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Sample records for arabia terra mars

  1. Syrtis Major and Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has, in fact, three cameras. The narrow angle system obtains monochrome (black-and-white) super-high resolution views of the red planet, while the wide angle system obtains regional and global views in both the red and blue portions of the visible spectrum (to make a color image, the red and blue are averaged to obtain the green channel). The picture shown here is a composite of 9 color strips taken by the MOC on 9 successive orbits from pole-to-pole over the planet during the calibration phase of the mission in March 1999. The large, circular bright region that dominates the scene is Arabia Terra. Syrtis Major is the dark region toward the lower right. The north polar cap is visible at the top, and the bright feature at the lower right is the Hellas Basin. The color in this picture is computer-enhanced and is not shown as it would actually appear to the human eye.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  2. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  3. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  4. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  5. Evidence for explosive volcanism in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph; Bleacher, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae exhibit a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. They were likely active in the Late Noachian or Early Hesperian and would have affected the climate, atmospheric composition, and regional surface geology at that time. Lavas extruded from these calderas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra, but these volcanoes do not exhibit shield-like topographic profiles related to the sustained, localized effusive eruption of basaltic lava. We suggest that the lack of a single edifice, the large volume of collapse within an associated with the calderas, and the association of the calderas with vast deposits friable clastic deposits all indicate that these volcanoes were dominated by explosive activity. Layered, friable deposits found throughout Arabia Terra have enigmatic origins, though these materials have been suggested to represent volcanic ash. Attempts to link the locations of various friable deposits in equatorial regions to known volcanic sources have demonstrated that this hypothesis is plausible, but a link between friable deposits and known volcanic sources in this particular region (Arabia Terra) has yet to emerge. We suggest that some of the layered, friable materials were sourced from calderas in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and water from these calderas would have contributed to the alteration of layered clastic materials in Arabia Terra, and perhaps throughout the equatorial region.

  6. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carlton C; Oehler, Dorothy Z

    2008-12-01

    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs. This interpretation is based on comprehensive geomorphologic analysis coupled with assessment of multiple hypotheses. The structures identified extend across several kilometers and are exceptional in that nothing with their detail and scale has been reported from Mars. The deposits are associated with an extensive fracture system that may have facilitated upward flow of warm fluids. Several additional spring-like features occur in Vernal Crater, and it is possible that these are part of a major province of spring activity. Since springs are environments where life could have evolved on Mars, where that life could have found refuge as the climate became colder and drier, and where signatures of that life may be preserved, Vernal Crater may be a site of major astrobiological importance.

  7. Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars - First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dotoyhy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Methane has been measured in the Martian atmosphere at concentrations of approx. 10 ppb. Since the photochemical lifetime of this gas is approx. 300 years, it is likely that methane is currently being released from the surface. Possible sources for the methane include 1) hydrothermal activity, 2) serpentinization of basalts and other water-rock interactions, 3) thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter, and 4) metabolism of living bacteria. Any such discovery would revolutionize our understanding of Mars. Longitudinal variations in methane concentration, as measured by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) on Mars Express, show the highest values over Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum, and Arcadia-Memnonia, suggesting localized areas of methane release. We are using orbital data and methodologies derived from petroleum exploration in an attempt to locate these release points.

  8. Hints at diapirism in Arabia Terra craters, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Riccardo; Pio Rossi, Angelo; Massironi, Matteo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pondrelli, Monica; Marinangeli, Lucia; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Arabia Terra is a region of Mars located at the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands and classically dominated by heavily cratered terrain. Unlike the rest of the topographic dichotomy on the planet, in Arabia Terra the elevation transition is very gentle, falling of 4 km over a distance of 2500 km (average slope = 0.0016°). Most of the impact craters within the region display a central bulge, bearing a well preserved stratification and a wide range of smaller morphologies like pitted cones, mounds and knobs (Franchi et al. 2013). Images acquired by HiRISE and CTX cameras on board MRO provided a comprehensive dataset in which also these small features can be easily recognized. These are tens of meters of diameter and tens of meters high, and many of them show an apical orifice. They are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid flow (e.g. Pondrelli et al., 2011; Rossi et al., 2008). Indeed an active underground fluid flow activity in Arabia Terra It has been recently hypothesized (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al, 2011) , being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation, due to local water table emergence (e.g. Franchi et al., 2013). To date, there is no clear explanation for occurrence of central bulges surrounded by prominent depressions in Arabia craters. In addition, in Firsoff and Crommelin craters it is possible to recognize folds and outward dipping strata on the central bulges and their surroundings. Interestingly, a few craters with a prominent bulged floor elsewhere in Arabia Terra do not display stratification and are not explainable as impact related structures as their expected pristine central peak derived by hydrocode modelling is ~2km lower and one third the diameter than the actual topography (Pozzobon et al., 2013). All these evidences are not consistent with a typical lacustrine stratigraphic environment, whether interested by sulfate precipitation or not, and suggest active deformation after or

  9. Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image shows deposits in a crater located in Arabia Terra. Arabia is generally dust covered and dark streaks or dust avalanches are present in the crater walls. The dominant geologic process acting in this crater interior is wind erosion. The central crater deposits are eroded to form yardangs, or linear wind-sculpted hills that resemble an inverted boat hull. Deflation and abrasion are capable of eroding rock structures that are aligned parallel to wind direction. In the lower right hand side of the crater, a dark deposit has formed barchan dunes. These crescent shaped dunes have 'horns' that point downwind indicating general northwest to southeast wind direction. These dark sands probably played a role in the erosion and formation of the yardangs.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) in Northern Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh Shallow Valleys (FSVs) on Mars are part of a growing inventory of post-Noachian landforms that may be related to late, widespread aqueous activity that occurred during a period once thought to be less favorable for precipitation and runoff. Constraining the source, magnitude, timing and duration of FSVs will provide insight into the mechanism and extent of fluvial activity on Mars and the geologic and climatic environments in which they formed. Unlike the older Noachian-Hesperian valleys that are characterized by integrated, dissected and degraded networks that cover large spatial extents, FSVs are typically narrow, short or discontinuous valleys with low drainage densities. They are generally incised no more than a few decameters, slightly degraded at multi-meter scales, and cluster in the mid-latitudes (35-50° in both hemispheres). A high concentration of FSVs occurs in Northern Arabia Terra (~33°N, 8°E), a Noachian-aged landscape characterized by broad, irregular depressions. Many of the FSVs in this region are 150+ km long and some appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water at the time of formation. Examples of broad, flat floored FSVs with incised channels could either indicate a complex history of a single flow event or multiple flow events. The occurrence of "pollywogs," fairly fresh, small (typically 2-10 km in diameter) craters with a single channel extending from the rim outward, implies overflow of the crater, the presence of a deep lake and the involvement of artesian groundwater flow. Roughly 25% of the FSVs in our northern Arabia Terra study region occur on relatively fresh crater ejecta, which may be related to formation age, topography, surface materials and (or) substrate. Ejecta with dense concentrations of FSVs average 25.5 km in diameter, have more degraded crater interiors, and well developed petal-like ejecta. Ejecta with sparse or no FSVs have radial ejecta with less distinct petals and are associated with

  11. Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-19

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey covers a region in western Arabia Terra, which contains two interesting craters. The eastern floor of the largest crater seen in most of this image is bumpy and ridged in places and relatively smooth in regions.

  12. Arabia Terra: A partial multi-ring structure around the Borealis impact basin on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The crust of Mars can be divided into four large-scale physiographic provinces: the southern highlands, northern lowlands, Tharsis, and Arabia Terra. Tharsis is a volcanic province superimposed over the ancient crustal dichotomy. The elliptical shape of the dichotomy boundary and bimodal crustal thickness distribution between the highlands and lowlands suggest that the dichotomy formed in a giant impact, with the northern lowlands representing the ancient Borealis impact basin. This leaves Arabia Terra as the one large-scale physiographic province on Mars whose origin still defies explanation. Arabia Terra has been commonly grouped with the southern highlands because of its ancient cratered surface, though it exhibits lower topography and a thinner crust than typical of the highlands. Arabia Terra is separated from both the highlands and the lowlands by distinct breaks in slope, with the southern edge lying approximately parallel to the northern edge at a distance from the Borealis basin center of approximately 1.57 times the basin radius. A strong topographic similarity to multi-ring structures around other giant impact basins suggests a similar origin for this province. Multi-ring structures can be identified on the basis of either geologic characteristics, such as scarps and massifs, or the long-wavelength topographic structure. For the largest and most ancient basins, only this large-scale topographic signature is preserved. Azimuthally averaged topographic profiles through a number of lunar and martian multi-ring basins reveal a diagnostic structural commonality: an outer ring is expressed as an inwards facing slope at ~1.4 basin radii, which transitions into a gently sloping to concave upwards bench of lower topography before reaching the main basin rim. Based on this simple structural definition, Arabia Terra can be classified as a partial multi-ring structure around the Borealis basin. Preliminary results of finite element models of the collapse of the

  13. The role of groundwater in the origin of the indurated layered deposits of Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Wiseman, S. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    Indurated layered deposits of likely sedimentary origin are widely distributed across the Arabia Terra region of Mars. In situ observations by the MER Opportunity rover of one such deposit in Meridiani Planum have been interpreted to represent grains composed of dirty evaporites that have been extensively reworked by fluvial and aeolian processes in a playa environment and diagenetically modified by a fluctuating water table. Stratigraphic relationships, morphological similarities, and spectral evidence suggest a related origin for the many layered deposits throughout Arabia Terra. Isolated intra-crater deposits, erosional outliers, and pedestal craters suggest that the Arabia Terra deposits were once thicker and more widespread than their current extent. We investigate the origin of these sedimentary deposits using global and regional hydrological models, in which groundwater flow is driven by evaporation where the water table intersects the surface and redistribution of that water as low-latitude precipitation. These models predict focused groundwater upwelling and evaporation in Arabia Terra during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian, driven by its unique topography relative to the adjacent southern highlands and northern lowlands. This hydrological cycle would have brought a steady flux of groundwater to the surface, which upon evaporation, would concentrate any dissolved solutes as a cementing salt that would indurate aeolian material and allow buildup of thick sedimentary deposits. Groundwater upwelling would first be limited to the large craters in the region, resulting in rapid sedimentary infilling by a combination of evaporites and evaporite-cemented clastic material. As the craters were filled, groundwater upwelling would spread out over broad regions of Arabia Terra, producing widespread deposits covering much of the inter-crater plains. The observed distribution and thickness of the deposits agrees with the predictions from the hydrological models

  14. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Barlow, N.G.; Anderson, R.C.; Williams, J.-P.; Miyamoto, H.; Ferris, J.C.; Strom, R.G.; Taylor, G.J.; Fairen, A.G.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Keller, J.M.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Hare, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible ancient giant basin and related water enrichment in the Arabia Terra province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, James M.; Barlow, Nadine G.; Anderson, Robert C.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Miyamoto, Hirdy; Ferris, Justin C.; Strom, Robert G.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Fairén, Alberto G.; Baker, Victor R.; Boynton, William V.; Keller, John M.; Kerry, Kris; Janes, Daniel; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Hare, Trent M.

    2007-09-01

    A circular albedo feature in the Arabia Terra province was first hypothesized as an ancient impact basin using Viking-era information. To test this unpublished hypothesis, we have analyzed the Viking era-information together with layers of new data derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (MO) missions. Our analysis indicates that Arabia Terra is an ancient geologic province of Mars with many distinct characteristics, including predominantly Noachian materials, a unique part of the highland-lowland boundary, a prominent paleotectonic history, the largest region of fretted terrain on the planet, outflow channels with no obvious origins, extensive exposures of eroded layered sedimentary deposits, and notable structural, albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures. The province also is marked by special impact crater morphologies, which suggest a persistent volatile-rich substrate. No one characteristic provides definitive answers to the dominant event(s) that shaped this unique province. Collectively the characteristics reported here support the following hypothesized sequence of events in Arabia Terra: (1) an enormous basin, possibly of impact origin, formed early in martian history when the magnetic dynamo was active and the lithosphere was relatively thin, (2) sediments and other materials were deposited in the basin during high erosion rates while maintaining isostatic equilibrium, (3) sediments became water enriched during the Noachian Period, and (4) basin materials were uplifted in response to the growth of the Tharsis Bulge, resulting in differential erosion exposing ancient stratigraphic sequences. Parts of the ancient basin remain water-enriched to the present day.

  16. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.A.; Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. A new perspective on ancient martian volcanism: evidence for supervolcanoes in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.; Wright, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    While many Hesperian and Amazonian volcanic constructs on Mars are easily recognizable from their shield morphologies, significantly less is known about ancient (Noachian and earliest Hesperian) martian volcanism. Yet, heat flow in the martian crust was higher in the Noachian and therefore the planet was likely more magmatically active [1]. It is possible that Noachian volcanic constructs have largely escaped detection because higher erosion rates on ancient Mars destroyed geomorphological evidence for their existence. However, another possibility exists: some ancient volcanoes on Mars might have been of a fundamentally different character compared to well known, younger shield volcanoes because of an explosive nature of the more ancient ones. We present evidence for ancient supervolcanoes within the Arabia Terra region of Mars. Several large (~20-70 km-diameter) craters within Arabia Terra display little or no evidence for impact origins and exhibit various degrees of evidence for volcanism. These structures, which we term 'plains style caldera complexes,' show no evidence for preserved ejecta, raised rims, inverted stratigraphy, or central peaks that could be attributed to meteor impact-related processes. While it is possible that any evidence for impact origins was removed by erosion, we consider this unlikely because crater degradation generally leads to lower depth-diameter ratios [2] and these structures have high depth-diameter ratios, comparable to values for unmodified craters [3]. In fact, erosion has been low enough to preserve various pieces of evidence for volcanism associated with the structures, such as association with ridged plains lavas, possible vent structures, evidence for lava lakes in some cases, and association with sagging crust possibly related to magma migration or withdrawal. Taken together, these structures represent a newly recognized type of volcanism on Mars dominated by explosive volcanism and structural collapse. They occur within

  18. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  19. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  20. Layered Deposits of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum: Keys to the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Paris, Kristen N.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the habitability of ancient Mars is a key goal in the exploration of that planet. Evidence for conditions favorable to early life must be sought in ancient sedimentary rocks, such as those of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum. Arabia Terra, the northernmost extension of the ancient highlands, is dominated by cratered plains and minor ridged units. These plains extend south into the adjacent Meridiani Planum. The Opportunity rover landed in northern Meridiani, close to the border with Arabia. High resolution MOC images reveal extensive layered sequences across much of the Arabia and Meridiani region. These layers have been interpreted as eroded remnants of sedimentary rock deposits (Edgett, 2005). The layered sequences are concentrated in the SW quadrant of Arabia and in northern Meridiani. Preliminary mapping by Edgett (2005) distinguished four large scale layered sequences in the Arabia and Meridiani region. These have dimensions of hundreds to more than 1,000 km. MOLA altimetry shows that each of the sequences can attain a thickness of 200 to 400 m, with a total thickness greater than 1 km. The sequences are generally flat lying, with regional slopes of a few degrees. Much finer layering is evident within a number of craters. The plains and ridged units of the Arabia and Meridiani region were originally mapped as Noachian based on crater statistics, particularly the number of large craters (Scott and Carr, 1978). The layered sequences in the current study postdate many, but not all, of these large craters. The layered sequences have partially or totally filled a number of craters with diameters ranging from 20 to over 50 km. The topmost layered sequence, as well as the lower two sequences, have intermediate thermal inertia, as derived from THEMIS, indicative of moderate induration. The TES spectra from the lower sequences include features indicative of basalt. Some areas of the topmost sequence, which includes the Opportunity landing site, have TES

  1. Layered Deposits of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum: Keys to the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Paris, K. N.; Venechuk, E. M.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the habitability of ancient Mars is a key goal in the exploration of that planet. Evidence for conditions favorable to early life must be sought in ancient sedimentary rocks, such as those of Arabia Terra and Meridiani Planum. Arabia Terra, the northernmost extension of the ancient highlands, is dominated by cratered plains and minor ridged units. These plains extend south into the adjacent Meridiani Planum. The Opportunity rover landed in northern Meridiani, close to the border with Arabia. High resolution MOC images reveal extensive layered sequences across much of the Arabia and Meridiani region. These layers have been interpreted as eroded remnants of sedimentary rock deposits (Edgett, 2005). The layered sequences are concentrated in the SW quadrant of Arabia and in northern Meridiani. Preliminary mapping by Edgett (2005) distinguished four large scale layered sequences in the Arabia and Meridiani region. These have dimensions of hundreds to more than 1,000 km. MOLA altimetry shows that each of the sequences can attain a thickness of 200 to 400 m, with a total thickness greater than 1 km. The sequences are generally flat lying, with regional slopes of a few degrees. Much finer layering is evident within a number of craters. The plains and ridged units of the Arabia and Meridiani region were originally mapped as Noachian based on crater statistics, particularly the number of large craters (Scott and Carr, 1978). The layered sequences in the current study postdate many, but not all, of these large craters. The layered sequences have partially or totally filled a number of craters with diameters ranging from 20 to over 50 km. The topmost layered sequence, as well as the lower two sequences, have intermediate thermal inertia, as derived from THEMIS, indicative of moderate induration. The TES spectra from the lower sequences include features indicative of basalt. Some areas of the topmost sequence, which includes the Opportunity landing site, have TES

  2. Geomorphologic Interpretation of Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars: Evidence of Regional, Long- Duration Fluvial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Wilkinson, J.

    2007-12-01

    Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars, is home to seven candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites and is immediately north of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity in Meridiani Planum. Some of the strongest evidence for the past presence of liquid water exists in this region: the strong hematite signals from Meridiani revealed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) as well as evidence of layering and analyses of rocks that must have formed in the presence of water by Opportunity. To better understand this region and the context for the potential MSL landing sites, a detailed geologic map was produced during the summer of 2007. The numerous exposed layers present in southwest Arabia Terra reveal a vast history of deposition and erosion. Of particular interest is the widespread geologic unit containing sinuous, inverted ridges of varying lengths, widths, and orientations. This ridge-forming unit appears to have once been dominant throughout much of the study region. Since its original formation, deposition and erosion have obscured or removed sections of this unit to produce the fragmented and discontinuous pattern that we see today. Analyses of these inverted ridges suggest that they are sedimentary in nature and are likely to be the cemented and hardened remains of ancient stream channels. One analog we are considering is that of a terrestrial megafan. Megafans, which are relatively new concepts in geology, are onshore sedimentary features laid down by rivers over extended periods of time. They are defined as major, regional geomorphic forms (similar to alluvial fans) that are greater than 100 kilometers in radius and typically have a slope of less than 1º. They differ from alluvial fans in main stream behavior; streams in alluvial fans will quickly split into numerous smaller streams while streams that form megafans remain as one continuous stream. The comparison of the ridged-unit to a terrestrial megafan is based on several features including the

  3. Subsidence and Collapse Activity in Arabia Terra, Mars: Which Link with Magmatic Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Howard, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Collapsed terrains have been observed using Viking images in the northern part of Arabia Terra from Ismenius Lacus to Deuteronilus Mensae. Recent interpretations of some of these depressions as explosive volcanoes (Michalski and Bleacher, 2013) have renewed the interest for this region. However, recent observations also show the discovery in this region of a series of outflow channels named Okavango Valles (Mangold and Howard, 2013). These channels formed in the Hesperian through catastrophic flows having deposited sediments as deltas in ephemeral lakes. The source area of these channels takes place in a region of widespread depressions and local collapse pits. A continuum of landforms exists from broad depressions (~100 km in length and 100s m in depth) and sharper collapse structures (<100 km in diameter). Given the link between these depressions and the presence of outflow channels, we interpret the collapse structures as resulting from a specific lithology with volatile-rich sediments (or megaregolith) buried at depth. Collapse may be due either to the melting of subsurface ice, or subsurface flows triggered by a change in the groundwater table, or the (less likely) dissolution of buried chemical sediments. Magmatic activity is not excluded: a regionally enhanced thermal flux during the Hesperian could have triggered ground ice melting, and could have initiated subsidence subsequently, but explosive volcanism at the surface is not necessary to explain the presence of large collapsed terrains. Michalski, J. and J. Bleacher, 2013. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars, Nature, doi:10.1038/nature12482 Mangold N., and A. D. Howard, 2013. Outflow channels with deltaic deposits in Ismenius Lacus, Mars, Icarus, doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.040

  4. Arabia Terra Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Accumulations of thick dust give way down slopes, crater walls, and other steep terrain, leaving the dark streaks that are common in the dusty region of Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.7, Longitude 20.3 East (339.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  5. Layered Sediments, Rampart Craters, and Potential Fluvio-Lacustrine Activity in S.W. Arabia Terra, Mars: Support for a History of Aqueous Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; Venechuk, E. M.; Paris, K. N.

    2007-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a unique area on Mars in that it is the only major, equatorial region characterized by high abundances of near-surface water (as measured by gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy). Vernal Crater is a 55 km-diameter structure in southwest Arabia Terra, centered at 6 N, 355.5 E. The crater includes layered sediments, potential remnants of fluvio-lacustrine activity, and indications of aeolian processes. Regional considerations, along with new THEMIS and MOC data, are being assessed to gain insight into the significance of the geomorphic units within Vernal Crater and the geologic history of SW Arabia Terra.

  6. Aram Dorsum, Candidate ExoMars Rover Landing Site: a Noachian Inverted Fluvial Channel System in Arabia Terra Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Grindrod, Peter; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Davis, Joel; Gupta, Sanjeev; Fawdon, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Much of Mars' Noachian-aged southern highlands is dissected by systems of fluvial channels and valleys > 3.7 Ga in age. Arabia Terra, lying between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, is similarly ancient, yet apparently has few valley networks. This regional lack of valley networks only matches Noachian precipitation predictions from climate models if the Noachian climate was dry and cold [1]. In this scenario, highlands dissection was caused by transient flows of meltwater from large, regionally restricted ice-bodies. However, new results [2,3] show that Arabia Terra is not as poorly dissected as previously thought, and in fact there are extensive networks of inverted channel systems. Here, we describe an example of such a system - Aram Dorsum - which has been studied extensively as an ExoMars Rover candidate landing site. Aram Dorsum is an ~100 km long, 1-2 km wide, branching, flat-topped ridge system, in western Arabia Terra. We have mapped the system using CTX images, DEMs and other data. We interpret the ridge system to be fluvial in origin, preserved in positive relief due to infill and differential erosion; this working hypothesis is used as a conceptual framework for the study. Aram Dorsum is a branching, multi-level, contributory network, set in surrounding floodplains-like material. This demonstrates that it was a relatively long-lived, aggradational fluvial system, rather than an erosional outflow or bedrock-carved fluvial channel. Interestingly, the system shows little evidence for unconfined lateral channel migration, so there must have been significant bank stability. Aram Dorsum was therefore probably once a sizable river and, as just one example of many similar systems, is an exemplar for the middle part of a regional sediment transport system that could have extended from the southern highlands to the northern lowlands. Like Aram Dorsum, many of these other recently-recognized fluvial systems have an origin more consistent with

  7. Heart-Shaped Feature in Arabia Terra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-14

    This picture of a heart-shaped feature in Arabia Terra on Mars was taken on May 23, 2010, by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. A small impact crater near the tip of the heart is responsible for the formation of the bright, heart-shaped feature.

  8. Implications for the Daily Variation and the Low Value of Thermal Inertia at Arabia Terra on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, T.; Saruya, T.; Kurita, K.

    2010-12-01

    Active nature of the Martian surface is considered to be responsible for various styles of the atmosphere-surface interaction. Here, we propose an idea to interpret the daily variation and the low value of thermal inertia at Arabia Terra on Mars. Thermal inertia calculated with the surface temperature obtained by remote sensing exhibits daily variation and seasonal variation. Putzig and Mellon [1] suggested that horizontal or vertical heterogeneity may yield apparent thermal inertia which varies with time of day and season. However, their interpretation couldn’t completely explain the extent and the phase of the temporal variation of thermal inertia at Arabia Terra. We would like to propose another possibility to explain the characteristics of the thermal inertia at Arabia Terra. In addition, the value of thermal inertia is extremely low at Arabia Terra. Daytime thermal inertia at Arabia Terra is as low as 20 tiu [1,2], which is lower than the value of thermal inertia of 1 micron dust aggregates ( 61 tiu [3]). To explain these characteristics of Arabia Terra, we proposed an idea that condensation and sublimation of water ice at the granular surface cause the daily variation and the low value of the thermal inertia at Arabia Terra. At nighttime, water vapor condenses at the surface. Immediately after sunrise, water ice at the surface sublimates. Electric force and sublimating gas pressure could affect the porosity of the surface. We suppose that the daily variation of the thermal inertia is caused by presence of deposition/removal of water ice and the low value of the thermal inertia is caused by the higher value of the bulk porosity than random close packing. To substantiate the above model, there remain four main questions to be answered. 1) Is there sufficient water vapor at the atmosphere above Arabia Terra?, 2) Does the sufficient amount of water condense at the surface during the night?, 3) Can water vapor and other factors make the surface porosity higher

  9. Geologic map transecting the highland/lowland boundary zone, Arabia Terra, Mars; quadrangles 30332, 35332, 40332, and 45332

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a large region of cratered terrane extending from about 20° W. longitude eastward across the prime meridian to about 300° W. longitude for an average east-west width of about 5,000 km. The northern boundary ranges from 40° N. to 45° N.; the southern boundary is a poorly defined zone at about 0° N. Thus, the north-south width is about 2,500 km. Except for the westernmost part, Arabia Terra has an albedo higher than surrounding terranes. The four quadrangles mapped (30332, 35332, 40332, 45332) provide a north-south strip from highland terrane in the south to lowland terrane in the north. The northern portion of Arabia Terra is the type region for both fretted terrane and fretted valleys and, along with the immediately adjacent northern plains, is also the site of some of the best examples of putative flow deposits present as aprons around isolated knobs and mesas or as deposits on the floors of fretted valleys and on the lowland surface. Mass wasting, eolian erosion or deposition, glacial scouring, fluvial or shoreline erosion, deposition from an ocean, hydrovolcanism, plateau volcanism, and faulting have all been proposed to account for the topography and crater characteristics in northern Arabia Terra. Although underlain by what appears to be typical highland terrane, Arabia Terra is anomalously low, with elevations generally below the planetary reference. Probably the most important question concerning the global-scale tectonic history of Mars is the origin of the crustal dichotomy. The northern lowland is not only several kilometers lower than the southern highland, it also is surfaced by materials that are significantly younger than surface materials in the southern highland. The young surface materials in the lowland rest unconformably on basement material having an age comparable to the exposed ancient highland terrane to the south. The age of the dichotomy continues to be controversial, as does the mechanism for its formation, as reviewed

  10. Arabia Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-09

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Arabia Terra. A dark blue tone in this false color image is often associated with basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 12307 Latitude: 3.44332 Longitude: 5.97644 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2004-09-22 18:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19794

  11. Geometry, stratigraphy and evidences for fluid expulsion within Crommelin crater deposits, Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, F.; Rossi, A. P.; Pondrelli, M.; Cavalazzi, B.

    2014-03-01

    Conical mounds and furrows are widely interpreted as the morphological evidences of fluids expulsion on the martian surface. In the Crommelin crater (equatorial Arabia Terra) furrows and conical mounds are exhumed within light-toned equatorial layered deposits (ELDs). Aim of this paper is to describe these landforms and discuss their potential relations with water upwelling in Crommelin area. A comparative study of some of the morphologies hosted in the Crommelin area deposits have been performed by using multiple datasets (CTX, HRSC, MOLA, HiRISE). Then examples of spring and conical mounds on Earth was examined for comparison with analog structures on Mars. In this work thickness and geometries of the crater filling sediment packages have been calculated. Stratigraphic contacts and relations have been also reported in Crommelin area revised geological map, and mound clusters, potentially fluid-related morphologies, from Crommelin, Firsoff and Southern crater have been detailed. The morphometric and morphological analyses revealed that mounds and other structures occur where the ELDs are thicker and crudely layered. In addition, orthorectified imagery and high-resolution topography indicated the presence of conical mounds within the upper portion of ELDs near the craters rims. Mounds show apical holes and are linked to elongated structures resembling veins and dikes. Elongated structures (furrows) and concentric strata pattern that we refer to as ridge-and-through, were described inside to Crommelin crater. MOLA-based DEMs revealed that these morphologies developed within a flat topography and are inconsistent with gravitative processes. The results suggest that the inferred sediments package was likely part of an extensive zone of groundwater upwelling. This long-wavelength flow controlled water and sediments supply into the study area, probably during a major climate shift. Fluid expulsion processes were recognized as a relevant process in the formation of these

  12. Low Albedo Surfaces and Eolian Sediment: Mars Orbiter Camera Views of Western Arabia Terra Craters and Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    High spatial resolution (1.5 to 12 m/pixel) Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera images obtained September 1997 through June 2001 indicate that the large, dark wind streaks of western Arabia Terra each originate at a barchan dune field on a crater floor. The streaks consist of a relatively thin coating of sediment deflated from the dune fields and their vicinity. This sediment drapes a previous mantle that more thickly covers nearly all of western Arabia Terra. No dunes or eolian bedforms are found within the dark wind streaks, nor do any of the intracrater dunes climb up crater walls to provide sand to the wind streaks. The relations between dunes, wind streak, and subjacent terrain imply that dark-toned grains finer than those which comprise the dunes are lifted into suspension and carried out of the craters to be deposited on the adjacent terrain. Such grains are most likely in the silt size range (3.9-62.5 micrometers). The streaks change in terms of extent, relative albedo, and surface pattern over periods measured in years, but very little evidence for recent eolian activity (dust plumes, storms, dune movement) has been observed.

  13. Sedimentary Rocks and Methane - Southwest Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Venechuk, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose to land the Mars Science Laboratory in southwest Arabia Terra to study two key aspects of martian history the extensive record of sedimentary rocks and the continuing release of methane. The results of this exploration will directly address the MSL Scientific Objectives regarding biological potential, geology and geochemistry, and past habitability.

  14. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  15. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale will be used to characterize geologic processes that have shaped the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary will provide the ability to: 1) further test original dichotomy formation hypotheses, 2) constrain ancient paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) evaluate various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The result will be two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  16. The sedimentology and dynamics of crater-affiliated wind streaks in western Arabia Terra, Mars and Patagonia, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Yamamoto, A.; Berman, D.C.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Kargel, J.S.; Sasaki, S.; Jinguo, Y.; Miyamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    Wind streaks comprise recent aeolian deposits that have been extensively documented on Venus, Earth and Mars. Martian wind streaks are among the most abundant surface features on the planet and commonly extend from the downwind margins of impact craters. Previous studies of wind streaks emerging from crater interior deposits suggested that the mode of emplacement was primarily related to the deposition of silt-sized particles as these settled from plumes. We have performed geologic investigations of two wind streaks clusters; one situated in western Arabia Terra, a region in the northern hemisphere of Mars, and another in an analogous terrestrial site located in southern Patagonia, Argentina, where occurrences of wind streaks emanate from playas within maar craters. In both these regions we have identified bedforms in sedimentary deposits on crater floors, along wind-facing interior crater margins, and along wind streaks. These observations indicate that these deposits contain sand-sized particles and that sediment migration has occurred via saltation from crater interior deposits to wind streaks. In Arabia Terra and in Patagonia wind streaks initiate from crater floors that contain lithic and evaporitic sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the composition of wind streak source materials has played an important role in development. Spatial and topographic analyses suggest that regional clustering of wind streaks in the studied regions directly correlates to the areal density of craters with interior deposits, the degree of proximity of these deposits, and the craters' rim-to-floor depths. In addition, some (but not all) wind streaks within the studied clusters have propagated at comparable yearly (Earth years) rates. Extensive saltation is inferred to have been involved in its propagation based on the studied terrestrial wind streak that shows ripples and dunes on its surface and the Martian counterpart changes orientation toward the downslope direction where it

  17. Depositional environments and architecture of the ELDs in Arabia Terra (Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A. P.; Le Deit, L.; Fueten, F.; van Gasselt, S.; Hauber, E.; Pozzobon, R.

