet examines the post-Persian Gulf War Middle East and the reconfiguration of political reality. Six chapters discuss: the Arab crisis; Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the Arab systems of government; new political alignments; windows of opportunity; and building on the Gulf victory. An annotated reading list consisting of 22 items is attached.…

  12. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XX: Comprehension Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The last of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. The 128 lessons in this volume contain various types of comprehension drills. Lessons 14-128 are completely in Arabic. (AMH)

  13. The Arabization of a Full-Text Database Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayen, Emily Gallup; And Others

    The 1981 design specifications for the Egyptian National Scientific and Technical Information Network (ENSTINET) stipulated that major end-user facilities of the system should be bilingual in English and Arabic. Many characteristics of the Arabic alphabet and language impact computer applications, and there exists no universally accepted character…

  14. The Arabs: Perception/Misperception. A Comparative View, Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    In this unit, high-school students identify and evaluate their own images of the Arabs and begin to develop more accurate perceptions of the Arabs through data analysis. Activities emphasize social studies skills, such as mapmaking and reading, use of time lines and the concept of chronology, and data collection and analysis. Students compare…

  15. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  16. Violence among Arab Elementary School Pupils in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie-Alsana, Wisam; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Greenbaum, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of violence in primary schools attended by Arab children in Israel and the relationship between such exposure and violent behavior among these children. Participants are 388 Arab children (aged 10 to 12 years) living in three localities in Israel. The research focuses on three of the child's roles in relation…

  17. Structure and Processing in Tunisian Arabic: Speech Error Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamrouni, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents experimental research on speech errors in Tunisian Arabic. The nonconcatenative morphology of Arabic shows interesting interactions of phrasal and lexical constraints with morphological structure during language production. The central empirical questions revolve around properties of "exchange errors". These errors can…

  18. Arab Protests May Open Door for U.S. Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.; Wilhelm, Ian

    2011-01-01

    As protesters across the Arab world demand an end to autocratic regimes that have drained universities of resources and suffocated critical thinking, scholars see some hope of an Arab renaissance and a new opening for American involvement. From the ancient Library of Alexandria to a new Islamic-arts museum in Qatar that holds 700-year-old…

  19. Jewish Arab Activism through Dialogical Encounters: Changing an Israeli Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Tamar; Saba, Tuffaha; Shay, Nava

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a Jewish Arab dialogue model of national encounters which has been developed at Tel Hai College in Upper Galilee in Israel. These planned encounters, which have taken place for eight consecutive years within the framework of a course entitled "A Jewish-Arab dialogue--action research" are recognized as part of the bachelor…

  20. What Has Happened to Arabs? Identity and Face Management Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Zidjaly, Najma

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I draw on contemporary theorizing on the concept of face (e.g., Ting-Toomey 1994, 2004; Tracy 2008) and research on Islamic and Arabic cultures and linguistic strategies (e.g., Beeman 1986; Hegland 1998; Wilce 2005; Al Zidjaly 2006) to explore the role that the Internet plays in enabling Muslim Arabs to manage or save their…

  1. The Modern Effects of Teacher Education on the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldakak, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The Arab world contains one of the greatest cultures and histories of any ethnic group in the world. However, since the 1980s, the education of this region has plummeted despite increases in school enrollers. This is prominently seen in the illiteracy rate of 30% throughout the Arab world. Furthermore, with a high unemployment rate of 14%, which…

  2. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  3. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  4. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  5. Arabic Women and English Language Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkarni, Ream

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to interview Arabic women students at Spring International Language Center to record their perceptions, rationale, goals, stories, and opinions about learning English in a U.S. language school. This research was conducted to understand the purposes and goals of Arabic women who come to the United Stated to study the…

  6. Taking Root: Arab-American Community Studies, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooglund, Eric, Ed.

    This book is the second in a series of works that seeks to examine the Arab-American experience. The original 1984 publication, "Taking Root, Bearing Fruit: The Arab-American Experience" featured surveys of 12 communities in all geographic regions of the United States. Such was the response to that report that its creators decided to continue the…

  7. On the Notions "Standard" and "Prestigious" in Arabic Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Muhammad H.

    This paper examines the results of two sociolinguistic studies of the Arabic spoken by men and women in Jordan and Syria in terms of sex differentiation in Arabic. The study reported in this paper proposes that the terms "prestigious" and "standard" should not be used interchangeably; accordingly, it reinterprets the previous findings. It is…

  8. Mauritanian Arabic. Teacher's Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Raymond C.; And Others

    The teaching guide is designed to accompany a set of instructional materials in Mauritanian Arabic (Hassaniya) for Peace Corps volunteers. It provides information and techniques for language teaching in three volumes: (1) a literacy handbook--a volume of lessons on the Arabic alphabet and script; (2) a communication and culture handbook; and (3) a…

  9. Arab International Students' Experiences in a U.S. University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abo Rabia, Hazza M.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…

  10. The Learning of Arabic by Israeli Jewish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    Examines the learning of Arabic by Israeli Jewish children. Finds that children displayed negative attitudes toward learning Arabic, but had positive attitudes toward the classroom situation. Also finds that classroom situation was the best predictor of learning success. Suggests that children are influenced more by classroom environment than by…

  11. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  12. Web-Based CALL for Arabic: Constraints and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Alessandra; van der Stel, Mieke

    2004-01-01

    The first section of this paper gives a brief overview of the experiences with LAN-based CALL programs for Arabic in the past 7 years at Leiden University (The Netherlands). The second section discusses constraints and technical challenges related to the use of Web-based CALL for Arabic, focusing in particular on a new Web-based CALL application,…

  13. Higher Education and Development in Arab Oil Exporters: The UAE [United Arab Emirates] in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Diederik

    As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…

  14. Who Is Studying Arabic and Why? A Survey of Arabic Students' Orientation at a Major University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husseinali, Ghassan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the initial motivation of learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). One hundred and twenty students enrolled in first-year and second-year AFL classes participated in this study. The participants were classified into two major groups of learners according to their heritage background: The first group consisted of…

  15. Arab Teachers and Holocaust Education: Arab Teachers Study Holocaust Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Edna; Shiloah, Neomi; Kalisman, Raya

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether change occurred in the attitudes of Arab teachers in Israel toward Holocaust education following an inservice study course. Survey and interview data indicated that after the course, teachers had a better understanding of what occurred during the Holocaust, and their willingness to know about its effects on Jewish people…

  16. Reading Skills in Three Orthographies: The Case of Trilingual Arabic-Hebrew-English-Speaking Arab Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Siegel, Linda S.

    2003-01-01

    Finds a significant relationship between the acquisition of word and pseudoword reading skills, working memory, and syntactic awareness skills within and across the three languages among a group of Israeli-Arab students ages 14-15 years. Notes that trilingualism of this nature seems not to have negative consequences for the development of oral…

  17. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Viinanen, Arja; Salokannel, Maija; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2011-01-01

    Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria. PMID:21747872

  18. Acculturation and polysubstance abuse in Arab-American treatment clients.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl P; Farrag, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Acculturation to U.S. culture by Latinos and Asian Americans has been associated with increased prevalence of substance abuse. However, little is known about the association between acculturation and substance use among Arab Americans, or more specifically, among Arab-American treatment clients. In 156 Arab-American male treatment clients, we found that higher levels of U.S. acculturation were positively associated with increased prevalence of polysubstance abuse. This first report on a large series of Arab-American clients also found considerable within-group variability. These results can be used to develop treatment plans and work-force training on the importance of U.S. acculturation and variability within Arab Americans.

  19. Risk factors for hookah smoking among arabs and chaldeans.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Geeso, Sanabil G; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    Hookah smoking is more prevalent among individuals of Middle Eastern descent. This study examined general and ethnic-specific risk factors for hookah smoking among Arabs and Chaldeans. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 801 adults residing in Southeast Michigan. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to predict risk factors for hookah smoking. Hookah smoking was significantly more prevalent among Arabs (32%) than Chaldeans (26%, p < 0.01) and being Arab was a risk factor for lifetime hookah use. Younger age (<25 years), being male, higher annual income, and having health insurance were significant risk factors for hookah use. Chaldeans believed to a greater extent than Arabs that smoking hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking (75 vs. 52%, p < 0.001). Hookah smoking is prevalent in both ethnic groups, but significantly higher among Arabs. Results indicate that prevention efforts should target younger males with higher incomes.

  20. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  1. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  2. The perception of Arabic and Japanese short and long vowels by native speakers of Arabic, Japanese, and Persian.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the perception of short and long vowels in Arabic and Japanese by three groups of listeners differing in their first languages (L1): Arabic, Japanese, and Persian. While Persian uses the same alphabet as Arabic and Iranian students learn Arabic in school, the two languages are typologically unrelated. Further, unlike Arabic or Japanese, vowel length may no longer be contrastive in modern Persian. In this study, a question of interest was whether Persian listeners' foreign language learning experience or Japanese listeners' L1 phonological experience might help them to accurately process short and long vowels in Arabic. In Experiment 1, Arabic and Japanese listeners were more accurate than Persian listeners in discriminating vowel length contrasts in their own L1 only. In Experiment 2, Arabic and Japanese listeners were more accurate than Persian listeners in identifying the length categories in the "other" unknown language as well as in their own L1. The difference in the listeners' perceptual performance between the two experiments supports the view that long-term L1 representations may be invoked to a greater extent in the identification than discrimination test. The present results highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate test for assessing cross-language speech perception. PMID:21361455

  3. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  4. The Influence of the Israel-Arab Conflict on Israeli-Jewish Students Learning Arabic as a Third Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    The attitudes of 100 Israeli-Jewish students toward learning Arabic and coexistence with Arabs within Israel were investigated, as was their evaluation of characters they read about in familiar and unfamiliar texts. The students were found to possess low instrumental and low indoors integrative motivation, but their army service motivation and…

  5. Learning to Read in Arabic: Reading, Syntactic, Orthographic and Working Memory Skills in Normally Achieving and Poor Arabic Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1995-01-01

    Examines relationships between phonological skills and reading in 143 Arab children in Arab villages of central Israel. Finds that a word recognition test was highly correlated with phonological skills, semantic processing, syntactic knowledge, and short-term memory, and that poor readers significantly lagged in skill development. Discusses…

  6. Special Education Use among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel: A Case of Minority Underrepresentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines disproportionality in special education among Israeli Arabs. Arab children are more likely than Jewish children to be placed in special education. Negev bedouin Arab children, however, are underrepresented in special education. Discusses whether a culture of disability is being fostered among the Arab citizens of Israel and whether…

  7. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Arabic Language Version of the Demands of Immigration Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends prior work with the Russian-language version of the Demands of Immigration Scale (DIS) with former Soviet immigrants and evaluates the reliability and validity of the Arabic-language version of the DIS with Arab immigrants. Three hundred and ninety-four Arab immigrant women completed the Arabic DIS and two measures of mood.…

  9. Effects of Exposure to Literary Arabic on Reading Comprehension in a Diglossic Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Examines the influence of exposure to literary Arabic of preschool children on their reading comprehension of literary Arabic stories in grades 1 and 2. Indicates better reading comprehension results for the children who were exposed to literary Arabic than for the children who were exposed only to spoken Arabic. (SC)

  10. The Role of Vowels in Reading Semitic Scripts: Data from Arabic and Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of skilled adult native Arabic speakers in Arabic and in Hebrew, their second language. Reveals a significant effect for vowels and for context across all reading conditions in Arabic and Hebrew. Finds that the vowelized texts in Arabic and the pointed and unpointed texts in Hebrew…

  11. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups. PMID:24452043

  12. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups.

  13. Health care in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, S

    1988-01-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic has health-care problems similar to other developing countries yet lacks the abundant oil reserves of its Arabian peninsula neighbors to address these problems. An ambitious 5 year health plan developed in 1977 has been impeded by a lack of material and human resources. The infant mortality rate remains one of the highest in the world, schistosomiasis drains the energy of the people, and tuberculosis and malaria remain endemic. Progress is, however, being made in health-care educational programs within Sanaa University and the Health Manpower Institutes to develop the resources of the Yemeni people to meet the health-care needs of their country. PMID:3225123

  14. Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitta, K. A.; Odunpade, O. K.; Akindele, O. Q.

    2009-05-01

    Nigeria lies very close to the equator (hot country) West coast Africa between latitude 4 N and 14 N degree and longitude 2 E and 15 E degree. The country is located at the Northern end of Eastern branch of west coast of Africa rift system. Nigeria geological set up comprises broadly sedimentary formation and crystalline basement complex, which occur more or less in equal proportion all over the country. The sediment is mainly Upper Cretaceous to recent in age while the basement complex rocks are thought to be Precambrian. The studied area lies between latitude 12.4" and 11.11"W and longitude 13.81" and 14.13" S. The studied area is underlain by Precambrian basement complex of southern western Nigeria .The major rock in the area is charnokite and granite rock. The granite rock which are member of the older granite suite occupy about 65% of the total area .The principal granite is petrographic variety are recognized .The fine grained biotite-granite medium-coarse, non porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite and coarse-porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite. Also three main textural type of Charnokitic rock are also distinguished are coarse grained, massive fine grained and gneissic fine grained .The mode of occurrence of rock is three (1) core of the granite rock as exemplified by study area and few smaller bodies (2) Margin of the granite bodies as seen in Ijare and Uro edemo-idemo Charnokitic bodies and (3) Discrete bodies of the gneissic fine grained Charnokitic rock within the country gneisses as seen in Ilaro and Iju and Emirin village. All the charnokite in the region are dark-greenish to greenish-gray rocks with bluish quartz and greenish feldspar

  15. Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitta, K. A.; Odunpade, O. K.

    2009-12-01

    Nigeria lies very close to the equator (hot country) West coast Africa between latitude 4 N and 14 N degree and longitude 2 E and 15 E degree. The country is located at the Northern end of Eastern branch of west coast of Africa rift system. Nigeria geological set up comprises broadly sedimentary formation and crystalline basement complex, which occur more or less in equal proportion all over the country. The sediment is mainly Upper Cretaceous to recent in age while the basement complex rocks are thought to be Precambrian. The studied area lies between latitude 12.4" and 11.11"W and longitude 13.81" and 14.13" S. The studied area is underlain by Precambrian basement complex of southern western Nigeria .The major rock in the area is charnokite and granite rock. The granite rock which are member of the older granite suite occupy about 65% of the total area .The principal granite is petrographic variety are recognized .The fine grained biotite-granite medium-coarse, non porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite and coarse-porphyritic biotite -hornblende granite. Also three main textural type of Charnokitic rock are also distinguished are coarse grained, massive fine grained and gneissic fine grained .The mode of occurrence of rock is three (1) core of the granite rock as exemplified by study area and few smaller bodies (2) Margin of the granite bodies as seen in Ijare and Uro edemo-idemo Charnokitic bodies and (3) Discrete bodies of the gneissic fine grained Charnokitic rock within the country gneisses as seen in Ilaro and Iju and Emirin village. All the charnokite in the region are dark-greenish to greenish-gray rocks with bluish quartz and greenish feldspar

  16. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  17. Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

  18. Arabic handwritten: pre-processing and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Sellahewa, Harin

    2012-06-01

    This paper is concerned with pre-processing and segmentation tasks that influence the performance of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems and handwritten/printed text recognition. In Arabic, these tasks are adversely effected by the fact that many words are made up of sub-words, with many sub-words there associated one or more diacritics that are not connected to the sub-word's body; there could be multiple instances of sub-words overlap. To overcome these problems we investigate and develop segmentation techniques that first segment a document into sub-words, link the diacritics with their sub-words, and removes possible overlapping between words and sub-words. We shall also investigate two approaches for pre-processing tasks to estimate sub-words baseline, and to determine parameters that yield appropriate slope correction, slant removal. We shall investigate the use of linear regression on sub-words pixels to determine their central x and y coordinates, as well as their high density part. We also develop a new incremental rotation procedure to be performed on sub-words that determines the best rotation angle needed to realign baselines. We shall demonstrate the benefits of these proposals by conducting extensive experiments on publicly available databases and in-house created databases. These algorithms help improve character segmentation accuracy by transforming handwritten Arabic text into a form that could benefit from analysis of printed text.

  19. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  20. Consanguineous marriage among rural Arabs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Freundlich, E; Hino, N

    1984-11-01

    The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was examined among the Arab rural population in the Western Galilee region in Israel. The survey was conducted by questioning women attending Mother and Child Health Centers, or those met on the main street of the village. The overall figures were unusually high (39%), including those for first and second cousins. They were highest in the Druze population (49%), lower in the Moslems (40%) and still lower in the Christians (29%) (P less than 0.001). The most common type was first-cousin marriages, especially where the husband's father and the wife's father were brothers. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was higher in the younger generation whose members had remained in their family village. These findings indicate that the traditional way of life, with its close family relationships, is still most common in the Arab rural society in Israel. The high prevalence of consanguinity is an unfavorable factor in this population's health condition. It is believed that the present educational and occupational changes will gradually alter this custom.

  1. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  2. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    PubMed

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the Arabic DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  3. [Inter-Arab migration and development].

    PubMed

    Fergany, N

    1985-01-01

    This paper argues that interArab migration has weakened the potential for development in the region due to the specific characteristics of the migration and its extremely high level in the past decade. Data on migratory streams is inadequate concerning the volume of migrants, their characteristics, and their impact on socioeconomic structures in the Arab region. In the 1970s, the Arab region was increasingly polarized into oil exporting countries experiencing a massive increase in revenues and nonexporters which have become increasingly impoverished. A World Bank team estimated that, assuming rapid growth, the number of migrant workers in the principal oil-exporting countries would double between 1975-85 from 1.6 to 3.5 million, while the proportion Arab would decline from 65 to 55%. The total foreign population was expected to increase from 3 million in 1975 to 10 million in 1985, representing an increase from 25 to 40% of the total population of those receiving countries. The impact of emigration on the countries of origin was greater than the mere numbers of migrants would suggest, because most migrants tended to be working age men from the most dynamic population sectors, because of the large volume of nonmigrants dependent on the migrants' incomes, because of the large number of persons directly and indirectly involved in migration over time as a consequence of the constant turnover, and because of the macroeconomic effects of massive migration on the local economies. Mechanisms of selection in the countries of employment coupled with the rigidity of educational systems in the countries of origin result in shortages of qualified and sometimes even of unskilled labor in the countries of origin, leading to reduced productivity. Remissions are often viewed as beneficial for the country of origin, but in fact they encourage consumption of imported goods while entire sectors of the domestic economy stagnate or deteriorate. Remissions depend on economic activity of

  4. Syntactic Reordering for Arabic- English Phrase-Based Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, Arwa; Omar, Nazlia

    Machine Translation (MT) refers to the use of a machine for performing translation task which converts text or speech in one Natural Language (Source Language (SL)) into another Natural Language (Target Language (TL)). The translation from Arabic to English is difficult task due to the Arabic languages are highly inflectional, rich morphology and relatively free word order. Word ordering plays an important part in the translation process. The paper proposes a transfer-based approach in Arabic to English MT to handle the word ordering problem. Preliminary tested indicate that our system, AE-TBMT is competitive when compared against other approaches from the literature.

  5. Factor V Leiden mutation in Arabs in Kuwait by real-time PCR: different values for different Arabs.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Ali A; Jadaon, Mehrez M; Lewis, Hend L

    2010-04-01

    Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (G1691A) is a risk factor for development of venous thromboembolic disorders. FVL was found mostly in Caucasians (1-15%) but was almost absent in non-Caucasians. Studies on Arab patients and populations revealed very inconsistent results. This study reports FVL in Arabs living in Kuwait with a focus on the nationality of the Arab subjects studied. Whole-blood samples were collected from 400 healthy Arabs who were 268 Kuwaitis (67%), 50 Syrians (12.5%), 34 Jordanians (8.5%), 8 Palestinians (2%) and 40 Egyptians (10%). DNA extraction was carried out for these blood samples and real-time PCR was performed to detect the presence of FVL. Generally, 36 cases (9%) had the mutation (33 were heterozygous and 3 were homozygous), with an allelic frequency of 0.049. The prevalence of FVL differed in different Arabic cases: Kuwaitis 4.5%, Egyptians 15%, Syrians 16%, Jordanians 23.5% and Palestinians 25%. The allelic frequency was 0.022 in the Kuwaitis and 0.088-0.132 in non-Kuwaitis. The three homozygous cases were from Syria, Jordan and Egypt. In conclusion, the prevalence of FVL in Arabs living in Kuwait is as high as in Caucasians. There is a difference in prevalence among Arabs themselves, being relatively lower in Kuwaitis than in non-Kuwaitis.

  6. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  7. Adult Education and Anomia in Rural Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odokara, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Extracts from an article describing the efforts of the University of Nigeria to dispel post-civil war anomia among the rural population, and to direct various reconstruction and rehabilitation programs to rural areas. (Author/JB)

  8. Discourse Analysis of the Political Speeches of the Ousted Arab Presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution Using Halliday and Hasan's Framework of Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Majali, Wala'

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the salient linguistic features of the political speeches of the ousted Arab presidents during the Arab Spring Revolution. The sample of the study is composed of seven political speeches delivered by the ousted Arab presidents during the period from December 2010 to December 2012. Three speeches were delivered by…

  9. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs

  10. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time.

  11. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma in Arabs--widening ethnic involvement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a tumor caused by human herpes virus 8 also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus. Originally described by Kaposi in 1872, this tumor is recognized as an AIDS-defining illness. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS) is a relatively indolent disease affecting elderly men from the Mediterranean region or of eastern European descent, besides Jews in whom it is the most common. It has been also reported in the Arab population living in Israel. Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported in Arabs after kidney transplantation; however, there are no reports of CKS occurring in non-Israeli Arabs. This is first such article reporting two Arab patients who presented with CKS thus widening the ethnic and geographic area of involvement with this condition.

  12. Arabic Literature: Uniterm Indexing System for Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghani, Abdul

    1987-01-01

    Describes the uniterm system of coordinate indexing and examines its applicability to the indexing of Arabic literature. Unresolved problems in semantics, thesauri development, and standardization are identified and discussed. (CLB)

  13. IMMIGRANT ARAB AMERICANS AND ALCOHOL USE: LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L.; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. METHODS Two year prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. RESULTS At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5% with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0%. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. DISCUSSION This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time. PMID:24322655

  14. Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Arabic-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes has not spared the Arabic-speaking countries, which have some of the highest prevalence of type II diabetes. This is particularly true of the Arab Gulf, a conglomerate of high income, oil-producing countries where prevalence rates are the highest. The prevalence rates among adults of the Arabic speaking countries as a whole range between 4%–21%, with the lowest being in Somalia and the highest in Kuwait. As economic growth has accelerated, so has the movement of the populations to urban centers where people are more likely to adopt lifestyles that embrace increased high-calorie food consumption and sedentary lifestyles. These factors likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Arabic speaking countries. PMID:22851968

  15. [The Arabic translation of Galen's De locis affectis].

    PubMed

    Garofalo, I

    1995-01-01

    The article concerns the Arabic translation of this tract in found in the works of Hubaish ibn al-Hasan Al-acsam in connection with an earlier Syriac translation of Hunain ibn Ishaq which is now lost. PMID:17228500

  16. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.

  17. Consanguineous marriages in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    al-Gazali, L I; Bener, A; Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Micallef, R; al-Khayat, A I; Gaber, T

    1997-10-01

    This study examines the frequency of consanguineous marriage and the coefficient of inbreeding in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study was conducted in Al Ain and Dubai cities between October 1994 and March 1995. A sample of 2033 married UAE females aged 15 years and over participated. The degree of consanguinity between each female and her spouse, and the degree of consanguinity between their parents were recorded. The rate of consanguinity in the present generation was high (50.5%) with a coefficient of inbreeding of 0.0222. The commonest type of consanguineous marriage was between first cousins (26.2%). Double first cousin marriages were common (3.5%) compared to other populations. The consanguinity rate in the UAE has increased from 39% to 50.5% in one generation. The level of consanguinity was higher in Al Ain (54.2%) than in Dubai (40%).

  18. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Humeira; Kong, Kok Ooi; Tak, Paul P

    2008-06-01

    Studies have shown that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Middle East have delayed diagnosis and low disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) utilization. We describe the characteristics and treatments of consecutive RA patients presenting to a new musculoskeletal clinic in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Demographic and clinical data were collected over a 10-month period at the first visit to our clinic for patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. A total of 100 patients were seen: (average +/- SD) age 42.2 +/- 12.3 years; female 87%; Arabs 38%, Indian 36%, Caucasian and others 26%; 73% rheumatoid-factor positive; years since diagnosis: 3.9 +/- 5.7; lag time between symptom onset to diagnosis 1.2 +/- 1.3 years and lag time to first DMARD was 1.6 +/- 2.0 years. Mean tender joint count was 8.9 +/- 7.9, mean swollen joint count 9.0 +/- 7.6, mean patient's global assessment of disease activity 57.4 +/- 25.0 mm, mean ESR 33 +/- 25 mm/h, mean DAS28 5.2 +/- 1.6, physician global assessment 55.0 +/- 23.8. Only 43% were on DMARDs (25% MTX, 5% TNF blockers). Among the patients who were not on DMARD, only 28.1% had disease duration less than 1 year (p = <0.01). Erosions were present in 55.2% of patients with available X-rays, and deformities in 26% of patients. There were no racial differences in disease characteristics. The UAE has a unique population with many races residing in the country. Among the first 100 consecutive patients seen at our clinic, there were no significant differences in disease characteristics with the majority of the patients having very active disease, delayed diagnosis, and not being treated with DMARDs.