    2016-12-01

    The genesis of the Equatorial light-toned sulphate-bearing layered deposits (ELDs) in Arabia Terra has been longly debated with many processes/environments proposed (including aeolian, airfall, lacustrine, volcanic, playa, spring deposits and combinations among these) and different depositional geometries inferred (with different degrees of erosional overprint). Because of the position of Arabia Terra as a low-dipping connection between Highlands and Lowlands, the depositional environment(s) of the ELDs might have implications at a supra-regional scale either in term of lateral transitions and controls on deposition. We continued our work aimed at enquire the stratigraphy, depositional geometry and composition of the ELDs in the area surrounding Firsoff crater. Here ELDs are well exposed both in the craters, including the 80 to 100 km large ones such as Crommelin and Firsoff to some smaller ones roughly 20 km across, and in the plateau. The depositional geometry of the ELDs, although heavily affected by aeolian erosion, can still be reconstructed. It consists of crater bulges up to thousand meters thick within the complex craters while in the smaller craters the bodies appear to be roughly tabular like in the plateau, but showing a much thicker successions (hundreds vs tens of meters). This implies that the accommodation space was thicker in the craters than outside, which in turn suggest a base level related to a water-controlled depositional system. Despite the common characters (i.e., light tone, layering, meter-scale polygonal pattern, dish-shaped depressions), ELDs show remarkable difference not only in their depositional architecture but also in their texture and associated morphologies. Mounds and fissure ridges laterally grading into flat-bedded layered deposits suggesting sourcing from the subsurface are widespread especially in the southern side of the craters but can be found locally also in the plateau. Duneforms and meter-thick cross bedding associated

  18. Fresh Shallow Valleys in Northern Arabia Terra: Evidence for a Late, Widespread Period of Aqueous Activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Grant, J. A., III

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of fresh shallow valleys (FSVs) on Mars occur between ~30-45° in both hemispheres as well as near the equator (e.g., Gale crater and vicinity). FSVs in the northern hemisphere occur along the dichotomy boundary, with the highest concentration in northern Arabia Terra from 35-40°N between 0-20ºE. In this region, FSVs developed both on and away from ejecta of relatively fresh craters, making the direct association between impact processes and formation less likely. Crater statistics and cross-cutting relationships indicate the formation of FSVs terminated prior to about 1.4 Ga, suggesting they may be contemporaneous with alluvial fan and delta formation in the equatorial and mid-latitudes. Many FSV systems are 150+ km long, and in several cases appear to cross depressions that were likely filled with ice or water during FSV formation. Most FSV systems could have formed from a single episode of erosion but incision of the main channel in some locations may imply episodic formation. One long valley system in N. Arabia Terra with an incised channel (100 m wide, up to 10 m deep) yields formative discharges in the range of 100-200 m3/s assuming sand sized particles and a flow depth of 0.25 m, consistent with formation via snowmelt. The grain size is unknown, therefore discharges could range from 10s m3/s for active transport of fine sand to 1000 m3/s for gravel sized grains. Approximately 25 small craters (diameters ranging from ~2-10 km) have single channels extending outward from their rim, implying overflow of the crater and the possible presence of a deep lake. Widespread occurrence of FSVs, their similar morphology, and modest state of degradation is consistent with most forming during one or more global intervals of favorable climate, likely through snowmelt from surface or sub-ice flows during the Hesperian.

  19. Equatorial Layered Deposits in Arabia Terra, Mars: Facies and Process Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Le Deit, L.; Glamoclija, M.; Cavalazzi, B.; Franchi, F.; Fueten, F.; Hauber, E.; Zegers, T.

    2012-12-01

    Genetic mechanisms proposed to explain Equatorial Layered Deposits (ELDs) formation include subglacial volcanism, aeolian/airfall, lacustrine, lacustrine/volcanic and spring-fed deposition. ELDs have been frequently shown to consist of sulfates (e.g. Gendrin et al., 2005) that might form as a response to evaporation in a playa environment (Hoefen et al., 2003) or during spring precipitation (e.g. Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008). The importance of groundwater-dominated hydrological systems was proposed to explain the formation of light-toned deposits in Meridiani Planum and Arabia Terra (e.g. Andrews-Hanna et al. 2007). Additionally, fluid expulsion processes have been invoked to explain the formation of mounds within the light-toned deposits in Arabia Terra (Allen and Oehler, 2008; Rossi et al., 2008; Pondrelli et al., 2011). Potential for habitable conditions of both playa and spring-related settings (Cavalazzi et al., 2007; Glamoclija et al., 2011) coupled with the high preservation potential within sulfates (Panieri et al., 2010), make these deposits a good candidate to understand the potential past habitability of the planet. In order to investigate ELDs genesis, an area in the vicinity of Firsoff crater, where ELDs are present within and outside the craters, was selected for geological mapping and analysis of the landforms and their association using the available dataset, including CRISM in order to infer ELDs composition. Within Firsoff crater, ELDs form a bulge that can be estimated to be at least a few hundred meters thick, while, outside the craters, ELDs form flat-lying deposits. Although heavily eroded by wind and carved by yardangs, several morphologies within the ELDs in the craters seem to be depositional, which would exclude that the entire Firsoff basin had been originally filled by ELDs. Within craters, ELDs consist of roughly meter thick layers draping and onlapping the substratum. They appear affected by polygonal patterns with no

  20. A Sedimentary Platform in Margaritifer Sinus, Meridiani Terra, and Arabia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Irwin, R. P., III; Craddock, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Margaritifer-Meridiani-Arabia highlands-lowlands (H-L) transition has long been recognized as the most fluvially dissected region of Mars. However, the geomorphic evolution of this region remains enigmatic, particularly the origin of the layered deposits of Meridiani Terra and Arabia. We suggest that a portion of this regional slope served as a fluvial depositional platform during the late Noachian.

  1. Heart-Shaped Feature in Arabia Terra Wide View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-14

    This wide-view picture of a heart-shaped feature in Arabia Terra on Mars was taken on May 23, 2010, by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. A small impact crater near the tip of the heart is responsible for the formation of the bright, heart-shaped feature

  2. Thinking Like a Wildcatter: Prospecting for Methane in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2005-01-01

    Methane has been detected in the martian atmosphere at a concentration of approximately 10 ppb. The lifetime of such methane against decomposition by solar radiation is approximately 300 years, strongly suggesting that methane is currently being released to the atmosphere. By analogy to Earth, possible methane sources on Mars include active volcanism, hot springs, frozen methane clathrates, thermally-matured sedimentary organic matter, and extant microbial metabolism. The discovery of any one of these sources would revolutionize our understanding of Mars.

  3. Candidate Landing Site for the Mars Science Laboratory: Vernal Crater, S.W. ARabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, K. N.; Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2007-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched to Mars. The purpose of this mission is to assess biologic potential and geology and to investigate planetary processes of relevance to past habitability. MSL will be able to provide visual, chemical, radiation, and environmental data with its suite of instruments [1]. In order to be selected for the MSL landing site, certain engineering requirements must be met [1] and the area should contain geologic features suggestive of past habitability, so that the overriding science goal of the mission will be attained. There are a total of 33 proposed landing sites as of the first MSL Landing Site Workshop held in Pasadena, CA from May 31st to June 2nd, 2006 [1]. There will be an opportunity to gather high resolution visual and hyperspectral data on all proposed landing sites from the now-orbiting Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) which entered martian orbit and began its main science phase in November of 2006 [2]. The data being gathered are from: the high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE), the context (CTX) camera and the compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer (CRISM) onboard the spacecraft. The footprints of these instruments are centered on a single point, and each proposer must submit these coordinates, along with the coordinates of the proposed landing ellipse. Data from these instruments, along with new MOC images and THEMIS mosaics, will be used to enhance our understanding of the geologic and engineering parameters of each site.

  4. Widespread Layers in Arabia Terra: Implications for Martian Geologic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venechuk, Elizabeth M.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Layered rocks in Arabia Terra have been the focus of several recent papers. Studies have focused on the layers found in crater basins located in the southwest portion of the region. However, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have identified layered deposits across the region. Terrestrial layered rocks are usually sedimentary, and often deposited in water. Thus extensive layered sequences in Arabia Terra may indicate locations of past, major depositional basins on Mars. Other mechanisms can also create layered rocks, or the appearance of layered rocks, including volcanism (both lava flows and ash falls), wind-blown deposits, and wave-cut terraces at shorelines. By identifying where in the region layers occur, and classifying the layers according to morphology and albedo, past depositional environments may be identified. Arabia Terra is characterized by heavily cratered Noachian plains, as well as a rise from -4000 m in the northwest to 4000 m in the southeast (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter [MOLA] datum). This slope may have provided a constraint on sediment deposition and thus layer formation. While most of the region is Noachian in age, a significant percentage of the area is identified as Hesperian. Although the history of the Arabia Terra initially seems to be straightforward cratered plains with several younger units atop them analysis of high-resolution imagery may reveal a more complex history.

  5. Discovery of a Plains Caldera Complex and Extinct Lava Lake in Arabia Terra, Mars: Implications for the Discovery of Additional Highland Volcanic Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob; Michalski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped topographic depressions occur near the dichotomy boundary in northern Arabia Terra, Mars. The geomorphology of these features suggests that they formed by collapse, opposed to meteor impact. At least one depression (approx.55 by 85 km) displays geologic features indicating a complex, multi-stage collapse history. Features within and around the collapse structure indicate volcanic processes. The complex occurs within Hesperian ridged plains of likely volcanic origin and displays no crater rim or evidence for ejecta. Instead the depression consists of a series of circumferential graben and down-dropped blocks which also display upper surfaces similar to ridged plain lavas. Large blocks within the depression are tilted towards the crater center, and display graben that appear to have originally been linked with circumferential graben outside of the complex related to earlier collapse events. A nearly 700 m high mound exists along a graben within the complex that might be a vent. The deepest depression displays two sets of nearly continuous terraces, which we interpret as high-stands of a drained lava lake. These features appear similar to the black ledge described during the Kilauea Iki eruption in 1959. A lacustrine origin for the terraces seems unlikely because of the paucity of channels found in or around the depression that could be linked to aqueous surface processes. In addition, there is no obvious evidence for lacustrine sediments within the basin. Together with the presence of significant faulting that is indicative of collapse we conclude that this crater complex represents a large caldera formed in the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian. Other linear and irregular depressions in the region also might be linked to ancient volcanism. If that hypothesis is correct, it suggests that northern Arabia Terra could contain a large, previously unrecognized highland igneous province. Evacuation of magma via explosive and effusive activity

  6. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Peleolakes and impact basins in southern Arabia Terra, including Meridiani Planum: Implications for the formation of hematite deposits on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsom, Horton E.; Barber, C.A.; Hare, T.M.; Schelble, R.T.; Sutherland, V.A.; Feldman, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    The hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum was selected for a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site because water could be involved in the formation of hematite, and water is a key ingredient in the search for life. Our discovery of a chain of paleolake basins and channels along the southern margin of the hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum with the presence of the strongest hematite signature adjacent to a paleolake basin, supports the possible role of water in the formation of the hematite and the deposition of other layered materials in the region. The hematite may have formed by direct precipitation from lake water, as coatings precipitated from groundwater, or by oxidation of preexisting iron oxide minerals. The paleolake basins were fed by an extensive channel system, originating from an area larger than Texas and located south of the Schiaparelli impact basin. On the basis of stratigraphic relationships, the formation of channels in the region occurred over much of Mars' history, from before the layered materials in Meridiani Planum were deposited until recently. The location of the paleolake basins and channels is connected with the impact cratering history of the region. The earliest structure identified in this study is an ancient circular multiringed basin (800-1600 km diameter) that underlies the entire Meridiani Planum region. The MER landing site is located on the buried northern rim of a later 150 km diameter crater. This crater is partially filled with layered deposits that contained a paleolake in its southern portion. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Geological Time on Display in Arabia Terra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-16

    This scene from the dust covered plains of eastern Arabia Terra portrays a range of geological time. Three craters at the center of the image capture some of this range. Two have the classic bowl-shape of small, relatively recent craters while the one just to the north has seen much more history. Its rim has been scoured away by erosion and its floor has been filled in by material likely of a sedimentary nature. The channels that wind through the scene may be the oldest features present while the relatively dark streaks scattered about could have been produced in the past few years or even months as winds remove a layer of dust to reveal darker material below. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04033

  9. Comparing Crustal Magnetism of Terra Meridiani and Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Terra Meridiani displays remanent crustal magnetization, roughly symmetric and coherent over long distances, that has been interpreted by some workers as resulting from seafloor spreading. A detailed magnetization map of this region, located at 0º, 0º ±20º, will be compared with that of Terra Cimmeria (-40º, 180º) which hosts Mars' most intense and continuous magnetization. Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer (MGS MAG) data from mapping altitude (~400km) was downward continued to the surface. Data from the MGS aerobraking phase contains tracks in Terra Meridiani at altitudes between 110-190 km, revealing localized persistent Br signatures between -268 and 278 nT, with standard deviations of 24 and 17 nT, respectively. These signatures coincide with areas of strongest magnetization on the downward continued map at corresponding altitudes. However, several uncorrelated small-scale pockets of magnetization that appear in the aerobraking dataset may be attributed to shorter wavelength signals or noise. Positive and negative sources in Terra Meridiani show comparable decay with altitude. Similarly, sources in Terra Cimmeria resemble this decay. By extrapolating into the subsurface, we estimate the source depths for both regions and observe that Terra Meridiani has shallower sources than Terra Cimmeria. The strongest magnetization in Terra Meridiani lies along the 4,600 km diameter outer ring of the Chryse basin. A similar association occurs in Terra Cimmeria along the outer rings of the Sirenum basin. The decay of magnetization intensity with altitude, crustal composition, and crustal thickness estimates will be used to create simple models of magnetic sources for Terra Meridiani.

  10. Extensive Noachian fluvial systems in Arabia Terra: Implications for early martian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, P. M.; Davis, J.; Balme, M. R.; Williams, R. M. E.; Gupta, S.

    2016-12-01

    Valley networks are some of the strongest lines of evidence for extensive fluvial activity on early (Noachian) Mars. However, their absence on certain ancient terrains, such as Arabia Terra, is at variance with patterns of precipitation as predicted by `warm and wet' climate models. This disagreement has contributed to the development of an alternative `icy highlands' scenario, whereby valley networks were formed by the melting of highland ice-sheets. To address this issue, we have performed a CTX-scale survey to map previously unrecognized fluvial landforms in the Arabia Terra region. Over 17,000 km of sinuous ridges were identified across the study area in various states of preservation as part of a quasi-continuous network between the equator and the northern plains. The majority of these features have not previously been reported. The sinuous single-thread form of the ridges, together with the presence of anabranching geometries and tributary junctions, is strong evidence that these systems represent Noachian paleo-fluvial channel systems now preserved as inverted relief. As the inverted channels are both sourced in, and traverse across, Arabia Terra, their formation is inconsistent with discrete, localised sources of water, such as meltwater from highland ice-sheets. Furthermore, the channels are not valley-bound, demonstrating that much of the mid- to late-Noachian stratigraphy in Arabia Terra records sediment aggradation of regional-scale alluvial plains that were traversed by fluvial channels. Comparison of the distribution of these alluvial channel networks to climate model predictions of rainfall and snow/ice accumulation in Arabia Terra demonstrates that the `warm and wet' early Mars climate scenario provides a stronger explanation for these geologic observations than the `icy highlands' model.

  11. Coogoon Valles, western Arabia Terra: Hydrological evolution of a complex Martian channel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Antonio; López, Iván; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Fernández-Remolar, David; de Pablo, Miguel Ángel; Gómez, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Coogoon Valles is an intricate fluvial system, and its main channel was formed during the Noachian period through the erosion of the clay-bearing basement of the Western Arabia Terra. This region is characterized by a thinner crust compared to the rest of the highlands and by the occurrence of massive phyllosilicate-bearing materials. The origin of this region is still under discussion. Its surface has been exposed to a large-scale volcanism, and several episodes of extensive denudation were primarily controlled by fluvial activity. In this regard, the study of the oldest channels in Arabia Terra is crucial for understanding the global geological evolution of early Mars. The reactivation of the hydrological system by sapping followed by aeolian erosion had reshaped the channel, as well as exposed ancient materials and landforms. The examination of the bed deposits suggests an old episode of detrital sedimentation covering the Noachian basement followed by an erosive event that formed the current Coogoon Valles configuration. A complex system of deltas and alluvial fans is situated at the termination of this channel, which has been proposed as a landing site for the upcoming ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions.

  12. Mars Odyssey All Stars: Arabia Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-09

    Sand dunes shaped like blue-black flames lie next to a central hill within an unnamed crater in eastern Arabia on Mars. This image is part of an All Star set marking the occasion of NASA Mars Odyssey as the longest-working Mars spacecraft in history.

  13. Radar Scattering Properties of Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2002-12-01

    A series of fourteen radar observations of Mars were made during the 2001 opposition. Four of these observation tracks passed over Terra Meridiani, a prime candidate landing site for one of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover missions. Observations were conducted using X-band (3.5 centimeter wavelength) radar transmitted with a pseudo-random binary phase encoding which, combined with the frequency resolution of the processing FFT, yields a maximum spatial resolution of approximately five kilometers. Actual spatial resolution is coarser than this (between five and twenty kilometers) due to signal-to-noise considerations that predicated longer integration times as well as greater planetary ranges for the off-opposition observations. We have processed the Terra Meridiani data in stages, beginning with one-dimensional sub-radar track profiles and culminating with four-station interferometry. Not all observations were amendable to the full four-station interferometry, due to technical issues, but were processed with a minimum of two stations to remove the spatial ambiguities inherent to radar observations. Our processing yields one- and two-dimensional maps of the surface reflectivity along the radar track. We extract scattering data for points along the sub-radar track, where the angle in incidence varies most, and model the scattering function. The multi-station reflectivity data is also modeled according to the Hagfors scattering model to extract two-dimensional maps of RMS roughness and dielectric constant. The RMS roughness data for the Terra Meridiani landing sites shows the local surface slopes to be less than 3 degrees, on the scale of tens of wavelengths. An enhanced dielectric constant is apparent over Terra Meridiani that is spatially correlated with the MGS detected hematite deposits. The level of the enhancement is consistent with the inclusion of 10-15 percent hematite, according to a weighted dielectric or PVL model. Integral to our processing, and new to

  14. Automated Classification of Landforms in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bue, B. D.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2005-03-01

    We present an automated method for identification of landforms on Mars. Application to the Terra Cimmeria region yields 20 landform types whose spatial distribution is shown using a thematic map. Future application includes automated crater counting.

  15. Mars Express OMEGA Observations over Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Wolff, M.; Gendrin, A.; Morris, R. V.; Freeman, J. J.; Bellucci, G.

    2005-01-01

    The OMEGA hyperspectral imager (0.35 to 5.08 micrometers) covered the hematite-bearing plains and underlying etched terrains of Terra Meridiani during several orbits with spatial resolutions ranging from several hundred meters to approximately 2 km. We extracted and analyzed surface reflectance spectra from OMEGA data for the approximately 864,000 square kilometers surrounding the Opportunity site. In this paper we focus on analysis of OMEGA orbit 485 data for the plains and etched terrains located to the northeast of the Opportunity landing site.

  16. Light-Toned, Layered Outcrops of Northern Terra Meridiani Mars: Viking, Phobos 2, and Mars Global Surveyor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2002-01-01

    System (PDS). The main body of data examined were Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired through 30 September 2002. The data also 2 include Viking orbiter images, a Phobos 2 Termoscan image, MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic observations, and the products of published Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) analyses. Through September 2002, over 126,000 MOC images had been acquired, and greater than 600 of the MOC narrow angle (1.5-12 m/pixel) images occur within the portions of Terra Meridiani and southwestern Arabia Terra.

  17. Vernal Crater, SW Arabia Terra: MSL Candidate with Extensively Layered Sediments, Possible Lake Deposits, and a Long History of Subsurface Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    Vernal Crater is a Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site candidate providing relatively easy access to extensively layered sediments as well as potential lake deposits. Sediments of Vernal Crater are 400-1200 m below those being investigated by Opportunity in Meridiani Planum, and as such would allow study of significantly older geologic units, if Vernal Crater were selected for MSL. The location of Vernal Crater in SW Arabia Terra provides exceptional scientific interest, as rampart craters and gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) data from the region suggest a long history of ice/fluids in the subsurface. The potential value of this MSL candidate is further enhanced by reports of atmospheric methane over Arabia, as any insight into the source of that methane would significantly increase our understanding of Mars. Finally, should MSL survive beyond its prime mission, the gentle slope within Vernal Crater would provide a route out of the crater for study of the once ice/fluid-rich plains.

  18. Knob fields in the Terra Cimmeria/Terra Sirenum region of Mars: Stratigraphy, mineralogy and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Lorenz; Bishop, Janice L.; Neukum, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the stratigraphy, morphology and mineralogy of five major knob fields in the region between Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum on Mars based on HRSC, CTX, MOC and HiRISE imagery together with hyperspectral data from CRISM. The knob fields comprise Ariadnes Colles, Atlantis Chaos and Gorgonum Chaos and further, unnamed fields of mounds. They have been mapped in previous studies as Hesperian or Amazonian units and are located within the shoreline of the proposed "Eridania lake", the putative source of Ma'adim Vallis. The mounds contain Mg/Fe-bearing phyllosilicates and locally Al-rich phyllosilicates. Our geological mapping shows that the knob fields have a late Noachian age, which indicates later phyllosilicate formation than typically observed on Mars. The knob fields formed by alteration of the "Electris deposit", an airfall deposit possibly rich in basaltic glass (Grant, J.A., Schultz, P.H. [1990]. Icarus 84, 166-195), in local depressions, possibly in the Eridania lake. The spectroscopic detection of phyllosilicates here may indicate that liquid water persisted longer in this region than elsewhere on Mars. The knob fields are embayed by the Hesperian ridged plains. Numerous valleys carve into the ridged plains and document that the aqueous history of this region continued into the Hesperian and Amazonian. The study area is traversed by the Sirenum Fossae. These graben appear to post-date the aqueous activity in the study area except in the Gorgonum basin, where a lake developed after their formation.

  19. Ancient Giant Basin/Aquifer System in the Arabia Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, James M.; Barlow, Nadine; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Baker, Victor R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Boynton, William V.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2004-01-01

    Ancient geologic/hydrologic phenomena on Mars observed through the magnetic data [1,2] provide windows to the ancient past through the younger Argyre and Hellas impacts [e.g., 3,4], the northern plains basement [5], and the Tharsis and Elysium magmatic complexes (recently referred to as superplumes [6,7]). These signatures, coupled with highly degraded macrostructures (tectonic features that are tens to thousands of km-long [8]), reflect an energetic planet during its embryonic development (.5 Ga or so of activity) with an active dynamo and magnetosphere [1,2,6]. One such window into the ancient past occurs northwest of the Hellas impact basin in Arabia Terra. Arabia Terra is one of the few water-rich equatorial regions of Mars, as indicated through impact crater [9] and elemental [10,11] information. This region records many unique traits, including stratigraphy, topography, cratering record, structural character, geomorphology, and geophysical, elemental, albedo, and thermal inertia signatures. We interpret these to collectively indicate a possible ancient giant impact basin that later became an important aquifer, as it provided yet another source of water for the formation of putative water bodies that occupied the northern plains [12,13] and addresses possible water-related characteristics that may be observed at the Opportunity landing site. This basin is antipodal to Tharsis and estimated to be at least 3,000 km in diameter.

  20. Watershed modeling in the Tyrrhena Terra region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.; Harbert, William

    2010-09-01

    Watershed analyses from high-resolution image (Viking, Mars Orbiter Camera, and Thermal Emission Imaging System) and topographic (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter [MOLA]) data are used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize highland fluvial systems and analyze the role of water in the evolution of Tyrrhena Terra (13°S-30°S, 265°W-280°W), Mars. In this study, Geographical Information System software is used in conjunction with MOLA Digital Elevation Models to delineate drainage basin divides, extract valley networks, and derive basin and network morphometric parameters (e.g., drainage density, stream order, bifurcation ratio, and relief morphometry) useful in characterizing the geologic and climatic conditions of watershed formation, as well as for evaluating basin “maturity” and processes of watershed development. Model-predicted valley networks and watershed boundaries, which are dependent on the degree to which pixel sinks are filled in the topographic data set and a channelization threshold, are evaluated against image and topographic data, slope maps, and detailed maps of valley segments from photogeologic analyses. Valley morphologies, crater/valley relationships, and impact crater distributions show that valleys in Tyrrhena Terra are ancient. Based on geologic properties of the incised materials, valley and network morphologies, morphometric parameters, and the presence of many gullies heading at or near-crater rim crests, surface runoff, derived from rainfall or snowmelt, was the dominant erosional process; sapping may have only played a secondary role in valley formation in Tyrrhena Terra. Furthermore, spatial and temporal relationships of dissected highland materials and impact craters, suggests widespread, but relatively short-lived, erosion by runoff with most activity in the Noachian period.

  1. Braided alluvial fan in the Terra Sirenum region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Platz, T.; Fawdon, P.; Jaumann, R.

    2015-10-01

    Here we report the presence of an Amazonian-aged outflow channel located on the rim of the Ariadnes Colles basin (37°S/178°E) that has an alluvial fan on its downstream part. The study area is located in the Noachian highlands of Terra Sirenum, the site of a large hypothesized paleolake [3]. This so-called Eridania lake existed during the Late Noachian -Early Hesperian and drained into Ma'adim Vallis, one of the largest valleys on Mars. The Ariadnes Colles basin was part of the Eridania paleolake and hosted later a closed lake.

  2. Spectral reflectance and morphologic correlations in eastern Terra Meridiani, Mars.

    PubMed

    Arvidson, R E; Poulet, F; Bibring, J-P; Wolff, M; Gendrin, A; Morris, R V; Freeman, J J; Langevin, Y; Mangold, N; Bellucci, G

    2005-03-11

    The Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) hyperspectral image data covering eastern Terra Meridiani indicate the ubiquitous presence of molecular water in etched terrain materials that disconformably overlie heavily cratered terrains and underlie the hematite-bearing plains explored by the Opportunity rover. Identification of crystalline water in kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) is linked to materials exposed in a valley and plateau to the north of hematite-bearing plains. The mineralogical similarities between the etched terrain deposits examined with OMEGA data and the layered rocks examined by Opportunity imply that the ancient aqueous environments inferred from analyses of the rover data extend over regional scales.

  3. Spectral Reflectance and Morphologic Correlations in Eastern Terra Meridiani, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Wolff, M.; Gendrin, A.; Morris, R. V.; Freeman, J. J.; Langevin, Y.; Mangold, N.; Bellucci, G.

    2005-03-01

    The Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) hyperspectral image data covering eastern Terra Meridiani indicate the ubiquitous presence of molecular water in etched terrain materials that disconformably overlie heavily cratered terrains and underlie the hematite-bearing plains explored by the Opportunity rover. Identification of crystalline water in kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) is linked to materials exposed in a valley and plateau to the north of hematite-bearing plains. The mineralogical similarities between the etched terrain deposits examined with OMEGA data and the layered rocks examined by Opportunity imply that the ancient aqueous environments inferred from analyses of the rover data extend over regional scales.

  4. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra on Mars and the Evolution of Nirgal Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Grant, J. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.

    2017-06-01

    The Margaritifer Terra region on Mars preserves a long and fascinating record of aqueous activity. Geologic mapping in four quadrangles helps constrain the timing, source, duration, and relative importance of aqueous versus other geomorphic processes.

  5. MOLA Topography of Small Volcanoes in Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae, Mars: Implications for Eruptive Styles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, M. P.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    We use Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to measure small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra and Ceraunius Fossae regions of Mars. We find that previous geometry estimates based on imagery alone are inaccurate, but MOLA data support image-based interpretations of eruptive style. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Middle-late Amazonian Plains Volcanism In Tempe Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Kronberg, P.; Wolf, U.; Neukum, G.

    The Tempe Volcanic Province (TVP) on Mars is characterized by low shields, cones, sheet flows, pit craters, and linear depressions like rift zones and grabens. We inves- tigate its topography, morphology, and age using MOLA, MOC, and Viking Orbiter image data. Our morphometric measurements confirm VO-based suggestions (Plescia, Icarus 45, 1981) that the TVP is directly comparable to terrestrial plains volcanism as observed in the Snake River Plains (Idaho). In addition, we find surface features (e.g., lava tubes, cinder cones) which have not been noted in the TVP before. Of particular interest is the identification of sinuous rilles which are thought to form by thermal ero- sion of turbulent lava flow. We map lava flows where possible (VO 627a) and measure their impact crater density. Based on recent advancements in age determination we derive absolute crater model ages. We get model ages between 1.1 Ga and 0.5 Ga, corresponding to Middle - Late Amazonian. Additionally, we measure craters in high resolution MOC images: A model age of 0.9 Ga is consistent with the VO-based ages. The results suggest that the TVP formed over an extended period ot time relatively late in Martian history. The TVP resembles basaltic volcanic fields on Earth in sev- eral aspects: (i) numerous volcanic vents distributed over an extended area, (ii) vent clustering, (iii) vent alignment along tectonic structures, and (iv) high regional strain. Volcanic fields as opposed to larger central volcanoes are thought to form through low average rates of magma supply. The TVP is located near the SW end of the Tempe Fos- sae, a broad region of diffuse extension and relatively high strain thought to be related to updoming of Tempe Terra and rifting of the Tempe Fossae (Hauber and Kronberg, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 2001). Therefore, the TVP lavas could exploit older faults for their ascent. The absence of large central volcanoes and calderas argues against the existence of shallow magma reservoirs beneath

  7. East Arabia Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two small mesas, a hill, and other landforms in the highly-eroded landscape of eastern Arabia Terra.

    Location near: 30.0oN, 295.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  8. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Correlations Between Concretions in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D.; Dohm, J.; Kalm, V.; Krinsley, D.; Sodhi, R. N.; Anderson, R. C.; Boccia, S.; Malloch, D.; Kapran, B.; Havics, A.

    2008-12-01

    Concretionary Fe-Mn-rich nodular authigenic constituents of Jurassic Navajo sandstone (moki marbles) bear a certain relationship to similar concretionary forms ('blueberries') observed on Mars. Their origin on Earth is considered to invoke variable redox conditions with underground fluids penetrating porous quartz-rich sandstone leading to precipitation of hematite and goethite-rich material from solution, generally forming around a central nucleus of fine particles of quartz and orthoclase, recently verified by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. At the outer rim/inner nucleus boundary, bulbous lobes of fine-grained quartz often invade and fracture the outer rim armored matrix. The bulbous forms are interpreted to result from fluid explusion from the inner concretionary mass, a response to pressure changes accompanying overburden loading. Moki marbles, harder than enclosing rock, often weather out of in situ sandstone outcrops that form a surface lag deposit of varnished marbles that locally resemble desert pavement. The marbles appear morphologically similar to 'blueberries' identified on the martian surface in Terra Meridiani through the MER-1 Opportunity rover. On Earth, redox fluids responsible for the genesis of marbles may have emanated from deep in the crust (often influenced by magmatic processes). These fluids, cooling to ambient temperatures, may have played a role in the genesis of the cemented outer rim of the concretions. The low frequency of fungi filaments in the marbles, contrasts with a high occurrence in Fe-encrusted sands of the Navajo formation [1], indicating that microbial content is of secondary importance in marble genesis relative to the fluctuating influx of ambient groundwater. Nevertheless, the presence of filaments in terrestrial concretions hints at the possibility of discovering fossil/extant life on Mars, and thus should be considered as prime targets for future reconnaissance missions to Mars. 1] Mahaney, W.C., et al. (2004), Icarus, 171, 39-53.

  9. The Origin of the Terra Meridiani Sediments: Volatile Transport and the Formation of Sulfate Bearing Layered Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry, sedimentology, and geology of the Meridiani sedimentary deposits are best explained by eolian reworking of the sublimation residue of a large scale ice/dust deposit. This large ice deposit was located in close proximity to Terra Meridiani and incorporated large amounts of dust, sand, and SO2 aerosols generated by impacts and volcanism during early martian history. Sulfate formation and chemical weathering of the initial igneous material is hypothesized to have occurred inside of the ice when the darker mineral grains were heated by solar radiant energy. This created conditions in which small films of liquid water were created in and around the mineral grains. This water dissolved the SO2 and reacted with the mineral grains forming an acidic environment under low water/rock conditions. Subsequent sublimation of this ice deposit left behind large amounts of weathered sublimation residue which became the source material for the eolian process that deposited the Terra Meridiani deposit. The following features of the Meridiani sediments are best explained by this model: The large scale of the deposit, its mineralogic similarity across large distances, the cation-conservative nature of the weathering processes, the presence of acidic groundwaters on a basaltic planet, the accumulation of a thick sedimentary sequence outside of a topographic basin, and the low water/rock ratio needed to explain the presence of very soluble minerals and elements in the deposit. Remote sensing studies have linked the Meridiani deposits to a number of other martian surface features through mineralogic similarities, geomorphic similarities, and regional associations. These include layered deposits in Arabia Terra, interior layered deposits in the Valles Marineris system, southern Elysium/Aeolis, Amazonis Planitia, and the Hellas basin, Aram Chaos, Aureum Chaos, and Ioni Chaos. The common properties shared by these deposits suggest that all of these deposits share a common

  10. The Origin of the Terra Meridiani Sediments: Volatile Transport and the Formation of Sulfate Bearing Layered Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry, sedimentology, and geology of the Meridiani sedimentary deposits are best explained by eolian reworking of the sublimation residue of a large scale ice/dust deposit. This large ice deposit was located in close proximity to Terra Meridiani and incorporated large amounts of dust, sand, and SO2 aerosols generated by impacts and volcanism during early martian history. Sulfate formation and chemical weathering of the initial igneous material is hypothesized to have occurred inside of the ice when the darker mineral grains were heated by solar radiant energy. This created conditions in which small films of liquid water were created in and around the mineral grains. This water dissolved the SO2 and reacted with the mineral grains forming an acidic environment under low water/rock conditions. Subsequent sublimation of this ice deposit left behind large amounts of weathered sublimation residue which became the source material for the eolian process that deposited the Terra Meridiani deposit. The following features of the Meridiani sediments are best explained by this model: The large scale of the deposit, its mineralogic similarity across large distances, the cation-conservative nature of the weathering processes, the presence of acidic groundwaters on a basaltic planet, the accumulation of a thick sedimentary sequence outside of a topographic basin, and the low water/rock ratio needed to explain the presence of very soluble minerals and elements in the deposit. Remote sensing studies have linked the Meridiani deposits to a number of other martian surface features through mineralogic similarities, geomorphic similarities, and regional associations. These include layered deposits in Arabia Terra, interior layered deposits in the Valles Marineris system, southern Elysium/Aeolis, Amazonis Planitia, and the Hellas basin, Aram Chaos, Aureum Chaos, and Ioni Chaos. The common properties shared by these deposits suggest that all of these deposits share a common

  11. Hydraulic Inferences for Mars From Geologic Mapping in Margaritifer Terra, Mars and Measurements of Terrestrial Analogs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.; Springer, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Past hydrogeologic models of Mars have focused primarily on exploring a link between large scale groundwater systems and the Martian outflow channels. These groundwater models have generally given only slight consideration to the occurrence of smaller-scale valley network that dissect much of the southern highlands. Ongoing geologic and geomorphic mapping in 6 Mars Transverse Mercator 1:500K quadrangles (17.5ºS - 27.5ºS and 345ºE - 360ºE) in southeast Margaritifer Terra, Mars, shows valley networks are often associated with the internal and external slopes of the impact basin but are absent on the basin floor. We propose a sequence of ponding in the basin followed by infiltration into the subsurface, transmission down the regional slope and sapping valleys forming on the crater flanks. The Martian valley morphologies are analogous with morphologies of terrestrial spring-fed sapping processes (i.e., amphitheater-shaped heads, stubby tributaries, steep walls, and U-shaped valleys that maintain consistent width-depth ratios along their length). Flow measurements from spring-fed channels in the Navajo Sandstone near Escalante, Utah supply data from areas actively forming sapping valleys and provide insight into the interaction between surface-water and groundwater. Measurements taken during pre-monsoon and post-snow melt run-off and planned post- monsoonal measurements will provide a range of discharge values furnishing data to model the interaction of subsurface- and surface-water flow on Mars. Published stratigraphic models of Mars postulate that the upper kilometer of material is ejecta related well-mixed unsorted debris ranging from meter sized blocks down to dust sized particles overlying fractured bedrock. Detailed mapping using high resolution datasets allows for accurate characterization of surficial material properties on a local scale which will help to better understand influences on hydrologic variables (i.e. permeability, hydraulic conductivity, etc

  12. A New Gully Channel in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-19

    This pair of before left and after right images from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter documents formation of a new channel on a Martian slope between 2010 and 2013, likely resulting from activity of carbon-dioxide frost.