  20. Iraq: Eastern flank of the Arab world

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Iraq, holding oil reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, is locked in a war with Iran whose outcome will affect Western energy supplies and the prospects for stability in the Arabian Gulf. Yet Iraq even now remains little known to Western governments and publics. This study is intended to enlarge understanding of Iraqi behavior and of the concerns that motivate its leaders. Rather than selecting issues of importance to other countries, the author focuses on the forces that influence policy formulation in Iraq and evokes the perspective from which the Iraqi government itself views its problems and sets its priorities. Part 1 examines the country's evolution into modern Iraq, explaining why problems that have recurred throughout Iraqi history have bedeviled all recent Iraqi governments and created tension between ''Iraq the nation'' and ''Iraq the state.'' Part 2 discusses the Arab Ba'th Socialist party, which has dominated Iraqi political life since 1968. The author neither condemns nor praises this controversial party and its current leader, President Saddam Husain, but seeks to explain why they have adopted the positions and taken the actions that have characterized their rule. Part 3 analyzes the war between Iraq and Iran, its causes, and the decisions Iraq has made in light of its goals and its assumptions about Iran. The author finds that this is not simply ''a war over borders'' but a deeper conflict between Islamic conservatism and Arab nationalism. Looking beyond the war, the final chapter assesses Iraq's potential importance in the Middle East and to the world economy. 8 figs.

  1. Reducing Muslim/Arab stereotypes through evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    French, Andrea R; Franz, Timothy M; Phelan, Laura L; Blaine, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    This study replicated and extended Olson and Fazio (2006) by testing whether evaluative conditioning is a means to reduce negative stereotypes about Muslim and other Arab persons. Specifically, evaluative conditioning was hypothesized to lower implicit biases against Muslim and Arab persons. The FreeIAT was used to measure implicit biases. Participants in the evaluative conditioning group showed a significant lowering in implicit biases. Explicit measures of bias were not affected by the conditioning procedure.

  2. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  3. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  4. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  5. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  6. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.

  7. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  8. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study.

  9. Autosomal recessive disorders among Arabs: an overview from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Teebi, A S

    1994-03-01

    Kuwait has a cosmopolitan population of 1.7 million, mostly Arabs. This population is a mosaic of large and small minorities representing most Arab communities. In general, Kuwait's population is characterized by a rapid rate of growth, large family size, high rates of consanguineous marriages within the Arab communities with low frequency of intermarriage between them, and the presence of genetic isolates and semi-isolates in some extended families and Bedouin tribes. Genetic services have been available in Kuwait for over a decade. During this time it has become clear that Arabs have a high frequency of genetic disorders, and in particular autosomal recessive traits. Their pattern is unique and some disorders are relatively common. Examples are Bardet-Biedl and Meckel syndromes, phenylketonuria, and familial Mediterranean fever. A relatively large number of new syndromes and variants have been delineated in Kuwait's population, many being the result of homozygosity for autosomal recessive genes that occurred because of inbreeding. Some of these syndromes have subsequently been found in other parts of the world, negating the concept of the private syndrome. This paper provides an overview of autosomal recessive disorders among the Arabs in Kuwait from a personal perspective and published studies, and highlights the need for genetic services in Arab countries with the goal of prevention and treatment of genetic disorders.

  10. E-Learning and Distance Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajadi, Timothy Olugbenga; Salawu, Ibrahim Olatunde; Adeoye, Femi Adetunji

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of e-learning in the position of distance education in Nigeria. It commences by discussing the meaning of e-learning and distance education. It also discusses the historical background of distance education in Nigeria as well as the operations of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) as the first federal…

  11. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  12. Nigeria: Teaching Plans and Materials for Secondary Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriot, Karen; And Others

    This publication contains teacher developed units of study to teach secondary students about Nigerian history, government, geography, industry, and family life. The units are: Sources of Historical Information; History of Benin; Constitutions; Nigeria and the United States; Elections in Nigeria; Nigerian Diplomacy; and Family in Nigeria.…

  13. Trends in Educational Evaluations in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndubueze, M. Okoloeze; Iyoke, J. O.; Okoh, S. C.; Beatrice, N. Akubuilo

    2015-01-01

    The paper highlights the trends in educational evaluations in Nigeria starting from the pre-colonial Nigeria to the contemporary. Nigeria first practiced traditional educational evaluation but the system was criticized for lack of documented data. Then the colonial one-shot end of programme evaluation which was later found to be judgmental, breeds…

  14. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-07-01

    Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring self-reported driving style and investigating the relationship between driving behaviour and accident involvement. In spite of the fact that Arab Gulf countries have a higher road accident fatality rate compared to European countries and USA, the DBQ has not been used in Arab countries so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ, then to examine the relationships between the factors of the DBQ and accident involvement, and finally to compare DBQ scores between the two gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, 1110 Qatari (263 females and 847 males) and 1286 UAE drivers (294 females and 992 males) filled a survey questionnaire including the DBQ and background information. The results showed that UAE drivers scored higher on almost all DBQ items than Qatari drivers. Surprisingly, only very small differences between men and women on the DBQ item scores were found in UAE. Factor analysis resulted in four factors, which were named as errors, pushing-speeding violations, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations. However, there were a number of differences in the factor structure of the DBQ in UAE and Qatar when compared to the theoretical four-factor structure of the DBQ. Reliabilities of some subscales were also questionably lower than in the original British data. Logistic regression analyses showed that errors, lapses, and aggression-speeding violations predicted accident involvement in Qatar but not in UAE after controlling the effect of the demographic variables (age, sex, and annual mileage).

  15. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  16. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

  17. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities.

  18. Ethnicity, petroeconomy, and national integration in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Yeri-Obidake, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. Due to its rich petroleum resources, the Rivers territory ranked high in the political calculus of both the Federal Government and secessionist Biafra. The central thesis of this study is that oil is the single glue that has held the Federation of Nigeria together in the last two decades, and prevented it from being balkanized. This study attempts to put into perspective the various eruptions and episodes of secessionist tendencies and agitations in Nigeria. The ebb and flow of separatist agitations seem to reflect the changing geoeconomic, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical environment of the country. Should the petroeconomy collapse, and/or oil losses its significance in the international economy, what will happen to Nigeria as a nation. The present study points up the need to develop other sources of economic interdependence via the proper utilization of the enormous oil revenues before it is written off as a lost opportunity.

  19. Subjective Reactions of Rural University Students toward Different Varieties of Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Riyad F.; El-Ali, Nasser

    1989-01-01

    Investigates university students' attitudes toward different varieties of Arabic, including Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), Bedouin, Fallahi, and Madani. The highest rated variety was MSA, the lowest rated was Madani, and Bedouin was preferred over Madani as a colloquial variety. (GLR)

  20. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as consultants overseeing care. Prehospital care and emergency medical services (EMS) operate under the auspices of the police department. Standardized protocols have been established for paramedic certification, triage, and destination decisions. The majority of ambulances offer basic life support (BLS/Type 2) with a growing minority offering advanced life support (ALS/Type 3). Medicine residency programs were established 5 years ago and form the foundation for training emergency medicine specialists for UAE. This article describes the full spectrum of emergency medicine in the UAE: prehospital care, EMS, hospital-based emergency care, training in emergency medicine, and disaster preparedness. We hope that our experience, our understanding of the challenges faced by the specialty, and the anticipated future directions will be of importance to others advancing emergency medicine in their region and across the globe. PMID:24401695

  1. Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Benomran, Fawzi

    2010-05-01

    Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates was formerly defined and governed according to Law 7 of 1975 for the practice of medical professions, which had been a part of civil law. The passing of Law 10 of 2008, namely the "Law on Medical Responsibility in UAE", enacted on 16th December 2008 created a new framework to deal with this issue. One of its provisions required medical practitioners to hold insurance policies, so that insurance companies pays damages to the plaintiff (patient) injured as a result of a physicians' negligence. This paper outlines the issue of medical responsibility and medical negligence. The author's translation of the new law into English is included so that its full text is available for the readers, especially expatriate doctors working in the UAE. Where appropriate, a brief comparison between the old law and new laws is also presented. The objective of this paper is to provide medical practitioners with basic information about the subject in general and to this legislation in particular. It is mandatory for doctors to realize inherent risks involved in the course of their practice. A basic knowledge of the law is required to avoid pitfalls and to safeguard oneself against errors arising from ignorance of the duties and rights of the professional person. PMID:20382353

  2. Mental health services in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Ahmed; Karam, Elie; Okasha, Tarek

    2012-02-01

    This paper summarizes the current situation of mental health services in the Arab world. Out of 20 countries for which information is available, six do not have a mental health legislation and two do not have a mental health policy. Three countries (Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain) had in 2007 more than 30 psychiatric beds per 100,000 population, while two (Sudan and Somalia) had less than 5 per 100,000. The highest number of psychiatrists is found in Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait, while seven countries (Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen) have less than 0.5 psychiatrists for 100,000 population. The budget allowed for mental health as a percentage from the total health budget, in the few countries where information is available, is far below the range to promote mental health services. Some improvement has occurred in the last decade, but the mental health human resources and the attention devoted to mental health issues are still insufficient.

  3. Intellectual system of identification of Arabic graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoullayeva, Gulchin G.; Aliyev, Telman A.; Gurbanova, Nazakat G.

    2001-08-01

    The studies made by using the domain of graphic images allowed creating facilities of the artificial intelligence for letters, letter combinations etc. for various graphics and prints. The work proposes a system of recognition and identification of symbols of the Arabic graphics, which has its own specificity as compared to Latin and Cyrillic ones. The starting stage of the recognition and the identification is coding with further entry of information into a computer. Here the problem of entry is one of the essentials. For entry of a large volume of information in the unit of time a scanner is usually employed. Along with the scanner the authors suggest their elaboration of technical facilities for effective input and coding of the information. For refinement of symbols not identified from the scanner mostly for a small bulk of information the developed coding devices are used directly in the process of writing. The functional design of the software is elaborated on the basis of the heuristic model of the creative activity of a researcher and experts in the description and estimation of states of the weakly formalizable systems on the strength of the methods of identification and of selection of geometric features.

  4. Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Benomran, Fawzi

    2010-05-01

    Medical responsibility in the United Arab Emirates was formerly defined and governed according to Law 7 of 1975 for the practice of medical professions, which had been a part of civil law. The passing of Law 10 of 2008, namely the "Law on Medical Responsibility in UAE", enacted on 16th December 2008 created a new framework to deal with this issue. One of its provisions required medical practitioners to hold insurance policies, so that insurance companies pays damages to the plaintiff (patient) injured as a result of a physicians' negligence. This paper outlines the issue of medical responsibility and medical negligence. The author's translation of the new law into English is included so that its full text is available for the readers, especially expatriate doctors working in the UAE. Where appropriate, a brief comparison between the old law and new laws is also presented. The objective of this paper is to provide medical practitioners with basic information about the subject in general and to this legislation in particular. It is mandatory for doctors to realize inherent risks involved in the course of their practice. A basic knowledge of the law is required to avoid pitfalls and to safeguard oneself against errors arising from ignorance of the duties and rights of the professional person.

  5. Pedestrian injuries in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of hospitalised trauma pedestrian patients in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), so as to improve preventive measures. All pedestrian trauma patients who were involved with a road traffic collision and admitted to Al Ain Hospital for more than 24 hours or who died in the hospital were included in the study. Data were prospectively collected during March 2003-October 2007. Three hundred and eighteen patients were studied, 279 (87.7%) were males. Median (range) age was 31 (1-75) years. UAE nationals were significantly younger than non-nationals (median (range) age of 14 (2-75) years compared with 33 (1-75) years, p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). The lower limb (57.2%) was the most common injured region followed by the head (46.9%). The median (range) Injury Severity Score of patients was 5 (1-45). The median (range) total hospital stay was 11.3 (1-130) days. Thirty patients died (overall mortality 9.4%). In conclusion, mortality of pedestrian injured patients in the UAE is high. Severe head injury was the main cause of death. Measures to improve pedestrian safety should be adopted so as to reduce morbidity and mortality. These include educating drivers and pedestrians on road safety and enforcement of traffic safety laws.

  6. Interpersonal violence in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ossama T; Abbas, Alaa K; Eid, Hani O; Salem, Mohamed O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity and outcome of hospitalised interpersonal violence-related injured patients in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates so as to give recommendations regarding the magnitude of this problem, its causes and priorities of prevention. Data were retrieved from Al-Ain Hospital Trauma Registry, which was prospectively collected over three years. There were 75 patients (males = 85.3%) having a mean age of 30 years. Eighty-one percent had blunt trauma. The estimated annual injury hospitalisation of interpersonal violence in Al-Ain city was 6.7 per 100,000 population. Females were significantly more injured by a family member (p = 0.02), at home (p = 0.005), and had more severe injuries (p = 0.003). There was a trend for children less than 18 years old to have more penetrating trauma (p = 0.06) and to be injured by a family member (p = 0.09). There was only one case of woman sexual assault and two cases of child abuse. The mean (SD) hospital stay was 7.87 (14.1) days. Less than 3% (n = 2) were admitted to the intensive care unit with no deaths. In conclusion, the majority of patients in our study had minor injuries. Nevertheless, the psychological impact may be major. This highlights the need to develop suitable mental health services in support of victims of interpersonal violence.