  13. Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and Around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, J. G.; Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between three temporally distinct indicators of water on Mars: ancient craters with fluidized ejecta, relatively more recent gullies inside those craters, and current abundance of near surface hydrogen around those craters. We find an association between gully occurrence and large-scale geologic features; analysis indicates unique depth/diameter ratios for gullied craters in Sirenum Terra. Numerical comparisons of fluidized and non-fluidized, gullied and non-gullied craters suggest that the Argyre region could have had a near-surface water table that receded before recent times, while Sirenum Terra may have had an ancient water table that persists to this day.

  14. Slope Streaks in Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-353, 7 May 2003

    Light-, dark-, and intermediate-toned slope streaks are common in the thick, dust-mantled regions of Arabia Terra, parts of Tharsis, Memnonia, and some of the knobby areas west of Amazonis Planitia. They most likely form by avalanching of loose, dry dust, perhaps each triggered by a gust of wind. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired earlier this week (in May 2003), shows a plethora of slope streaks on the walls of an impact crater in east-central Arabia Terra near 13.0oN, 319.8oW. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  15. Possible Volcanic Province in Western Promethei Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kostama, V.; Korteniemi, J.; Törmänen, T.; Neukum, G.

    2007-12-01

    The western Promethei Terra region (36-50°S, 90-106°E) studied is roughly ~700 km across. It occupies a unique area on the smoothened eastern Hellas basin rim, and consists of two parts: a gentler (~0.07°, eastward of ~97°E) and a steeper (~0.88°, W of ~97°E) regional slope. The Noachian cratered terrain surrounds the region in the NE, E, and S. The large canyons of Harmakhis, Reull and Teviot Valles cut through the central area and the smooth Hesperian plains [1-10] of the western and central areas display a set of features that does not occur elsewhere on the eastern side of the Hellas basin. The plains have multi-layered interiors as seen on the walls of the canyons that cut them. Similar stacks of sub- horizontal layers are seen in other Martian regions with exposed lava plain interiors, for example, in Lunae Planum and Syrtis Major. These are classic volcanic provinces the layered structure of which was formed by successive emplacement of sheet lava flows that followed the general topographic trend. The average visible thickness of the Promethei layers is ~70-80 m and the typical measured canyon wall slope is ~25-30o. This gives an estimate of the thickness of the layers, which is ~35-45 m. The full layer stack thickness, estimated from observations, is ~1.3 km. Consistent with the observed layering, there are narrow wrinkle ridges (WR) that deform the surface of the plains. WR mostly occur in the eastern portion of the area near Reull and Teviot Valles but some of them are seen near Harmakhis Vallis in the west. Additional long straight narrow ridges (widths < km, heights 10s m, lengths 10s km), which occur in mostly NE-SW-oriented groups, are seen on the surface of the plains. The regional topography does not appear to control the distribution of the ridges. Their morphologic characteristics, areal distribution, and close association with the lava plains are consistent with and suggest that the straight ridges may represent exhumed dikes [11], which

  16. The Crustal Magnetic Field of Terra Sirenum and Cimmeria, Mars. A Spectral Perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, A.; Simons, F. J.; Golabek, G.

    2016-12-01

    Mars' crustal magnetic field is strongest in Terra Sirenum and Cimmeria, an area with old (Noachian) surface age and little topographical expression besides impact craters. The pattern of the crustal magnetic field in this region led to speculations on its formation. Suggestions include dike swarms, sea floor spreading, and tectonically driven accretion, but no consensus has been reached within the areologic community. Here, we present a regional crustal magnetic field model obtained from only low-altitude satellite data collected during Mars Global Surveyor's aerobreaking phase. From our regional crustal magnetic-field model we calculate power spectra for several subregions (using a multitaper approach) contained within Terra Sirenum and Terra Cimmeria. The investigated subregions show a surprisingly diverse range of power spectra and associated decorrelation depths (assuming a single randomly magnetized layer). We observe that valley networks preferentially align with areas with an associated strong short-wavelength crustal magnetic field. We do not observe alignment with features in recently published Bouguer anomaly models.

  17. Geologic Map of the MTM-20272 and-25272 Quadrangles, Tyrrhena Terra Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20272 and -25272 quadrangles (lat 17.5?-27.5? S., long 270?-275? W.) cover part of the highlands of Tyrrhena Terra north of Hellas Planitia. The surface of the Tyrrhena Terra region records a complex history of impact cratering and modification by fluvial and eolian activity. The map area consists primarily of intercrater plains, impact crater material, and crater floor material. An extensive valley network, Vichada Valles, as well as several smaller networks, dissects the northern part of the map area. The abundance and widespread nature of fluvial features within the map area have significant implications for past Martian environmental conditions. The degraded terrains surrounding Hellas Planitia provide constraints on the role and timing of volatile-driven activity in the evolution of the highlands. The geologic history of this area may have been influenced not only by the presence of Hellas Planitia but also by other buried impact basins.

  18. Extension across Tempe Terra, Mars, from measurements of fault scarp widths and deformed craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Franklin, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two independent methods, with no common assumptions, have been used to estimate the extension across the heavily deformed Tempe Terra province of the Tharsis region of Mars. One method uses measurements of normal fault scarp width with average scarp slope data for simple grabens and rifts on Mars to estimate the fault throw, which, combined with sparse fault dip data, can be used to estimate extension. Formal uncertainties in this method are only slightly greater than those in other methods, given that the total uncertainty is dominated by the likely uncertainty in the fault dip (assumed to be 60????15??). Measurement of normal fault scarp widths along two N25??-50??W directed traverses across Tempe Terra both yield about 22??16 km of extension (or ???2% strain across the northern traverse and nearly 3% across the southern one). About three quarters of the extension has occurred during the two main phases of Tharsis-related deformation from Middle/Late Noachian to Early Hesperian and from Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian, with more extension closer to the center of Tharsis during the first phase. Extension across the region was also determined by measuring the elongation and elongation direction of all ancient Noachian impact craters without ejecta blankets, which predate most of the deformation. Results have been corrected for initial non circularity of craters, established from similar measurements of young (post deformation) impact craters, yielding a statistically significant mean strain of 1.96??0.35% in a N38????10??W direction across Tempe Terra (extension of ???20??4, comparable in magnitude and direction to the average result from the scarp measurement method). Both methods indicate an average extension for single normal fault scarps (and shortening across wrinkle ridges for the crater method) of ???100 m. The agreement between the results of the two independent methods in overall extension and average single normal fault extension argues that the average

  19. Ancient Giant Basin/Aquifer System in the Arabia Region, Mars, and Its Influence on the Evolution of the Highland-Lowland Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Barlow, N. G.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Ferris, J. C.; Miyamoto, H.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Strom, R. G.; Rodriguez, Alexis; Fairen, Alberto G.

    2004-01-01

    Ancient geologic and hydrologic phenomena on Mars observed through the magnetic data provide windows to the ancient past through the younger Argyre and Hellas impacts, the northern plains basement and the rock materials that mantle the basement, and the Tharsis and Elysium magmatic complexes (recently referred to as superplumes). These signatures, coupled with highly degraded macrostructures (tectonic features that energetic planet during its embryonic development (0.5 Ga or so of activity) with an active dynamo and magnetosphere. One such window into the ancient past occurs northwest of the Hellas impact basin in Arabia Tern. Arabia Terra is one of the few water-rich equatorial regions of Mars, as indicated I through impact crater and elemental information. This region records many unique characteristics, including predominately Noachian materials, a highland-lowland boundary region that is distinct from other boundary regions, the presence of very few macrostructures when compared to the rest of the cratered highlands, the largest region of fretted terrain on Mars, outflow channels such as Mamers Valles that do not have obvious origins, and distinct albedo, thermal inertia, gravity, magnetic, and elemental signatures.

  20. West Arabia Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows small barchan dunes on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra. Similar dunes are found in most of the larger craters of the region. The steepest slopes on these dunes, their slipfaces, point toward the west-southwest, indicating that dominant winds blow from the east-northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 10.9oN, 2.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  1. Implications for hydrologic processes on Mars from extensive bedrock outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani.

    PubMed

    Hynek, Brian M

    2004-09-09

    Grey haematite was recently detected in the Terra Meridiani region of Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The formation of haematite on Earth often requires liquid water to be present for long periods of time, making this an important target for deciphering the history of water on Mars. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed in Meridiani early in 2004 and has since discovered light-toned bedrock outcrops rich in chemical and textural signatures of long-term water interaction locally at the landing site. Here I use remote sensing data to show that the light-toned outcrops at the landing site are not a local phenomenon. Instead, they are observable throughout the haematite-bearing plains in both visible and thermal infrared remote sensing data. Moreover, the light-toned material outcrops around much of the margin and is mappable for hundreds of kilometres to the north, east and west of the plains. I infer that 3 x 10(5) km(2) of this material is exposed over 20 degrees of longitude, indicating the extended presence of surface or near-surface water over a large region of Mars.

  2. Large-scale fluid-deposited mineralization in Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.; Potter-McIntyre, Sally L.; Hynek, Brian M.

    2017-07-01

    Mineral deposits precipitated from subsurface-sourced fluids are a key astrobiological detection target on Mars, due to the long-term viability of the subsurface as a habitat for life and the ability of precipitated minerals to preserve biosignatures. We report morphological and stratigraphic evidence for ridges along fractures in impact crater floors in Margaritifer Terra. Parallels with terrestrial analog environments and the regional context indicate that two observed ridge types are best explained by groundwater-emplaced cementation in the shallow subsurface and higher-temperature hydrothermal deposition at the surface, respectively. Both mechanisms have considerable astrobiological significance. Finally, we propose that morphologically similar ridges previously documented at the Mars 2020 landing site in NE Syrtis Major may have formed by similar mechanisms.

  3. Possible karst landforms in two unnamed craters in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Tramontana, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tyrrhena Terra, an area in the cratered highlands south of the Martian equator, contains two unnamed craters. The mineralogical composition of light-toned deposits (LTDs) within these craters is unknown. We performed morphologic and morphometric analyses of the surfaces of these LTDs through an integrated study of images available through the Reconnaissance Mars Orbiter High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Our analysis revealed that the Martian landforms contain dolines of polygenetic origin. These dolines are similar to karst landforms observed in different karst terrains on Earth and other regions on Mars. The observed karst landforms might highlight the possible evaporitic origin of these materials, suggesting a climatic change and the presence of liquid water caused by ice melting during the Amazonian age.

  4. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wray, J.J.; Milliken, R.E.; Dundas, C.M.; Swayze, G.A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A.M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J.L.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Clark, R.N.; Seelos, F.P.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (???900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Columbus crater and other possible groundwater-fed paleolakes of Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R. E.; Dundas, C. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Baldridge, A. M.; Chojnacki, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.; Clark, R. N.; Seelos, F. P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Columbus crater in the Terra Sirenum region of the Martian southern highlands contains light-toned layered deposits with interbedded sulfate and phyllosilicate minerals, a rare occurrence on Mars. Here we investigate in detail the morphology, thermophysical properties, mineralogy, and stratigraphy of these deposits; explore their regional context; and interpret the crater's aqueous history. Hydrated mineral-bearing deposits occupy a discrete ring around the walls of Columbus crater and are also exposed beneath younger materials, possibly lava flows, on its floor. Widespread minerals identified in the crater include gypsum, polyhydrated and monohydrated Mg/Fe-sulfates, and kaolinite; localized deposits consistent with montmorillonite, Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, jarosite, alunite, and crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide are also detected. Thermal emission spectra suggest abundances of these minerals in the tens of percent range. Other craters in northwest Terra Sirenum also contain layered deposits and Al/Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, but sulfates have so far been found only in Columbus and Cross craters. The region's intercrater plains contain scattered exposures of Al-phyllosilicates and one isolated mound with opaline silica, in addition to more common Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates with chlorides. A Late Noachian age is estimated for the aqueous deposits in Columbus, coinciding with a period of inferred groundwater upwelling and evaporation, which (according to model results reported here) could have formed evaporites in Columbus and other craters in Terra Sirenum. Hypotheses for the origin of these deposits include groundwater cementation of crater-filling sediments and/or direct precipitation from subaerial springs or in a deep (˜900 m) paleolake. Especially under the deep lake scenario, which we prefer, chemical gradients in Columbus crater may have created a habitable environment at this location on early Mars.

  6. A cold-wet middle-latitude environment on Mars during the Hesperian-Amazonian transition: Evidence from northern Arabia valleys and paleolakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sharon A.; Howard, Alan D.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Grant, John A.

    2016-09-01

    The growing inventory of post-Noachian fluvial valleys may represent a late, widespread episode of aqueous activity on Mars, contrary to the paradigm that fluvial activity largely ceased around the Noachian-Hesperian boundary. Fresh shallow valleys (FSVs) are widespread from ~30 to 45° in both hemispheres with a high concentration in northern Arabia Terra. Valleys in northern Arabia Terra characteristically start abruptly on steeper slopes and terminate in topographic depressions at elevations corresponding to model-predicted lake levels. Longer valley systems flowed into and out of chains of paleolakes. Minimum discharges based on the dimensions of the incised channel assuming medium to coarse sand-size grains ranges from tens to hundreds of m3 s-1, respectively, consistent with formation via snowmelt from surface or sub-ice flows. Hydrologic calculations indicate the valleys likely formed in hundreds of years or less, and crater statistics constrain the timing of fluvial activity to between the Hesperian and middle Amazonian. Several craters with channels extending radially outward supports evidence for overflow of interior crater lakes possibly fed by groundwater. Most FSVs occur away from young impact craters which make an association with impact processes improbable. The widespread occurrence of FSVs along with their similar morphology and shared modest state of degradation is consistent with most forming during a global interval of favorable climate, perhaps contemporaneous with alluvial fan formation in equatorial and midlatitudes. Evidence for a snowmelt-based hydrology and considerable depths of water on the landscape in Arabia supports a cold, wet, and possibly habitable environment late in Martian history.

  7. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Crater Wall, Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today.

    The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8oS, 342.5oW. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.

    A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallette of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to

  8. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Crater Wall, Noachis Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today.

    The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8oS, 342.5oW. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.

    A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallette of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to

  9. Amazonian-aged fluvial system and associated ice-related features in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeli, Solmaz; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten; Le Deit, Laetitia; Platz, Thomas; Fawdon, Peter; Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The Martian climate throughout the Amazonian is widely believed to have been cold and hyper-arid, very similar to the current conditions. However, ubiquitous evidence of aqueous and glacial activity has been recently reported, including channels that can be tens to hundreds of kilometres long, alluvial and fluvial deposits, ice-rich mantles, and glacial and periglacial landforms. Here we study a ∼340 km-long fluvial system located in the Terra Cimmeria region, in the southern mid-latitudes of Mars. The fluvial system is composed of an upstream catchment system with narrow glaciofluvial valleys and remnants of ice-rich deposits. We observe depositional features including fan-shaped deposits, and erosional features such as scour marks and streamlined islands. At the downstream section of this fluvial system is an outflow channel named Kārūn Valles, which displays a unique braided alluvial fan and terminates on the floor of the Ariadnes Colles basin. Our observations point to surface runoff of ice/snow melt as the water source for this fluvial activity. According to our crater size-frequency distribution analysis the entire fluvial system formed during early to middle Amazonian, between ∼ 1.8-0.2+0.2 Ga to 510-40+40 Ma. Hydraulic modelling indicates that the Kārūn Valles and consequently the alluvial fan formation took place in geologically short-term event(s). We conclude that liquid water was present in Terra Cimmeria during the early to middle Amazonian, and that Mars during that time may have undergone several episodic glacial-related events.

  10. Geologic Map of MTM -20012 and -25012 Quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Clark, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20012 and -25012 quadrangles (lat 17.5 deg - 27.5 deg S., long 345 deg - 350 deg E.) cover a portion of Margaritifer Terra near the east end of Valles Marineris. The map area consists of a diverse assemblage of geologic surfaces including isolated knobs of rugged mountainous material, heavily cratered and dissected ancient highland material, a variety of plains materials, chaotic terrain materials, and one of the highest densities of preserved valleys and their associated deposits on the planet (Saunders, 1979; Baker, 1982; Phillips and others, 2000, 2001). The map area is centered on a degraded, partially filled, ~200-km-diameter impact structure (lat 22 deg S., long 347.5 deg E.), informally referred to as Parana basin, located between Parana Valles to the east and Loire Valles to the west. Parana Valles is a network of multidigitate, mostly east-west-oriented valleys that flowed west and discharged into Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002). Loire Valles, broadly comparable in length to the Grand Canyon on Earth, has a deeply incised channel within the map area that originates at the west-northwest edge of Erythraeum Chaos within Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002; Strom and others, 2000). Parana and Loire Valles, combined with Samara Valles to the west, form one of the most laterally extensive, well-integrated valley networks on Mars (Grant, 2000) and record a long history of modification by fluvial processes. The origin and morphology of the valley networks, therefore, provide insight into past environmental conditions, whereas their relation with other landforms helps constrain the timing and role of fluvial processes in the evolution and modification of the Margaritifer Terra region.

  11. Geologic map of MTM -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Grant, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) quadrangles −15027, −20027, −25027, and −25032 (lat 12.5°−28° S., long 330°−335° E. and lat 22.5°−28° S., long 324.5°−330° E.) in southwestern Margaritifer Terra include diverse erosional landforms, sedimentary deposits, and tectonic structures that record a long geologic and geomorphic history. The northeastern regional slope of the pre-Noachian crustal dichotomy (as expressed along the Chryse trough) and structures of the informally named Middle Noachian or older Holden and Ladon impact basins dominate the topography of the map area. A series of mesoscale outflow channels, Uzboi, Ladon, and Morava Valles, integrated these formerly enclosed basins by overflow and incision around the Noachian/Hesperian transition, although some flooding may have occurred earlier. The area includes excellent examples of Late Noachian to Hesperian valley networks, dissected crater rims, alluvial fans, deltas, and light-toned layered deposits, particularly in Holden and Eberswalde craters. Structural forms include Tharsis-radial grabens, Hesperian wrinkle ridges, floor-fractured impact craters, and severely disrupted chaotic terrains. These well-preserved landforms and sedimentary deposits represent multiple erosional epochs and discrete flooding events, which provide significant insight into the geomorphic processes and climate change on early Mars.

  12. Analysis of crater valleys, Noachis Terra, Mars: Evidence of fluvial and glacial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Paull, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    The precise mechanism for the formation and evolution of crater valley networks in the Martian southern highlands remains under debate, with precipitation, groundwater flow, and melting induced by impact being suggested. We studied valley networks within four craters of the Noachis Terra highlands that were representative of similar features in Noachis Terra and where orbital data existed for analysis in order to characterise their morphology and infer possible processes involved in their formation and evolution. We found evidence for valleys carved by liquid water and ice-related processes. This included strong evidence of liquid water-based valley formation through melting of ice-rich deposits throughout our study area, suggesting an alternative to previously suggested rainfall or groundwater-based scenarios. The location of these valleys on steeply sloping crater walls, as opposed to the shallow slopes of the highlands where Martian valleys are typically found, suggested that our 'fluvial' valleys had not evolved a more structured fluvial morphology as valley networks found on the Martian plains. Our studied valleys' association with ice-rich material and abundant evidence for erosion caused by downslope flow of ice-rich material are consistent with a cold, wet Mars hypothesis where accumulation, flow, and melting of ice have been dominant factors in eroding crater valleys. Additionally, analysis of valley morphology with slope and aspect suggested a greater dependence on local geology and presence of volatiles than larger valley networks, though ice-related valleys were consistently wider for their length than valleys assessed as fluvial carved. We assessed that local conditions such as climate, geology, and availability of ice-rich material played a major role in the erosion of crater valleys at our study site.

  13. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of chloride salt deposits in Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Glotch, T. D.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chloride salt-bearing deposits have been identified throughout the southern highlands of Mars [1] based on the lack of diagnostic spectral features of anhydrous chlorides in both the visible near infrared (VNIR) and middle infrared (MIR) wavelength ranges [1,2]. A puzzling aspect of martian chloride deposits is the apparent lack of other weathering or evaporite phases associated with most of the deposits. A global analysis over the chloride salt sites conducted by [3] found that only ~9% of the deposits they analyzed were associated with minerals such as phyllosilicates. Most of these occurrences are in Terra Sirenum where [4] noted that salt-bearing deposits lie stratigraphically above Noachian phyllosilicates. Although a variety of formation mechanisms have been proposed for these intriguing deposits, detailed geologic mapping by [5] suggests that surface water and evaporation played a dominant role. On Earth, evaporative settings are often characterized by a multitude of evaporite and phyllosilicate phases including carbonates, sulfates, and nitrates. [6] evaluated chemical divides and brine evolution for martian systems and their results indicate three pathways wherein late-stage brines favor chloride precipitation. In each case the pathway to chloride formation includes precipitation of carbonates (calcite, siderite, and/or magnesite) and sulfates (gypsum, melanterite, and/or epsomite). Here, we present the results of our detailed and systematic spectroscopic study to identify additional evaporite phases associated with salt/silicate mixtures in Terra Sirenum. [1] Osterloo et al. (2008) Science, 319, [2] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2013) Lunar and Planet. Sci. XLIV, abstract #1549 [3] Ruesch, O. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00J13 [4] Glotch, T. D. et al. (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L16202, [5] Osterloo, M. M. and B. M Hynek (2015) Lunar and Planet. Sci XLVI. Abstract #1054 [6] Tosca, N. J. and S. M. McLennan (2006), Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 241.

  14. Possible crater-based karstic and lacustrine terrain in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, Davide; Soare, Richard

    2015-04-01

    We have identified two craters in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars (19.560 S, 67.480 E, 18.500 S, 68.340 E), where crater-floor deposits display traits that are consistent with formation by karst-driven processes. Tyrrhena Terra is located in the cratered highlands of the southern Martian hemisphere, immediately to the northeast of Hellas Planitia and to the southeast of Isidis Planitia. Crater diameters in the region vary widely, from metres to 100km. Most of these craters are moderately to highly degraded and many show bright deposits on their floors. Here, we present some of the key characteristics associated with these bright deposits and explain why a "karstic" formation hypothesis is reasonable. First and foremost amongst these characteristics are depressions that are ubiquitous within the bright deposits. They display a variety of plan forms ranging from rounded, circular, elongated, polygonal and drop-like to elliptical. Moreover, they display strong morphometric (sizes) and morphologic (shapes, bottoms, walls) similarities with the karst depressions that are common on limestone and evaporite terrains on the Earth. Some depression morphologies - rounded/elongate - could be the result of formation by coalescence. We infer that the depressions are dolines, karstic features formed polygenetically by corrosion and solution-related intra-crater processes; we also demonstrate why the formation of the depressions by aeolian, periglacial, volcanic or impact-related processes seems less plausible by karst-related ones. Interestingly, polygonal cracks whose morphology points to an origin by dessication often cross-cut the bright deposits; as such, their crater floor presence could be an important co-marker of ponded or running liquid water within the craters where they are observed.

  15. Analysis of Ice-Related Intra-Crater Facies in Promethei Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    On Mars ice-related landforms have been identified at mid-latitudes between 30° and 50° in both hemispheres including the areas of Tempe Terra, Deuteronilus-Protonilus Mensae, Phlegra Montes and the rims of the southern-hemispheric impact basins Argyre and Hellas [1-7]. Our study area - informally termed hourglass-shaped crater [8] - is located near Reull Vallis on the eastern rim of the Hellas impact basin (39.0°S, 102.8°E). Impact-crater infill was described as debris-covered piedmont-type glacier [8] based on analysis of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data, and implies a glacial origin with precipitation of ice during higher obliquity phases. Recent, higher-resolution image data such as data of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the Context Imager (CTX) provide a more detailed picture of the lateral distribution of different small-scale surface features indicative of periglacial and/or glacial origin. The aim of this study is to identify qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these ice-related landforms and to separate sources of water ice and related processes. Initial age determinations based on impact-crater size-frequency statistics indicate an age of 3.4 Gyr for the impact-crater and an age of approximately 75 Myr for the infill [8]. In order to identify a possible sequence of surface-feature evolution we calculated the age distribution of four major surface units which span ages ages between 1-47 Myr. Along with detailed age information and a separation of different processes at this confined type location of Mars young-Amazonian landscape evolution and potential cyclic signals are being reconstructed to constrain climate evolution. Carr, M. H. & Schaber, G. G. 1977: Martian permafrost features.- J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4039-4054. Squyres, S. W. 1978: Martian fretted terrain: flow of erosional debris.- Icarus 34, 600-613. Squyres, S. W. 1979: The distribution of lobate debris aprons and similar flows on Mars.- J

  16. Open Access Discovery of alunite in Cross crater, Terra Sirenum, Mars: Evidence for acidic, sulfurous waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Mustard, John F.; Clark, Roger N.; Murchie, Scott L.; Breit, George N.; Wray, James J.; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, Francois; Carter, John; Calvin, Wendy M.; Benzel, William M.; Seelos, Kimberly D.

    2016-01-01

    Cross crater is a 65 km impact crater, located in the Noachian highlands of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars (30°S, 158°W), which hosts aluminum phyllosilicate deposits first detected by the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, L’Eau, les Glaces et l’Activitié (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer on Mars Express. Using high-resolution data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we examine Cross crater’s basin-filling sedimentary deposits. Visible/shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectra from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show absorptions diagnostic of alunite. Combining spectral data with high-resolution images, we map a large (10 km × 5 km) alunite-bearing deposit in southwest Cross crater, widespread kaolin-bearing sediments with variable amounts of alunite that are layered in <10 m scale beds, and silica- and/or montmorillonite-bearing deposits that occupy topographically lower, heavily fractured units. The secondary minerals are found at elevations ranging from 700 to 1550 m, forming a discontinuous ring along the crater wall beneath darker capping materials. The mineralogy inside Cross crater is different from that of the surrounding terrains and other martian basins, where Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates and Ca/Mg-sulfates are commonly found. Alunite in Cross crater indicates acidic, sulfurous waters at the time of its formation. Waters in Cross crater were likely supplied by regionally upwelling groundwaters as well as through an inlet valley from a small adjacent depression to the east, perhaps occasionally forming a lake or series of shallow playa lakes in the closed basin. Like nearby Columbus crater, Cross crater exhibits evidence for acid sulfate alteration, but the alteration in Cross is more extensive/complete. The large but localized occurrence of alunite suggests a localized, high-volume source of acidic waters or vapors, possibly supplied by sulfurous (H2S- and/or SO2-bearing) waters in contact with a magmatic source, upwelling

  17. New Mineralogic Diversity in the Noachian Crust of Tyrrhena Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Viviano-Beck, C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The cratered Noachian highlands region of Mars is host to hundreds to thousands of exposures of hydrated minerals. Areas of the highlands that are relatively free of dust, such as Tyrrhena Terra, have been previously examined using Mars Express/OMEGA and MRO/CRISM visible/near-IR reflectance data. The inferred alteration mineralogy is consistent with formation under low water to rock ratio, relatively low T/P and shallow crustal conditions. The vast majority of occurrences are associated with impact craters with a wide range of diameters, and within not only central peaks, but also rims and ejecta. This implies that most outcrops are a result of the excavation of pre-existing mineralology, not formation in-situ by post-impact hydrothermalism. Types of minerals reported include, most commonly, Fe/Mg phyllosilicates (smectite, chlorite, mixed-layer clays, prehnite, serpentine, illite), and less commonly, Al-phyllosilicates (e.g., kaolinite), carbonates, zeolites (e.g., analcime), and hydrated silica. Here we document and characterize the occurrence of an additional class of mineralogy in Noachian terrain: hydrated sulfates. Hydrated sulfates are observed in the central peaks and (in one case) the proximal ejecta of 3 craters dispersed across the region. In each crater, a diverse assemblage of other hydrated alteration minerals is also apparent and includes prehnite, carbonate, zeolite, Fe/Mg smectite, and chlorite. Two of the three craters are approximately 10 km in diameter, with resulting sulfate exhumation depths in the central peaks approaching 1 km. The third crater has a diameter of 25 km; however, uplift and ejecta from several pre-existing impacts reduce the possible sulfate excavation depth to 1.3 km. CRISM spectra are consistent with a poly-hydrated sulfate, with major absorptions centered at 1.45, 1.95, and 2.4 micrometers - similar to, but distinct from, many zeolites. While mono-hydrated and poly-hydrated sulfates are not uncommon to other areas of Mars

  18. Detection and context of hydrated mineralogy in the Tyrrhena Terra region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Haan, J.; Zegers, T. E.; van Ruitenbeek, F. J. A.; van der Werff, H. M. A.; Rossi, A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The discovery of phyllosilicates on Mars [1] has had major implications on the perceived geologic and climatologic evolution of Mars [2]. Not only do phyllosilicates represent a `wet' period on Mars, they might also represent a potentially favorable environment for life. The phyllosilicates have so far exclusively been found in or close to ancient Noachian highland terrain. Those phyllosilicate deposits studied (e.g. [3]) show a clear association between hydrated mineralogy and heavily eroded and crater-saturated outcrops. Phyllosilicates on Earth are associated with a wide variety of geological processes (volcanism, metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, sedimentation). The occurrence of phyllosilicates on Mars may be equally diverse in nature. To be able to place constraints on the early Martian environment, the processes by which these phyllosilicates formed need to be reconstructed. To derive this information from individual phyllosilicate deposits, it is necessary to interpret their composition in relation to their geological context and relative time relationships. We conducted such an integrated hyperspectral and geological study of the Tyrrhena Terra region. Data products ad methods HRSC data products (both image at 12 m/pixel and stereo-derived DTMs) are used for examining geologic cross-cutting relationships, geomorphologic landforms and visual determination of unit boundaries. Odyssey THEMIS nighttime TIR images are analyzed for spatial variations in thermal inertia. Where available, HRSC is supplemented by higher-resolution visible observations of CTX or MOC. Hyperspectral analysis is conducted using data from the OMEGA hyperspectral instrument. In order to batch-process large amounts of OMEGA data, an IDL/ENVI tool was developed on top of the existing SOFT04, distributed by PSA. The applied atmospheric correction assumes that atmospheric contributions are multiplicative, and follow a power-law distribution with altitude [4]. The ratio of

  19. Delta in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-18

    This unnamed crater in northern Terra Cimmeria has a small channel that created a delta feature. Such features are important indicators of liquid water in Mars past as shown in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey.

  20. Arabia's Auqakuh Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-477, 8 September 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of southern Auqakuh Vallis in northeastern Arabia Terra. The floor of this ancient valley--which might have been carved by a liquid such as water--is today covered by large, windblown, ripple-like bedforms. The terrain surrounding the valley has been eroded such that only remnants of former craters and layered bedrock remain. The valley was once much deeper, but material of hundreds, if not thousands, of meters thickness has been removed. This picture is located near 28.9oN, 299.9oW; it covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. Sediments of Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows martian sediment in two basic forms: (1) light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops and (2) dark, windblown sand dunes. The dark sand of the dunes is most likely composed of grains rich in iron-, magnesium-, aluminum-, and silicon-bearing minerals. The hills and mounds of layered sedimentary rock were once more extensive, covering the entire scene shown here, which occurs on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra.

    Location near: 8.9oN, 1.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  2. Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

  3. Evaluation of Surface Slope Effects on Ripple Orientations Observed on Sand Dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Johnson, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has revealed abundant wind ripples on sand dunes across Mars. Ripple orientations have been documented using HiRISE images of sand dunes at 24 widely distributed sites across Mars, in order to identify the last significant wind directions at these locations. Howard (GSAB, 1977) gives a mathematical expression for how surface slopes on a sand dune can affect the orientation of ripples with respect to the formative winds. In order to evaluate this mechanism for measured ripple orientations on Mars, quantitative data for surface slopes on the sand dunes is required. Stereo pairs of HiRISE images are used to generate Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) with postings of one meter. In June 2014 we produced a DTM of sand dunes in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars (14.55° S, 97.77° E) using SOCET SET at the Astrogeology Branch, USGS-Flagstaff. Typically it is difficult for feature matching software to work well on sand dunes, but our stereo images (ESP_022609_1655 and ESP_026675_1655) were obtained only six Earth days apart under excellent illumination conditions. The Terra Tyrrhena DTM had remarkably few artifacts on the sand dunes (except at slip faces, where the average slope between slip face crest and base was interpolated) and excellent control from irregular terrain exposed in interdune areas. Slopes on the stoss sides of sand dunes are generally <10°; the Howard equation indicates ripple deflection angles should be <17° with respect to the actual surface wind direction. We are adjusting documented ripple orientations to account for surface slopes utilizing the DTM data, and so far we do not see major changes to inferred surface wind directions that would be derived directly from the ripple orientations.

  4. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    The highland-lowland boundary (HLB) of Mars is interpreted to be a complex tectonic and erosional transition that may hold evidence for past geologic processes and environments. The HLB-abutting margin of the Libya Montes and the interbasin plains of northern Tyrrhena Terra display an exceptional view of the earliest to middle history of Mars that has yet to be fully characterized. This region contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. However, a full understanding of the regions geologic and stratigraphic evolution is remarkably lacking. Some outstanding questions regarding the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra in-clude: Does combining geomorphology and composition advance our understanding of the region s evolution? Can highland materials be subdivided into stratigraphically discrete rock and sediment sequences? What do major physiographic transitions imply about the balanced tectonism, climate change, and erosion? Where is the erosional origin and what is the post-depositional history of channel and plains units? When and in what types of environments did aqueous mineral signatures arise? This abstract introduces the geologic setting, science rationale, and first year work plan of a recently-funded 4-year geologic mapping proposal (project year = calendar year). The objective is to delineate the geologic evolution of Libya Montes and northern Tyrrhena Terra at 1:1M scale using both classical geomorphological and compositional mapping techniques. The funded quadrangles are MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, -05277, and -10277.

  5. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features

  6. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Thermal Inertia, Albedo, and MOLA-derived Roughness for Terrains in the Terra Meridiani Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Deal, K.; Hynek, B. M.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Snider, N. O.; Mellon, M. T.; Garvin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Surface properties of layered deposits draped on dissected, cratered terrain in the Terra Meridiani area are analyzed using remote sensing data. The etched plains are cemented and differentially eroded, and the hematite plains are loose and drifting. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Using Remote Sensing Techniques to Assess the Geologic Context of Olivine-Bearing Materials within Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M.; Osterloo, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding olivine-bearing materials in Terra Sirenum provides insight into the magmatic and hydrologic processes that shaped the Southern Highlands of Mars. Our study addresses two questions: "What is the geologic context of olivine compositions in the study area?" and "What does olivine abundance, composition, and geologic context suggest about the magmatic and weathering processes in our study area?" To answer these questions, we mapped olivine deposits within a region of Terra Sirenum using JMARS [1]. We used Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data to map the extent of olivine deposits and to understand their degree of consolidation. To investigate olivine composition, we used the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) global maps of Forsterite/Fayalite compositions [2]. We found that the olivine compositions vary from most iron-rich types (Fo01) to the most magnesium-rich (Fo91), with the vast majority identified as Fo68. The results of our study are consistent with those implied by the magma overturn model [3], which explains the compositional changes in Martian magmas over time. In addition, the extent of olivine-bearing deposits within our study area suggests that mechanical weathering (e.g., aeolian and gravity-driven processes) is more likely to dominate the sedimentary record in recent geologic time over water-driven processes. We will present our results, which detail the present-day surface geology of our study area in Terra Sirenum. Our results have implications for Martian magma evolution as well as the extent water has played in shaping the surface of the planet. [1] Gorelick, N., et al. (2003), Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXIV. [2] Koeppen, W.C., et al. (2008), Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E002984. [3] Elkins-Tanton, L.T., et al. (2003), Meteorites & Planetary Science, 38, tb00013.

  9. Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi-Ring Impact Basins, Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping at 1:500K scale of Mars quads 15s027, 20s027, 25s027, and 25s032 (Fig. 1) is in progress to constrain the geologic and geomorphic history of southwestern Margaritifer Terra. This work builds on earlier maps at 1:5M [1] and 1:15M scales [2], recent to concurrent 1:500Kscale mapping of adjacent areas to the east [3-5], and studies of drainage basin evolution along the Uzboi-Ladon-M (ULM; the third valley in the sequence has no formal name) Valles basin overflow system and nearby watersheds [6-9]. Two of the six landing sites under consideration for the Mars Science Laboratory rover are in this map area, targeting finely layered, phyllosilicate-rich strata and alluvial fans in Holden crater [10-12] (26degS, 34degW, 150 km diameter) or deposits southeast of a likely delta in Eberswalde crater [13-16] (24degS, 33degW, 50 km in diameter). Diverse processes including larger and smaller impacts, a wide range in fluvial activity, and local to regional structural influences have all affected the surface morphology.

  10. Small volcanoes in Tempe Terra, Mars: Their detailed morphometry and inferred geologic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The Tempe Terra province contains a variety of volcanic landforms that range in size from small vents (less than 10 km in diameter) to moderately sized volcanoes (150 km in diameter). The volcanoes are aligned along the dominant northerly and northeasterly trends of the faults in this region, and many of the volcanoes occur on grabens. Some workers have speculated on the nature of some of the volcanoes on the basis of their general morphology, shadow measurement height, lateral dimension, and geologic setting. As part of a larger study, we have obtained detailed photoclinometric profiles across five of the more conspicuous small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra region. For these data, we extracted for each volcano its flank width and edifice height and the width and depth of its summit crater. We statistically compared these dimensions for each volcano with a set of average dimensions for each type of terrestrial volcanic feature listed in Pike and Clow (1981). These comparisons indicate that the morphometries of the Martian volcanoes 1, 2, and 3 most closely match Earth's cratered basaltic lava shields, and the morphometries of volcanoes 4 and 5 are similar to those of terrestrial basaltic tuff rings.

  11. Blueberries on Earth and Mars: Some Correlations Between Andean Paleosols, Geothermal Pipes in Navajo Sandstone and Terra Meridiani on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Milner, M. W.; Netoff, D. I.; Dohm, J. M.; Sodhi, R. N. S.; Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Bezada, M.; Kalm, V.; Malloch, D.

    2006-03-01

    The origin of "blueberries" on Mars and their relationship to similar concretionary forms on Earth invokes a process of variable redox conditions in underground fluids. The possible role of microorganisms in the origin of bluberries opens an avenue for biological investigations.

  12. Ariadnes-Gorgonum Knob Fields of North-Western Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    Fields of knobs and small mesas outcrop principally in five adjacent basins in northwestern Terra Sirenum (32-43 S, 166-192 W). Several of these knob fields (the largest) have names. East to west they are: Gorgonum Chaos, Atlantis Chaos, and Ariadnes Colles. These three largest knob fields are on order of 200 km across and are roughly equant but with very irregular boundaries in plan view . There are several smaller knob fields in smaller nearby basins; some as small as 20 km across. Knob material, where unmantled, is relatively brighter than its surroundings. The largest individual knobs are almost invariably mesas with typical plan dimensions of 10 km and relief > 200 m. Knob profiles transition from mesas to rounded mounds with decreasing size. Individual knobs range in size down to 100 m in plan view and relief < 10 m where seen on some MOC NA images.

  13. Ariadnes-Gorgonum Knob Fields of North-Western Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    Fields of knobs and small mesas outcrop principally in five adjacent basins in northwestern Terra Sirenum (32-43 S, 166-192 W). Several of these knob fields (the largest) have names. East to west they are: Gorgonum Chaos, Atlantis Chaos, and Ariadnes Colles. These three largest knob fields are on order of 200 km across and are roughly equant but with very irregular boundaries in plan view . There are several smaller knob fields in smaller nearby basins; some as small as 20 km across. Knob material, where unmantled, is relatively brighter than its surroundings. The largest individual knobs are almost invariably mesas with typical plan dimensions of 10 km and relief > 200 m. Knob profiles transition from mesas to rounded mounds with decreasing size. Individual knobs range in size down to 100 m in plan view and relief < 10 m where seen on some MOC NA images.

  14. Fluvial Degradation of the Highlands: The Terra Tyrrhena Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Crown, D. A.; Harbert, W.

    2002-01-01

    Geologic and geomorphic analyses of highland terrains reveal the effects of fluvial erosion by well-integrated valley networks. Hydrologic modeling using 128 pix/deg Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded topography is being done to quantitatively characterize these systems. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Multi-agent gully processes: Evidence from the Monaro Volcanic Province, Australia and in Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, S. W.; Paull, D. J.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Roach, Ian C.

    2016-03-01

    Comparison of the similarities and differences between terrestrial and Martian hillside gullies promotes understanding of how surface processes operate on both planets. Here we tested the viability of subsurface flow of water as a process affecting gully evolution. We compared gullies within the Monaro Volcanic Province near Cooma, New South Wales, Australia, to gullies possessing strong structural control near Gasa Crater, Terra Cimmeria, Mars. Although cursory examination of the Monaro gullies initially suggested strong evidence for aquifer erosion, detailed field surveys showed the evidence to be ambiguous. Instead a complex regime of erosion dependent on multiple conditions and processes such as local geology, surface runoff, dry mass wasting, and animal activity emerged. We found the morphology of gullies near Gasa Crater to be consistent with erosion caused by liquid water, while also being heavily influenced by the local environment, including slope and geology. Additionally, erosion at the Martian site was not consistent with evidence of subsequent, smaller scale erosion and channel modification by dry mass wasting. Local conditions thus play an important role in gully evolution, further highlighting that processes forming Martian gullies may be more diverse than initially thought.

  16. Hydrological evolution of Atlantis basin, Sirenum Terrae, Mars. Preliminar analysis of MOC and THEMIS images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Márquez, A.; Centeno, J. D.

    The Atlantis basin is one of the martian highlands areas where there was proposed the existence of an ancient lake during the early geological history of Mars [1] [2] [3] [4]. The existence of some morphological features inside the basin and in the surrounding area, allow to check the existence of liquid water in the past of the planet. On the other hand, other morphological features indicate the existence of snow and liquid groundwater in recent times. The detailed study of the geomorphologic features allows to make an approach to the hydrological evolution of the Atlantis basin. The study of the geomorphology of this region has been carried out by means of the analysis of MOC high resolution images obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the THEMIS images, in the visible spectrum, sent by Mars Odyssey spacecrafts. The most clearly morphological feature indicative of the existence of water in the surface of Mars in the past are the numerous channels that end into Atlantis basin from the highest terrains. In addiction to these fluvial channels, the existence of mass flow deposits is also indicative of the existence of water in the area. Some of these slumps are in the internal slopes of impact craters, but others cover huge extensions around the chaotic terrains of the studied area. The lobated ejecta deposits observed in the Atlantis basin region are indicative of the existence of groundwater (solid or liquid) [5]. Serrated reliefs and tables in the borders of the basins are indicative of the existence of a water sheet. Beneath this water sheet some deposits was formed which was eroded, due to the gradual desiccation of the basin, forming the tables and serrated reliefs. The existence of different chaotic terrains in the area implies the existence of huge amounts of water under the surface according to the different models of chaotic terrain formation [6] [7]. The existence of groundwater could be decided by the existence of collapses in the near to the

  17. Nature of the mantling deposit in the heavily cratered terrain of northeastern Arabia, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    Maps derived from the Viking Orbiter images of northeastern Arabia, a heavily cratered region in the Martian northern hemisphere, are interpreted in terms of the nature and the possible origin of the extensive several-hundred-meter-thick deposit of horizontally layered material overlaying a portion of northeastern Arabia. Observations suggest that the deposit is extensively eroded, indicating that this material can be easily broken down into transportable elements, and that it consists of particles larger than fine sand. Two possibilities for the origin of the deposit are discussed. One is that the deposit is a differentially welded pyroclastic tuff, the other that it is a differentially compacted zonally indurated dust deposit.

  18. Synoptic snowfall as a possible source of water for late alluvial fan activity in southern Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial deposits on Mars provide an important record of the environmental conditions enabling their formation. A recent study of alluvial fans within large craters in southern Margaritifer Terra showed that deposition of exposed surfaces occurred late in Martian history, within the latest Hesperian or well into the early Amazonian. These fans typically display well developed alcoves and fan surfaces preserve distributary channels standing ~10-15 m in relief (via inversion of topography). Understanding whether the water responsible for fan emplacement was related to a local source (e.g., impact-related melting of ground ice) versus regional or global synoptic climatic events has implications for the nature of late water activity and potential habitability of Mars. Water released during and after impact events may be sufficient to cause runoff within and around newly formed craters and could contribute to late valley and fan formation without requiring changes in climate. For example, the impact forming the Amazonian-aged Hale crater (35.7S, 323.6E) produced valleys, but was not likely responsible for the alluvial fans because 1) alluvial fans occur in craters up to 700-800 km away from Hale; 2) craters with fans occur at a range of azimuths from Hale (and may not be consistent with downwind transport of volatiles under prevailing winds); and 3) many craters bearing older floor deposits and mantling deposits are closer to Hale than those containing fans. The impact forming the Hesperian-aged Holden crater (26.1S, 326E) is another possible local source of water, but like Hale, craters hosting fans occur at a range of azimuths and up to hundreds of km away from Holden. Moreover, at least six degraded craters on the relatively high relief rim of Holden suggest a gap in time between the Holden impact and the fluvial modification of these near-rim craters and the simultaneous fan activity within Holden. Fans within Holden also record evidence for multiple periods of

  19. Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is located near the equator and the prime meridian of Mars in a region called Terra Meridiani. This is a unique area of Mars that displays layers of material that appear to be in the process of being stripped away. This exposing another layer of material directly underneath that is visible in the central portion of the image. Measurements from another instrument in orbit around Mars, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer on the Mars Global Surveyor, indicate that this region has a high concentration of a mineral called hematite. Grey hematite can form in both volcanic and water rich environments. It is not certain exactly how this mineral formed on Mars, but its presence along with the layering seen in this region makes this region of Mars particularly interesting. Among other possibilities, these layers could be volcanic ash deposits or plausibly sediments deposited in water. This region of Mars is very old and whatever process took place here, it happened long ago. This is one of the principal candidate sites for the next rover mission that will be sent to Mars in 2003.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University

  20. Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is from a region called Terra Sirenum in Mars' southern hemisphere. This region was named in 1958 for the Sea of the Sirens from Greek Mythology. This is not a sea, however, but a relatively dusty, high albedo region of Mars. There are numerous dust devil tracks that are apparent in the center- left of the image. The dust devils act like vacuum cleaners and lift dust off of the surface leaving a less dusty and relatively lower albedo surface behind. Dust devils are very common on Mars and are thought to be the primary mechanism for constantly lifting the dust into the atmosphere. Dust is constantly present in the Martian atmosphere in greater abundances than typically seen on Earth. The Martian dust is one of the main factors that affect the present Martian climate and clearly displays the relationship between Mars' geology and atmosphere.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California

  1. Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image is from a region called Terra Sirenum in Mars' southern hemisphere. This region was named in 1958 for the Sea of the Sirens from Greek Mythology. This is not a sea, however, but a relatively dusty, high albedo region of Mars. There are numerous dust devil tracks that are apparent in the center- left of the image. The dust devils act like vacuum cleaners and lift dust off of the surface leaving a less dusty and relatively lower albedo surface behind. Dust devils are very common on Mars and are thought to be the primary mechanism for constantly lifting the dust into the atmosphere. Dust is constantly present in the Martian atmosphere in greater abundances than typically seen on Earth. The Martian dust is one of the main factors that affect the present Martian climate and clearly displays the relationship between Mars' geology and atmosphere.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California

  2. Compositions of Low Albedo Intracrater Materials and Wind Streaks on Mars: Examination of MGS TES Data in Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandfield, J. L.; Wyatt, M. B.; Christensen, P.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Basalt and andesite surface compositions are identified within individual low albedo intracrater features and adjacent dark wind streaks. High resolution mapping of compositional heterogeneities may help constrain origin hypotheses for these features. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Compositions of Low Albedo Intracrater Materials and Wind Streaks on Mars: Examination of MGS TES Data in Western Arabia Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandfield, J. L.; Wyatt, M. B.; Christensen, P.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Basalt and andesite surface compositions are identified within individual low albedo intracrater features and adjacent dark wind streaks. High resolution mapping of compositional heterogeneities may help constrain origin hypotheses for these features. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Geology and mineralogy of the Auki Crater, Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: A possible post impact-induced hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrozzo, F. G.; Di Achille, G.; Salese, F.; Altieri, F.; Bellucci, G.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of hydrothermal environments have been documented in terrestrial impact structures. Due to both past water interactions and meteoritic bombardment on the surface of Mars, several authors have predicted various scenarios that include the formation of hydrothermal systems. Geological and mineralogical evidence of past hydrothermal activity have only recently been found on Mars. Here, we present a geological and mineralogical study of the Auki Crater using the spectral and visible imagery data acquired by the CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars), CTX (Context Camera) and HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) instruments on board the NASA MRO mission. The Auki Crater is a complex crater that is ∼38 km in diameter located in Tyrrhena Terra (96.8°E and 15.7°S) and shows a correlation between its mineralogy and morphology. The presence of minerals, such as smectite, silica, zeolite, serpentine, carbonate and chlorite, associated with morphological structures, such as mounds, polygonal terrains, fractures and veins, suggests that the Auki Crater may have hosted a post impact-induced hydrothermal system. Although the distribution of hydrated minerals in and around the central uplift and the stratigraphic relationships of some morphological units could also be explained by the excavation and exhumation of carbonate-rich bedrock units as a consequence of crater formation, we favor the hypothesis of impact-induced hydrothermal circulation within fractures and subsequent mineral deposition. The hydrothermal system could have been active for a relatively long period of time after the impact, thus producing a potential transient habitable environment. It must be a spectrally neutral component to emphasize the spectral features; It is an average of spectra taken in the same column of the numerator spectra to correct the residual instrument artifacts and reduce detector noise that changes from column to column

  5. Related magma-ice interactions: Possible origins of chasmata, chaos, and surface materials in Xanthe, Margaritifer, Meridiani Terrae, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    We examine here the close spatial and temporal associations among several unique features of Xanthe and Margaritifer Terrae, specifically the Valles Marineris troughs or chasmata and their interior deposits, chaotic terrain, the circum-Chryse outflow channels, and the subdued cratered material that covers Xanthe, Margaritifer, and Meridiani Terrae. Though previous hypotheses have attempted to explain the origin of individual features or subsets of these, we suggest that they may all be related. All of these features taken together present a consistent scenario that includes the processes of sub-ice volcanism and other magma/ice interactions, results of intrusive events during Late Noachian to Early Amazonian times. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. MC-12 Arabia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-12 quadrangle, Arabia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Arabia quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by a large impact crater, Cassini. Cassini is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0 degrees.

  7. Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 28 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image illustrates the complex terrains within Terra Meridiani. This general region is one of the more complex on Mars, with a rich array of sedimentary, volcanic, and impact surfaces that span a wide range of martian history. This image lies at the eastern edge of a unique geologic unit that was discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Science Team to have high concentrations of a unique mineral called grey (crystalline) hematite. As discussed by the TES Science Team, this mineral typically forms by processes associated with water, and this region appears to have undergone alteration by hydrothermal (hot water) or other water-related processes. As a result of this evidence for water activity, this region is a leading candidate for further exploration by one of NASA's upcoming Mars Exploration Rovers. The brightness and texture of the surface varies remarkably throughout this image. These differences are associated with different rock layers or ?units?, and can be used to map the occurrence of these layers. The number of layers indicates that extensive deposition by volcanic and sedimentary processes has occurred in this region. Since that time, however, extensive erosion has occurred to produce the patchwork of different layers exposed across the surface. Several distinct layers can be seen within the 20 km diameter crater at the bottom (south) of the image, indicating that this crater once contained layers of sedimentary material that has since been removed. THEMIS infrared images of this region show that many of these rock layers have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that the physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment and the conditions under which these layers were deposited or solidified varied through time as these layers were formed. The Story Mars exploration

  8. Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: First Year Results and Second Year Work Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Rogers, A. D.; Seelos, K. D.

    2010-01-01

    The Libya Montes-Tyrrhena Terra highland-lowland transitional zone of Mars is a complex tectonic and erosional region that contains some of the oldest exposed materials on the Martian surface as well as aqueous mineral signatures that may be potential chemical artifacts of early highland formational processes. Our 1:1M scale mapping project includes the geologic materials and landforms contained within MTMs 00282, -05282, -10282, 00277, - 05277, and -10277, which cover the highland portion of the transitional zone. The map region extends from the Libya Montes southward into Tyrrhena Terra and to the northern rim of Hellas basin and includes volcanic rocks of Syrtis Major Planum and a broad lowlying plain (palus) that forms a topographic divide between Isidis and Hellas basins. The objective of this project is to describe the geologic history of regional massif and plains materials by combining geomorphological and compositional mapping observations. This abstract summarizes the technical approaches and interim scientific results of Year 1 efforts and the expected work plan for Year 2 efforts.

  9. Wadi As-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-09

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on in 2011, this image shows the Wadi As-Sirhan Basin in northwest Saudi Arabia, which has been steadily developing agricultural fields using center pivot irrigation by tapping into fossil ground water.

  10. Hard Knocks in Tyrrhena Terra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-02

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observed a small portion of a dark crater floor in the Tyrrhena Terra region of Mars. This is largely ancient hard bedrock that has been cratered by numerous impacts over the eons. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11179

  11. Nature of the mantling deposit in the heavily cratered terrain of northeastern Arabia, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M. )

    1990-08-30

    A portion of northeastern Arabia ({approximately}20{degree}-35{degree}N, {approximately}285{degree}-315{degree}W) appears to be overlain by an extensive, several-hundred-meter-thick deposit of horizontally layered material subsequently subjected to erosion. Preexisting topography is visible but subdued, suggesting that it has been mantled rather than enveloped (infilled). Where uneroded, the surface of the deposit is smooth at {approximately}50 m/pixel resolution. Large craters on this landscape become less distinct with decreasing size until most craters {approximately}10 km in diameter are shallow, rimless circular depressions. The relative age of the mantle, as indicated by the crater density, appears to be consistent with deposition during the period immediately following the decline of heavy bombardment. The mantling deposit was episodically emplaced over a period of time, sufficient to permit a succession of channel formation, infilling, erosion, and subsequent new channeling of the Auqakuh Vallis, and variations over time in the amount of mantling material on large craters within the study area. In places, the deposit has either been extensively eroded to produce remanent mesas or entirely removed. Erosion of this extend indicates that the material is easily disintegrated to loose and freely transportable particles, possibly dust-sized. The observation that the mantle mutes but does not mask preexisting large-scale topography yet buries small-scale features implies that its constituents were deposited from atmospheric suspension (or saltation). Speculative origins for the deposit include formation as a differentially welded pyroclastic tuff or a differentially compacted, zonally indurated aeolian dust deposit.

  12. Testing Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) as a Method of Land Cover Classification of TERRA-ASTER Satellite Images

    PubMed Central

    Quirós, Elia; Felicísimo, Ángel M.; Cuartero, Aurora

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes a new method to classify multi-spectral satellite images based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and compares this classification system with the more common parallelepiped and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. We apply the classification methods to the land cover classification of a test zone located in southwestern Spain. The basis of the MARS method and its associated procedures are explained in detail, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is compared for the three methods. The results show that the MARS method provides better results than the parallelepiped method in all cases, and it provides better results than the maximum likelihood method in 13 cases out of 17. These results demonstrate that the MARS method can be used in isolation or in combination with other methods to improve the accuracy of soil cover classification. The improvement is statistically significant according to the Wilcoxon signed rank test. PMID:22291550

  13. Surface slope effects for ripple orientation on sand dunes in López crater, Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, James R.; Johnson, Molly B.

    2017-06-01

    Ripple orientations on small sand dunes (dunes lacking substantial slip faces) at widely distributed sites across Mars have been documented using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, in an effort to determine the last formative aeolian sediment transport direction experienced at these locations. Howard (1977) used field measurements and first principles to derive an expression for determining how much the surface slope on a sand dune deflects the orientation of sand ripples with respect to the formative wind direction. A Digital Terrain Model derived from stereo HiRISE images was used to assess the potential deflection of ripples on sand dunes on the floor of López crater on Mars. Three-quarters of the area covered by sand dunes within the DTM has a surface slope <10°, where deflection angles are expected to be <17° (a value that should not pose a major issue for comparison to model-derived winds); such surface slopes are typical of small sand dunes on Mars that lack large slip faces. Sand ripples therefore should be good indicators of the most recent sand-transporting winds that have blown across sand dunes on Mars, as long as areas on or very near to slip faces are avoided.

  14. Terra Sirenum Slope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the layered rocks and boulders exposed on the wall of a trough in the Terra Sirenum region. The layers that erode to produce large boulders are harder and more resistant to weathering and erosion than those that do not. The slope is located near 25.8oS, 139.8oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  15. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called "Mission to Planet Earth"), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 AM local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) are provided by the United States; MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) by Canada; and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer) by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale. This interactive CD introduces Terra's overall objectives and its instruments, the new technologies developed for Terra, the launch of Terra, and its flight dynamics.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Impacts on Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Impacts on Mars and Earth" included the following reports:A Timescale for Major Events in Early Mars Crustal Evolution; Impact Craters in Arabia Terra, Mars; Ancient Giant Basin/Aquifer System in the Arabia Region, Mars; Small Crater Morphology Within Gusev Crater and Isidis Planitia: Evidence for Widespread Secondaries on Mars; Martian Surface Properties: Inferences from Resolved Differences in Crater Geometries; Asymmetric Ramparts of Secondary Craters in Cerberus, Mars: Interpretation and Implications for Local Stratigraphy; Depth to Diameter Relationships of Craters in the High Latitudes (70 -80 ) of Mars: Implications for Geologic History of Those Areas; Impact Cratering on Mars: Search for Target Influence on Morphology; Starting Conditions for Hydrothermal Systems Underneath Martian Craters: Hydrocode Modeling; Impact-induced Hydrothermal System at the Sudbury Crater: Duration, Temperatures, Mechanics, and Biological Implications; Major and Trace Element Variations in Impact Crater Clay from Chicxulub, Lonar, and Mistastin, Implications for the Martian Soil; Stable Isotopes and Hydrothermal Fluid Source in the Yaxcopoil-1 Borehole, Chicxulub Impact Structure, Mexico; and Chicxulub Impact Melts: Geochemical Signatures of Target Lithology Mixing and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Fluid Processes.

  17. Mineralogy and stratigraphy of phyllosilicate-bearing and dark mantling units in the greater Mawrth Vallis/west Arabia Terra area: Constraints on geological origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Fu, R.; Rossi, C.M.; Michalski, J.R.; Heinlein, C.; Hanus, V.; Poulet, F.; Mustard, R.J.F.; Murchie, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Swayze, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of MRO/CRISM images of the greater Mawrth Vallis region of Mars affirm the presence of two primary phyllosilicate assemblages throughout a region ∼1000 × 1000 km. These two units consist of an Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate and hydrated silica assemblage. The lower unit contains Fe/Mg-smectites, sometimes combined with one or more of these other Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates: serpentine, chlorite, biotite, and/or vermiculite. It is more than 100 m thick and finely layered at meter scales. The upper unit includes Al-smectite, kaolin group minerals, and hydrated silica. It is tens of meters thick and finely layered as well. A common phyllosilicate stratigraphy and morphology is observed throughout the greater region wherever erosional windows are present. This suggests that the geologic processes forming these units must have occurred on at least a regional scale. Sinuous ridges (interpreted to be inverted channels) and narrow channels cut into the upper clay-bearing unit suggesting that aqueous processes were prevalent after, and possibly during, the deposition of the layered units. We propose that layered units may have been deposited at Mawrth Vallis and then subsequently altered to form the hydrated units. The Fe/Mg-phyllosilicate assemblage is consistent with hydrothermal alteration or pedogenesis of mafic to ultramafic rocks. The Al-phyllosilicate/hydrated silica unit may have formed through alteration of felsic material or via leaching of basaltic material through pedogenic alteration or a mildly acidic environment. These phyllosilicate-bearing units are overlain by a darker, relatively unaltered, and indurated material that has probably experienced a complex geological history.

  18. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called 'Mission to Planet Earth'), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 am local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES, MISR, and MODIS are proved by the US; MOPITT by Canada; and ASTER by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale.

  19. Regional-scale stratigraphy of surface units in Tyrrhena and Iapygia Terrae, Mars: insights into highland crustal evolution and alteration history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Fergason, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    The compositional, thermophysical and geologic characteristics of surface units in Iapygia and Tyrrhena Terra (60°E-100°E, 0°-30°S) provide new insights into the compositional stratigraphy of the region. Intercrater plains are dominated by two surface units. The older unit (unit 1) is deficient in olivine and more degraded and likely consists of a mixture of impact, volcanic and sedimentary materials. The younger unit (unit 2) is enriched in olivine, exhibits a resistant morphology and higher thermal inertia, and likely represents volcanic infilling of plains. Units 1 and 2 bear a strong resemblance to those previously mapped in Mare Serpentis, a section of highlands crust located northwest of Hellas Basin. Thus, the two major intercrater plains units are even more widespread than previously thought and therefore likely constitute important components of Mars' highland stratigraphy. Many craters in the region contain high thermal inertia deposits (unit 3) that are compositionally identical to unit 2. These may have formed via volcanic infilling or may represent sedimentary materials that have been eroded from crater walls and lithified. Less common units include olivine and/or pyroxene-rich massifs and crater central peaks. These are primarily found within Hellas Basin rim units and may represent mantle materials brought toward the surface during the Hellas impact. Putative chloride deposits are primarily associated with olivine-deficient surfaces (unit 1) that may be heavily degraded occurrences of unit 2. The observations raise a variety of questions related to Martian crustal evolution and alteration that may have more widespread implications outside the study region.

  20. Regional-scale stratigraphy of surface units in Tyrrhena and Iapygia Terrae, Mars: Insights into highland crustal evolution and alteration history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, A.D.; Fergason, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The compositional, thermophysical and geologic characteristics of surface units in Iapygia and Tyrrhena Terra (60??E-100??E, 0??-30??S) provide new insights into the compositional stratigraphy of the region. Intercrater plains are dominated by two surface units. The older unit (unit 1) is deficient in olivine and more degraded and likely consists of a mixture of impact, volcanic and sedimentary materials. The younger unit (unit 2) is enriched in olivine, exhibits a resistant morphology and higher thermal inertia, and likely represents volcanic infilling of plains. Units 1 and 2 bear a strong resemblance to those previously mapped in Mare Serpentis, a section of highlands crust located northwest of Hellas Basin. Thus, the two major intercrater plains units are even more widespread than previously thought and therefore likely constitute important components of Mars' highland stratigraphy. Many craters in the region contain high thermal inertia deposits (unit 3) that are compositionally identical to unit 2. These may have formed via volcanic infilling or may represent sedimentary materials that have been eroded from crater walls and lithified. Less common units include olivine and/or pyroxene-rich massifs and crater central peaks. These are primarily found within Hellas Basin rim units and may represent mantle materials brought toward the surface during the Hellas impact. Putative chloride deposits are primarily associated with olivine-deficient surfaces (unit 1) that may be heavily degraded occurrences of unit 2. The observations raise a variety of questions related to Martian crustal evolution and alteration that may have more widespread implications outside the study region. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Radar, Gamma Ray Spectrometer, and Cratering Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars: Radar, Gamma Ray Spectrometer, and Cratering Mineralogy" contained the following reports:The Dielectric Properties of Martian Soil Simulant JSC Mars-1 in the Range from 20Hz to 10kHz; Eastern Sahara Geology from Orbital Radar: Potential Analog to Mars On the Dielectric Properties of the Martian-like Surface Sediments; Radar Observations of Recent Mars Landing Sites; Sounding of Subsurface Water Through Conductive Media in Mars Analog Environments Using Transient Electromagnetics and Low Frequency Ground-penetrating Radar; Burial Depth of the Reservoirs of Hydrogen at the Equatorial Latitudes on Mars; Elemental Composition Variations for Large Dusty and Rocky Regions on Mars Using Gamma-Ray Data from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer; The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results; Using Mars Odyssey GRS Data to Assess Models for the Bulk Composition of Mars; Mars: The Terra Arabia Low Epithermal Neutron Flux Anomaly; The Isidis Basin of Mars: New Results from MOLA, MOC, and THEMIS; Remote Sensing of the Haughton Impact Structure (HIS): A Terrestrial Proof of Concept for Using the Remote Sensing of Martian Craters as a Probe of Subsurface Composition;and Thermal Emission Spectra of Impact Glass and Shocked Deccan Basalt from Lonar Crater, India and Implications for Remote Sensing of Mars.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Radar, Gamma Ray Spectrometer, and Cratering Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars: Radar, Gamma Ray Spectrometer, and Cratering Mineralogy" contained the following reports:The Dielectric Properties of Martian Soil Simulant JSC Mars-1 in the Range from 20Hz to 10kHz; Eastern Sahara Geology from Orbital Radar: Potential Analog to Mars On the Dielectric Properties of the Martian-like Surface Sediments; Radar Observations of Recent Mars Landing Sites; Sounding of Subsurface Water Through Conductive Media in Mars Analog Environments Using Transient Electromagnetics and Low Frequency Ground-penetrating Radar; Burial Depth of the Reservoirs of Hydrogen at the Equatorial Latitudes on Mars; Elemental Composition Variations for Large Dusty and Rocky Regions on Mars Using Gamma-Ray Data from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer; The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results; Using Mars Odyssey GRS Data to Assess Models for the Bulk Composition of Mars; Mars: The Terra Arabia Low Epithermal Neutron Flux Anomaly; The Isidis Basin of Mars: New Results from MOLA, MOC, and THEMIS; Remote Sensing of the Haughton Impact Structure (HIS): A Terrestrial Proof of Concept for Using the Remote Sensing of Martian Craters as a Probe of Subsurface Composition;and Thermal Emission Spectra of Impact Glass and Shocked Deccan Basalt from Lonar Crater, India and Implications for Remote Sensing of Mars.