  7. Mental health services in the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    OKASHA, AHMED; KARAM, ELIE; OKASHA, TAREK

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current situation of mental health services in the Arab world. Out of 20 countries for which information is available, six do not have a mental health legislation and two do not have a mental health policy. Three countries (Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain) had in 2007 more than 30 psychiatric beds per 100,000 population, while two (Sudan and Somalia) had less than 5 per 100,000. The highest number of psychiatrists is found in Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait, while seven countries (Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen) have less than 0.5 psychiatrists for 100,000 population. The budget allowed for mental health as a percentage from the total health budget, in the few countries where information is available, is far below the range to promote mental health services. Some improvement has occurred in the last decade, but the mental health human resources and the attention devoted to mental health issues are still insufficient. PMID:22295010

  8. Transcript mapping for handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorigo, Liana M.; Govindaraju, Venu

    2007-01-01

    Handwriting recognition research requires large databases of word images each of which is labeled with the word it contains. Full images scanned in, however, usually contain sentences or paragraphs of writing. The creation of labeled databases of images of isolated words is usually tedious, requiring a person to drag a rectangle around each word in the full image and type in the label. Transcript mapping is the automatic alignment of words in a text file with word locations in the full image. It can ease the creation of databases for research. We propose the first transcript mapping method for handwritten Arabic documents. Our approach is based on Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and offers two primary algorithmic contributions. First is an extension to DTW that uses true distances when mapping multiple entries from one series to a single entry in the second series. Second is a method to concurrently map elements of a partially aligned third series within the main alignment. Preliminary results are provided.

  9. Pregnancy termination and the law in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okagbue, I

    1990-01-01

    Abortion in Nigeria is illegal and carries a heavy jail sentence--up to 14 years imprisonment--unless it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, a large number of clandestine abortions continue to be carried out regularly, often with dire consequences for the lives and health of the women involved. This article reviews abortion legislation in Nigeria, examines court decisions on the subject, and presents the results of a survey conducted on the incidence of abortion in the country. A case is made for revising existing abortion laws. A brief look is taken at the various indications for abortion that might be adopted and a proposal is made for a new abortion policy in Nigeria in the light of the country's recently adopted population policy. PMID:2219225

  10. BOOK APPRAISAL: HISTORY OF DENTISTRY IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Michael, O.S.

    2016-01-01

    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library. PMID:27721686

  11. Nigeria`s rich resources for renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ayankoya, J.O.

    1997-12-31

    It has been observed in Nigeria, that there is a correlation between the standard of living as measured by per capita GNP, and per capita energy consumption. As energy use per capita is tied to the importance of population increase it tends to drop during economic slow down. The per capita energy usage is put at 0.2 kw compared to 10 kw for USA and 4 kw for Europe respectively. Furthermore, analysis shows with the increase in population per year and a 2--5% growth in per capita GNP, require an increase of 5--8% in energy supply per year. The Country derives almost all its energy need from fossil fuels (petroleum, gas and coal), hydropower (the only renewable energy used for generating electricity at present) Wood, Animal, Human power and Wind. With the introduction of solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass conversion, and municipal waste energy, the generating of electricity is bound to take a new turn.

  12. Alcohol use among Arab Americans: what is the prevalence?

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Arnetz, Bengt B; Fakhouri, Monty; Ventimiglia, Matthew J; Jamil, Hikmet

    2011-08-01

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans were less likely to report past month use (45.6%) than the White majority group but reported similar rate of binge drinking (17.0%). Locally, lifetime drinking was reported by 46.2% of the immigrants but only 13.4% of refugees fleeing war. Few databases are available to estimate alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans; the limited data suggest a drinking pattern consistent with acculturation. However, the potential influence of other factors is unknown and needs to be investigated.

  13. The population, environment, and health nexus: an Arab world perspective.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, A; Saxena, P C

    1998-01-01

    This report describes models of the links between population growth, environmental degradation, and health in Arab countries and in the world; management of the commons; urbanization and water as critical issues; and challenges in Lebanon. It is concluded that the complexity of interrelationships is difficult to untangle. Researchers frequently neglect health issues in modeling the relationships. The lack of attention to the health, development, and environment nexus has serious implications in the Middle East and North Africa. In Lebanon, national strategies do not include a national waste management strategy based on reduction, reuse, and recycling. Most Arab countries face the major issue of the lack of adequate planning in many economic sectors, which results in imbalances in supply and demand. Most Arab countries do not have adequate statistical databases upon which to base development, planning, and policy-making. The last census in Lebanon was in 1932. Information is missing on health. Health economics are ignored. It is not possible to estimate the health costs due to deficiencies in sanitation, hygiene, water, and air quality. Capacity building for environmental management and intersectoral collaboration is hampered. Arab countries with large oil reserves have ignored the population and environment links. Poorer countries will suffer the most from limited renewable water resources and their decline due to population growth. The political agenda in Arab countries should give priority to health, environment, development, and population issues. PMID:12295045

  14. Alcohol Use Among Arab Americans: What is the Prevalence?

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L.; Arnetz, Bengt B.; Fakhouri, Monty; Ventimiglia, Matthew J.; Jamil, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans were less likely to report past month use (45.6%) than the White majority group but reported similar rate of binge drinking (17.0%). Locally, lifetime drinking was reported by 46.2% of the immigrants but only 13.4% of refugees fleeing war. Few databases are available to estimate alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans; the limited data suggest a drinking pattern consistent with acculturation. However, the potential influence of other factors is unknown and needs to be investigated. PMID:21279687

  15. Mother-Tongue Interference in the Acquisition of English Articles by L1 Arabic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyab, Rana Abid

    2016-01-01

    Native speakers of Arabic face a number of problems in their attempt to acquire the English language. One of these problems is encountered in their attempt to use English articles. According to earlier studies, learning English articles by students whose mother-tongue is Arabic is one of the most frequent and significant difficulties Arab learners…

  16. De-Arabization of the Bedouin: A Study of an Inevitable Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonah, Yossi; Abu-Saad, Ismael; Kaplan, Avi

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers an assessment of the efforts to de-Arabize the Bedouin Arab youth of the Negev. We show that despite the extensive efforts to achieve this goal, they have become pronouncedly alienated from the State of Israel, and are increasingly perceiving themselves as an integral part of Israel's Palestinian Arab national minority. The…

  17. Ethnic Heritage Studies Pertaining to Arabic Culture: Six Teaching Units for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jon; Olson, Margarete

    Six social studies units are presented to help secondary school classroom teachers introduce students to Arab American culture. A major objective is to make students recognize the many contributions made by the Arabs to the development of the United States. In the introduction, Arab Americans are identified as people in the United States who…

  18. Working with Arab American Families: Culturally Competent Practice for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…

  19. Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Frameworks for Conceptualizing Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu

    2006-01-01

    Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…

  20. Linguistic Distance and Initial Reading Acquisition: The Case of Arabic Diglossia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2003-01-01

    Examined phonemic awareness and pseudoword decoding in kindergarten and first grade Arabic native children. Hypothesized that because Arabic speakers learn to read in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)--a language structurally distinct from the local form of the language they grow up speaking--linguistic differences between the two varieties would…

  1. Role of the Arab Universities in Labour Education: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobeih, Nabil Ahmed Amer

    Current and future prospects for workers' education in the Arab region, the relationship between Arab universities and workers' education, and the role of workers and their trade unions are discussed. In addition, examples of university activity in workers' education programs of some non-Arab countries are described. Although the climate is right…

  2. A Characterization of the Language of Iftah ya Simsim: Sociolinguistic and Educational Implications for Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Absi, Samir

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the Arabic version of "Sesame Street" addresses the choice of a simplified modern standard usage as the series' language, definition of this language variety in terms of its distinguishing linguistic characteristics, and the implications of this choice for the future of Arabic and Arabic language instruction. (Author/MSE)

  3. Techniques of Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language through Constructivist Paradigm: Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…

  4. The Usability of SEEQ in Quality Evaluation of Arabic Secondary Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…

  5. Deaf People, Modernity, and a Contentious Effort to Unify Arab Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Fityani, Kinda

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines a project to unify sign languages across twenty-two Arab countries. Proponents of the project, mainly pan-Arab governmental bodies with the support of members of the staff at the Al Jazeera satellite network, have framed the project as a human rights effort to advance the welfare of deaf Arab people. They have urged its…

  6. Leading a Quiet Revolution: Women High School Principals in Traditional Arab Society in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Shapira, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates why very few Arab women persevere to become principals in Arab high schools in Israel. It identifies these trailblazers' distinguishing characteristics through the narratives of two Arab women, high school principals, tracing their transition from teaching to management, describing the intertwining of their personal and…

  7. Report on Hate Crimes & Discrimination against Arab Americans, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Arab Anti Discrimination Committee, Washington, DC.

    Examples of hate crimes against Arab Americans in this report are those that were reported to the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), but the actual number of hate crimes and incidents of discrimination far exceeds those reported. As the report shows, Arab American civil rights were increasingly threatened in 1996-97 by the…

  8. Perceptual Confusions of American-English Vowels and Consonants by Native Arabic Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Levy, Erika S.; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants…

  9. Ancient Levantine Arabic: A Reconstruction Based on the Earliest Sources and the Modern Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jallad, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the history and development of Arabic is greatly challenged by the dearth of sources. Most scholars who have undertaken this task in the past have relied almost exclusively on data from the Arabic grammatical tradition. These sources claimed that Arabic originated as the language of the Bedouin of the central and southern…

  10. Orthographic Competence among Multilingual School Children: Writing Moroccan Arabic in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weth, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents children's writing in their vernacular family language, Moroccan Arabic. It first provides some background to the family and school literacies of nine-year-old children of Moroccan Arabic (MA) background growing up in France with French literacy practices at school and Written Arabic literacy practices in the home. The paper…

  11. Examining Social Perceptions between Arab and Jewish Children through Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yedidia, Tova; Lipschitz-Elchawi, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social perceptions among 191 Arab and Jewish children who live in mixed neighborhoods in Israel. Human Figure Drawing assessment was used to examine the children's social perceptions. The drawings that the Jewish Israeli children created portrayed Arabs as the enemy, whereas the Arab Israeli children expressed a more positive…

  12. Native English Speakers' Perception of Arabic Emphatic Consonants and the Influence of Vowel Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Durham, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    Native English speakers experience difficulty acquiring Arabic emphatic consonants. Arabic language textbooks have suggested that learners focus on adjacent vowels for cues to these consonants; however, the utility of such a strategy has not been empirically tested. This study investigated the perception of Arabic emphatic-plain contrasts by means…

  13. Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Famulare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016. PMID:26317401

  14. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains.

  15. Eocene ostracoda from Oshosun formation Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okosun, E. A.

    A biostratigraphic study of the phosphate-bearing Oshosun Formation in southwestern Nigeria (eastern Dahomey Embayment) gave ostracos which are diagnostic for the Eocene. The ostracod assemblage contains the early to middle Eocene zonal index Costa dahomeyi. The majority of the species are common to the phosphatic sequence in the western Dahomey Embayment. This paleontologic evidence, and the association of clay and shale with the phosphate occurrences in different parts of the basin, suggest that the phosphatic beds were deposited in the Dahomey Embayment under similar paleoenvironmental conditions. Phosphatic sedimentation in southwestern Nigeria is inferred to have occurred during an early to early middle Eocene minor marine transgression.

  16. Nigeria's internal petroleum problems: perspectives and choices

    SciTech Connect

    Iwayemi, A.

    1984-10-01

    Oil-producing Nigeria has been hard hit by weakening oil markets, the replacement of the civilian government by a military regime, and sporadic but severe energy supply problems. The latter included shortages of petroleum products and irregular availability of electricity. These conditions will worsen unless Nigeria takes immediate action to introduce demand management, including efficient pricing and other conservation measures, and timely investment to expand domestic energy facilities, change the institutional and policy environment, and assure the availability of imported supplies. It is also important to encourage the development of renewable energy sources. 16 references, 2 tables.

  17. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

  18. [Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

    1991-07-01

    318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group.

  19. MEDICINE AMONG NEW IMMIGRANTS AND ARAB MINORITIES IN ISRAEL.

    PubMed

    MISHKIN, S

    1965-05-29

    The reaction to modern medicine and the general health of the new immigrants and Arab populations of Israel are described. The material was gathered during a threemonth visit to Israel where the author participated in the medical care of these persons. While these peoples still share many of the traditional medical superstitions and practices, the new immigrants have progressed much more during the 16 years of Israel's existence. At present over 99% of Jewish women give birth in hospital, whereas only 65% of Israeli Arabs do. The infant mortality rate among the Jews in 1963 was about 21 deaths per 1000 live births, about one-half the rate for Arabs. The importance of understanding the cultural background and social conflicts of these people as a preliminary to the provision of proper medical care is stressed.

  20. Violence among Arab elementary school pupils in Israel.

    PubMed

    Marie-Alsana, Wisam; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Greenbaum, Charles W

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of violence in primary schools attended by Arab children in Israel and the relationship between such exposure and violent behavior among these children. Participants are 388 Arab children (aged 10 to 12 years) living in three localities in Israel. The research focuses on three of the child's roles in relation to violence: witness, victim, and perpetrator. An adapted Arabic translation of the Violence Exposure Scale-Revised is administered to children in group settings. The children report more exposure to moderate levels than to severe levels of violence. Boys are exposed to more violence as victims, and witness and perpetrate more violence than girls do. Multiple regression analysis shows that the experience of being a victim predicts violent behavior in the children, above the effects of age and gender. The limitations of the study and its implications for future research and theory development are discussed.