  3. Acidalia and Chryse Plains, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-06-14

    Somewhere down there sits the Mars Pathfinder lander and Sojourner rover. This Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera view of the red planet shows the region that includes Ares Vallis and the Chryse Plains upon which both Mars Pathfinder and the Viking 1 landed in 1997 and 1976, respectively. Acidalia Planitia is the dark surface that dominates the center left. The Pathfinder site is immediately south of Acidalia, just left of center in this view. Also shown--the north polar cap is at the top, and Arabia Terra and Sinus Meridiani are to the right. The bluish-white features are clouds. This is a color composite of 9 red and 9 blue image strips taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera on 9 successive orbits from pole-to-pole during the calibration phase of the mission in March 1999. The color is computer-enhanced and is not shown as it would actually appear to the human eye. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02000

  4. Nature and origin of materials exposed in the Oxia Palus-Western Arabia-Sinus Meridiani region, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, M.A.; Arvidson, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Images and thermal data obtained by the Viking Orbiter over the Martian equatorial cratered terrain in western Arabia, eastern Oxia, and Sinuses Sabaeus and Meridiani, have been evaluated with a view to the identification, characterization, and mapping of local, bedrock-related materials. Three primary color/thermal units are discernible: (1) bright red dust storm deposits; (2) brown materials, which may be indurated; and (3) dark, but less red materials which may be composed of medium sand size-range lithic fragments. The surficial units exposed over the study area are judged to represent mixed eolian deposits, largely decoupled from the bedrock underneath. 44 references.

  5. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, Hugh H. (Editor); Jakosky, Bruce M. (Editor); Snyder, Conway W. (Editor); Matthews, Mildred S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on Mars discusses visual, photographic and polarimetric telescopic observations, spacecraft exploration of Mars, the origin and thermal evolution of Mars, and the bulk composition, mineralogy, and internal structure of the planet. Attention is given to Martian gravity and topography, stress and tectonics on Mars, long-term orbital and spin dynamics of Mars, and Martian geodesy and cartography. Topics addressed include the physical volcanology of Mars, the canyon system on planet, Martian channels and valley networks, and ice in the Martian regolith. Also discussed are Martian aeolian processes, sediments, and features, polar deposits of Mars, dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, and the seasonal behavior of water on Mars.

  6. Investigations in Martian geology. Part 1: Nature of the mantling deposit in the heavily cratered terrain of northeastern Arabia, Mars. Part 2: Experimental studies of clean and dust-or-sand-covered ice sublimation under Mars-like conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the geomorphology of a portion of northeastern Arabia, Mars. This surface is covered by an extensive, layered deposit which has been, in places, substantially eroded. Speculative origins for the deposit include formation as a differentially welded pyroclastic tuff, or a differentially compacted, zonally indurated aeolian dust deposit. Part 2 is an experimental study of the sublimation rate of H{sub 2}O ice, both from clean surfaces and from under thin layers of dust or sand, in a Mars-like environment. The major conclusions drawn from the results of this experiment are: (1) even very thin layers of dust greatly lower the sublimation rate of an underlying ice substrate being heated from above, whereas thin layers of sand suppress the sublimation rate of underlying ice being heated from above to a significantly lesser extent; (2) thin layers of dust or sand only mildly suppress the sublimation rate of an underlying ice substrate when sample is wholly isothermal; (3) even a low-flux, desiccated gas flow over the sample surface significantly increases the sublimation rate of any given sample; (4) dry sublimation of ice underlying thin layers of dust or sand may modify the surface texture as a function of particle cohesion and as the ratio of particle layer thickness to the amount by which the surface was lowered; and (5) the actual sublimation rate of clean ice is several factors lower than the sublimation rate predicted by a commonly used formula.

  7. Variations in K/Th on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Stopar, J. D.; Boynton, W. V.; Karunatillake, S.; Keller, J. M.; Brückner, J.; Wänke, H.; Dreibus, G.; Kerry, K. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Martel, L. M. V.; Squyres, S. W.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; d'Uston, C.; Englert, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D.; Sprague, A. L.; Kim, K. J.; Drake, D. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Hahn, B. C.

    2006-12-01

    K/Th determined by the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer varies by a factor of 3 on Mars (3000 to 9000), but over 95% of the surface area has K/Th between 4000 and 7000. K/Th is distinctly lower than average in some areas, including west of Olympus Mons in the Amazonis Planitia, the region around Memnonia Fossae, Chryse Planitia, southeastern Arabia Terra, Syrtis Major Planum, and northwest of Apollinaris Patera. On the other hand, K/Th is distinctly higher than average in other areas, including the central part of Valles Marineris and the surrounding highlands, and in the northern part of Hellas. The generally modest variation in K/Th may be explained by inherent variations in igneous rocks and by variations in the extent of aqueous alteration.

  8. Internal structure and early thermal evolution of Mars from Mars Global Surveyor topography and gravity.

    PubMed

    Zuber, M T; Solomon, S C; Phillips, R J; Smith, D E; Tyler, G L; Aharonson, O; Balmino, G; Banerdt, W B; Head, J W; Johnson, C L; Lemoine, F G; McGovern, P J; Neumann, G A; Rowlands, D D; Zhong, S

    2000-03-10

    Topography and gravity measured by the Mars Global Surveyor have enabled determination of the global crust and upper mantle structure of Mars. The planet displays two distinct crustal zones that do not correlate globally with the geologic dichotomy: a region of crust that thins progressively from south to north and encompasses much of the southern highlands and Tharsis province and a region of approximately uniform crustal thickness that includes the northern lowlands and Arabia Terra. The strength of the lithosphere beneath the ancient southern highlands suggests that the northern hemisphere was a locus of high heat flow early in martian history. The thickness of the elastic lithosphere increases with time of loading in the northern plains and Tharsis. The northern lowlands contain structures interpreted as large buried channels that are consistent with northward transport of water and sediment to the lowlands before the end of northern hemisphere resurfacing.

  9. Winds drive dune movement on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes, a common feature on the surface of Mars, can provide a record of recent and past changes. Some dunes near Mars's polar areas have recently been observed to change due to carbon dioxide ice sublimation, but it has not been confirmed whether dunes are still active all over Mars. Winds contribute to dune movement on Earth, but wind tunnel and atmospheric computer simulations have suggested that strong winds would be rare in the current Martian atmosphere. In a new study, Silvestro et al. observe recent dune movement in Mars's tropical regions, which are not affected by seasonal changes in carbon dioxide frost. Focusing on the Arabia Terra and Meridiani regions on Mars, the researchers analyzed images from the High Resolution Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as other sources of data. They measured migration rates of two groups of ripples in the sand in a dune field in Meridiani Planum and found that dunes advanced about 0.4-1 meter in a Martian year.

  10. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. CD-ROM publication of the Mars digital cartographic data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Eliason, E. M.; Soderblom, L. A.; Edwards, Kathleen; Wu, Sherman S. C.

    1991-01-01

    The recently completed Mars mosaicked digital image model (MDIM) and the soon-to-be-completed Mars digital terrain model (DTM) are being transcribed to optical disks to simplify distribution to planetary investigators. These models, completed in FY 1991, provide a cartographic base to which all existing Mars data can be registered. The digital image map of Mars is a cartographic extension of a set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes containing individual Viking Orbiter images now being released. The data in these volumes are pristine in the sense that they were processed only to the extent required to view them as images. They contain the artifacts and the radiometric, geometric, and photometric characteristics of the raw data transmitted by the spacecraft. This new set of volumes, on the other hand, contains cartographic compilations made by processing the raw images to reduce radiometric and geometric distortions and to form geodetically controlled MDIM's. It also contains digitized versions of an airbrushed map of Mars as well as a listing of all feature names approved by the International Astronomical Union. In addition, special geodetic and photogrammetric processing has been performed to derive rasters of topographic data, or DTM's. The latter have a format similar to that of MDIM, except that elevation values are used in the array instead of image brightness values. The set consists of seven volumes: (1) Vastitas Borealis Region of Mars; (2) Xanthe Terra of Mars; (3) Amazonis Planitia Region of Mars; (4) Elysium Planitia Region of Mars; (5) Arabia Terra of Mars; (6) Planum Australe Region of Mars; and (7) a digital topographic map of Mars.

  13. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  14. Quasi-periodic bedding in the sedimentary rock record of mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, K.W.; Aharonson, O.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Kirk, R.L.; McEwen, A.S.; Suer, T.-A.

    2008-01-01

    Widespread sedimentary rocks on Mars preserve evidence of surface conditions different from the modern cold and dry environment, although it is unknown how long conditions favorable to deposition persisted. We used 1-meter stereo topographic maps to demonstrate the presence of rhythmic bedding at several outcrops in the Arabia Terra region. Repeating beds are ???10 meters thick, and one site contains hundreds of meters of strata bundled into larger units at a ???10:1 thickness ratio. This repetition likely points to cyclicity in environmental conditions, possibly as a result of astronomical forcing. If deposition were forced by orbital variation, the rocks may have been deposited over tens of millions of years.

  15. Age of the Mars Global Northerly Slope: Evidence From Utopia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Recent results from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) experiment on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) indicate that most of Mars is characterized by a very gentle, roughly northerly slope. Detailed mapping in north-central Arabia Terra combined with superposition relations and crater counts indicate that, in that region at least, this northerly slope must have been formed no later than Late Hesperian, with the most likely time of formation being Late Hesperian. Current research in Utopia Planitia intended as a test of extant models for the formation of giant polygons has turned up good evidence for a Late Hesperian age for the northerly tilt in this region as well, as will be discussed.

  16. Age of the Mars Global Northerly Slope: Evidence From Utopia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Recent results from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) experiment on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) indicate that most of Mars is characterized by a very gentle, roughly northerly slope. Detailed mapping in north-central Arabia Terra combined with superposition relations and crater counts indicate that, in that region at least, this northerly slope must have been formed no later than Late Hesperian, with the most likely time of formation being Late Hesperian. Current research in Utopia Planitia intended as a test of extant models for the formation of giant polygons has turned up good evidence for a Late Hesperian age for the northerly tilt in this region as well, as will be discussed.

  17. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was associated with the presence of a thick atmosphere and warmer temperatures. It is possible that at some time in the future we might recreate a habitable climate on Mars, returning it to the life-bearing state it may have enjoyed early in its history. Our studies of Mars are still in a preliminary state but everything we have learned suggests that it may be possible to restore Mars to a habitable climate. Mars' current scientific value is indisputable but it is certainly true that extensive exploration followed by a careful and studied program of introducing life would yield an even greater scientific harvest. The scientific knowledge gained by studying the ways in which a biosphere could be introduced on Mars may inform us as to the preservation of the one on Earth.

  20. Wadi Al Dawasir, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-20

    In the middle of the Arabian desert the city Green Oasis Wadi Al Dawasir is being developed as a new urban center for the Wadi Al Dawasir region of Saudi Arabia, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. Huge solar fields supply the entire city and the surrounding region with energy. Hundreds of circular agricultural fields are fed by center pivot irrigation apparatus, drawing water from subterranean aquifers. The image was acquired March 30, 2013, covers an area of 30 x 45 km, and is located at 20.2 degrees north, 44.8 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20077

  1. Evolution of Lacustrine Environments on Mars and Their Significance: The Case for the Brazos Lakes and East Terra Meridiani Basins as Landing Sites for Surveyor 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Martian lacustrine environments must be considered as primary targets to explore on Mars. Terrestrial studies show that lakes are exceptional sites to keep the record of the evolution of climate, geology, water and life. Finding this record is also the principal objective of the Mars Surveyor Program. This record encompasses changes at local, regional and global scales. Lacustrine sediments provide critical information about all events occurring in the lake catchment area. They are also a locus of complex chemical processes, concentration for life and favorable sites for fossilization processes to take place. We proposed two candidate-sites in the Schiaparelli Crater region responding to this high-priority scientific objective at the June 1999 meeting in Buffalo, NY. The two sites are located in the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle, are well documented by MOC images, and are among the best evidence yet of a Martian past lacustrine activity. We develop their case as high-priority sites for the 01' mission.

  2. Rippled Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    29 July 2004 Hundreds of large ripples or small dunes cover the landscape in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The winds responsible for these dunes blew from the north-northwest (top/upper left). This scene is located near 8.8oS, 252.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  3. Exobiology site priorities for Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Desmarais, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The fact that life developed on the Earth within the first billion years of its history makes it quite plausible that life may have also developed on Mars. If life did develop on Mars, it undoubtedly left behind a fossil record. Such a fossil record is likely to be more accessible than either subsurface environments that may harbor life, or scattered 'oases' that may be present at the surface. Consequently, the post-Viking approach of Mars exobiology has shifted focus to search for evidence of an ancient martian biosphere. This has led to the emergence of a new subdiscipline of paleontology, herein termed 'exopaleontology', which deals with the exploration for fossils on other planets and whose core concepts derive from Earth-based Precambrian paleontology, microbial ecology, and sedimentology. Potential targets on Mars for subaqueous spring deposits, sedimentary cements, and evaporites are ancient terminal lake basins where hydrological systems could have endured for some time under arid conditions. Potential targets for the Mars Pathfinder mission include channeled impact craters and areas of deranged drainage associated with outflows in northwest Arabia and Xanthe Terra, where water may have ponded temporarily to form lakes. The major uncertainty of such targets is their comparatively younger age and the potentially short duration of hydrological activity compared to older paleolake basins found in the southern hemisphere. However, it has been suggested that cycles of catastrophic flooding associated with Tharsis volcanism may have sustained a large body of water, Oceanus Borealis, in the northern plains area until quite late in martian history. Although problematic, the shoreline areas of the proposed northern ocean provide potential targets for a Mars Pathfinder mission aimed at exploring for carbonates or other potentially fossiliferous marine deposits. Carbonates and evaporites possess characteristic spectra signatures in the near-infrared and should be

  4. Nature and origin of the hematite-bearing plains of Terra Meridiani based on analyses of orbital and Mars Exploration rover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Poulet, F.; Morris, R.V.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bell, J.F.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P.R.; Bellucci, G.; Gondet, B.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.L.; Golombeck, M.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Langevin, Y.; Ming, D.; Seelos, K.; Sullivan, R.J.; Ward, J.G.; Wiseman, S.M.; Wolff, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ???5 km of traverses and observations completed by the Opportunity rover from Endurance crater to the Fruitbasket outcrop show that the Meridiani plains consist of sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks that are largely covered by poorly-sorted basaltic aeolian sands and a lag of granule-sized hematitic concretions. Orbital reflectance spectra obtained by Mars Express OMEGA over this region are dominated by pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, crystalline hematite (i.e., concretions), and nano-phase iron oxide dust signatures, consistent with Pancam and Mini-TES observations. Mo??ssbauer Spectrometer observations indicate more olivine than observed with the other instruments, consistent with preferential optical obscuration of olivine features in mixtures with pyroxene and dust. Orbital data covering bright plains located several kilometers to the south of the landing site expose a smaller areal abundance of hematite, more dust, and a larger areal extent of outcrop compared to plains proximal to the landing site. Low-albedo, low-thermal-inertia, windswept plains located several hundred kilometers to the south of the landing site are predicted from OMEGA data to have more hematite and fine-grained olivine grains exposed as compared to the landing site. Low calcium pyroxene dominates spectral signatures from the cratered highlands to the south of Opportunity. A regional-scale model is presented for the formation of the plains explored by Opportunity, based on a rising ground water table late in the Noachian Era that trapped and altered local materials and aeolian basaltic sands. Cessation of this aqueous process led to dominance of aeolian processes and formation of the current configuration of the plains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Modeling tsunami propagation and the emplacement of thumbprint terrain in an early Mars ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costard, Francois; Séjourné, Antoine; Kelfoun, Karim; Clifford, Stephen; Lavigne, Franck; Di Pietro, Ilaria; Bouley, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    The identification of lobate debris deposits in Arabia Terra, along the proposed paleoshoreline of a former northern ocean, has renewed questions about the existence and stability of ocean-sized body of water in the early geologic history of Mars. The potential occurrence of impact-generated tsunamis in a northern ocean was investigated by comparing the geomorphologic characteristics of the Martian deposits with the predictions of well-validated terrestrial models (scaled to Mars) of tsunami wave height, propagation direction, runup elevation, and distance for three potential sea levels. Our modeling suggests several potential impact craters 30-50 km in diameter as the source of the tsunami events. Within the complex topography of flat-floored valleys and plateaus along the dichotomy boundary, the interference of the multiple reflected and refracted waves that are observed in the simulation may explain the origin of the arcuate pattern that characterizes the thumbprint terrain.

  6. Ancient geodynamics and global-scale hydrology on Mars.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R J; Zuber, M T; Solomon, S C; Golombek, M P; Jakosky, B M; Banerdt, W B; Smith, D E; Williams, R M; Hynek, B M; Aharonson, O; Hauck, S A

    2001-03-30

    Loading of the lithosphere of Mars by the Tharsis rise explains much of the global shape and long-wavelength gravity field of the planet, including a ring of negative gravity anomalies and a topographic trough around Tharsis, as well as gravity anomaly and topographic highs centered in Arabia Terra and extending northward toward Utopia. The Tharsis-induced trough and antipodal high were largely in place by the end of the Noachian Epoch and exerted control on the location and orientation of valley networks. The release of carbon dioxide and water accompanying the emplacement of approximately 3 x 10(8) cubic kilometers of Tharsis magmas may have sustained a warmer climate than at present, enabling the formation of ancient valley networks and fluvial landscape denudation in and adjacent to the large-scale trough.

  7. Investigation of water vapor on Mars with PFS/SW of Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschimmel, M.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Titov, D. V.; Lellouch, E.; Fouchet, T.; Giuranna, M.; Formisano, V.

    2008-06-01

    New insight into the seasonal, diurnal and spatial distribution of water vapor on Mars has been obtained from analyzing the spectra of the short-wavelength channel (SW) of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard Mars Express. The processed dataset, recorded between January 2004 and April 2005, covers the seasons from L=331° of Mars Year 26 to L=196° of the following year. In this period the mean column density around vernal equinox was 8.2 pr. μm. The maximum values during northern summer were about 65 pr. μm, located around 75° N latitude with a longitudinally inhomogeneous distribution. Regarding the atmospheric transport, the majority of polar water vapor remains in the north polar region while only about a quarter is transported southward. Geographically there are two water vapor maxima visible, over Arabia Terra and the Tharsis plateau, that are most likely caused both by atmosphere-ground interaction and by atmospheric circulation. A comparison with other instruments generally shows a good agreement, only the SPICAM results are systematically lower. Compared to the results from the PFS long-wavelength channel the results of this work are slightly higher. A strong discrepancy is visible northward of about 50° N during the northern summer that is possibly explained by a non-uniform vertical H 2O mixing. In particular, a confinement of the water to the lower few kilometers yields a much better agreement between the retrieved column densities of the two PFS channels.

  8. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  9. Medusae Fossae-Elysium Region, Mars: Depression in the HEND/Odyssey Map of Mars Epithermal Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft showed that the low neutron fluxes characterize both subpolar regions of Mars. The low neutron fluxes mean the presence of hydrogen-rich soils and have been interpreted as an indication on abundant water ice in these areas. The equatorial region of Mars (equatorward of approx. 50 deg) is characterized by higher fluxes of both epithermal (0.4 eV-100 keV, come from depth 1-2 m) and fast (3.4-7.3 MeV, come from depth 0.2-0.3 m) neutrons meaning that this area is mostly dry. The pattern of distribution of the neutron fluxes is in a good agreement with the theoretical predictions on the stability of ground ice on present Mars. The actual distribution of the ice, however, depends on variations of thermal inertia of soils and albedo of the surface. The flux of the epithermal neutrons detected by the HEND instrument, which is part of GRS, has two noticeable depressions in the equatorial region, one in Arabia Terra and another in the Medusae Fossae-Elysium region (MFER). Here we present the initial results of analysis of characteristics of the neutron fluxes and regional geological setting of the epithermal neutron depression in this area. The main goal of our study was to put some constraints on the time of the anomaly formation and to assess possible form of hydrogen (ground ice vs. chemically bound water) there.

  10. Medusae Fossae-Elysium Region, Mars: Depression in the HEND/Odyssey Map of Mars Epithermal Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft showed that the low neutron fluxes characterize both subpolar regions of Mars. The low neutron fluxes mean the presence of hydrogen-rich soils and have been interpreted as an indication on abundant water ice in these areas. The equatorial region of Mars (equatorward of approx. 50 deg) is characterized by higher fluxes of both epithermal (0.4 eV-100 keV, come from depth 1-2 m) and fast (3.4-7.3 MeV, come from depth 0.2-0.3 m) neutrons meaning that this area is mostly dry. The pattern of distribution of the neutron fluxes is in a good agreement with the theoretical predictions on the stability of ground ice on present Mars. The actual distribution of the ice, however, depends on variations of thermal inertia of soils and albedo of the surface. The flux of the epithermal neutrons detected by the HEND instrument, which is part of GRS, has two noticeable depressions in the equatorial region, one in Arabia Terra and another in the Medusae Fossae-Elysium region (MFER). Here we present the initial results of analysis of characteristics of the neutron fluxes and regional geological setting of the epithermal neutron depression in this area. The main goal of our study was to put some constraints on the time of the anomaly formation and to assess possible form of hydrogen (ground ice vs. chemically bound water) there.

  11. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  12. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  13. Terra Incognita I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, M.; Schönert, S.

    2005-08-01

    The topics discussed in the workshop session "Terra Incognita I" included a wide range of science. Central to the discussion however was the study of sub-leading neutrino oscillations driven by Θ 13 and the possibility to observe CP-violation in the leptonic sector. Furthermore, the long-standing problem of sterile neutrinos was addressed, as well as the scenario that UHECR could be produced via so called Z-bursts. To employ neutrinos in the literal meaning of the workshop session title "Terra Incognita", namely to explore the unknown earth with neutrinos from geo-chemical origin, completed the session.

  14. Karst terrains in northern Sinus Meridiani, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, D.; Sgavetti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sinus Meridiani is part of the large area known as Terra Meridiani, located near the southwestern margin of Arabia Terra, in the equatorial region of Mars. In this area several studies showed the evidence for past aqueous activity preserved in several distinct units that were identified and classified as layered deposits with monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfate spectral signatures. In this work we investigate the area in the northern region of Sinus Meridiani located between 2°N to 3°N latitude and 2°W to 1°E longitude. Through the analysis of the MRO HiRISE images we studied in great detail different surfaces within the study area. In particular, we focused our analysis on the features that we interpreted as karst landforms, investigating the possible processes involved in their formation and shaping. Our investigation highlights features which are common for karst in high mountain areas or in evaporite terrains on the Earth. The landforms observed on Mars appear to be mainly created by corrosional and solutional processes. In particular, rounded and elongate depressions of different sizes, which we interpreted as polygenetic dolines can be observed in the whole study area. Locally the dolines almost totally occupy the surface, giving rise to polygonal karst landscapes just as it typically happens in the evaporite terrains on the Earth. The detailed analysis of the landforms clearly indicates the presence of solutional processes, inconsistent with other processes such as wind erosion, or with impact craters heavily eroded or reworked by geomorphic processes. In addition, the comparison among the different surfaces identified in the study area points out that they consist of materials with different solutional properties, displaying different levels and kind of karstification. The results of our study also suggest that liquid water must have existed in this area in the past for enough time to allow the solution features to have formed.

  15. NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Myers, Daryl R. [NREL; Al-Abbadi, Naif [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite; Wilcox, Steve [NREL

    Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

  16. Venus - Lada Terra Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    This NASA Magellan radar image mosaic is of part of Venus, centered at 51 degrees south latitude, 21 degrees east longitude. Running from west to east across the center of the image is part of a wide lava channel in the Lada Terra region of Venus. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00219

  17. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The country of Saudi Arabia contains 830,000 square miles, mostly desert with mountains in the southwest. It has population of 11 million and an annual growth rate of 3.5%. The population is 90% Arab and the rest Afro-Asian; the religion is Islam, and the language is Arabic. There is an 80% literacy rate, an infant mortality rate of 78/1000, and life expectancy of 60 years. There is a 4.8 million person work force, of which 25% is Saudi and 75% foreign. Until recently most of the people were nomadic and seminomadic; but with rapid economic growth, urbanization has progressed quickly and 90% are now settled, with some cities having high population densities (2,000/square mile). The country is very conservative due to the adherence to strict Islamic law. Oil was discovered in 1903 but large production was not introduced until after World War II. The country is now the world's largest oil exporter and 50% of the governments funds come from it. The country has developed rapidly in the 1970's and 1980's and present plans are for consolidation of the country's defenses, more government efficiency. Greater private sector employment is sought for Saudis, with reduction of foreign workers and more regional development The US and Saudis have mutual interest is stability in the region and have worked closely for peaceful development.

  18. Sinus Meridiani and Arabia Terra: Phyllosilicate and Sulfate Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.

    2012-05-01

    Exposures in Sinus Meridiani are well suited to examine the transition between Noachian and Hesperian aqueous processes. Deposits record prolonged aqueous activity and changes in mineralogy reflect geochemical variations driven by hydrology.

  19. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Plains Style Caldera Complexes: Evidence for Ancient, Explosive Volcanism on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the mysteries of Mars' geology is the origin of widespread, layered, friable deposits that likely formed through air fall deposition. The enigmatic chaos terrains are largely composed of such deposits, as are many of the most intriguing layered, clay- and sulfate-bearing deposits of astrobiological interest. Such deposits are most likely of volcanic origin, but lack an obvious source, based on comparison with well-known volcanic provinces [1]. We suggest that these deposits may have been sourced from previously unrecognized explosive volcanoes in Arabia Terra. While Arabia is not traditionally considered to be a volcanic region, we propose that several of the large depressions in the area are in fact calderas that formed through a combination of structural collapse and explosive volcanism. These features are characterized by the observation of sets of nested depressions, association with ridged plains, development of ring fractures and faults, the presence of interior slump blocks, and direct association, in some cases, with friable deposits, lavas and evidence for lava lakes. Eden Patera is the type example and shows evidence for three nested calderas with >4000 km3 of collapse volume. Siloe Patera also contains a set of nested collapse features that occur within a zone of demagnetized crust that might indicate the presence of a magma chamber at shallow depth [2]. It is not yet clear why explosive volcanoes may have formed in Arabia Terra, but we suggest that they might represent the rapid rise of mafic magmas through a thin crust. They might represent more silicic or volatile-rich magmas, but these scenarios do not appear to be necessary [3]. We suggest that explosive mafic volcanism was an important aspect of early Martian geological processes. [1] Kerber, L., Head III, J., Madeleine, J. B., Forget, F. & Wilson, L. The dispersal of pyroclasts from ancient explosive volcanoes on Mars: Implications for the friable layered deposits. Icarus 219, 358-381 (2012

  2. Quasi-periodic bedding in the sedimentary rock record of Mars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin W; Aharonson, Oded; Grotzinger, John P; Kirk, Randolph L; McEwen, Alfred S; Suer, Terry-Ann

    2008-12-05

    Widespread sedimentary rocks on Mars preserve evidence of surface conditions different from the modern cold and dry environment, although it is unknown how long conditions favorable to deposition persisted. We used 1-meter stereo topographic maps to demonstrate the presence of rhythmic bedding at several outcrops in the Arabia Terra region. Repeating beds are approximately 10 meters thick, and one site contains hundreds of meters of strata bundled into larger units at a approximately 10:1 thickness ratio. This repetition likely points to cyclicity in environmental conditions, possibly as a result of astronomical forcing. If deposition were forced by orbital variation, the rocks may have been deposited over tens of millions of years.

  3. Cratered terrain in Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in Terra Meridiani near -12o S, 358o W (2o E). An old, heavily degraded channel can be seen from the lower (southern) portion of the image toward the top. This channel appears to terminate abruptly at the rim of a 10 km diameter crater. This apparent 'superposition' of the crater on top of the channel suggests that the impact crater was created after the channel was formed. This crater has two 3-km sized blocks of material that have slumped off from the lower left segment of the original crater rim. These immense blocks must have moved as a single unit because the rock layers that can be seen in the original wall of the crater can still be seen in these detached blocks. The walls of several craters in this image show vague hints of possible gully formation at the bottom of pronounced rock layers, with the suggestion of alcoves above the individual gullies. Well-developed gullies that were imaged by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on Mars Global Surveyor have been suggested to form by seepage and runoff of a fluid. The MOC has observed these gullies in numerous craters and channels further south, but they are uncommon at latitudes this close to the equator. Several sections of the crater walls appear to have ridges and troughs formed by the dry avalanche of loose rock, and a similar process of dry avalanche may account for the gullies seen in this THEMIS image. Patches of lighter material, possibly small dunes ripples, can be seen in several places throughout this image. The Story When the walls come tumbling down! Take a closer look at the bright linear ridges within a deep crater near the center of this image (bottom, left-hand side of the crater). Almost 2 miles long, these chunks of material slumped off the crater side in one fell swoop. Phoozhj! Down they came as one massive unit. You can tell, because the rock layers seen in the original wall of the crater are also still there in the

  4. Slope Streaks in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This HiRISE image shows the rim of a crater in the region of Terra Sabaea in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    The subimage (figure 1) is a close-up view of the crater rim revealing dark and light-toned slope streaks. Slope streak formation is among the few known processes currently active on Mars. While their mechanism of formation and triggering is debated, they are most commonly believed to form by downslope movement of extremely dry sand or very fine-grained dust in an almost fluidlike manner (analogous to a terrestrial snow avalanche) exposing darker underlying material.

    Other ideas include the triggering of slope streak formation by possible concentrations of near-surface ice or scouring of the surface by running water from aquifers intercepting slope faces, spring discharge (perhaps brines), and/or hydrothermal activity.

    Several of the slope streaks in the subimage, particularly the three longest darker streaks, show evidence that downslope movement is being diverted around obstacles such as large boulders. Several streaks also appear to originate at boulders or clumps of rocky material.

    In general, the slope streaks do not have large deposits of displaced material at their downslope ends and do not run out onto the crater floor suggesting that they have little reserve kinetic energy. The darkest slope streaks are youngest and can be seen to cross cut and superpose older and lighter-toned streaks. The lighter-toned streaks are believed to be dark streaks that have lightened with time as new dust is deposited on their surface.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_001808_1875 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Dec-2006. The complete image is centered at 7.4 degrees latitude, 47.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 272.1 km

  5. Curiosity's field site in Gale Crater, Mars, in context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Mars rover, Curiosity, is anticipated to land in Gale Crater in August 2012. Gale is a 155 km-diameter impact crater adjacent to the ancient crustal "north-south dichotomy boundary." It contains a mound of layered rock (of yet-unknown proportions of clastic sediment, tephra, and chemical precipitates) ˜5 km-high that was eroded by fluvial, eolian, and mass-movement processes. The stratigraphy includes erosional unconformities representing periods when new impact craters formed and streams cut canyons into layered rock. The majority of known impact sites on Earth are craters that were filled and buried in sediment; examples occur under the Chesapeake Bay and beneath the Chicago O'Hare Airport. The upper crust of Mars, with its relative lack of tectonism, is almost entirely a layered, cratered volume of filled, buried, and complexly-interbedded craters and fluvial systems. Some of these have been exhumed or partly exhumed; some, like Gale, were once filled with extensive rock layers that were eroded to form mounds or mesas. Landforms all across Arabia Terra show that similar materials were also deposited between craters. Gale is of the family of Mars craters that were filled and buried (or nearly so). The highest elevation on the Gale mound exceeds the crater's north rim by ˜2 km and is within 500 m of the highest point on the south rim. Many similar craters occur in Arabia Terra; these are instructive as some contain mounds, others have mesas or buttes or other erosional expressions. Craters within 10s to a few 100s of km of each other typically contain very different materials, as exhibited by varied erosional expression, bedding style, and layer thickness. This suggests that the depositional environments, sources, and physical properties of the deposited material differed from place to place and time to time, even in neighboring settings. The Curiosity site in Gale has the potential to illuminate processes that acted locally and globally on early Mars. In

  6. Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Lewis, Kevin W.

    2011-02-01

    Mars was warmer and wetter during the early to middle Noachian, before a hydrologic and climatic transition in the late Noachian led to a decrease in erosion rates, a change in valley network morphology, and a geochemical shift from phyllosilicate to sulfate formation that culminated in the formation of widespread sulfate-rich sedimentary deposits in Meridiani Planum and the surrounding Arabia Terra region. This secular evolution was overprinted by episodic and periodic variability, as recorded in the fluvial record, sedimentary layering, and erosional discontinuities. We investigate the temporal evolution of Martian groundwater hydrology during the Noachian and early Hesperian epochs using global-scale hydrological models. The results suggest that the more active hydrological cycle in the Noachian was a result of a greater total water inventory, causing a saturated near-surface and high precipitation rates. The late Noachian hydrologic, climatic, and geochemical transition can be explained by a fundamental shift in the hydrological regime driven by a net loss of water due to impact and solar wind erosion of the atmosphere. Following this transition, the water table retreated deep beneath the surface, except in isolated regions of focused groundwater upwelling and evaporation, producing the playa evaporites in Meridiani Planum and Arabia Terra. This long-term evolution was modulated by shorter-term climate forcing in the form of periodic and chaotic variations in the orbital parameters of Mars, resulting in changes in the volume of water sequestered in the polar caps and cryosphere. This shorter-term forcing can explain the observed periodic and bundled sedimentary layering, erosional unconformities, and evidence for a fluctuating water table at Meridiani Planum.

  7. The Plains of Central Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark, relatively smooth plain in the central Terra Meridiani region of Mars. The larger circular features in the upper three-quarters of the image are thought to be the locations of buried craters formed by meteorite impact. The cluster of smaller circular features in the bottom quarter of the scene represent a field of craters formed either by simultaneous impact of many meteorites, or there-impact of material thrown from a much, much larger nearby crater as it formed. The dark material covering these plains includes an abundance of the iron oxide mineral, hematite, that was detected by the MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). During late 1999, the 'hematite region,' as it came to be called, emerged along with the Libya Montes as one of the top two choices of landing sites for the now-canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 lander. This image, illuminated by sunlight from the left, covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide and 19 kilometers (11.8 miles) long. The scene is located near 2.2oS, 3.7oW and was acquired on August 19, 1999.

  8. Overview of Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, seven EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, ocean topography, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), (v) tropospheric chemistry, (vi) sea ice concentration, and (viii) precipitation. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this lecture I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and tropospheric chemistry. This lecture will describe the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999 and still operating, and each of the five sensors onboard the spacecraft. This overview will highlight the goals and objectives of this mission, and describe the contributions and unique datasets provided by each sensor. This lecture will form the background for an extensive weeklong course on Terra and all the algorithms that have been developed and implemented to process the data from this spacecraft. This lecture will include a description of the Terra orbit, launch, data communication with the spacecraft, and data processing and archival of the data.

  9. Can hydrous minerals account for the observed mid-latitude water on Mars?

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C. I.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Great interest was generated with the discovery by the Odyssey spacecraft OC heterogeneously distributed hydrogcn at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound 1120 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3.8% equivalent H20. More recent interpretations of the Odyssey data using new calibrations suggest that some near-equatorial areas, such as Arabia Terra, contain up to 8.5f I .3% water-equivalent hydrogen. Such shallow occurrences (Mars, and both groups of minerals are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable io those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust, and concluded that spectral deconvolution of MGS TES and Mariner 9 IRIS data is consistent with the presence of zeolite in the martian surface dust.

  10. Methane Seepage on Mars: Where to Look and Why.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-08-03

    Methane on Mars is a topic of special interest because of its potential association with microbial life. The variable detections of methane by the Curiosity rover, orbiters, and terrestrial telescopes, coupled with methane's short lifetime in the martian atmosphere, may imply an active gas source in the planet's subsurface, with migration and surface emission processes similar to those known on Earth as "gas seepage." Here, we review the variety of subsurface processes that could result in methane seepage on Mars. Such methane could originate from abiotic chemical reactions, thermogenic alteration of abiotic or biotic organic matter, and ancient or extant microbial metabolism. These processes can occur over a wide range of temperatures, in both sedimentary and igneous rocks, and together they enhance the possibility that significant amounts of methane could have formed on early Mars. Methane seepage to the surface would occur preferentially along faults and fractures, through focused macro-seeps and/or diffuse microseepage exhalations. Our work highlights the types of features on Mars that could be associated with methane release, including mud-volcano-like mounds in Acidalia or Utopia; proposed ancient springs in Gusev Crater, Arabia Terra, and Valles Marineris; and rims of large impact craters. These could have been locations of past macro-seeps and may still emit methane today. Microseepage could occur through faults along the dichotomy or fractures such as those at Nili Fossae, Cerberus Fossae, the Argyre impact, and those produced in serpentinized rocks. Martian microseepage would be extremely difficult to detect remotely yet could constitute a significant gas source. We emphasize that the most definitive detection of methane seepage from different release candidates would be best provided by measurements performed in the ground or at the ground-atmosphere interface by landers or rovers and that the technology for such detection is currently available. Key

  11. Noachis Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-30

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows an unnamed crater in Noachis Terra. The "dark blue" material is probably basaltic sands. Orbit Number: 17811 Latitude: -77.9919 Longitude: 0.491743 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-12-19 20:35. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20225

  12. Margaritifer Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-27

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Margaritifer Terra. Dark blue in this band configuration often equates with sand or basaltic materials. Orbit Number: 37552 Latitude: 6.87548 Longitude: 345.994 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2010-06-02 09:07 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20767

  13. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  14. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across.

    At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well.

    The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season.

    The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky.

    The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows

  15. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  16. Crustal Magnetic Fields on Mars from MAVEN data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C.

    2016-12-01

    MAVEN, in orbit around Mars since 2014, has been acquiring vector magnetic field data, substantially expanding the dataset collected by the MGS spacecraft (1997-2006). The MAVEN data provides greatly improved coverage on the nightside at altitudes less than 400 km, affording the opportunity to investigate weak and / or short-wavelength signals of crustal origin that could not be detected by MGS. We combine MAVEN and MGS measurements to investigate the presence of residual signals at altitudes below 440 km, after the subtraction of the field predicted by a recent spherical harmonics crustal field model expanded to degree and order 110 (Morschhauser et al., 2014). The residuals for the radial field component (Br), show increasing strength with decreasing altitude down to the lowest altitudes suggesting that they are of internal origin and not captured by the existing crustal field model. The horizontal field residuals at altitudes above about 250 km are typically larger than the corresponding Br residuals and although they increase with decreasing altitude below 250 km, they do so less strongly than the Br residuals. This different behavior with altitude suggests some influence of external fields in the horizontal components, even on the nightside at low altitudes. We localize regions with large (> 20nT at 200 km) residuals and perform regional equivalent source dipole inversions, with regularization, to improve characterization of the crustal magnetic field. The areas studied include the strongly magnetized regions Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum, as well as Arabia Terra. Furthermore, we find additional structure in the weaker fields around the North pole, and west of Olympus Mons. The results to date indicate that MAVEN data will provide valuable constraints on the distribution and history of magnetization in the martian crust.

  17. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  18. Small Volcano in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 26 June 2002) The Science This positive relief feature (see MOLA context) in the ancient highlands of Mars appears to be a heavily eroded volcanic center. The top of this feature appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. Light-toned streaks are visible, trending northeast to southwest, and may be caused by scouring of the terrain, or they may be dune forms moving sand. The northeast portion of the caldera area looks as though a layer of material is being removed to expose a slightly lighter-toned surface underneath. The flanks of this feature are slightly less cratered than the surrounding terrain, which could be explained in two ways: 1) this feature may be younger than the surrounding area, and has had less time to accumulate meteorite impacts, or 2) the slopes that are observed today may be so heavily eroded that the original, cratered surfaces are now gone, exposing relatively uncratered rocks. Although most of Terra Cimmeria has low albedo, some eastern portions, such as shown in this image, demonstrate an overall lack of contrast that attests to the presence of a layer of dust mantling the surface. This dust, in part, is responsible for the muted appearance and infill of many of the craters at the northern and southern ends of this image The Story This flat-topped volcano pops out from the surface, the swirls of its ancient lava flows running down onto the ancient highlands of Mars. Its smooth top appears to be under attack by the erosive forces of the martian wind. How can you tell? Click on the image above for a close-up look. You'll see some light-toned streaks that run in a northeast-southwest direction. They are caused either by the scouring of the terrain or dunes of moving sand. Either way, the wind likely plays upon the volcano's surface. Look also for the subtle, nearly crescent shaped feature at the northeast portion of the volcano's cap. It looks as if a layer of material has been removed by the wind, exposing

  19. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  20. Mars Digital Image Mosaic Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The photomosaic that forms the base for this globe was created by merging two global digital image models (DIM's) of Mars-a medium-resolution monochrome mosaic processed to emphasize topographic features and a lower resolution color mosaic emphasizing color and albedo variations.

    The medium-resolution (1/256 or roughly 231 m/pixel) monochromatic image model was constructed from about 6,000 images having resolutions of 150-350 m/pixel and oblique illumination (Sun 20 o -45 o above the horizon). Radiometric processing was intended to suppress or remove the effects of albedo variations through the use of a high-pass divide filter, followed by photometric normalization so that the contrast of a given topographic slope would be approximately the same in all images.

    The global color mosaic was assembled at 1/64 or roughly 864 m/pixel from about 1,000 red- and green-filter images having 500-1,000 m/pixel resolution. These images were first mosaiced in groups, each taken on a single orbit of the Viking spacecraft. The orbit mosaics were then processed to remove spatially and temporally varying atmospheric haze in the overlap regions. After haze removal, the per-orbit mosaics were photometrically normalized to equalize the contrast of albedo features and mosaiced together with cosmetic seam removal. The medium-resolution DIM was used for geometric control of this color mosaic. A green-filter image was synthesized by weighted averaging of the red- and violet-filter mosaics. Finally, the product seen here was obtained by multiplying each color image by the medium-resolution monochrome image. The color balance selected for images in this map series was designed to be close to natural color for brighter, redder regions, such as Arabia Terra and the Tharsis region, but the data have been stretched so that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less red than they actually are.

    The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a

  1. Mars Digital Image Mosaic Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The photomosaic that forms the base for this globe was created by merging two global digital image models (DIM's) of Mars-a medium-resolution monochrome mosaic processed to emphasize topographic features and a lower resolution color mosaic emphasizing color and albedo variations.

    The medium-resolution (1/256 or roughly 231 m/pixel) monochromatic image model was constructed from about 6,000 images having resolutions of 150-350 m/pixel and oblique illumination (Sun 20 o -45 o above the horizon). Radiometric processing was intended to suppress or remove the effects of albedo variations through the use of a high-pass divide filter, followed by photometric normalization so that the contrast of a given topographic slope would be approximately the same in all images.

    The global color mosaic was assembled at 1/64 or roughly 864 m/pixel from about 1,000 red- and green-filter images having 500-1,000 m/pixel resolution. These images were first mosaiced in groups, each taken on a single orbit of the Viking spacecraft. The orbit mosaics were then processed to remove spatially and temporally varying atmospheric haze in the overlap regions. After haze removal, the per-orbit mosaics were photometrically normalized to equalize the contrast of albedo features and mosaiced together with cosmetic seam removal. The medium-resolution DIM was used for geometric control of this color mosaic. A green-filter image was synthesized by weighted averaging of the red- and violet-filter mosaics. Finally, the product seen here was obtained by multiplying each color image by the medium-resolution monochrome image. The color balance selected for images in this map series was designed to be close to natural color for brighter, redder regions, such as Arabia Terra and the Tharsis region, but the data have been stretched so that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less red than they actually are.

    The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a

  2. Stealth quasi-circular depressions (sQCDs) in the northern lowlands of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, Debra L.

    While QCDs are quasi-circular depressions revealed in the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded data set, "stealth QCDs" (sQCDs) are those QCDs that have no obvious structural representation in visible images of Mars. It has been suggested that sQCDs are surface representations of buried impact craters, and on the basis of this assumption, size-frequency distributions of all QCDs in the northern lowlands have been constructed to date the buried lowland floor. Expanding upon previous studies of stealth QCDs around the Utopia Basin, 446 sQCDs with diameters ranging from 7 to 115 km have been identified in the northern lowlands of Mars. The direct relationship of sQCD surface relief to diameter indicates that stealth QCDs form due to differential compaction of a cover material over buried impact craters. A comparison of sQCD location to the geologic map of the northern lowlands reveals that stealth QCDs are only located in geologic units predicted to be capable of differential compaction, consistent with models of their formation. The slope of the trend of the sQCDs surface relief versus diameter has a coefficient of determination (R2) approaching 1, when sQCDs are evaluated by geologic unit and by regions of inferred comparable cover thickness. Trend-slope analysis also indicates that the lowland cover material is thickest in the Scandia region and the center of the Borealis and Utopia basins and thinnest in Isidis Planitia and north of Arabia Terra.

  3. Investigating the Cause of Moving Albedo Boundaries in the Oxia Palus Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, P.; Geissler, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    Recent imagery from the MARCI camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) in addition to previous analyses of Mars Global Surveyor MOC data reveals a variety of large scale changes in the appearance of the Martian surface (Geissler and Mukherjee, this meeting). The MOC and MARCI data revealed a surprising range of behavior in various regions of Mars. Our area of focus is a region featuring such albedo changes in Oxia Palus in western Arabia Terra. The albedo boundary between dark and bright terrain at western Oxia Palus moved 26 km eastwards between a MOC mosaic from September 2005 and a MARCI mosaic from July 2009. The goal of this project is to understand what is causing this albedo boundary to move. A distinctive feature of the Oxia Palus albedo boundary is a narrow (~25 km wide) fringe of locally high albedo that shifts as the boundary advances from the dark region (Acidalia) towards the bright terrain (Oxia). High resolution images from MRO’s CTX and HiRISE cameras will be used to test the hypothesis that the high albedo fringe is a coating of bright dust that is stripped by the winds from the advancing dark terrain and deposited ahead of the moving boundary.

  4. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  5. Lithostratigraphical analysis in northern Sinus Meridiani, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, D.; Sgavetti, M.; Tampella, G.; Wezel, F. C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Terra Meridiani- Arabia Terra region of Mars, layered rock units with a range of stratal patterns have been widely reported in the literature, and the record of the spectral signatures indicative of hydrate minerals suggests the existence of aqueous activity in at least some of the stratigraphic units. . In this work we investigated the area in the northern region of Sinus Meridiani located between 2°N to 3°N latitude and 2°W to 1°E longitude, using multiple remote sensing data sets to identify, characterize in detail, and understand the origin and evolution of the selected units in this region of Mars. MOLA and HiRISE data were used in combination to classify and correlate surface units recorded in distinct stratigraphic logs, based on planimetric configuration, topography, morphological and litho-facies characteristics. In particular, detailed analyses were focused on the layered units discovered in the walls of two impact craters located at a distance of about 100 km to each other within the study area. The stratigraphic interval analysed here corresponds to the upper part of the well known "light-toned layered deposits" identified by several authors. Distinct competent layers are observed in the internal slopes of both craters. Our observations indicate that the lithostratigraphic sections can be divided in three units. The lower unit consists of very thick bodies of light-toned bouldery breccia deposits. In the HiRISE images these white-coloured beds are composed of irregularly-shaped, white nodules which are either isolated or coalescent, distributed between bedding planes. The middle unit mainly consists of alternating thin strong layers and thicker sequences of relatively weak layers, horizontally bedded. The strong, competent layers maintain steeper erosional profiles and play a major role in controlling the overall shape and geomorphology of the wall slopes. The upper unit can be traced laterally in the surrounding ground level, displaying mesa

  6. Terrain Model of Mars Mojave Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-17

    This is a synthesized, oblique view of a portion of the wall terraces of Mojave Crater in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. It is a digital terrain model generated from a stereo pair of images from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  7. Rub al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-08-08

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Rub al Khali, one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula; it includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

  8. Highest-Resolution View of 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A key aspect of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Extended Mission is the opportunity to turn the spacecraft and point the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) at specific features of interest. A chance to point the spacecraft comes about ten times a week. Throughout the Primary Mission (March 1999 - January 2001), nearly all MGS operations were conducted with the spacecraft pointing 'nadir'--that is, straight down. In this orientation, opportunities to hit a specific small feature of interest were in some cases rare, and in other cases non-existent. In April 1998, nearly a year before MGS reached its Primary Mission mapping orbit, several tests of the spacecraft's ability to be pointed at specific features was conducted with great success (e.g., Mars Pathfinder landing site, Viking 1 site, and Cydonia landforms). When the Mars Polar Lander was lost in December 1999, this capability was again employed to search for the missing lander. Following the lander search activities, a plan to conduct similar off-nadir observations during the MGS Extended Mission was put into place. The Extended Mission began February 1, 2001. On April 8, 2001, the first opportunity since April 1998 arose to turn the spacecraft and point the MOC at the popular 'Face on Mars' feature.

    Viking orbiter images acquired in 1976 showed that one of thousands of buttes, mesas, ridges, and knobs in the transition zone between the cratered uplands of western Arabia Terra and the low, northern plains of Mars looked somewhat like a human face. The feature was subsequently popularized as a potential 'alien artifact' in books, tabloids, radio talk shows, television, and even a major motion picture. Given the popularity of this landform, a new high-resolution view was targeted by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on April 8, 2001. On that date at 20:54 UTC (8:54 p.m., Greenwich time zone), the MGS was rolled 24.8o to the left so that it was looking at the 'face' 165 km to the side from a distance of about 450 km

  9. Highest-Resolution View of 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A key aspect of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Extended Mission is the opportunity to turn the spacecraft and point the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) at specific features of interest. A chance to point the spacecraft comes about ten times a week. Throughout the Primary Mission (March 1999 - January 2001), nearly all MGS operations were conducted with the spacecraft pointing 'nadir'--that is, straight down. In this orientation, opportunities to hit a specific small feature of interest were in some cases rare, and in other cases non-existent. In April 1998, nearly a year before MGS reached its Primary Mission mapping orbit, several tests of the spacecraft's ability to be pointed at specific features was conducted with great success (e.g., Mars Pathfinder landing site, Viking 1 site, and Cydonia landforms). When the Mars Polar Lander was lost in December 1999, this capability was again employed to search for the missing lander. Following the lander search activities, a plan to conduct similar off-nadir observations during the MGS Extended Mission was put into place. The Extended Mission began February 1, 2001. On April 8, 2001, the first opportunity since April 1998 arose to turn the spacecraft and point the MOC at the popular 'Face on Mars' feature.

    Viking orbiter images acquired in 1976 showed that one of thousands of buttes, mesas, ridges, and knobs in the transition zone between the cratered uplands of western Arabia Terra and the low, northern plains of Mars looked somewhat like a human face. The feature was subsequently popularized as a potential 'alien artifact' in books, tabloids, radio talk shows, television, and even a major motion picture. Given the popularity of this landform, a new high-resolution view was targeted by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on April 8, 2001. On that date at 20:54 UTC (8:54 p.m., Greenwich time zone), the MGS was rolled 24.8o to the left so that it was looking at the 'face' 165 km to the side from a distance of about 450 km

  10. The Unique Characteristics of Double Layered Ejecta Craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Boyce, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    THEMIS VIS images reveal several unique characteristics of double layered ejecta (DLE) craters on Mars that suggest a strikingly different mode of formation from single layered ejecta (SLE) or multi-layered ejecta (MLE) craters. DLE craters are typically 15 to 25 km in diameter and differ from the other types of Martian craters in the following ways: (1) DLE craters lack secondary craters; (2) ejecta layers of DLE craters lack distal ramparts; (3) flow features within the outer layer of DLE craters suggest a very low emplacement velocity; and (4) radial striations exist only within DLE ejecta, and that these striations cross both the inner and outer ejecta layers. The interior morphology of DLE is also less complex than SLE or MLE layered ejecta craters; DLE craters lack wall terraces and, where present, have only simple central peaks. Previous morphologic analyses of DLE craters proposed that they might have formed in the volatile-rich sediments that are believed to infill areas such as Utopia, Arcadia and Acidalia Planitiae. But our inspection of the THEMIS VIS data set confirms the Viking-based results of Barlow and Perez (JGR-Planets, vol. 108 (E8), doi 10.1029/2002JE002036, 2003) that DLE craters are not uniquely located in the northern plains. We find that DLE craters with nearly identical morphologies also occur within the highlands of Mars, including Hesperia Planum, Icaria Planum, Arabia Terra, Noachis Terra, and Terra Sirenum. A few examples of DLE craters are found at a range of elevations between -5.8 km to +2.7 km relative to the MOLA datum, and within two latitudes belts between 23° to 52° N, and between 29° to 46° S. Thus some other mode of formation apart from impact into volatile-rich sediments of the northern plains needs to be identified. Through our on-going characterization of DLE craters with THEMIS VIS data, we hope to identify the attributes of these craters to help identify their unique mode of formation.

  11. A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 μm. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using

  12. Science Writers' Guide to TERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The launch of NASA's Terra spacecraft marks a new era of comprehensive monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and continents from a single space-based platform. Data from the five Terra instruments will create continuous, long-term records of the state of the land, oceans, and atmosphere. Together with data from other satellite systems launched by NASA and other countries, Terra will inaugurate a new self-consistent data record that will be gathered over the next 15 years. The science objectives of NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) program are to provide global observations and scientific understanding of land cover change and global productivity, climate variability and change, natural hazards, and atmospheric ozone. Observations by the Terra instruments will: provide the first global and seasonal measurements of the Earth system, including such critical functions as biological productivity of the land and oceans, snow and ice, surface temperature, clouds, water vapor, and land cover; improve our ability to detect human impacts on the Earth system and climate, identify the "fingerprint" of human activity on climate, and predict climate change by using the new global observations in climate models; help develop technologies for disaster prediction, characterization, and risk reduction from wildfires, volcanoes, floods, and droughts, and start long-term monitoring of global climate change and environmental change.

  13. Mars 2020 Candidate Landing Site in McLaughlin Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-14

    McLaughlin Crater (21.9 N, 337.6 E) is a large, approximately 95-kilometer diameter impact crater located north of Mawrth Vallis, in Arabia Terra, a region that was made famous by the book and movie "The Martian" by Andy Weir. McLaughlin Crater straddles three major terrain types: the Northern lowlands, the Southern highlands and the Mawrth Vallis region. The crater floor is thought to be covered by clays and carbonates that were deposited in a deep lake at least 3.8 billion years ago perhaps by ground water upwelling from beneath the crater floor (Michalski et al., 2013, Nature Geoscience). McLaughlin Crater is listed as a candidate landing site for the 2020 Mars surface mission. Although it is described as a "flat, low-risk and low-elevation landing zone," the region in this image on the southern floor of the crater shows a complex surface of eroded layers that are rough in places. An unusual feature is a straight fracture cutting diagonally across the layered material at the bottom portion of the image that may be a fault line. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20338

  14. Absolute Measurements of Methane on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Novak, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    On Mars, methane has been sought for nearly 40 years because of its potential biological significance, but it was detected only recently [1-5]. Its distribution on the planet is found to be patchy and to vary with time [1,2,4,5], suggesting that methane is released from the subsurface in localized areas, and is then rapidly destroyed [1,6]. To date, we have detected four spectral lines of the CH4 ν3 band near 3.3 µm, along with H2O and HDO [1,5,7]. Our observational campaign resumed in August 2009, now using CRIRES/VLT along with CSHELL/NASA-IRTF and NIRSPEC/Keck. Our study of methane on Mars now extends over four Mars years, sampling a wide range of seasons (Ls) with significant spatial coverage. For a typical observation, the spectrometer's long entrance slit is held to the central meridian of Mars while spectra are taken sequentially in time. For each snapshot in time, spectra are acquired simultaneously at contiguous positions along the entire slit length, sampling latitudinally resolved spatial footprints on the planet (35 footprints along the N-S meridian, when Mars is 7 arc-sec in diameter). Successive longitudes are presented as the planet rotates, and the combination then permits partial mapping of the planet. In Northern summer 2003, methane was notably enriched over several localized areas: A (East of Arabia Terra, where water vapor is also greatly enriched), B1 (Nili Fossae), and B2 (southeast quadrant of Syrtis Major) [1,5]. The combined plume contained ~19,000 metric tons of methane, and the estimated source strength (≥ 0.6 kilogram per second) was comparable to that of the massive hydrocarbon seep at Coal Oil Point in Santa Barbara, California. By vernal equinox about one-half the released methane had been lost. When averaged over latitude and season, spectral data from Mars Express also imply an enhancement in methane in this longitude range [4]. The most compelling results from these searches are: 1) the unambiguous detection of multiple

  15. The seasonal cycle of water vapour on Mars from assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, François; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr μm depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around LS=240-260°. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  16. Gravitational Effects of Flooding and Filling of Impact Basins on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of large impact basins and the low northern plains that might have contained ice or liquid water at an earlier stage of Mars evolution suggests that the global gravity field could have been different in the distant past than it is today. In addition, any significant change in the distribution of mass affects the moments of inertia and consequently and could conceivably change the position of the pole and the length of day. Similar effects could have been produced by large erosional processes, such as the removal of crustal material from the Arabia Terra region and subsequent re-deposition in the Chryse region of the northern plains. We have endeavored to estimate the magnitudes of material that might have been involved in these processes and their possible effect on the gravity and dynamics of Mars. We have used present-day topography and gravity field as a starting point, recognizing that both the result of the processes that we are trying to study rather than the state at the times of interest.

  17. The Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapour on Mars from Assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr micron depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around L(sub S) = 240-260deg. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  18. Update: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

    A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

  19. TerraSAR-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  20. SUV Tracks On Mars? The 'Devil' is in the Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) on Mars? Imagine the MOC imaging team's surprise on the morning of April 27, 1998, as the latest images came in from the 'Red Planet.'

    A picture taken by the camera on Mars Global Surveyor just one day earlier showed several thin, dark lines that--at first glance--looked like pathways blazed by off-road sport utility vehicles. Who's been driving around on Mars?

    The MOC image in question (#26403), seen here at full resolution of 13.8 meters (45 feet) per pixel, was obtained around 10:22 a.m. PDT on April 26, 1998, during Mars Global Surveyor's 264th orbit. North is approximately up, illumination is from the lower right. Located in eastern Arabia Terra near 16.5o N latitude, 311.4o W longitude, the image showed a number of natural features--small craters formed by meteor impact, several buttes and mesas left by erosion of the surrounding terrain, small dunes and drifts, and a mantle of dust that varies in thickness from place to place. But the new picture also showed two dark lines--each varying in width up to about 15 meters (49 feet)--that extended several kilometers/miles across the image.

    Lines like these have been seen before on Mars. They are most likely the result of dust devils--columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape, pick up dust, and look somewhat like miniature tornadoes. Dust devils are a common occurrence in dry and desert landscapes on Earth as well as Mars. They form when the ground heats up during the day, warming the air immediately above the surface. As pockets of warm air rise and interfere with one another, they create horizontal pressure variations that, combined with other meteorological winds, cause the upward moving air to spin (the direction of the spin is controlled by the same Coriolis forces that cause terrestrial hurricanes to spin in specific directions). As the spinning column of air moves across the surface, it occasionally encounters dust on the surface, which it can suck upward

  1. SUV Tracks On Mars? The 'Devil' is in the Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) on Mars? Imagine the MOC imaging team's surprise on the morning of April 27, 1998, as the latest images came in from the 'Red Planet.'

    A picture taken by the camera on Mars Global Surveyor just one day earlier showed several thin, dark lines that--at first glance--looked like pathways blazed by off-road sport utility vehicles. Who's been driving around on Mars?

    The MOC image in question (#26403), seen here at full resolution of 13.8 meters (45 feet) per pixel, was obtained around 10:22 a.m. PDT on April 26, 1998, during Mars Global Surveyor's 264th orbit. North is approximately up, illumination is from the lower right. Located in eastern Arabia Terra near 16.5o N latitude, 311.4o W longitude, the image showed a number of natural features--small craters formed by meteor impact, several buttes and mesas left by erosion of the surrounding terrain, small dunes and drifts, and a mantle of dust that varies in thickness from place to place. But the new picture also showed two dark lines--each varying in width up to about 15 meters (49 feet)--that extended several kilometers/miles across the image.

    Lines like these have been seen before on Mars. They are most likely the result of dust devils--columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape, pick up dust, and look somewhat like miniature tornadoes. Dust devils are a common occurrence in dry and desert landscapes on Earth as well as Mars. They form when the ground heats up during the day, warming the air immediately above the surface. As pockets of warm air rise and interfere with one another, they create horizontal pressure variations that, combined with other meteorological winds, cause the upward moving air to spin (the direction of the spin is controlled by the same Coriolis forces that cause terrestrial hurricanes to spin in specific directions). As the spinning column of air moves across the surface, it occasionally encounters dust on the surface, which it can suck upward

  2. Terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Erkek, Emel; Sahin, Sedef; Çetin, Emel Dikicioglu; Sezer, Engin

    2012-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by 'dirty' brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical point of view, we lay emphasis on its unique expression and diagnosis/treatment. From a histological perspective, we highlight its resemblance to dermatosis neglecta and speculate on the role of 'neglect' in a patient with seemingly adequate hygiene. The role of urea containing emollients in the development of this disorder remains to be determined.

  3. Tabanidae (Diptera) of saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Dhafer, H M; Dawah, H A; Abdullah, M A

    2009-10-01

    Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness, and Magnetization Models; 2) The Early Thermal and Magnetic State of Terra Cimmeria, Southern Highlands of Mars; 3) Compatible Vector Components of the Magnetic Field of the Martian Crust; 4) Vertical Extrapolation of Mars Magnetic Potentials; 5) Rock Magnetic Fields Shield the Surface of Mars from Harmful Radiation; 6) Loading-induced Stresses near the Martian Hemispheric Dichotomy Boundary; 7) Growth of the Hemispheric Dichotomy and the Cessation of Plate Tectonics on Mars; 8) A Look at the Interior of Mars; 9) Uncertainties on Mars Interior Parameters Deduced from Orientation Parameters Using Different Radio-Links: Analytical Simulations; 10) Refinement of Phobos Ephemeris Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry Radiometry.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness, and Magnetization Models; 2) The Early Thermal and Magnetic State of Terra Cimmeria, Southern Highlands of Mars; 3) Compatible Vector Components of the Magnetic Field of the Martian Crust; 4) Vertical Extrapolation of Mars Magnetic Potentials; 5) Rock Magnetic Fields Shield the Surface of Mars from Harmful Radiation; 6) Loading-induced Stresses near the Martian Hemispheric Dichotomy Boundary; 7) Growth of the Hemispheric Dichotomy and the Cessation of Plate Tectonics on Mars; 8) A Look at the Interior of Mars; 9) Uncertainties on Mars Interior Parameters Deduced from Orientation Parameters Using Different Radio-Links: Analytical Simulations; 10) Refinement of Phobos Ephemeris Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry Radiometry.

  6. Relative Ages of the Highlands, Lowlands, and Transition Zone Along a Portion of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy from Densities of Visible and Buried Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSoto, G. E.; Frey, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental age relationships of the different parts of the Mars Crustal Dichotomy is essential to fully understanding the events that shaped the early history and formation of the surface of Mars. A dominant question is what are the true relative ages of the Northern Lowlands and the Southern Highlands? Using MOLA data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Viking visual images, a dataset of both buried and visible crater diameters was created over a nine million sq km study area of a section of the dichotomy boundary stretching from Arabia Terra to Utopia Planitia. Cumulative frequency plots on a log-log scale were used to determine the relative ages for the Highlands, the Lowlands, and the Transition Zone, separately for the visible, the buried and the combined total (visible+ buried) populations. We find the overall Highland crater population in this area is slightly older than the Lowlands, consistent with previous global studies, but the Lowlands and Transition Zone are also very old and formed at roughly the same time. It appears that the formation of the Lowlands in this region formed contemporaneously with a large-scale resurfacing event in the Highlands, perhaps caused by the process responsible for the Lowland formation.

  7. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11087

  8. Day And Night In Terra Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 11 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of the Terra Meridiani region.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 1.3, Longitude 0.5 East (359.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released

  9. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-01-20

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  10. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  11. Intimations of water on Mars.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    This photo essay contains images of Mars that propose evidence of the possible present or past existence of liquid water on Mars. Images were taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera. Images presented include: Polar Wall Pit region, consisting of gully landforms possibly caused by seepage and runoff of liquid water; Noachis Terra region, an area of gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater, where channels and related debris are seen, possibly formed by seepage, runoff, and debris flow; two images of Gorgonum Chaos region, one a series of troughs and layers of gullies and the other of gullies in a specific layer forming an alcove similar to an aquifer; Sirenum Fossae/Gorgonum Chaos mosaic of two images from this region of the southern hemisphere of Mars, showing 20 different channels coming down from a trough and their associated debris fans. Images and their enhancements are from NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science System.

  12. Flooded Crater in Terra Sirenum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-22

    The floor of the crater in this NASA Mars Odyssey image displays interesting textures and it appears to have been flooded by some type of material. It is unclear if this material was fluvially emplaced mud hyperconcentrated flows or lava.

  13. Terra Cimmeria Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-28

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows a unique, resistant material on the floor of an unnamed crater in Terra Cimmeria. Orbit Number: 8547 Latitude: -23.784 Longitude: 135.545 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2003-11-18 02:35 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19736

  14. Health Education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  15. Concentration of H, Si, Cl, K, Fe, and Th in the low- and mid-latitude regions of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Evans, L. G.; Reedy, R. C.; Starr, R.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K. E.; Drake, D. M.; Kim, K. J.; Williams, R. M. S.; Crombie, M. K.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V.; Metzger, A. E.; Karunatillake, S.; Keller, J. M.; Newsom, H. E.; Arnold, J. R.; Brückner, J.; Englert, P. A. J.; Gasnault, O.; Sprague, A. L.; Mitrofanov, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Trombka, J. I.; d'Uston, L.; Wänke, H.; Hamara, D. K.