  1. Serological malaria surveys in Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Voller, A.; Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    A parasitological and serological malaria survey of 2 large and 2 small areas of Nigeria was carried out in connexion with the activities of the WHO Treponematoses Epidemiological Team. The results, based on data obtained from 1082 subjects, showed that all the areas were holoendemic with the usual pattern of malariometric indices, and that the differences between the parasite rates of the two large areas were due to the different timing of the survey in relation to the seasonal wave of transmission. The fluorescent antibody test was positive (≥1:20) in 92% of the 914 sera collected from these 2 areas. The serological profile of the population in the 2 areas was similar, but the immunofluorescence titres were higher in all age-groups in the area south of the Benue river, indicating the antibody response to the previous endemic wave rather than the actual amount of transmission taking place at the time of the survey. This study confirms the value of the immunofluorescent technique for large-scale malaria surveys, but indicates the need for caution in interpreting the results and stresses the importance of good knowledge of the local epidemiology of malaria before embarking on application of serological methods. PMID:4893493

  2. Developing Computational Physics in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpojotor, Godfrey; Enukpere, Emmanuel; Akpojotor, Famous; Ojobor, Sunny

    2009-03-01

    Computer based instruction is permeating the educational curricula of many countries oweing to the realization that computational physics which involves computer modeling, enhances the teaching/learning process when combined with theory and experiment. For the students, it gives them more insight and understanding in the learning process and thereby equips them with scientific and computing skills to excel in the industrial and commercial environments as well as at the Masters and doctoral levels. And for the teachers, among others benefits, the availability of open access sites on both instructional and evaluation materials can improve their performances. With a growing population of students and new challenges to meet developmental goals, this paper examine the challenges and prospects of current drive to develop Computational physics as a university undergraduate programme or as a choice of specialized modules or laboratories within the mainstream physics programme in Nigeria institutions. In particular, the current effort of the Nigerian Computational Physics Working Group to design computational physics programmes to meet the developmental goals of the country is discussed.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Razan; Holm, Margo B

    2013-03-01

    The Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable assessment tool that was created to assess Participation. It has been translated to several languages and adapted to different international cultures. The most recent version of this tool is the Arabic Heritage Activity Card Sort (A-ACS). The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Arabic version in Jordanian adults. Forty three Jordanian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 62 healthy adults were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the tool. The A-ACS correlated moderately with the participation index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p < 0.00) (concurrent validity), was able to discriminate between patients and healthy participants on the current and retained levels of participation (F = 5.09, p < 0.03; F = 6.01, p < 0.02, respectively) (discriminative validity), and correlated moderately with the total scores of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (r = -0.458, p < 0.00) and the total score on the Arabic version of the self-report Performance Assessment of Self-care Skills (r = 0.581, p < 0.00) (convergent validity). The tool also showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.80, p < 0.00) and excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90). The Arabic Heritage of the Activity Card Sort is a valid and reliable tool for Arabic-speaking occupational therapists to use when assessing participation in Jordanian patients with MS or healthy adults. Limitations of this study include using only one diagnostic group from Jordan and examining only the Recovery and Community Versions of the tool. Future studies are needed to examine further psychometric properties for patients with different diagnoses and from different countries in the Arabic region for all three versions of the A-ACS.

  4. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  5. Cruel and Unusual: Negative Images of Arabs in American Popular Culture. Third Edition. ADC Issue Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalak, Laurence

    This document addresses the negative image of Arabs among the U.S. public. While formal education has created many of the misconceptions about Arabs that abound in the west, many of the misconceptions come from the informal education of popular culture. The western image of the Arab is possibly more interesting than the reality of Arab culture.…

  6. Binge drinking among Arab/Chaldeans: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Owens, Darlene; Said, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with young Arab/Chaldeans (N = 82) from different ethno-religious groups (Chaldeans, Orthodox Christians, and Muslims) to explore the potential risk and the protective factors associated with the high level of binge (or episodic heavy) drinking among Arab/Chaldeans reported by general population surveys. Most of the participants were aware of and knowledgeable about the problem in their community. Themes identified as contributory factors consistent across ethno-religious groups included the availability of alcohol, the importance of family, conformity to group behavior, and social reasons. Differences included the context for drinking and gender roles. These findings can be used to tailor culturally appropriate interventions.

  7. Arab women's breast cancer screening practices: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Al-Meer, Nabila; Malik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Jong, Floor Christie-de

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the Arab world and the involved women are often diagnosed at advanced stages of breast cancer. This literature review explores factors influencing Arab women's breast cancer screening behavior. Searched databases were: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL Plus, Google Scholar, Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean, and Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Breast cancer screening participation rates are low. Screening programs are opportunistic and relatively new to the region. Knowledge amongst women and health care providers, professional recommendation, socio-demographic factors, cultural traditions, beliefs, religious, social support, accessibility and perceived effectiveness of screening influence screening behavior.

  8. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  9. Preparing Teachers for the Contemporary Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Nkechi J.; Ogbondah, Livinus; Ekpefa-Abdullahi, Janet Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on preparing teachers for the contemporary Nigeria. Teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times the correct identification of indices of developments in the society. This responsibility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of a constant search for updated knowledge in various fields of Endeavour. The…

  10. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  11. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  12. Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

  13. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  14. Access to Information in Rural Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboyade, B. Olabimpe

    1985-01-01

    This paper focuses on intensified information transfer activities in rural areas of Nigeria: community development work, agricultural extension service, mass media (newspapers, television, radio, problems of communication), and the role of the library (reinforcing messages, repackaging information, acquiring specialized materials, coordinating…

  15. An Assessment of Citizenship Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omo-Ojugo, M.; Ibhafidon, H. E.; Otote, Celia

    2009-01-01

    Citizenship education is specifically recognized by the government of Nigeria as a vehicle for the building of the Nigerian personality. A personality that is conscious not only of his rights and privileges but also of his duties. However, it is regrettable that this great expectation of the nation is far from being attained. Using three main…

  16. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…

  17. Historical Development of Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shown, D. G.

    The paper traces the history of education in Nigeria before and immediately after the arrival of the colonial masters. Noted are the establishment of missinary schools and the expansion of formal education at all levels, whereas little effort was made to meet the requirements of less privileged pupils with special educational needs. Effects of…

  18. Adult Education and Community Development in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edwin

    1984-01-01

    Describes and discusses adult education and community development in Nigeria, specifically in the Bendel State. Provides a brief history of adult education and community development and describes several programs, methods, and techniques. Highlights the Mass Literacy Campaign as the major priority. (CT)

  19. The Challenges of Astronomy in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Some Universities and Research Centres in Nigeria have, over the years, been extensively involved in both research and education in Astronomy and Space Sciences. However, they appear to be trading in an unwanted commodity as modern astronomy appears to continue to lack any serious public appreciation. This paper examines the challenges and problems confronting the development of Astronomy in the country.

  20. Education against Environmental Pollution in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire B.

    1989-01-01

    A community education campaign is beginning to heighten public awareness of the pollution of air, water, and land resources in Nigeria. Research-based information has led to the development of printed educational materials, radio and television messages, and the establishment of a national Environmental Protection Agency. (SK)

  1. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

  2. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  3. Distribution of HLA-DQA1 alleles in Arab and Pakistani individuals from Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M A; al Khayat, A Q; al Shamali, F; Budowle, B; Novick, G E

    1997-03-14

    PCR-based typing of the HLA-DQA1 locus, using allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes and reverse dot blot methodology was used to determine allelic distributions and construct a database for Arab and Pakistani individuals living in Dubai. Genotype and allelic frequencies were calculated, and the data were tested for departures from Hardy-Weinberg (HWE) equilibrium. The most frequent HLA-DQA1 alleles among Dubaian Arabs are DQA1 4 and 1.2. Among Pakistanis, the most frequent allele is also DQA1 4. No significant deviations from HWE were detected.

  4. Sociodemographic factors in Arab children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Mostafa; Bu Ali, WaleedAl; Hablas, Hatem; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatma; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Al-Shamy, Hemdan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is a critical gap in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) research with respect to manifestations of the condition in developing countries This study examined the influence of sociodemographic variables on the severity of autistic symptoms and behavioral profile in Arab children. Methods The total study sample comprised of 60 Arab children (38 boys and 22 girls) from three Arab countries (22 Jordanians, 19 Saudis and 19 Egyptians). The diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) was based on DSM-IV criteria supplemented by direct observation according to the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) and assessment of Intelligent Quotient (IQ). Finally, parents rated their child on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results It was found that the housewives and Saudi parents described more autistic symptoms and externalizing behavior problems. A significant negative correlation was found between IQ and each of ISAA, CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing problems scores. Conclusion The study concluded that the clinical presentation of ASD may be shaped by cultural factors that are likely to help to formulate specific diagnosis and intervention techniques in Arab children with ASD. PMID:23346279

  5. School-Based Management: Arab Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Romi, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of school-based management (SBM) in elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, comparing schools experienced in SBM, schools beginning to use SBM and schools that do not use SBM. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research used a structured questionnaire to…

  6. Achieving the Advanced Oral Proficiency in Arabic: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samimy, Keiko K.

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a case study of a white American graduate student, Mark, who achieved "Superior" oral proficiency in Arabic according to the ACTFIi Oral Proficiency Scale. Based on multiple data sources (e.g., interviews, observation, document analysis), the study highlights Mark's multiple identities as a language learner, language…

  7. Teaching Culture in the Classroom to Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf

    2015-01-01

    Arabic language learning comprises of certain elements, including syntactic ability, oral capability, dialect proficiency, and a change in state of mind towards different culture or society. For teachers and laymen alike, cultural competence, i.e., the knowledge of the customs, beliefs, and systems of another country, is indisputably an integral…

  8. Quality in Higher Education: United Arab Emirates Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2012-01-01

    Quality in higher education is the major concern among researchers. Managing quality in higher education in a multicultural population with different approaches is not only challenging but an uphill task. This paper will focus on quality concern in higher education keeping in view, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) perspectives. A model to maintain…

  9. Science Education in Arab States: Bright Future or Status Quo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of science education in Arab states and anticipates some of the challenges faced by those states as they reform their science education. After discussing problems of illiteracy, access and quality we provide contextual information about the structure of the educational systems and describe recent efforts to…

  10. National Infrastructure of Library and Information Services in Arab Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjadur

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of a network for library and information services in the Arab world and examines existing national library and information infrastructures in the context of the status of the national library; national bibliographic control; availability of union catalogs and indexing and abstracting services; interlibrary cooperation;…

  11. Refusals and Communication Style in American English and Egyptian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gayle L.; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida

    This study investigated similarities and differences in Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals, using a modified discourse completion test (DCT) consisting of three requests, three invitations, three offers, and three suggestions. Each situation included one refusal to a person of higher status, one to a person of equal status, and one to a…

  12. Globalisation and Higher Education in the Arab Gulf States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari; Al Manthri, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    In our knowledge-based world, the societies that prosper are the ones that generate knowledge--through research, through the interwoven relationship between the academe and funded research bodies and with industry. They are the new "centre". It is strange indeed to think of the countries of the Arab Gulf States as the "periphery". But, as the…

  13. Female Supervisors of Arab School Education in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid Husny

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…

  14. Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies among Arabic Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusri, Ghazali; Rahimi, Nik Mohd; Shah, Parilah M.; Wah, Wan Haslina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning oral Arabic among students at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia. The concept of these strategies was derived from the self-regulated learning framework, which consists of five components, namely rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, and…

  15. The Function of Discourse Markers in Arabic Newspaper Opinion Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kohlani, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the function of discourse markers in Arabic newspaper opinion articles. In this study, discourse markers are not only connecting- words that contribute to the cohesion of text, but they are also crucial tools for achieving communicative act in the text. These expressions that come from different grammatical classes and…

  16. Vowel Harmony in Palestinian Arabic: A Metrical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Salim, I. M.

    1987-01-01

    The autosegmental rule of vowel harmony (VH) in Palestinian Arabic is shown to be constrained simultaneously by metrical and segmental boundaries. The indicative prefix bi- is no longer an exception to VH if a structure is assumed that disallows the prefix from sharing a foot with the stem, consequently blocking VH. (Author/LMO)

  17. From Marginalisation to Integration: Arab-Palestinians in Israeli Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Tamar; Jabareen, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The Arab-Palestinian minority in Israel, one-fifth of the country's population, has been underrepresented in Israeli institutions of higher education since the establishment of the state. This article focuses on the authors' shared aim of promoting diversity and multiculturalism in institutions of higher education in Israel. It first introduces…

  18. American Hegemony and Business Education in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mark; Finlay, Jim L.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent is American business education "hegemonic" in the Arab world? To answer this, the authors examine whether Lebanese people exposed to American-style business education share the values implicit in their textbooks and teaching resources. Finding evidence for such values among Lebanese business students and working people alike, they…

  19. Learning to Read in Arabic: The Long and Winding Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaad, Hanan; Eviatar, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relative contribution of visual abilities, accessibility of letter names, and phonological awareness, to text reading speed and accuracy of Arabic in first, third, and fifth grades. The results revealed that for all levels of skill, phonological awareness contributes significantly to reading accuracy, to the same degree. For…

  20. An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation of the Arabic /E/.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    Using acoustical evidence from spectrograms and physiological evidence from X-ray sound films, it appears that the most common allophone for the Arabic voiced pharyngeal fricative, at least in Iraqi, is a voiceless stop, and not a voiced fricative, as many believe. The author considers the phoneme in different environments and describes its…