    2007-12-01

    We report maps of the concentrations of H, Si, Cl, K, Fe, and Th as determined by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission for +/-~45° latitudes. The procedures by which the spectra are processed to yield quantitative concentrations are described in detail. The concentrations of elements determined over the locations of the various Mars landers generally agree well with the lander values except for Fe, although the mean of the GRS Fe data agrees well with that of Martian meteorites. The water-equivalent concentration of hydrogen by mass varies from about 1.5% to 7.5% (by mass) with the most enriched areas being near Apollinaris Patera and Arabia Terra. Cl shows a distribution similar to H over the surface except that the Cl content over Medusae Fossae is much greater than elsewhere. The map of Fe shows enrichment in the northern lowlands versus the southern highlands. Silicon shows only very modest variation over the surface with mass fractions ranging from 19% to 22% over most of the planet, though a significant depletion in Si is noted in a region west of Tharsis Montes and Olympus Mons where the Si content is as low as 18%. K and Th show a very similar pattern with depletions associated with young volcanic deposits and enrichments associated with the TES Surface Type-2 material. It is noted that there appears to be no evidence of significant globally distributed thick dust deposits of uniform composition.

  16. The global distribution of near-surface hydrogen on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Squyres, Steven W.; Boynton, W. V.; Elphic, R. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Tokar, R. L.; Moore, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    Odyssey neutron observations also revealed a near equatorial hydrogen reservoir that maximizes in Arabia Terra and its antipode. Initial quantitative estimates of hydrogen abundances in these investigations were normalized to an assumed 1% H{sub 2}O content by mass for the Viking 1 landing site. However, a recent analysis of the seasonal variation of the CO{sub 2} frost cover at the north pole has allowed an independent absolute calibration of the three neutron energy bands measured using the NS aboard Mars Odyssey. This calibration allows a reinterpretation of neutron fluxes measured globally to provide a lower bound of the hydrogen abundance within about 1 m of the Martian surface. A determination of true hydrogen abundances requires knowledge of the stratigraphy of hydrogen-bearing layers because the presence of an overlying relatively desiccated layer would mask enhanced abundances of a lower layer.

  17. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  18. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  19. Sulfates in Martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars Express view.

    PubMed

    Gendrin, Aline; Mangold, Nicolas; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Gondet, Brigitte; Poulet, François; Bonello, Guillaume; Quantin, Cathy; Mustard, John; Arvidson, Ray; LeMouélic, Stéphane

    2005-03-11

    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified hydrated sulfates on light-toned layered terrains on Mars. Outcrops in Valles Marineris, Margaritifer Sinus, and Terra Meridiani show evidence for kieserite, gypsum, and polyhydrated sulfates. This identification has its basis in vibrational absorptions between 1.3 and 2.5 micrometers. These minerals constitute direct records of the past aqueous activity on Mars.

  20. Clouds in the Northern Tempe Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 2 May 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a region in northern Tempe Terra near 48o N, 75o W (285o E). Patchy water-ice clouds cover portions of the low-lying canyon at the top (north) of this image. Further south the atmosphere is clear and the knobby or 'scabby' plains that are typical of many mid-latitude regions on Mars can be seen. These plains appear to mantle and modify a pre-existing surface, burying the older cratered terrain. This mantling layer has itself been modified to produce a pitted, knobby surface. The large mesa seen in this image has unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. These deposits are seen frequently at mid-northern and southern latitudes, and have a distinct, rounded boundary that typically occurs at approximately the same distance below the ridge crest. It has been suggested that these deposits once draped the entire surface and have since been removed from all but the north-facing slopes. The presence of water ice in these layers is a likely possibility to account for their preservation only on the colder surfaces. The south-facing slopes lack this mantling material, and show clear evidence for layering in the rock units that form the mesa. The Story This deep and murky-looking depression is in an area called 'Tempe Terra,' a lilting, alliterative name that seems almost a little too merry for this kind of terrain. If the top of the image looks a little smudgy, that's because patchy water-ice clouds hang over the low lying canyon. Further south, where the air is clear, you can see some 'scabby' plains (particularly in the high-res image, where the knobby patches of raised surface areas sort of do look like crusted-over dirt wounds). These plains cover a more ancient, cratered surface, but have been eroded away enough to form these scabby-seeming features. The large mesa in this image has some odd deposits of material on its cold, north-facing slopes. Could these

  1. Can Hydrous Minerals Account for the Observed Mid-Latitude Water on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Fialips, C.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-07-01

    Analysis of the dehydration behavior of smectite, zeolites, and hydrated MgSO4 shows that unusually large amounts of these phases would be required to account for the amounts of H2O found by Odyssey in Arabia Terra and in other regions with less H2O.

  2. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  3. Mars Ice Age, Simulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 17, 2003

    This simulated view shows Mars as it might have appeared during the height of a possible ice age in geologically recent time.

    Of all Solar System planets, Mars has the climate most like that of Earth. Both are sensitive to small changes in orbit and tilt. During a period about 2.1 million to 400,000 years ago, increased tilt of Mars' rotational axis caused increased solar heating at the poles. A new study using observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters concludes that this polar warming caused mobilization of water vapor and dust into the atmosphere, and buildup of a surface deposit of ice and dust down to about 30 degrees latitude in both hemispheres. That is the equivalent of the southern Unites States or Saudi Arabia on Earth. Mars has been in an interglacial period characterized by less axial tilt for about the last 300,000 years. The ice-rich surface deposit has been degrading in the latitude zone of 30 degrees to 60 degrees as water-ice returns to the poles.

    In this illustration prepared for the December 18, 2003, cover of the journal Nature, the simulated surface deposit is superposed on a topography map based on altitude measurements by Global Surveyor and images from NASA's Viking orbiters of the 1970s.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Office of Space Science, Washington.

  4. Peripheral Faulting of Eden Patera: Potential Evidence in Support of a New Volcanic Construct on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arabia Terra's (AT) pock-marked topography in the expansive upland region of Mars Northern Hemisphere has been assumed to be the result of impact crater bombardment. However, examination of several craters by researchers revealed morphologies inconsistent with neighboring craters of similar size and age. These 'craters' share features with terrestrial super-eruption calderas, and are considered a new volcanic construct on Mars called `plains-style' caldera complexes. Eden Patera (EP), located on the northern boundary of AT is a reference type for these calderas. EP lacks well-preserved impact crater morphologies, including a decreasing depth to diameter ratio. Conversely, Eden shares geomorphological attributes with terrestrial caldera complexes such as Valles Caldera (New Mexico): arcuate caldera walls, concentric fracturing/faulting, flat-topped benches, irregular geometric circumferences, etc. This study focuses on peripheral fractures surrounding EP to provide further evidence of calderas within the AT region. Scaled balloon experiments mimicking terrestrial caldera analogs have showcased fracturing/faulting patterns and relationships of caldera systems. These experiments show: 1) radial fracturing (perpendicular to caldera rim) upon inflation, 2) concentric faulting (parallel to sub-parallel to caldera rim) during evacuation, and 3) intersecting radial and concentric peripheral faulting from resurgence. Utilizing Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX) imagery, peripheral fracturing is analyzed using GIS to study variations in peripheral fracture geometries relative to the caldera rim. Visually, concentric fractures dominate within 20 km, radial fractures prevail between 20 and 50 km, followed by gradation into randomly oriented and highly angular intersections in the fretted terrain region. Rose diagrams of orientation relative to north expose uniformly oriented mean regional stresses, but do not illuminate localized caldera stresses. Further

  5. Roughness and near-surface density of Mars from SHARAD radar echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Carter, Lynn M.; Morgan, Gareth A.; Phillips, Roger. J.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a technique for estimating Mars topographic roughness on horizontal scales from about 10 m to 100 m using Shallow Radar (SHARAD) sounding data. Our results offer a view of surface properties complementary to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) pulse-width or baseline roughness maps and can be compared to SHARAD peak-echo properties to infer deviations from the average near-surface density. Latitudinal averaging of SHARAD-derived roughness over Arabia and Noachis Terrae shows good agreement with MOLA-derived roughness and provides clear evidence for latitude-dependent mantling deposits previously inferred from image data. In northwestern Gordii Dorsum, we find that bulk density in at least the upper few meters is significantly lower than in other units of the Medusae Fossae Formation. We observe the same behavior indicative of low near-surface density in wind-eroded crater fill in the southern highlands. Combining surface-properties analysis, subsurface sounding, and high-resolution optical images, we show that the Pavonis Mons fan-shaped deposit differs significantly from lobate debris aprons which SHARAD has shown to be ice-cored. There are no internal radar reflections from the smooth-facies portion of the Pavonis Mons fan-shaped deposit, and we suggest that these deposits are either quite thin or have little dielectric (i.e., density) contrast with the underlying terrain. Future application of these techniques can identify other low-density units across Mars, assist in the mapping of regional volatile-rich mantling units, and provide new constraints on the physical properties of the polar layered terrain.

  6. Outflow channel sources, reactivation, and chaos formation, Xanthe Terra, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Sasaki, S.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.; Miyamoto, H.; Kurita, K.; Komatsu, G.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The undulating, warped, and densely fractured surfaces of highland regions east of Valles Marineris (located north of the eastern Aureum Chaos, east of the Hydraotes Chaos, and south of the Hydaspis Chaos) resulted from extensional surface warping related to ground subsidence, caused when pressurized water confined in subterranean caverns was released to the surface. Water emanations formed crater lakes and resulted in channeling episodes involved in the excavation of Ares, Tiu, and Simud Valles of the eastern part of the circum-Chryse outflow channel system. Progressive surface subsidence and associated reduction of the subsurface cavernous volume, and/or episodes of magmatic-driven activity, led to increases of the hydrostatic pressure, resulting in reactivation of both catastrophic and non-catastrophic outflow activity. Ancient cratered highland and basin materials that underwent large-scale subsidence grade into densely fractured terrains. Collapse of rock materials in these regions resulted in the formation of chaotic terrains, which occur in and near the headwaters of the eastern circum-Chryse outflow channels. The deepest chaotic terrain in the Hydaspis Chaos region resulted from the collapse of pre-existing outflow channel floors. The release of volatiles and related collapse may have included water emanations not necessarily linked to catastrophic outflow. Basal warming related to dike intrusions, thermokarst activity involving wet sediments and/or dissected ice-enriched country rock, permafrost exposed to the atmosphere by extensional tectonism and channel incision, and/or the injection of water into porous floor material, may have enhanced outflow channel floor instability and subsequent collapse. In addition to the possible genetic linkage to outflow channel development dating back to at least the Late Noachian, clear disruption of impact craters with pristine ejecta blankets and rims, as well as preservation of fine tectonic fabrics, suggest that plateau subsidence and chaos formation may have continued well into the Amazonian Period. The geologic and paleohydrologic histories presented here have important implications, as new mechanisms for outflow channel formation and other fluvial activity are described, and new reactivation mechanisms are proposed for the origin of chaotic terrain as contributors to flooding. Detailed geomorphic analysis indicates that subterranean caverns may have been exposed during chaos formation, and thus chaotic terrains mark prime locations for future geologic, hydrologic, and possible astrobiologic exploration. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Outflow channel sources, reactivation, and chaos formation, Xanthe Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. P.; Sasaki, Sho; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Ken L.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kurita, Kei; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, A. G.; Ferris, Justin C.

    2005-05-01

    The undulating, warped, and densely fractured surfaces of highland regions east of Valles Marineris (located north of the eastern Aureum Chaos, east of the Hydraotes Chaos, and south of the Hydaspis Chaos) resulted from extensional surface warping related to ground subsidence, caused when pressurized water confined in subterranean caverns was released to the surface. Water emanations formed crater lakes and resulted in channeling episodes involved in the excavation of Ares, Tiu, and Simud Valles of the eastern part of the circum-Chryse outflow channel system. Progressive surface subsidence and associated reduction of the subsurface cavernous volume, and/or episodes of magmatic-driven activity, led to increases of the hydrostatic pressure, resulting in reactivation of both catastrophic and non-catastrophic outflow activity. Ancient cratered highland and basin materials that underwent large-scale subsidence grade into densely fractured terrains. Collapse of rock materials in these regions resulted in the formation of chaotic terrains, which occur in and near the headwaters of the eastern circum-Chryse outflow channels. The deepest chaotic terrain in the Hydaspis Chaos region resulted from the collapse of pre-existing outflow channel floors. The release of volatiles and related collapse may have included water emanations not necessarily linked to catastrophic outflow. Basal warming related to dike intrusions, thermokarst activity involving wet sediments and/or dissected ice-enriched country rock, permafrost exposed to the atmosphere by extensional tectonism and channel incision, and/or the injection of water into porous floor material, may have enhanced outflow channel floor instability and subsequent collapse. In addition to the possible genetic linkage to outflow channel development dating back to at least the Late Noachian, clear disruption of impact craters with pristine ejecta blankets and rims, as well as preservation of fine tectonic fabrics, suggest that plateau subsidence and chaos formation may have continued well into the Amazonian Period. The geologic and paleohydrologic histories presented here have important implications, as new mechanisms for outflow channel formation and other fluvial activity are described, and new reactivation mechanisms are proposed for the origin of chaotic terrain as contributors to flooding. Detailed geomorphic analysis indicates that subterranean caverns may have been exposed during chaos formation, and thus chaotic terrains mark prime locations for future geologic, hydrologic, and possible astrobiologic exploration.

  8. Results of 1:24,000-Scale Geologic Mapping of Western Hadriacus Cavi, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Barton, M. L.

    2017-06-01

    We report results of HiRISE-based 1:24,000 scale geologic mapping of a suite of stratified rocks located in southwestern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars. We interpret the mapped sequences as primary and remobilized volcaniclastic sediments.

  9. TERRA: Building New Communities for Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, Joe; Mockler, Todd; Tuinstra, Mitch

    2016-03-01

    ARPA-E’s Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA) program is bringing together top experts from different disciplines – agriculture, robotics and data analytics – to rethink the production of advanced biofuel crops. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Joe Cornelius discusses the TERRA program and explains how ARPA-E’s model enables multidisciplinary collaboration among diverse communities. The video focuses on two TERRA projects—Donald Danforth Center and Purdue University—that are developing and integrating cutting-edge remote sensing platforms, complex data analytics tools and plant breeding technologies to tackle the challenge of sustainably increasing biofuel stocks.

  10. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H.A.; Abdullah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

  11. Geologic history and channeling episodes of the Chryse Planitia region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotto, Susan L.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the Chryse Planitia region of Mars is based on geologic mapping on a 1:5,000,000 scale shaded relief map. The map area includes Chryse and southern Acidalia Planitiae; the circum Chryse channels and chaotic terrains; Xanthe, southern Tempe, and western Arabia Terrae; Lunae Planum; and northeastern Valles Marineris. The aim of the study is twofold: (1) to obtain relative ages of the outflow channels by performing and compiling detailed stratigraphic analyses; and (2) to correlate channeling episodes with causative mechanisms (such as volcanism and tectonism) and resulting effects (such as climate change). The geologic history given based on this mapping, includes the documentation of a previously unproposed channeling episode in the region as well as the presently favored hypotheses concerning the nature and origin of the channeling events. It is concluded that the history of the Chryse region suggests that two major periods of tectonic activity resulted in two episodes of channeling in the highlands surrounding Chryse Planitia.

  12. Map of Upper Regolith Layer Hydrogen Content Measured Using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.; Pathare, A.

    2010-12-01

    Thermal and epithermal neutron counting rates measured by the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS) have been used to generate maps of the water-equivalent hydrogen (WEH) content of a semi-infinite lower layer, Wdn, buried at depth, D, below the surface, under the assumption of a WEH content of an upper layer, Wup, equal to 1%, 2%, and 5% by weight [Diez et al., Icarus, 2008]. We have just developed a technique to determine Wup self consistently from the fast and epithermal neutron counts of MONS. The resultant map of Wup shows considerable structure. Values higher than 3.5 wt % are localized at (1) the Phoenix landing site and neighboring terrain to the southwest in Arcadia Planitia, (2) along the dichotomy boundary extending from Gusev Crater through Medusae Fossae to the Tharsis Plateau, (3) a region southeast of Hellas that is near the antipode of the Phoenix site, and (4) in central Arabia Terra. Correlated variations between Wup and Wdn is variable over the planet. It is generally high between ±(46 to 60) latitude, which have linear correlation coefficients, R, between 0.77 and 0.81. Between ±(60 to 74) latitude R is generally high with the exception of a range of longitudes in each latitude zone where Wup gets very small yet Wdn remains high. And between (-46 to +46) latitude, although both Wup and Wdn vary significantly, the linear correlation between them is generally poor, R=0.32.

  13. Saudi Arabia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is the world's largest holder of crude oil proved reserves and was the largest exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2013. In 2013, Saudi Arabia was the world's second-largest petroleum liquids producer behind the United States and was the world's second-largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabia's economy remains heavily dependent on petroleum. Petroleum exports accounted for 85% of total Saudi export revenues in 2013, according to the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)'s Annual Statistical Bulletin 2014. With the largest oil projects nearing completion, Saudi Arabia is expanding its natural gas, refining, petrochemicals, and electric power industries. Saudi Arabia's oil and natural gas operations are dominated by Saudi Aramco, the national oil and gas company and the world's largest oil company in terms of production. Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources and the Supreme Council for Petroleum and Minerals have oversight of the oil and natural gas sector and Saudi Aramco.

  14. Raised Bedrock in Terra Cimmeria

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-05

    Large impact craters have central hills or mountains, because the tremendous shock waves from the impact first compresses the ground, then causes a rebound when it becomes uncompressed. This effectively raises bedrock that was once deeply buried to the surface. Furthermore, some of the most interesting bedrock on Mars is amongst the oldest and deeply buried. Thus, these crater central uplifts act as windows into ancient Mars, and enable us to peer into a time when certain geologic processes were more active than today. The enhanced colors in this image reflect different bedrock compositions. Some of the large blocks are broken up and jumbled by this impact event or were resampled from previous large impacts. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA15149

  15. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  16. Perspective View of Ishtar Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This perspective view of Ishtar Terra was derived from data obtained by the Pioneer Venus spacecraft's altimetry radar instrument. Ishtar viewed from the west (bottom of image) is centered at about 65 degrees north latitude and 0 degrees longitude. Ishtar (approximately equal in size to Australia) is a large plateau standing 3.3 km above the surrounding lowlands, bounded by relatively steep slopes. Rising above this plateau are three massifs: Akna Montes and Freyja Montes along the western and northwestern edge of Lakshmi Planum, and Maxwell Montes along its eastern edge. The eastern part of Ishtar, east of Maxwell, is a complex hilly terrain 1 km lower than Lakshmi Planum that lacks the steep well-defined boundary slopes that characterize the plateau. Maxwell Montes, highest point on the planet is elevated more than 10 km (32,000 ft) above the surrounding lowlands. Color-coded altimetry shows elevations in .5 and 1 km intervals. Cool colors mark low elevations and warm colors mark high elevations

  17. Mars Through the Eye of HiRISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Hirise, T.

    2007-05-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has acquired more than 2 Tb of data in more than 1,000 images of Mars at resolutions as high as 25 cm/pixel in the 3 PM mapping orbit of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Each image consists of data from up to 14 CCD detectors and could contain as many as 3 giga-pixels. Early results include (1) improved knowledge of the stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits and the origin of the thick basal unit; (2) discovery that rocks are uniformly abundant in the Vastitas Borealis Formation covering the northern lowlands; (3) imaging of past landing sites has provided new insights and surprises about the nature of these surfaces; (4) fine layered deposits in Valles Marineris, Meridiani Planum, Arabia Terra and elsewhere are often cut by indurated and/or bleached joints and faults, most likely due to precipitation from fluids; (5) regions of Mars rich in phyllosilicate minerals [Murchie et al., submitted] are seen to consist of layered deposits with fine-scale fractures and polygons; (6) lava flows through Athabasca Valles were surprisingly thick flows that were deflated and drained, leaving behind a veneer of lava with abundant evidence for lava-water interactions; (7) stratigraphic studies reveal two major episodes of fluvial/lacustrine activity in Holden crater, and we've detected exposures of ancient megabreccia in the crater walls; (8) recent large (3-60 km) impact craters have created a range of apparently fluvially-modified landforms; (9) a small cluster of craters from a very recent impact event created a large (~2 km) wide blast zone with thousands of dust avalanches; (10) relatively bright deposits associated with very recent activities in gullies appear to consist of materials eroded from the crater slopes; (11) the south polar residual cap of CO2 has a range of newly-discovered morphologies that constrain models for landscape evolution; and(12) geysers or cold jets associated with sublimation of the

  18. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Cader, Akram; Anthony, Peter John

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia's highest education industry…

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  1. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Nancy J.; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes. PMID:28138483

  2. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism.

    PubMed

    Connerney, J E P; Acuña, M H; Ness, N F; Kletetschka, G; Mitchell, D L; Lin, R P; Reme, H

    2005-10-18

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an approximately 400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics.

  4. Tectonic implications of Mars crustal magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuña, M. H.; Ness, N. F.; Kletetschka, G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Reme, H.

    2005-01-01

    Mars currently has no global magnetic field of internal origin but must have had one in the past, when the crust acquired intense magnetization, presumably by cooling in the presence of an Earth-like magnetic field (thermoremanent magnetization). A new map of the magnetic field of Mars, compiled by using measurements acquired at an ≈400-km mapping altitude by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, is presented here. The increased spatial resolution and sensitivity of this map provide new insight into the origin and evolution of the Mars crust. Variations in the crustal magnetic field appear in association with major faults, some previously identified in imagery and topography (Cerberus Rupes and Valles Marineris). Two parallel great faults are identified in Terra Meridiani by offset magnetic field contours. They appear similar to transform faults that occur in oceanic crust on Earth, and support the notion that the Mars crust formed during an early era of plate tectonics. PMID:16217034

  5. Henry Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-19

    Located in Arabia Terra, the crater shown in this image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft is known as Henry Crater. Like many other craters on Mars, the interior of Henry Crater is filled with a layered deposit.

  6. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  7. TERRA: Building New Communities for Advanced Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Cornelius, Joe; Mockler, Todd; Tuinstra, Mitch

    2016-07-12

    ARPA-E’s Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA) program is bringing together top experts from different disciplines – agriculture, robotics and data analytics – to rethink the production of advanced biofuel crops. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Joe Cornelius discusses the TERRA program and explains how ARPA-E’s model enables multidisciplinary collaboration among diverse communities. The video focuses on two TERRA projects—Donald Danforth Center and Purdue University—that are developing and integrating cutting-edge remote sensing platforms, complex data analytics tools and plant breeding technologies to tackle the challenge of sustainably increasing biofuel stocks.

  8. Terra Nova breaks new ground for alliances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiselin, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of alliances to help develop the Terra Nova oil and gas field in the offshore Atlantic areas of Canada. Largely attributed to BP, the strategic alliance concept got its start in the North Sea and on the North Slope of Alaska. BP saw it as the best way to take advantage of economy-of-scale, mitigate risk, and achieve outsourcing goals while retaining their core competencies. This paper reviews the methods of developing the alliances, the developing of a development plan for the Terra Nova field, and how the alliance plans to maximize the profittability of the operation for all involved.

  9. DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA FRIEZE ABOVE GROUND FLOOR AND TYPICAL TERRA COTTA WINDOW SILL. CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. Optometric Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuaid, Robert D.; Kusztyk, George M.

    1990-01-01

    The first attempt at optometric education in the Middle East, a program developed at King Saud University (Saudi Arabia), is described. The university's second class of optometrists is being trained in the College of Applied Medical Sciences. Professional identity, limited faculty, and development of resources have been problems. (MSE)

  11. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  12. Scaling the Pipe: NASA EOS Terra Data Systems at 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    Standard products from the five sensors on NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.

  13. Mud volcanoes discovered near the Crommelin South Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; Ori, G. G.; Praeg, D.; Ceramicola, S.

    2010-12-01

    We report the first detection of mud volcanoes in the equatorial highlands of Mars, in the Arabia Terra region within an unnamed crater located immediately south of the Crommelin crater, herein referred to as ‘Crommelin South’ crater. Mud volcanoes are recognized on the crater floor as hundreds of isolated or coalescing sub-conical mounds, with heights estimated at up to several tens of metres. The mounds include simple forms with sub-elliptical plan-forms typically 100-300 m in diameter, in places coalescing to form composite mounds up to 500 m in diameter. More than 50% of the mounds show subcircular depressions at the apex indicating locations of vents. The mounds are all associated with a distinctive sediment facies that includes clasts up to boulder size, which we interpret as the first deposits of mud volcanic breccia to be recognized on Mars. The larger clasts are sub-angular to angular and include bright features that appear to be derived from bright layers within the surrounding Layered Deposits. The mudbreccia facies is observed to stratigraphically overlie the Layered Deposits and, which infill this part of the crater in thicknesses estimated at up to 300 m. The distribution of the mud volcanoes is closely related to impact-related faults and fractures, which represent probable pathways for subsurface fluid migration. The Crommelin South mud volcanoes are comparable in form and deposits texture to terrestrial mud volcanoes, which are typically composed of matrix-supported mud breccias (including clasts up to metric or decametric size) derived from multiple stratigraphic levels as a response to the upward migration of overpressured fluids from depths of kilometers. The presence of bright clasts in the Crommelin South mud breccias is consistent with their extrusion in response to the upward migration of fluids through the relatively thin crater-fill from overpressured sources in underlying crustal materials, probably along long-lived pathways provided

  14. BDS Terra-FM2 Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  Earthdata Search   Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Readme ... :  Read Software R5-890 (C) Related Data:  Note:  The latest CERES data products (Edition4 for Terra ...

  15. NASA Terra Spacecraft Images Russian Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-16

    Plosky Tolbachik volcano in Russia far eastern Kamchatka peninsula erupted on Nov. 27, 2012, for the first time in 35 years, sending clouds of ash to the height of more than 9,800 feet 3,000 meters in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  16. NASA Terra Spacecraft Captures Russian Volcano Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    Plosky Tolbachik volcano, in Russia far eastern Kamchatka peninsula, erupted on Nov. 27, 2012 for the first time in 35 years, sending clouds of ash almost 10,000 feet into the sky. This image was acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  17. ES9 Terra-Xtrk Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-12

    ... Search and Order:  Earthdata Search   Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications. SCAR-B Block:  ...

  18. ES4 Terra-Xtrk Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-12

    ... Search and Order:  Earthdata Search   Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications.  Additional Info:  b SCAR-B ...

  19. BDS Terra-FM1 Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-12

    ... Search and Order:  Earthdata Search   Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ... Terra and Aqua; Edition1 for NPP and TRMM) are approved for science publications. SCAR-B Block:  ...

  20. Terra--A School's Venture into Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashjian, Michi; And Others

    1979-01-01

    To create a feeling of school unity and to reinforce the concept of human interdependence, the teachers of Friends' Central School planned Project Terra, a six-week school-wide activity. With the school viewed as a mythical planet, classes designed their own cultures and interacted as nations. (SJL)

  1. Terra in K-16 formal education settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.; Rogerson, T. M.; Hitke, K. M.; Riebeek, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.

  2. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  3. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurt; Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASAs long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASAs international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations.

  4. Euripus Mons - Landform Evolution and Climate Constraints in Promethei Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Kim, Jungrack; Baik, Hyun-Seob

    2016-04-01

    The Promethei Terra region of Mars exhibits a variety of geomorphic landforms indicative of ice-assisted creep of debris and ice, similar to features and processes found at the Martian dichotomy boundary in Deuteronilus, Protonilus and Nilosyrtis Mensae. Despite only little doubt about the fact that ice played an integral role in the formation of these features, it is still disputed if these features were formed by glacial processes, requiring precipitation of ice and snow and exhibiting glacial deformation and basal sliding, or if these landforms are a product of periglacial denudation and subject to different deformation regimes. As information about past climate conditions on Mars is sparse, the proper assessment of landform types today allows to put constraints on their environmental conditions in the past. Due to limited knowledge about the internal physical and thermal structure of these landforms, it remains impossible to unambiguously determine their origin [1]. A variety of geomorphic and model-based indicators need to be taken into account when putting constraints on their history and when trying to reconstruct their evolution. For selected features on Mars it has been shown by SHARAD radar observations that the ice content might be relatively high [2], and that some of them might be composed of pure ice, protected from sublimation by a thin debris cover. One of such examples, Euripus Mons, is a 80 km remnant feature with an associated circumferential talus deposit that shows indicators for deformation by downslope movement, i.e. debris apron morphology. Recent modelling assuming glacial deformation helped to reconstruct some internal structural properties [3]. Despite these attempts, Euripus Mons shows clear geomorphic signatures of classical periglacial denudation which do not fit into the concept of glacial-only evolution. Denudation rates as well as ages are similar to those reported from other locations on Mars for which hyperarid climate conditions

  5. Searching for Pedogenic Phyllosilicates in Ancient Soils on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B.; Christensen, P. R.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    On Earth, vast deposits rich in phyllosilicates are commonly created during soil formation, or pedogenesis. When soils are preserved in the stratigraphic record as paleosols, they become valuable resources for terrestrial geologists because paleosol isotopes, mineralogy, and chemical weathering profiles can be used to reconstruct ancient surface environments and to provide quantitative constraints on regional paleo-climate. Thus, paleosol sequences developed in sedimentary settings can record millions of years of surface and climatic evolution. Ancient paleosols on Earth also have excellent organic and biosignature preservation potential, and therefore harbor some of the oldest known (2-3 Ga) non-marine organics, biosignatures, and fossils. On Mars, pedogenesis in the ancient past may be responsible for some of the phyllosilicate-bearing units observed today, especially for regionally extensive deposits and those in clear sedimentary settings (e.g., Arabia Terra/Mawrth Vallis, Gale Crater, Noctis Labyrinthus). Many of these possibly pedogenic deposits exhibit compositional layering (e.g., interbedded kaolinites, smectites, and sulfates), which may have formed due to episodic sediment deposition under changing environmental conditions. Such deposits represent excellent targets for in situ investigation, as finding and characterizing paleosols on Mars would allow us to place constraints on the extent and duration of past surface and near-surface habitability, and may even provide preserved samples of ancient martian organics. We are currently investigating a broad range of methods for identifying and characterizing paleosols on Mars from orbit and in situ with Mars Science Laboratory, based on analysis of phyllosilicate-rich (30-95 wt.%) Eocene-Oligocene paleosols in the Painted Hills of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument in Eastern Oregon. These paleosols were formed under a wide range of environmental conditions, and include highly weathered soils rich in

  6. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  7. Monitoring on Xi'an ground fissures deformation with TerraSAR-X data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the fine resolution of TerraSAR-X data provided since 2007, this paper applied 6 TerraSAR data (strip mode) during 3rd Dec. 2009 to 23rd Mar. 2010 to detect and monitor the active fissures over Xi'an region. Three themes have been designed for high precision detection and monitoring of Xi'an-Chang'an fissures, as small baseline subsets (SBAS) to test the atmospheric effects of differential interferograms pair stepwise, 2-pass differential interferogram with very short baseline perpendicular to generate the whole deformation map with 44 days interval, and finally, corner reflector (CR) technique was used to closely monitor the relative deformation time series between two CRs settled crossing two ground fissures. Results showed that TerraSAR data are a good choice for small-scale ground fissures detection and monitoring, while special considerations should be taken for their great temporal and baseline decorrelation. Secondly, ground fissures in Xi'an were mostly detected at the joint section of stable and deformable regions. Lastly, CR-InSAR had potential ability to monitor relative deformation crossing fissures with millimeter precision.

  8. Mars Express Seen by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-19

    This picture of the European Space Agency Mars Express spacecraft by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA Mars Global Surveyor is from the first successful imaging of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

  9. Spring Deposits and Mud Volcanoes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Baker, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    We report evidence for spring deposits in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra. The Vernal structures are low mounds, each approximately 250 m by 500 m in extent, with terraced flanks, apical depressions, river-like channels, concentric fractures, and elliptical tonal anomalies. All of these features are common in terrestrial springs such as the Dalhousie complex in Australia. The structures occur in an apparent unit of interdune, water-laid sediment and are associated with evidence of subsurface fluid flow in sets of aligned outcrops. The Vernal springs may be part of a larger complex of spring deposits and lineations, suggesting that fluid flow in this region was relatively extensive. The structures in Vernal Crater are coated with a thin layer of dust, which prevents mineral identification from orbit. In an attempt to find evidence for additional spring mounds, we conducted a survey of nearly 2,000 locations for which CRISM spectral images are available. We used CRISM data to identify dust-free, hydrated areas and HiRISE, CTX, and MOC images to evaluate morphology. This study covered all longitudes and latitudes from 50N to 70S, except near Tharsis where data were analyzed south of 15S. No location exhibited morphological features that closely resembled those in Vernal Crater, suggesting that these putative spring mounds are not common in the highlands of Mars. Our search led us to concentrate on a dust-free area, centered at 41.8N, 332.5E in Acidalia Planitia where Farrand et al. (2005) identified features resembling spring mounds or mud volcanoes. Tanaka et al. (2005) mapped this region as part of the Early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis Unit, interpreted as reworked sediments from outflow channels and highland sources. We mapped over 20 high-albedo pitted domes in the area covered by one HiRISE frame, with dome diameters ranging from 350 m to 1 km. Nearby, similar domes have measured heights ranging from 36 to 65 m. The dome material is darker in THEMIS nighttime IR than

  10. Geologic Mapping in Southern Margaritifer Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Margaritifer Terra records a complex geologic history [1-5], and the area from Holden crater through Ladon Valles, Ladon basin, and up to Morava Valles is no exception [e.g., 6-13]. The 1:500,000 geologic map of MTM quadrangles -15027, -20027, -25027, and -25032 (Figs. 1 and 2 [14]) identifies a range of units that delineate the history of water-related activity and regional geologic context.