  1. Stuttering and Lexical Category in Adult Arabic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Fauzia; Robb, Michael P.; Al-Shatti, Tareq

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the content and function word dichotomy of speech disfluency found in English-speaking adults who stutter (AWS) was evident in a language other than English. A group of adult Arabic-speaking AWS were sampled across spontaneous speaking, oral reading, and single-word naming tasks. Moments of disfluency…

  2. Facing the Challenges of Educational Reform in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami Akkary, Rima

    2014-01-01

    This paper pinpoints and discusses key aspects of the current approaches to school reform in the Arab world against the backdrop of what is accepted as the best practice in the international literature on effective school reform and educational change. The main goal of the paper is to highlight deeply ingrained assumptions and practices that are…

  3. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  4. Self-Esteem among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saad, Ismael

    1999-01-01

    Examines the levels of global self-esteem of Arab adolescents in Israel and its relationship to perceived academic status and aspirations, interpersonal relationships, community type, and various demographic variables. Discusses the findings, noting that there were no significant gender differences. (CMK)

  5. Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamloumi, Jilani

    2013-01-01

    The report involves the findings of the final evaluation of the regional entrepreneurship education project in Arab States component II (2011-2012) (see ED560497), which is a joint activity between UNESCO and StratREAL Foundation. It aims to help the development of educational policies enabling the integration of entrepreneurship education within…

  6. Modern Standard Arabic: Aural Comprehension Course. Volume XIX: Grammatical Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The nineteenth of 20 volumes of lessons designed for use in a full-time, intensive training program in Arabic is presented. This volume is a companion to the preceding ones. It presents summaries and explanations of the major patterns which were explained and practiced in the preceding volumes. (AMH)

  7. Basic Chad Arabic: The Pre-Speech Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    The first of a three-volume course in Chad Arabic, principally developed for those seeking to acquire proficiency in speaking and comprehension, emphasizes the passive recognition of linguistic features of the target language. It is suggested for use in intensive training programs of no longer than three weeks' duration. This phase of the course…

  8. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  9. Allomorphic Variation in Arabic: Implications for Lexical Processing and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This study probes the effects of allomorphy on access to Arabic roots and word patterns in two cross-modal priming experiments. Experiment 1 used strong roots which undergo no allomorphy, and weak roots which undergo allomorphy and surface with only two of their three consonants in some derivations. Word pairs sharing a root morpheme prime each…

  10. The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Rey AVLT): An Arabic Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharoni, Varda; Natur, Nazeh

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to adapt the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) into Arabic, to compare recall functioning among age groups (6:0 to 17:11), and to compare gender differences on various memory dimensions (immediate and delayed recall, learning rate, recognition, proactive interferences, and retroactive interferences). This…

  11. African Literature--Arab, White, Black, and Colonial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coger, Greta Avery

    Selected works of African writers for use in junior college composition courses employing the research paper are annotated in this bibliography. The bibliography begins with annotations for an exemplary novel and three short plays, including insights for teaching. The second section offers citations, some of which are annotated, for Arab, White,…

  12. Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Plural Morphology in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the…

  13. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  14. Cultural Heritage, Social Values, and Information in the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Elizabeth Anne

    1997-01-01

    Examines the forces of cultural value and specificity in relation to information in the Arab world. Contends that information is integral and inseparable from the belief systems, political and cultural values, and ethical principles of any given society. Describes socio-political and economic factors. (AEF)

  15. The Acquisition of English and Arabic Existential Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kulaib, Emad Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the acquisition of existential constructions (ECs) in English and in Spoken Arabic. It is the first of its kind in that it examines the acquisition of the pieces and the features that form ECs; namely, existential "there," the copula, definiteness, and agreement for English and existential "fii," definiteness,…

  16. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  17. Stateside and Overseas Students of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about language learning held by two groups of students studying Arabic: 41 students in conventional classroom language instruction at the University of Wisconsin in 1992 and 1993, and 27 in an immersion program at the Yemen Language Center (Yemen). The survey instrument consisted of 47 statements in a Likert-type scale…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Arab Educational Materials, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations, Cairo (Egypt).

    One hundred fifty-four English language annotations of books, articles, and government publications about education in 11 Arab countries are contained in this bibliography. Drawing from materials published in 1976, the bibliography examines education for all age groups and ability levels in Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi…

  19. Students and Their Teachers of Arabic: Beliefs about Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated beliefs about second language learning held by 27 adult students and 10 teachers of Arabic at the Yemen Language Center. The survey instrument consisted of 5 demographic statements and 47 statements concerning language learning in a Likert-type scaled response format. Results indicate students and teachers generally agreed…

  20. Subject-Object Relations and Word Order in Standard Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Saleh M.

    This paper examines the basic properties of subject and object in Arabic and characterizes them through their grammatical manifestation in a relational network. The study also investigates the relational properties of subject and object with respect to other grammatical notions such as relativization, reflexivization, and passivization. Data for…

  1. Psychological Loneliness among Arab Students at Irbid National University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kadoumi, Khawla; Sawalha, Abdel Muhdi; Al Momani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of psychological loneliness among Arab students studying at Irbid National University, and to investigate the effect of year of study and gender of students on the level of psychological loneliness. The sample of the study consisted of 149 students, 133 males and 16 females from first, second,…

  2. Acquisition of English Voicing Contrast by Arab Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fokes, Joann; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an investigation of the phonetic characteristics of children's second language acquisition, focusing on acoustical correlates of the voicing contrast for stop consonants, as produced by young native speakers of Arabic who were learning English as a second language. Neither age nor experience with English could predict phonetic…

  3. Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

    PubMed

    Fargues, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women's status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women's activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system.

  4. Culture and English Language Teaching in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between culture and English language teaching (ELT) in the Arab World. A critical question arises in terms of ELT, that is, whether to teach culture along with English. To answer such a bewildering question, this article presents related literature and studies and discusses a theoretical frame based on…

  5. Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for the Arab Gulf Countries

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Takruri, Hamed R.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    The concept of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) has been promoted by several international organizations. However, there are no FBDG for the countries in the Arab region. As the Arab Gulf countries share similar a socioeconomic and nutrition situation, an attempt was made to develop FBDG for these countries. This paper summarizes the steps taken to develope such guidelines by the Arab Center for Nutrition. The FBDG were developed through 6 steps: (1) determination of the purpose and goals for establishing FBDG, (2) characteristics of FBDG, (3) determination of the food consumption patterns, (4) review the current nutrition situation, (5) determination of the lifestyle patterns that are associated with diet-related diseases and (6) formulating the FBDG. The FBDG consist of 14 simple and practical pieces of advice taking into consideration the sociocultural status and nutritional problems in the Arab Gulf countries. The FBDG can be a useful tool in educating the public in healthy eating and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:22347625

  6. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  7. Morphological Decomposition in Arabic: Dissociation of Form and Semantic Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qasem, Mousa

    2010-01-01

    Traditional theories of Semitic morphology hold that two abstract morphemic units, the root (e.g., "k-t-b") and the word pattern (e.g., "-i-aa-"), are the basis for word formation (e.g., "kitaab" [book]). Previous lexical processing studies in Hebrew and Arabic have confirmed the independent morphemic status of these two units, and the root in…

  8. Celebrating Diversity through Explorations of Arab Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami; Lucking, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Incidents of terrorism and other forms of heinous violence around the world are so dramatic and painfully wrenching that they often dictate change: in politics, in social convention, in battle, and in the classroom. The five years since the 9/11 attacks, in particular, have brought about huge shifts in the collective global view of Arabs, and it…

  9. Family, Religion, and Work among Arab American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazal Read, Jen'nan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…

  10. Understanding of Arab Spring with Chaos Theory - Uprising or Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Açıkalın, Şuay Nilhan; Bölücek, Cemal Alpgiray

    `Arab Spring' can be considered as one of the most remarkable events in the history of world politics. On December 18, 2010, a Tunisian young protestor burned himself in a public square of the city. This event triggered probably one of the most chaotic and long term uprisings in the Middle East. From the day of its initiation until the present, `Arab Spring' in the Middle East created unstable political situation and several uprisings. In this chapter, we will first give general information about chaos theory, and then we will examine the `butterfly effect' created by the Tunisian young protestor and process of Arab Spring in the Middle East regarding its extend and form in those countries within the framework of chaos theory. For the first part of this chapter, the spark created by the Tunisian young protestor and its effects can be analyzed under `butterfly effect' perspective within chaos theory, arguing whether the events followed each other consecutively or randomly. The question is whether the incidents following each other have reasonable links of causality to one another, or the events defining the phenomena known as `Arab Spring' have no predictable reasons and outcomes regardless of the regional, social and political differences. The events caused the collapse of the regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya; they had very serious outcomes.

  11. Parenting Styles and Mental Health of Arab Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the parental styles and psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and the relationship between them in gifted as compared to nongifted Arab adolescents. Five scales --The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents. Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and The Psychological…

  12. Nonrandom Associations of Graphemes with Colors in Arabic.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Dingemanse, Mark; Todil, Büşra; Agameya, Amira; Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate people associate colors with letters and numbers in systematic ways. But most of these studies rely on speakers of English, or closely related languages. This makes it difficult to know how generalizable these findings are, or what factors might underlie these associations. We investigated letter-color and number-color associations in Arabic speakers, who have a different writing system and unusual word structure compared to Standard Average European languages. We also aimed to identify grapheme-color synaesthetes (people who have conscious color experiences with letters and numbers). Participants associated colors with 28 basic Arabic letters and ten digits by typing color names that best fit each grapheme. We found language-specific principles determining grapheme-color associations. For example, the word formation process in Arabic was relevant for color associations. In addition, psycholinguistic variables, such as letter frequency and the intrinsic order of graphemes influenced associations. Contrary to previous studies we found no evidence for sounds playing a role in letter-color associations for Arabic, and only a very limited role for shape influencing color associations. These findings highlight the importance of linguistic and psycholinguistic features in cross-modal correspondences, and illustrate why it is important to play close attention to each language on its own terms in order to disentangle language-specific from universal effects. PMID:27311298

  13. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  14. The Flow of Foreign News into Six Arab Gulf Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Habib, Abdulrahman Ibrahim

    In order to determine the nature of foreign news coverage in the Arab Gulf states, a study examined six newspapers in these states (one in each country) in regard to the volume, news sources, and kinds of news (both subject categories and regions covered). Data were selected from 12 issues (one from each month) in 1986 from the following…

  15. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated words and pseudowords. Two…

  16. Similarity and Enhancement: Nasality from Moroccan Arabic Pharyngeals and Nasals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellou, Georgia Eve

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies of the articulation, acoustics, and perception of nasal and pharyngeal consonants and adjacent vowels were conducted to investigate nasality in Moroccan Arabic (MA). The status of nasality in MA is described as coarticulatorily complex, where two phoneme types (pharyngeal segments and nasal segments) yield similar…

  17. Performance Evaluation of the Arabic Language Multimedia Instruction: "Malaysian Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2008-01-01

    This Study evaluated the effectiveness of the Arabic language multimedia products existing in Malaysian markets. For the purpose of careful investigation, this research has applied blended models of the most trusted instructional design based on the field-tested theories of the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Mayer (2002), Keller…

  18. Competency Based Language Education Curriculum Guide. [Tunisian Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choura, Abdessalem

    This curriculum guide is designed for the Arabic language training of Peace Corps workers in Tunisia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. An introductory section describes the materials' organization and competency-based approach, and lists the 28 specific competencies targeted and the constructions taught within each…

  19. An Arabic language version of the health promotion lifestyle profile.

    PubMed

    Haddad, L G; al-Ma'aitah, R M; Cameron, S J; Armstrong-Stassen, M

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of an Arabic version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile instrument in Jordan, whose society and culture differ from that of North America, where the instrument was developed. The instrument was translated into Arabic, back-translated, and pilot tested to ascertain cultural sensitivity. The Arabic version was then evaluated using a convenience sample of 950 adults in the northern part of Jordan using a principal components factor analysis. The order of factors was not entirely identical to those isolated previously during the psychometric assessment of the English language version. Only the structure of three factors--self actualization, health responsibility--and exercise were the same as those obtained in the English version. The forced, six factor solution explained only 39.3% of the variance in the measure. The alpha reliability coefficients were 0.89 for the total scale and ranged from 0.85 to 0.60 for the subscales. It was concluded that the Arabic version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile has demonstrated initial reliability and validity. Further testing is recommended.

  20. Arab Women Principals' Empowerment and Leadership in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's purpose is to tell the life-stories of four women who succeeded in forging paths to senior positions as principals in Arab schools in Israel and to describe the personal, professional and sociopolitical contexts of their principalship. Design/methodology/approach: This is part of a larger research effort that explored the…

  1. Recognition of printed Arabic text using machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Adnan

    1998-04-01

    Many papers have been concerned with the recognition of Latin, Chinese and Japanese characters. However, although almost a third of a billion people worldwide, in several different languages, use Arabic characters for writing, little research progress, in both on-line and off-line has been achieved towards the automatic recognition of Arabic characters. This is a result of the lack of adequate support in terms of funding, and other utilities such as Arabic text database, dictionaries, etc. and of course of the cursive nature of its writing rules. The main theme of this paper is the automatic recognition of Arabic printed text using machine learning C4.5. Symbolic machine learning algorithms are designed to accept example descriptions in the form of feature vectors which include a label that identifies the class to which an example belongs. The output of the algorithm is a set of rules that classifies unseen examples based on generalization from the training set. This ability to generalize is the main attraction of machine learning for handwriting recognition. Samples of a character can be preprocessed into a feature vector representation for presentation to a machine learning algorithm that creates rules for recognizing characters of the same class. Symbolic machine learning has several advantages over other learning methods. It is fast in training and in recognition, generalizes well, is noise tolerant and the symbolic representation is easy to understand. The technique can be divided into three major steps: the first step is pre- processing in which the original image is transformed into a binary image utilizing a 300 dpi scanner and then forming the connected component. Second, global features of the input Arabic word are then extracted such as number subwords, number of peaks within the subword, number and position of the complementary character, etc. Finally, machine learning C4.5 is used for character classification to generate a decision tree.

  2. Teaching the Arab World and the West … as an Arab in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abboud, Samer

    2015-01-01

    How do the subjective experiences of faculty and students shape the classroom and the study of global politics? Can our subjective experiences support the pedagogical goal of developing critical thinking skills? In this article, I draw on my experiences teaching an undergraduate course called "The Arab World and the West" with respect to…

  3. Learning Arabic Sounds: A Guide to the Pronunciation of the Phonemes of Arabic for Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberto, Shelley M.

    The purpose of this guide is to teach English speakers accurate pronunciation of the Modern Standard Arabic phonemes. Included are discussions concerning attitudes toward language learning in general, basic linguistic concepts, a descriptive survey of the phonemes with detailed instructions for their production, and lists of minimal pairs…

  4. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

  5. Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?

    SciTech Connect

    Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L.; Osahon, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon pools encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.

  6. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  7. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  8. Cardiac surgical experience in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwiloh, J; Edaigbini, S; Danbauchi, S; Babaniyi, I; Aminu, M; Adamu, Y; Oyati, A

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of establishing a heart surgery programme in northern Nigeria. During three medical missions by a visiting US team, in partnership with local physicians, 18 patients with heart diseases underwent surgery at two referral hospitals in the region. Sixteen (88.9%) patients underwent the planned operative procedure with an observed 30-day mortality of 12.5% (2/16) and 0% morbidity. Late complications were anticoagulant related in mechanical heart valve patients and included a first-trimester abortion one year postoperatively, and a death at two years from haemorrhage during pregnancy. This has prompted us to now consider bioprosthetics as the valve of choice in women of childbearing age in this patient population. This preliminary result has further stimulated the interest of all stakeholders on the urgency to establish open-heart surgery as part of the armamentarium to combat the ravages of heart diseases in northern Nigeria. PMID:22453514

  9. Congenital anophthalmos in Benin city, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukponmwan, C U

    1999-01-01

    Clinical Anophthalmos is a very rare condition and this is illustrated in Benin City, Nigeria where the two cases described are the only cases that have been seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital over a period of twenty years. The two cases were unilateral anophthalmos. The first case is a case of primary anophthalmos while the second case is the consecutive or degenerative type of anophthalmos.

  10. Population increases and educational policies in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fapohunda, O J

    1976-09-01

    Most governments today accept in principle that provision of education is a basic human right as embodied in article 26 of the Declaration of Human Rights. Through education, peace, good international relations, better prospects for economic developments, and improvement of human resources are possible. Despite this awareness, most governments cannot fulfill this requirement of education due to large population sizes, rapid growth and competition for scarce natural resources. An historical survey of the development of educational policies in Nigeria reveals that the Machiavellian policy of the colonial period largely created the present imbalance in the educational development of the Moslem north (where slow development was encouraged) compared to the Christian south. The 1st government participation in education by 1877 was minimal. The colonial government relied heavily on missionary educational activities. Political motives and religious conflicts between the northern and southern regions retarded missionary activities. Not until 1926 did active cooperation begin between the government and local states, reinforced by Elliot's Commission Report, the Phillipson Commission Report and the memorandum on Educational Policy in Nigeria. These reports laid out guidelines for government's aid and participation in provision of educational facilities. Post independence requirements for skilled manpower led to the adoption of the Ashby Commission Report as a basis for higher education. 1980 was set as the desired date for free compulsory education by a conference of African states. Nigeria, persuing this ideal goal, aimed at making education free at all levels and for every citizen. The burden and implications of these policies are examined in the context of projections of primary and secondary school enrollments, costs, and manpower needs. The cost of education is seen to rise with demand. By 1990, Nigeria will have about 24 million children to educate. With global

  11. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  12. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  13. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  14. Professional Counseling in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okocha, Aneneosa A. G.; Alika, Ijeoma H.

    2012-01-01

    The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions for…

  15. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  16. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  17. Employablity Skills among Graduates of Estate Management in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbenta, Idu Robert

    2015-01-01

    There is wide claim that employers have a high level of dissatisfaction associated with graduates from Nigeria higher institutions of learning. This paper examines whether graduates of estate management in Nigeria higher institutions have employability skills for productive employment. The study randomly sampled 59 principal partners or heads of…

  18. Financing Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Moshood Ayinde

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how adult and non formal education is financed in Nigeria; and to examine areas or forms of and the problems of financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. Three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents from government agencies,…

  19. Deregulation of University Education in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Subair, S. T.; Osifila, G. I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the deregulation of university education in Nigeria, its problems and prospects. The paper commences with the recognition given to education all over the world, especially higher education. Nigeria as a country gives much credence to higher education as the means for social and economic mobility, social transformation, and as…

  20. Admission Policies and the Quality of University Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoroma, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Nigeria is 140 million according to the last 2006 census. Only 75 Universities are available to cater to this population with one University for 1,866,000 people. The inability of the available Universities in Nigeria to cope with the high demand for University education has put much pressure on University admissions. In order to…

  1. Secret Cults in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Raymond O. A.; Oniyama, Hope O.

    2009-01-01

    Cultism has remained a problem for tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the Larger Nigerian society since the first decade of the existence of university education in Nigeria. It has been worrisome to have children on campuses and several measures had been adopted to curb cultism some of such measures were the expulsion of the cultists caught and…

  2. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  3. Addressing Gender Imbalance in Nigeria's Higher Education through Institutional Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Emeka Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the gender imbalance among students in Nigeria's higher education and the possible ways to addressing them. The poor access of female gender to higher education in Nigeria has become a thing of great concern to all stakeholders such as School authorities, Government, International agencies and employers of labor. The paper…

  4. The Use of Adolescents as Domestic Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Emeka Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The use of adolescents as domestic servants has become prevalent in most urban centers in Nigeria. This study focused on adolescents who work as domestic househelps in urban centers with special reference to Ibadan, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to examine their mode of recruitment, the nature of their work as well the impact of such…

  5. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  6. Entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The higher education in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last 50 years in terms of producing manpower that could bring about development. However, the problem of Nigeria today is not about human and natural resources, but how to translate the human potentials to meet the realization of its all round development and sustain economic…

  7. Irradiation depolymerized guar gum as partial replacement of gum Arabic for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-01

    Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(1/2) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material.

  8. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

  9. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  10. FIRST REPORTS OF CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Michael, O.S.

    2015-01-01

    The German Friedrich Hartmut Dost (1910-1985) introduced the word Pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the direct application of knowledge regarding a drug's pharmacokinetics to a therapeutic situation in an individual or a population. It is the basis of therapeutic drug monitoring with the ultimate goal of keeping drugs safe. This branch of pharmacology has become the most relevant to the sub-specialty of clinical pharmacology. First reports of Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Nigeria can be credited to two gifted Nigerians, Prof Ayodele O. Iyun and Prof Lateef A. Salako, both of whom were affiliated to the great institutions- University of Ibadan (UI) and the Teaching Hospital, University College Hospital (UCH). Prof A.O Iyun was Nigeria's first home-trained Clinical Pharmacologist, while Prof L.A. Salako played a most significant role in the creation of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, UCH. This edition of the Chronicles highlights a few of the first reports of this exciting branch of pharmacology in Nigeria. This historical review is based on publications listed on the United States National Library of Medicine database (PUBMED). PMID:26807087

  11. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1904-1966, First President of Nigeria: A Force in Library Development in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguolu, C. C.; Aguolu, I. E.

    1997-01-01

    Documents the contributions of one of Africa's foremost nationalists and pan-Africanists to the development of libraries in Nigeria. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was able to wield political influence to ensure a legal basis for public library development, establishment of the University of Nigeria Library and the eventual creation of National Library of…

  12. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: A Review.

    PubMed

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  13. On Belonging: The American Adolescent of Arab Descent.

    PubMed

    Khouri, Lama Z

    2016-08-01

    Although American families of Arab origin come from 22 countries and from varied backgrounds and cultures, reports suggest that they suffer equally from acculturation stress, stereotyping, discrimination, and the reverberations of the aftermath of September 11 as well as global affairs. However, because children and adolescents from these families, particularly those who are newly arrived immigrants, tend to do well in school, they are rarely targeted by research or policy. This article uses the narratives of 5 middle school age male students from Arab descent who were in a support group that met for 3 years (2004-2007), beginning shortly after President George W. Bush's declaration of the war on the "axis of evil." I used vignettes from this group to illustrate the stressors this population faces. The final section suggests an option for supporting this population. PMID:27472891

  14. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN FOUR ARAB COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; El Nayal, Mayssah A

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to explore the sex and cultural differences in satisfaction with life between undergraduate men and women recruited from four Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Qatar (N = 1,322); ages ranged from 18 to 27 years. The participants responded to the Arabic version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Egyptian and Lebanese women obtained significantly higher mean scores on satisfaction with life than did their male counterparts, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the Kuwaiti and Qatari samples. For men, the Qatari and Kuwaiti samples obtained the high mean scores on satisfaction with life, whereas the Egyptian and Lebanese samples obtained the low mean scores. For women, the Qatari sample had the higher mean score, whereas the Egyptian sample obtained the lowest mean score. The results were explained in light of the positive association between gross domestic product and satisfaction with life.

  15. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed. PMID:26294566

  16. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy.

  17. A Participatory Research Approach to develop an Arabic Symbol Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.

  18. Satisfaction of Jewish and Arab teachers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Bogler, Ronit

    2005-02-01

    The author investigated the differences between Jewish Israeli and Arab Israeli teachers in their satisfaction with their work. Initially, the goal of the present study was to investigate whether there were demographic attributes (such as age, gender, and education) that differentiated between the two groups of teachers. Later, the author added two variables, teachers' perceptions of their occupation and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership styles, to the analysis to examine their contribution to the level of satisfaction for each group. Regression analyses revealed the significant power of the two added variables in predicting teacher satisfaction among both Jewish and Arab Israeli teachers. The author discussed implications of the findings in relation to principals' roles and teachers' perceptions.

  19. On Belonging: The American Adolescent of Arab Descent.

    PubMed

    Khouri, Lama Z

    2016-08-01

    Although American families of Arab origin come from 22 countries and from varied backgrounds and cultures, reports suggest that they suffer equally from acculturation stress, stereotyping, discrimination, and the reverberations of the aftermath of September 11 as well as global affairs. However, because children and adolescents from these families, particularly those who are newly arrived immigrants, tend to do well in school, they are rarely targeted by research or policy. This article uses the narratives of 5 middle school age male students from Arab descent who were in a support group that met for 3 years (2004-2007), beginning shortly after President George W. Bush's declaration of the war on the "axis of evil." I used vignettes from this group to illustrate the stressors this population faces. The final section suggests an option for supporting this population.

  20. Revealing the superior perceptibility of words in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A

    2010-01-01

    When alphabetic stimuli are presented very briefly, people perceive real words better than nonwords. It is generally accepted that this word superiority effect reflects the efficiency of visual word perception. However, much of what is known about this effect comes from research conducted in languages using the Latin alphabet (eg English, French, Italian), and little is known about whether alphabetic languages with visual properties fundamentally different from Latinate languages also produce word superiority effects. We report an experiment in which stimuli (words, illegal nonwords, and pseudowords) were presented in Arabic, which is a cursive script, read from right to left. The findings revealed advantages for words over pseudowords and illegal nonwords, and for pseudowords over illegal nonwords, indicating that the superiority effects reported for Latinate languages are also observed in Arabic. Implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in word recognition are discussed. PMID:20465177

  1. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  2. SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN FOUR ARAB COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; El Nayal, Mayssah A

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to explore the sex and cultural differences in satisfaction with life between undergraduate men and women recruited from four Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Qatar (N = 1,322); ages ranged from 18 to 27 years. The participants responded to the Arabic version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Egyptian and Lebanese women obtained significantly higher mean scores on satisfaction with life than did their male counterparts, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the Kuwaiti and Qatari samples. For men, the Qatari and Kuwaiti samples obtained the high mean scores on satisfaction with life, whereas the Egyptian and Lebanese samples obtained the low mean scores. For women, the Qatari sample had the higher mean score, whereas the Egyptian sample obtained the lowest mean score. The results were explained in light of the positive association between gross domestic product and satisfaction with life. PMID:26595298

  3. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  4. Promoting Arab and Israeli cooperation: peacebuilding through health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Harvey; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdeen, Hani; Aber, Phil; Al-Masri, Mohammad; Attias, Joseph; Avraham, Karen B; Carmi, Rivka; Chalin, Catherine; El Nasser, Ziad; Hijazi, Manaf; Jebara, Rema Othman; Kanaan, Moien; Pratt, Hillel; Raad, Firas; Roth, Yehudah; Williams, A Paul; Noyek, Arnold

    This article describes a positive experience in building Arab and Israeli cooperation through health initiatives. Over the past 10 years Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian health professionals have worked together through the Canada International Scientific Exchange Program (CISEPO). In the initial project, nearly 17,000 Arab and Israeli newborn babies were tested for early detection of hearing loss, an important health issue for the region. The network has grown to address additional needs, including mother-child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and youth health. Our guiding model emphasises two goals: project-specific outcomes in health improvement, and broader effects on cross-border cooperation. Lessons learned from this experience and the model provide direction for ways that health professionals can contribute to peacebuilding. PMID:15811462

  5. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of An Arab Version of the Family Peer Relationship Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hough, Edythe S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about parent and peer relationships in immigrant adolescents due to a dearth of culturally sensitive measures. We adapted the Family Peer Relationship Questionnaire (FPRQ) for Arab immigrant mothers and their adolescents. Mothers and adolescents completed parallel versions of the Arab FPRQ and measures of child behavior problems, child social relations, and maternal depression. Data analyses included confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity. The proposed four-factor structure was replicated in both the mother and child forms. Scores from the Arab FPRQ subscales and the other measures provided evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity, suggesting that the Arab FPRQ is a viable assessment tool. PMID:18389498

  6. [The demography of Arab-Muslim marriage: tradition and change].

    PubMed

    Fargues, P

    1987-01-01

    Recent changes in marriage patterns in the Muslim Arab world are analyzed. The author notes that the problems posed by the early age at marriage for women, virtually universal marriage, and a surplus of women in the marriage market were traditionally resolved partly by polygyny but primarily by repudiation. Changes over the past 25 years have tended toward a stabilization of marriages and a decline in repudiation of wives.

  7. Validation of an Arabic version of Fatigue Severity Scale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Al-Hugail, Hind A.; AlSaif, Ranyah M.; Albawardi, Nada M.; Alnahdi, Ali H.; Daif, Abdulkader M.; Al-Arfaj, Hussein F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and test the psychometric properties of an Arabic version of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-Ar) that can be used to measure fatigue in Arabic patients with disorders where fatigue is a major symptom. Methods: Forward and backward translations of FSS were undertaken to develop an Arabic version. The validity and reliability of the FSS-Ar was then tested on 28 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 24 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 31 healthy subjects. Exploratory factor analysis and hypothesis testing methods were used to examine construct validity. The correlation between FSS-Ar and the vitality domain of the RAND 36-Item Health was examined to test construct validity. The study was conducted at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between February and June 2012. Results: Using a score of ≥4.05 to define fatigue, 39 of 52 (75%) participants were fatigued compared with 10 out of 31 (32%) healthy participants. The correlation between the FSS-Ar and the vitality domain of the RAND-36 was acceptable (r = -0.46). Factor analysis showed that items of the FSS-Ar measured one underlying construct, namely, fatigue. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the FSS-Ar was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 = 0.80; Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). Conclusion: The Arabic version of the FSS demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and was able to differentiate between patients with SLE or MS, and healthy subjects. PMID:26739978

  8. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    PubMed

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population. PMID:25401983

  9. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs.

    PubMed

    Priehodová, Edita; Abdelsawy, Abdelhay; Heyer, Evelyne; Cerný, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the state enabling the digestion of milk sugar in adulthood, occurs only in some human populations. The convergent and independent origin of this physiological ability in Europe and Africa is linked with animal domestication that either had started in both places independently or had spread from the Near East by acculturation. However, it has recently been shown that at least in its southern parts, the population of Arabia not only has a different LP-associated mutation profile than the rest of Africa and Europe but also had experienced an independent demographic expansion occurring before the Neolithic around the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. In Arabia, LP is associated with mutation -13,915*G and not, as in Europe, with -13,910*T or, as in Africa, with -13,907*G and -14,010*C. We show here that, in Arabia, -13,915*G frequency conforms to a partial clinal pattern and that this specific mutation has likely been spread from Arabia to Africa only recently from the sixth century AD onward by nomadic Arabs (Bedouins) looking for new pastures. Arabic populations in Africa that still maintain a nomadic way of life also have more -13,915*G variants and fewer sub-Saharan L-type mitochondrial DNA haplogroups; this observation matches archaeological and historical records suggesting that the migration of Arabic pastoralists was accompanied by gradual sedentarization that allowed for admixture with the local African population.

  10. Capacity-building activities in the Arab States.

    PubMed

    El Sioufi, M

    1996-03-01

    The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.

  11. United Arab Emirates (UAE): regional and global dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nabeh, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study traces the background and development of the United Arab Emirates as a federal entity in an essentially tribal culture. It also identifies and discusses the political dynamics that form the vital region in which the Union has emerged, the function played by major regional individuals in this emergence, and the importance of this part of the Middle East in the conception of foreign policy makers of the super powers. The issues of the regional economic policies resulted in formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Formation of the GCC was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. One of the conclusions is that the attainment of socio-economic and political development is not a necessary condition for the emergence of a federal structure among highly authoritarian and formalistic political systems. The emergence of the UAE took place mainly as a consequence of the conception by pertinent political elites of the inability of the emirates to individually assume the responsibilities of statehood in a highly complicated world, and in light of the poor material and human resources each commanded after over a century of dependence on a foreign power.

  12. Recruiting and Retaining Arab Muslim Mothers and Children for Research

    PubMed Central

    Aroian, Karen J.; Katz, Anne; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To describe successful and not-so-successful strategies for recruiting and retaining Arab Muslim immigrant women and their adolescent children for research. Design and Methods A longitudinal study of mother-child adjustment of Arab immigrants to the US is used for illustration. A panel of experts was assembled and provided culturally specific advice about gatekeepers, advertising, data collectors, data collection, and how to track and encourage participation at subsequent time points in the study. Findings Most of the strategies recommended by the panel were overwhelmingly positive, including advice about data collectors, how to collect data, financial incentives, avoiding offending families, and personal contacts. Hiring data collectors who were able to establish personal and culturally appropriate relationships with study participants was the single most successful recruitment and retention strategy. Advice from cultural experts about which gatekeepers to engage and how to advertise for study participants was not productive. Conclusions Researchers should not only assemble a panel of cultural experts to provide advice about group specific strategies to build trust and maintain cultural sensitivity, but also to budget generously for time for data collectors to build and maintain rapport with study populations who, like Arab immigrant women, highly value personal relationships. PMID:17044343

  13. Mutation spectrum of Joubert syndrome and related disorders among Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Salem, Salma; Al-Shamsi, Aisha M; Gleeson, Joseph G; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2014-01-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive (AR), neurological condition characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis with the radiological hallmark of molar tooth sign, oculomotor apraxia, recurrent hyperventilation and intellectual disability. Most cases display a broad spectrum of additional features, including polydactyly, retinal dystrophy and renal abnormalities, which define different subtypes of JS-related disorders (JSRDs). To date, 23 genes have been shown to cause JSRDs, and although most of the identified genes encode proteins involved in cilia function or assembly, the molecular mechanisms associated with ciliary signaling remain enigmatic. Arab populations are ethnically diverse with high levels of consanguinity (20–60%) and a high prevalence of AR disorders. In addition, isolated communities with very-high levels of inbreeding and founder mutations are common. In this article, we review the 70 families reported thus far with JS and JSRDs that have been studied at the molecular level from all the Arabic countries and compile the mutations found. We show that JS and the related JSRDs are genetically heterogeneous in Arabs, with 53 mutations in 15 genes. Thirteen of these mutations are potentially founder mutations for the region. PMID:27081510

  14. Writer adaptation in off-line Arabic handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2008-01-01

    Writer adaptation or specialization is the adjustment of handwriting recognition algorithms to a specific writer's style of handwriting. Such adjustment yields significantly improved recognition rates over counterpart general recognition algorithms. We present the first unconstrained off-line handwriting adaptation algorithm for Arabic presented in the literature. We discuss an iterative bootstrapping model which adapts a writer-independent model to a writer-dependent model using a small number of words achieving a large recognition rate increase in the process. Furthermore, we describe a confidence weighting method which generates better results by weighting words based on their length. We also discuss script features unique to Arabic, and how we incorporate them into our adaptation process. Even though Arabic has many more character classes than languages such as English, significant improvement was observed. The testing set consisting of about 100 pages of handwritten text had an initial average overall recognition rate of 67%. After the basic adaptation was finished, the overall recognition rate was 73.3%. As the improvement was most marked for the longer words, and the set of confidently recognized longer words contained many fewer false results, a second method was presented using them alone, resulting in a recognition rate of about 75%. Initially, these words had a 69.5% recognition rate, improving to about a 92% recognition rate after adaptation. A novel hybrid method is presented with a rate of about 77.2%.

  15. Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe-Uva, Terhemba Nom

    2007-01-01

    Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN's basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and…

  16. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status among Arabs and Koreans in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p < .001), education (β = .239, p < .001), and gender (β = .238, p < .001) were significant determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in multivariate analysis. Ethnicity and religious attendance were not significant determinants. Education level had a moderating effect; for those with a lower educational level, psychological distress had a stronger negative effect on health behavior. Findings suggest considering cultural aspects, such as different values placed on physical fitness and social/interpersonal relationships, in developing and implementing health education and/or promotion programs. Assessment of psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) should also be included in health promotion programs and related health policies for Korean migrants and Arab nationals in the UAE.

  17. Euro-Arab School of Oncology: an educational collaborative activity of the European School of Oncology with the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Nicholas; Nicholas, Pavlidis; Gadallah, Mohsen; Mohsen, Gadallah; Cavalli, Franco; Franco, Cavalli; Costa, Alberto; Alberto, Costa

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we report on the new endeavor of the European School of Oncology to offer collaborative educational activity to the Arab oncologists. We present the 4-year detailed programme held in different Middle East countries with the organization of master classes, advanced courses, or symposia as well as the fellowship programme and the press media events. In addition, we assess the evaluation questionnaires given to the participants during the courses. PMID:20405354

  18. Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status among Arabs and Koreans in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jun; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Koh, Chin-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Cultural variations among ethnic groups may differentially influence health and health behavior. We explored and compared health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and psychological status, including depression, anxiety, and stress, among Korean migrants (n = 117) and Arab nationals (n = 103) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pender's Health Promotion Model guided this research. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile was used to measure health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to measure psychological status. The data were analyzed using bivariate procedures and multiple linear regression. No group differences were found in total scores for health-promoting lifestyle behaviors or psychological status. Both groups scored high on self-actualization and interpersonal support; Arabs scored low on exercise, and Koreans scored low on health responsibility. Across groups, psychological status (β = -.390, p < .001), education (β = .239, p < .001), and gender (β = .238, p < .001) were significant determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in multivariate analysis. Ethnicity and religious attendance were not significant determinants. Education level had a moderating effect; for those with a lower educational level, psychological distress had a stronger negative effect on health behavior. Findings suggest considering cultural aspects, such as different values placed on physical fitness and social/interpersonal relationships, in developing and implementing health education and/or promotion programs. Assessment of psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) should also be included in health promotion programs and related health policies for Korean migrants and Arab nationals in the UAE. PMID:25620727

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tailakh, Ayman; Mentes, Janet C.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pike, Nancy A.; Phillips, Linda R.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death in the United States. Hypertension detection and blood pressure (BP) control are critically important for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction and strokes. Although there are more than 3.5 million Arab Americans in the United States, there are no national or regional data on HTN prevalence among Arab Americans. Objective This study aims to estimate the prevalence of HTN in a community sample of Arab Americans; assess levels of awareness, treatment, and control in hypertensive patients; and describe and compare lifestyle behaviors (eg, physical activity, nutrition, and weight control). Methods In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, 126 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to measure physical activity, nutrition, and medical history. Height and weight were measured. Three BP measurements were obtained at 60-second intervals after resting for 5 minutes. Hypertension was defined as a mean systolic BP of 140 mm Hg or higher, or a diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or higher, and/or taking antihypertensive medications. Results Overall, 36.5% of participants had HTN and 39.7% had pre-HTN. Among hypertensive participants, only 67.4% were aware of their high BP, and 52.2% were taking antihypertensive medication. Among those taking medication, 46% had controlled BP. The prevalence of HTN was higher in men than in women (45.9% and 23.2%, respectively; P = .029) and increased with age (P = .01). Hypertensive participants also had higher body mass index (mean, 31.55 kg/m2) compared with normotensive participants (mean, 28.37 kg/m2; P = .01). Conclusion Our results indicate that HTN and pre-HTN are highly prevalent in Arab Americans. Hypertension awareness and control rates were inadequate and low compared with national data. These results emphasize the urgent need to develop public health strategies to improve the prevention, detection, and treatment of

  20. 77 FR 72254 - Petition for Inclusion of the Arab-American Community in the Groups Eligible for MBDA Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... petition from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee requesting formal designation as a group... Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) requesting formal designation of Arab-Americans as a minority...