  11. Is Ishtar Terra a thickened basaltic crust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    1992-01-01

    The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of basalt-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening basaltic crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.

  12. Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

  13. First Self-Consistent, Two-Layer Model of Near-Surface Water-Equivalent-Hydrogen on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Pathare, A.; Prettyman, T. H.; Maurice, S.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses 9.5 years of Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS) data [1]. We have used the epithermal and fast neutron count rates to determine the water-equivalent-hydrogen (WEH) content of an upper layer, Wup, having thickness D. The "crossover" technique we utilized is an improvement over previous work [2,3]. We then used Monte Carlo simulated grids of epithermal and thermal count rates spanning Wup = 1% to 15% [4] to determine the WEH content, Wdn, of a semi-infinite lower layer buried at depth, D. We also advance upon previous work by using improved deconvolution methods to reduce spatial blurring in fast and epithermal maps [5]. The resultant count-rates were digitized into a 2°x2°cylindrical grid for all WEH computations. Two sets of WEH maps will be shown. The first uses the one-layer model developed initially by Feldman et al. [6]. Comparison of the undeconvolved and deconvolved versions clearly illustrates the improvement obtained by deconvolution. We will also present the full two layer maps of Wup, Wdn, and D for the deconvolved data sets, which show: 1) contrary to our previous preliminary mapping [3], the fresh icy mid-latitude craters identified by [7] are NOT exclusively found in regions with average Wdn values that exceed the pore-filling threshold for regolith ice; 2) a maximum Wdn of about 80% by weight at the Phoenix site; 3) an isolated Wdn maximum just east of Gale crater that is centered on Aeolis Mensae; 4) a resolved Wdn maximum that overlays the Orsen Wells crater on Xanthe Terra; 5) Wdn local maxima that hug the western flanks of Olympus Mons and Elysium Mons, and 6) several Wdn maxima that cover Arabia Terra. We will present and interpret regional maps of all of these features. Refs: [1] Maurice et al. JGR, 2011; [2] Feldman et al. JGR, 2011; [3] Pathare et al. 8th Mars Conf., 2014; [4] Prettyman et al. JGR, 2004 [5] Prettyman et al. JGR, 2009; [6] Feldman et al. JGR, 2004; [7] Dundas et al. JGR, 2014.

  14. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-13

    Company [CASOC, the forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background...high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring (continued...) Saudi Arabia ...Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 20

  15. Northern Arabia Etched Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 23 May 2002) The Science Many places on Mars display scabby, eroded landscapes that commonly are referred to as etched terrain. These places have a ragged, tortured look that reveals a geologic history of intense deposition and erosion. This THEMIS image shows such a place. Here a 10 km diameter crater is superposed on the floor of a 40 km diameter crater, most of which is outside of the image but apparent in the MOLA context image. The rugged crater rim material intermingles with low, flat-topped mesas and layers with irregular outlines along with dune-like ridges on many of the flat surfaces. The horizontal layers that occur throughout the scene at different elevations are evidence of repeated episodes of deposition. The apparent ease with which these deposits have been eroded, most likely by wind, suggests that they are composed of poorly consolidated material. Air-fall sediments are the likely candidate for this material rather than lava flows. The dune-like ridges are probably inactive granule ripples produced from the interaction of wind and erosional debris. The large interior crater displays features that are the result of deposition and subsequent erosion. Its raised rim is barely discernable due to burial while piles and blocks of slumped material along the interior circumference attest to the action of erosion. Some of the blocks retain the same texture as the surrounding undisrupted surface. It appears as if the crater had been buried long enough for the overlying material to be eroded into the texture seen today. Then at some point this overburden foundered and collapsed into the crater. Continuing erosion has caused the upper layer to retreat back from what was probably the original rim of the crater, producing the noncircular appearance seen today. The length of time represented by this sequence of events as well as the conditions necessary to produce them are unknown. The Story Have you ever seen an ink etching, where the artistic cross

  16. Northern Arabia Etched Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 23 May 2002) The Science Many places on Mars display scabby, eroded landscapes that commonly are referred to as etched terrain. These places have a ragged, tortured look that reveals a geologic history of intense deposition and erosion. This THEMIS image shows such a place. Here a 10 km diameter crater is superposed on the floor of a 40 km diameter crater, most of which is outside of the image but apparent in the MOLA context image. The rugged crater rim material intermingles with low, flat-topped mesas and layers with irregular outlines along with dune-like ridges on many of the flat surfaces. The horizontal layers that occur throughout the scene at different elevations are evidence of repeated episodes of deposition. The apparent ease with which these deposits have been eroded, most likely by wind, suggests that they are composed of poorly consolidated material. Air-fall sediments are the likely candidate for this material rather than lava flows. The dune-like ridges are probably inactive granule ripples produced from the interaction of wind and erosional debris. The large interior crater displays features that are the result of deposition and subsequent erosion. Its raised rim is barely discernable due to burial while piles and blocks of slumped material along the interior circumference attest to the action of erosion. Some of the blocks retain the same texture as the surrounding undisrupted surface. It appears as if the crater had been buried long enough for the overlying material to be eroded into the texture seen today. Then at some point this overburden foundered and collapsed into the crater. Continuing erosion has caused the upper layer to retreat back from what was probably the original rim of the crater, producing the noncircular appearance seen today. The length of time represented by this sequence of events as well as the conditions necessary to produce them are unknown. The Story Have you ever seen an ink etching, where the artistic cross

  17. Faulting Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-15

    This region of Xanthe Terra has mostly been contracted due to thrust faulting, but this local region shows evidence of extensional faulting, also called normal faulting. When two normal faults face each other, they create a bathtub-like depression called a "graben." http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20813

  18. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  19. Terra mission operations: Launch to the present (and beyond)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-09-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  20. Volatile-rich Crater Interior Deposits on Mars: An Energy Balance Model of Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Head, James W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Several craters on Mars are partially filled by material emplaced by post-impact processes. Populations of such craters include those in the circumsouth polar cap region, in Arabia Terra, associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation, and in the northern lowlands proximal to the north polar cap. In this study, crater fill material refers to an interior mound, generally separated from the interior walls of the crater by a trough that may be continuous along the crater s circumference (i.e. a ring-shaped trough), or may only partially contact the crater walls (i.e. a crescent-shaped trough). The fill deposit is frequently off-center from the crater center and may be asymmetric, (i.e. not circular) in plan view shape. Here we test the hypothesis that asymmetries in volatile fill shape, profile, and center-location within a crater result from asymmetries in local energy balance within the crater due mainly to variation of solar insolation and radiative effects of the crater walls over the crater interior. We first focus on Korolev crater in the northern lowlands. We can then apply this model to other craters in different regions. If asymmetry in morphology and location of crater fill are consistent with radiative-dominated asymmetries in energy budget within the crater, then 1) the volatile-rich composition of the fill is supported (this process should not be effective at shaping volcanic or sedimentary deposits), and 2) the dominant factor determining the observed shape of volatile-rich crater fill is the local radiative energy budget within the crater (and erosive processes such as eolian deflation are not necessary).

  1. New composite spectra of Mars, 0.4-5.7 μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erard, Stephane; Calvin, Wendy M.

    1997-01-01

    About 15 areas were observed in the equatorial regions of Mars by the infrared spectrometers IRS (Mariner 6 and 7) and ISM (Phobos-2). The comparison between the spectra shows a remarkable consistency between two data sets acquired 20 years apart and calibrated independently. This similarity demonstrates the accuracy of ISM calibration above 2 μm, except for a possible stray light contribution above 2.6 μm, on the order of ∼1–2% of the solar flux at 2.7 μm. Most differences in spectral shapes are related to differences in spectral/spatial resolution and viewing geometries. No important variation in surface properties is detected, except for a spot in southern Arabia Terra which has a much deeper hydration feature in IRS spectra; differences in viewing geometries and spatial resolutions do not seem to account for this difference that could result from shifting or dehydration of surface materials. Composite spectra of several types of bright and dark materials are computed by modeling the thermal emission and are completed with telescopic spectra in the visible range. Modeled reflectance in the 3.0–5.7 μm range is consistent with basalts and palagonites. The bright regions and analog palagonite spectra are different from hematite in this range, but resemble several phyllosilicates. We infer that (1) although hematite dominates the spectra in the 0.4- to 2.5-μm range, the silicate-clay host is spectrally active beyond 3 μm and can be identified from this domain; (2) phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite or smectite may be abundant components of the martian soils, although the domain below 3 μm lacks the characteristic features of the most usual terrestrial clay minerals.

  2. Volatile-rich Crater Interior Deposits on Mars: An Energy Balance Model of Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Head, James W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Several craters on Mars are partially filled by material emplaced by post-impact processes. Populations of such craters include those in the circumsouth polar cap region, in Arabia Terra, associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation, and in the northern lowlands proximal to the north polar cap. In this study, crater fill material refers to an interior mound, generally separated from the interior walls of the crater by a trough that may be continuous along the crater s circumference (i.e. a ring-shaped trough), or may only partially contact the crater walls (i.e. a crescent-shaped trough). The fill deposit is frequently off-center from the crater center and may be asymmetric, (i.e. not circular) in plan view shape. Here we test the hypothesis that asymmetries in volatile fill shape, profile, and center-location within a crater result from asymmetries in local energy balance within the crater due mainly to variation of solar insolation and radiative effects of the crater walls over the crater interior. We first focus on Korolev crater in the northern lowlands. We can then apply this model to other craters in different regions. If asymmetry in morphology and location of crater fill are consistent with radiative-dominated asymmetries in energy budget within the crater, then 1) the volatile-rich composition of the fill is supported (this process should not be effective at shaping volcanic or sedimentary deposits), and 2) the dominant factor determining the observed shape of volatile-rich crater fill is the local radiative energy budget within the crater (and erosive processes such as eolian deflation are not necessary).

  3. Mars Surface Layers in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Infrared imaging from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows signs of layering exposed at the surface in a region of Mars called Terra Meridiani.

    The brightness levels show daytime surface temperatures, which range from about minus 20 degrees to zero degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. However, several rock layers can be seen to have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment on this part of Mars varied through time as these layers were formed.

    The image is a mosaic combining four exposures taken by the thermal emission imaging system aboard Odyssey during the first two months of the Odyssey mapping mission, which began in February 2002. The area shown is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across, at approximately 358 degrees east (2 degrees west) longitude and 3 degrees north latitude.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The thermal emission imaging system was provided by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  5. Volcanism in Northwest Ishtar Terra, Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddis, L.R.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously undocumented volcanic complex in the highlands of NW Ishtar Terra (74 deg N, 313 deg E). The proposed valcanic center is in mountainous banded terrain thought to have been formed by regional compression. Data used include Soviet Venera 15/16 radar images and topography (Fotokarta Veneri B-4, 1987). An attempt is made to assess the place of this feature in the framework of known volcanic landforms of the Lakshmi Planum and to examine the relationships between volcanism and tectonism in this region. 38 refs.

  6. Topographic Analyses of the Vestalia Terra plateau, Vesta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Williams, D. A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    The identification of Vestalia Terra, a topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps, is itself a direct result of topographic analysis of the asteroid. However, additional analysis of the topography of the plateau has yielded important scientific discoveries. While most equatorial regions on Vesta display numerous wide and flat-floored troughs, Vestalia Terra does not. There are, however, three long pit crater chains on top of the plateau that are roughly aligned with the equatorial flat-floor troughs. Pit crater chains are a type of feature that have been observed on several planetary bodies and have been described as lines of circular to elliptical depressions which lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows. Individual pits most commonly have a conical shape, sometimes with a flat floor, but in some cases they are elliptical in shape, with the long axis parallel to the chain orientation. Pit craters can in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, but the pits are often bordered by a graben (a down-dropped block bounded by normal faults) even before this coalesence. While pits are generally agreed to have formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity, the exact formation mechanisms hypothesized can vary from planet to planet. However, several researchers have suggested that pit crater chains on small bodies such as Phobos, Eros, Lutetia and Enceladus are formed by the drainage of a loose cover material into subsurface voids formed by dilation of a subsurface normal fault, a method described in extensive detail for pit crater chains on Mars. This formation hypothesis is strengthened by the strong correlation between pit crater chains and fault-bounded graben that has been observed and by the fact that pit chains are often in alignment with a regional fault and fracture system. There are two fundamental controls on the maximum size a pit can attain: the thickness of the overlying regolith and the amount of subsurface accommodation space. The

  7. Mars direct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, L.

    1994-05-01

    An account is given of a scenario for a manned mission to Mars and back to Earth. The innovative aspect of the strategy is that the Mars bound astronauts do not have to bring oxygen and propellant with them for the return journey. Instead, a vehicle would be sent to Mars in advance of the people. This vehicle would manufacture fuel and oxygen from chemicals in the Martian atmosphere, and would return the astronauts to Earth. The envisioned Mars base consists of the return spacecraft, a piloted habitat and laboratory, a surface rover and a greenhouse.

  8. Geologic Mapping of the Nili Fossae Region of Mars: MTM Quadrangles 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, and 30282

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will provide a regional context and evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and potential lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit (i.e., CRISM and OMEGA). Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes, including hydrothermal alteration, across the region.

  9. SAR Interferometry with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eineder, M.; Runge, H.; Boerner, E.; Bamler, R.; Adam, N.; Schättler, B.; Breit, H.; Suchandt, S.

    2004-06-01

    The TerraSAR-X project is a public private partnership between Astrium GmbH and the German Aerospace Center DLR. Astrium will launch the satellite in late 2005 and holds the rights of commercial data exploitation. DLR is currently developing the ground segment and is responsible for the scientific exploitation of the data. Even if the mission goal is not primarily SAR interferometry, TerraSAR-X offers a number of new perspectives to SAR interferometry when compared to ERS and also ENVISAT: a) High resolution of 3 meters and better in stripmap and spotlight mode. b) The option for a burst synchronized ScanSAR mode. c) The high range bandwidth will allow large baselines and the option for highly precise DEM generation. d) X- Band will show new scattering properties. e) High observation frequency due to the short repeat cycle and variable incidence angles. f) An along track interferometric mode. The available products relevant for interferometry are presented and other relevant topics like orbit control and delta-k interferometry are discussed.

  10. Results of Statewide TerraNova Testing, Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This summary provides key findings about state, district, and school level performance on the TerraNova examinations (CTB/McGraw Hill) in Nevada in 1998-1999. The TerraNova tests are used to assess students in grades 4, 8, and 10 as stipulated by Nevada law. Within this summary, a description of performance as measured by national percentile…

  11. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  12. On Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Mars were assessed directly and indirectly by the Viking lander and Viking orbiter spacecraft: the atmosphere, craters, volcanoes, terrain, geology, and evolution. Descriptions of these aspects are included herein. It is concluded that though life is certainly not abundant on Mars, the possibility still exists that some form of life is extant there.

  13. Resurfaced Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-09

    This area of Mars imaged by NASA Mars Odyssey shows a wonderful example of relative geologic dating. Ancient lava flows and escarpments are mantled by younger impact ejecta, which was cut by a younger graben and resurfaced by smaller impact craters.

  14. Flood surge through the Lunae Planum Outflow Complex, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Hon, R. A.; Pani, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the Maja outflow on Mars was released as a catastrophic outburst from Juventae Chasma. The flood surge traveled the first two-thirds of its length as a semiconfined sheetflood in a broad trough formed by the eastward-sloping Lunae Planum surface and the Xanthe Terra highlands to the east. At its northernmost extent, the flow ponded on the northern Lunae Planum surface. As the flow impounded on the upper Maja lake, waters rose to spill over the Xanthe Terra revetment onto the lower Chryse Planitia surface. The initial spillover crossed Xanthe Terra as sheetflood flow that muted topography over which it passed. The sheetflood was rapidly broken by the irregular topography to cut a complex series of anastomosing channels. A few main channels on eventually captured most of the drainage and local ponds formed in breached craters and irregular basins. The Maja Valles canyon eventually captured the remaining flow at the expense of all other channels.

  15. Recent ice ages on Mars.

    PubMed

    Head, James W; Mustard, John F; Kreslavsky, Mikhail A; Milliken, Ralph E; Marchant, David R

    2003-12-18

    A key pacemaker of ice ages on the Earth is climatic forcing due to variations in planetary orbital parameters. Recent Mars exploration has revealed dusty, water-ice-rich mantling deposits that are layered, metres thick and latitude dependent, occurring in both hemispheres from mid-latitudes to the poles. Here we show evidence that these deposits formed during a geologically recent ice age that occurred from about 2.1 to 0.4 Myr ago. The deposits were emplaced symmetrically down to latitudes of approximately 30 degrees--equivalent to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States on the Earth--in response to the changing stability of water ice and dust during variations in obliquity (the angle between Mars' pole of rotation and the ecliptic plane) reaching 30-35 degrees. Mars is at present in an 'interglacial' period, and the ice-rich deposits are undergoing reworking, degradation and retreat in response to the current instability of near-surface ice. Unlike the Earth, martian ice ages are characterized by warmer polar climates and enhanced equatorward transport of atmospheric water and dust to produce widespread smooth deposits down to mid-latitudes.

  16. Geologic Mapping of the Mawrth Vallis Region, Mars: MTM Quadrangles 25022, 25017, 25012, 20022, 20017, and 20012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, F. C.; Bleamaster, L. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Mawrth Vallis is a 15-25 km wide, 500 km long sinuous channel that winds through the highlands of Arabia Terra and debouches into the lowlands of Acidalia Planitia. The Mawrth Vallis region lies along the gradational zone between southern hemisphere thick crust and northern hemisphere thin crust, a topographically distinct portion of the Martian crustal dichotomy. The origin and age of the dichotomy boundary are controversial and are further complicated by the multi-stage and multi-process geologic history that has modified this approximately 6000 km section of the highland-lowland boundary (approximately 5 N, 330E to approximately 30 N, 80 E; herein referred as the Arabia Terra boundary). Furthermore, the Arabia Terra boundary has been subjected to many post-boundary processes such as outflow floods to the west, volcanism and tectonism to the east, and potential volatile deposition and glacial modification to the north. This study seeks to better understand the history of the Mawrth Vallis region by mapping six MTM quadrangles (17.5-27.5 N, 335-350 E) at 1:1M scale using traditional and modern digital geologic mapping techniques.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.

    2014-01-01

    The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208

  18. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2016-07-01

    Organ transplantation started in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 1979 with a kidney transplanted from a live donor. The Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation has been established in 1985 as a governmental agency that supervises all national transplant activities in the KSA. Organ transplantation in the KSA has made great strides since 1985. Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation is playing a central role in all aspects of transplantation including education on all levels, allocation, coordination and procurement. A new initiative has started an ambitious program in 2014 to improve the identification and reporting of organ donors aiming at an annual rate of 15 donors per million populations within 3 years in the KSA.

  19. Draft genome sequences of Terra1 and Terra2 viruses, new members of the family Mimiviridae isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yoosuf, Niyaz; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Since the discovery of Mimivirus, the founding member of the family Mimiviridae, three lineages, A-C, have been delineated among the mimiviruses of amoebae. To date, all giant viruses with annotated genomes have been isolated from water samples. Here, we describe the genome of two mimiviruses, Terra1 virus and Terra2 virus, which were recovered by co-culturing on Acanthamoeba spp. from soil samples. These genomes are predicted to harbor 1055 and 890 genes, respectively. Comparative genomics and phylogenomics show that Terra1 virus and Terra2 virus are classified within lineages C and A of the amoebae-associated mimiviruses, respectively. The genomic architecture of both viruses show conserved collinear central regions flanked by less conserved areas towards the extremities, when compared with other mimivirus genomes. A cluster of genes that are orthologous to bacterial genes and have no counterpart in other viral genomes except in lineage C mimiviruses was identified in Terra1 virus.

  20. Water and methane maps overlap on Mars: a new clue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    PFS observed that, at 10-15 kilometres above the surface, water vapour is well mixed and uniform in the atmosphere. However, it found that, close to the surface, water vapour is more concentrated in three broad equatorial regions: Arabia Terra, Elysium Planum and Arcadia-Memnonia. Here, the concentration is two to three times higher than in other regions observed. These areas of water vapour concentration also correspond to the areas where NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft has observed a water ice layer a few tens of centimetres below the surface, as Dr Vittorio Formisano, PFS principal investigator, reports. New in-depth analysis of PFS data also confirms that methane is not uniform in the atmosphere, but concentrated in some areas. The PFS team observed that the areas of highest concentration of methane overlap with the areas where water vapour and underground water ice are also concentrated. This spatial correlation between water vapour and methane seems to point to a common underground source. Initial speculation has taken the underground ice layer into account. This could be explained by the ‘ice table’ concept, in which geothermal heat from below the surface makes water and other material move towards the surface. It would then freeze before getting there, due to the very low surface temperature (many tens of degrees Celsius below zero). Further investigations are needed to fully understand the correlation between the ice table and the presence and distribution of water vapour and methane in the atmosphere. In other words, can the geothermal processes which ‘feed’ the ice table also bring water vapour and other gases, like methane, to the surface? Can there be liquid water below the ice table? Can forms of bacterial life exist in the water below the ice table, producing methane and other gases and releasing them to the surface and then to the atmosphere? The PFS instrument has also detected traces of other gases in the Martian atmosphere. A report on these

  1. Pedogenetic processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara Tangari, Anna; Marinangeli, Lucia; Piluso, Eugenio; Pompilio, Loredana; Scarciglia, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Clay minerals, such as Fe/Mg smectite and Al-rich phyllosilicates (i.e., montmorillonite and kaolinite) were detected in the last years on Mars by numerous missions[1,2]. These minerals can be formed by fluid/rock interaction. Therefore, their study may provide important information on the climatic conditions and consequent habitability of the Martian surface. In this work we compare the mineralogy observed with CRISM data in the eastern part of Valles Marineris (Coprates-Ganges-Capri-Eos Chasmata), Margaritifer Terra and Margaritifer Chaos regions, with soils sampled on the Etna volcano (Sicily) and Cerviero Mount (Calabria, Southern Italy). We use an integrated approach of remote sensing coupled with pedological, petrographical and mineralogical investigations. Our purpose, here, is to find possible analogies between some Andosols developed on the basaltic substrates of Etna and Cerviero Mount, and the Martian soils, based on their spectral response and formation processes. CRISM data show poor abundance of clay minerals, such as illite, smectite and montmorillonite, in the eastern part of Valles Marineris. On the contrary, these phases are widely exposed in the Margaritifer Terra and Margaritifer Chaos, where we detected allophone (poorly crystalline clay), vermiculite, chlorite and other phyllosilicates belonging to the smectite group, such as saponite and nontronite. The surrounding area shows dominant signatures of basaltic composition.Our preliminary analysis on terrestrial soil profiles, using X-ray diffraction analysis, shows similar characteristics to Mars in terms of bedrock composition and clay mineralogy. Etnean soils, formed from lavas and pyroclastics of various ages (from 12 ka to 122 BC) [3] show the presence of clay minerals, such as kaolinite and small amounts of illite. The Cerviero Mount soils, developed on pillow basalts of Maastrichtian-Paleocene ages [4] are composed of vermiculite, illite, chlorite and interstratified clays such as

  2. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  3. Crustal Evolution of the Protonilus Mensae Area, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, G. E.; Smrekar, S. E.; Dimitriou, A. M.; Raymond, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite research by numerous geologists and geo- physicists, the age and origin of the martian crustal dichotomy remain uncertain. Models for the origin of this dichotomy involve single or multiple impact, mantle megaplumes, primordial crustal asymmetry, and plate tectonics. Most of these models imply a Noachian age for the dichotomy. A major problem common to all genetic models is the difficulty separating the features resulting from the primary cause for the dichotomy from features due to younger fault- ing, impact cratering, volcanism, deposition, and erosion. highlands (the dichotomy boundary) approximates a small circle that ranges in latitude from about -10 deg. in Elysium Planitia to about +45 deg. north of Arabia Terra. For much of its length the boundary is characterized by relatively steep scarps separating highland plateau to the south from lowland plains to the north, generally with a complex transition zone on the lowland side of these scarps. These scarps are almost certainly due to normal faulting. The type fretted terrain, which defines the boundary in north-central Arabia Terra, also is characterized by scarps but has under- gone a more complex history of faulting and dissection [13]. In some places, notably in the Acidalia Planitia region, the dichotomy boundary is gradational. In the Tharsis region the boundary is obscured by younger volcanics.

  4. Mars Surface Layers in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 May 2002) Infrared imaging from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows signs of layering exposed at the surface in a region of Mars called Terra Meridiani. The brightness levels show daytime surface temperatures, which range from about minus 20 degrees to zero degrees Celsius (minus 4 degrees to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Many of the temperature variations are due to slope effects, with sun-facing slopes warmer than shaded slopes. However, several rock layers can be seen to have distinctly different temperatures, indicating that physical properties vary from layer to layer. These differences suggest that the environment on this part of Mars varied through time as these layers were formed. The image is a mosaic combining four exposures taken by the thermal emission imaging system aboard Odyssey during the first two months of the Odyssey mapping mission, which began in February 2002. The area shown is about 120 kilometers (75 miles) across, at approximately 358 degrees east (2 degrees west) longitude and 3 degrees north latitude.

  5. Validation of CERES/TERRA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Wieliski, Bruce A.; Smith, G. Louis; Lee, Robert B.; Priestley, Kory J.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Kratz, David P.

    2000-01-01

    There are 2 CERES scanning radiometer instruments aboard the TERRA spacecraft, one for mapping the solar radiation reflected from the Earth and the outgoing longwave radiation and the other for measuring the anisotropy of the radiation. Each CERES instrument has on-board calibration devices, which have demonstrated that from ground to orbit the broadband total and shortwave sensor responses maintained their ties to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 at precisions approaching radiances have been validated in orbit to +/- 0.3 % (0.3 W/sq m sr). Top of atmosphere fluxes are produced by use of the CERES data alone. By including data from other instruments, surface radiation fluxes and radiant fluxes within the atmosphere and at its top, shortwave and longwave, for both up and down components, are derived. Validation of these data products requires ground and aircraft measurements of fluxes and of cloud properties.

  6. Crater Ejecta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-05

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft contains a relatively young crater and its ejecta. Layering in the ejecta is visible and relates to the shock waves from the impact. This unnamed crater is located in Arabia Terra.

  7. Near and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of Bedrock and Sand in Dust-Covered Regions on Mars: Assessing Bedrock Mineralogy Through 'Windows' in the Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J. C.; Horgan, B. H.; Bell, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Bright surface dust masks large regions of Mars from detailed mineralogical and petrological analysis using remote sensing. In order to help address this issue, we assessed a number of orbital data sets to identify and characterize small 'windows' through the dust that may reveal the underlying bedrock. Data sets assessed include the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Dust Cover Index (DCI), Mars Odyssey orbiter Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) thermal imaging, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) color mapping observations. Data from the MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and high-resolution visible-wavelength images from the MRO Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) provided important topographical and morphological context. We have identified and characterized 67 individual windows in four classically bright regions of Mars: Amazonis Planitia, Arabia Terra, Elysium Planitia, and Tharsis Montes. These windows are characterized by having one or more of the following characteristics in contrast with the surrounding terrain: low DCI value, low MARCI and/or TES albedo, and/or high THEMIS night/day temperature contrast. Windows are typically tens of kilometers across but larger ones hundreds of km across have also been found, most notably in Tharsis. The majority of windows are associated with impact craters, most commonly as intracrater splotches or streaks of warm and/or dark material emanating from the crater. Some of these craters contain outcrops and, in some cases, distinct layers of dark material on their walls or central mound, providing opportunities to analyze bedrock. Other types of windows have also been found in smaller numbers, including those located on the flanks and summits of Mars' most prominent volcanoes, in addition to the walls and bases of cliffs tens to hundreds of meters in height. Initial near-IR spectroscopic analysis using our

  8. Mars Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-04

    Colin Dundas, a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, speaks during a briefing, Thursday, Aug. 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Observations from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. Dark, finger-like features appear and extend down some Martian slopes during late spring through summer, fade in winter, and return during the next spring. Repeated observations have tracked the seasonal changes in these recurring features on several steep slopes in the middle latitudes of Mars' southern hemisphere. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. Mars Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-04

    Philip Christensen, a geophysicist at Arizona State University, speaks during a briefing, Thursday, Aug. 4, 2011, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Observations from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. Dark, finger-like features appear and extend down some Martian slopes during late spring through summer, fade in winter, and return during the next spring. Repeated observations have tracked the seasonal changes in these recurring features on several steep slopes in the middle latitudes of Mars' southern hemisphere. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. The United States, Saudi Arabia, and Arms: Prospects for Future Instability in the Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    KShaqraI . Q Medinar #. UI U.A.E. /SS~AUDI ARABIA " Jeda Makkah i /’Layla I EASTERN_ TiMAKH RIYADH I PROVINCE -AI 0 OMAN BAHA , I - SUDANRed Seam ASIR...FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted security classification of this page All other editions are obsolete i UNCLASSIFIED Approved...instability in the region. D~ . . . .c ;aos ,iz i Din TABLE OF CONTENTS I . INTRODUCTION AND THE FORMATION OF THE HOUSE OF SAUD 1 A. BIRTH OF A NATION

  11. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  12. Hydrogeology of Basins on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    This document summarizes the work accomplished under NASA Grant NAG5-3870. Emphasis was put on the development of the FIDO rover, a prototype for the twin-Mers which will be operating on the surface of Mars in 2004, specifically the primary work was the analysis of FIDO field trials. The grantees also analyzed VIKING Lander 1 XRFS and Pathfinder APXS data. Results show that the Viking site chemistry is consistent with an andesite, and the Pathfinder site is consistent with a basaltic andesite. The grantees also worked to demonstrate the capability to simulate annealing methods to apply to the inversion of remote sensing data. They performed an initial analyses of Sojourner engineering telemetry and imaging data. They performed initial analyses of Viking Lander Stereo Images, and of Hematite deposits in Terra Meridiani. They also acquired and analyzed the New Goldstone radar data.

  13. Mars Bowling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  14. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Topographic profiles have been obtained across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is noted within domains between linear discontinuities in directions parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. The results suggest that western Aphrodite Terra is similar to terrestrial oceanic divergent plate boundary environments, and that the cross-strike discontinuities are analogous to oceanic fracture zones rather than strike-slip faults.

  15. TerraSAR-X for CSCDA: Interface Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlar, Selin; Mayhew, Ben; Doeberl, Michael; Langhans, Daniel; Arndt, Wolf-Christian; Bach, Katja

    2016-08-01

    The TerraSAR-X mission has been contributing to Copernicus Space Component Data Access (CSCDA) Data Warehouse (DWH) project since 2009. For this purpose, the mission has established specific interfaces to the ESA Coordinated Data Access System (CDS).This paper gives a background about the past activities performed by TerraSAR-X Copernicus Contributing Mission (TerraSAR-X CCM), provides a detailed overview of ongoing activities, and discusses lessons learnt as well as future opportunities in terms of Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) interfaces.

  16. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  17. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  18. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  19. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 4 discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves...appropriated by the bill for assistance to Saudi Arabia , subject to national security waiver authority granted to the Secretary of State. This...21 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 22 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  20. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-16

    forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations...20 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 21 Saudi Arabian National Guard... Saudi Arabia , FY2002-FY2009 ....................................................... 15 Table 3. U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports

  1. Meet EPA Environmental Engineer Terra Haxton, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Environmental Engineer Terra Haxton, Ph.D., uses computer simulation models to protect drinking water. She investigates approaches to help water utilities be better prepared to respond to contamination incidents in their distribution systems.

  2. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Completion and Submission of the Terra Sirenum Map Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S.; Schroeder, J.

    2016-06-01

    We have completed and plan to submit a detailed 1:5,000,000-scale geologic map of the Terra Sirenum region, which includes mapping stratigraphic units and identifying tectonic, erosional, depositional, and impact structures.

  5. Epilepsy services in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alfayez, Saud M.; Aljafen, Bandar N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the epilepsy services and identify the challenges in hospitals without epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). In addition, comparisons between governmental and private sectors, as well as between regions, are to be performed. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted using an online questionnaire distributed to the secondary and tertiary hospitals without EMUs throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2015 and regular updates from all respondents were constantly made. Items in the questionnaire included the region of the institution, the number of pediatric and adult neurologists and neurosurgeons along with their subspecialties, the number of beds in the Neurology Department, whether they provide educational services and have epilepsy clinics and if they refer patients to an EMU or intend to establish one in the future. Results: Forty-three institutions throughout the Kingdom responded, representing a response rate of 54%. The majority of hospitals (58.1%) had no adult epileptologists. A complete lack of pediatric epileptologists was observed in 72.1% of hospitals. Around 39.5% were utilizing beds from internal medicine. Hospitals with an epilepsy clinic represented 34.9% across all regions and sectors. Hospitals with no intention of establishing an EMU represented 53.5%. Hospitals that did not refer their epileptic patients to an EMU represented 30.2%. Conclusions: Epilepsy services in KSA hospitals without EMUs are underdeveloped. PMID:27744461

  6. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-19

    This view is an enlargement of an image of NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA Mars Global Surveyor while the two spacecraft were about 90 kilometers 56 miles apart.

  7. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D

    1994-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Functional characterization of the TERRA transcriptome at damaged telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Delafontaine, Julien; Riethman, Harold; Rougemont, Jacques; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Telomere deprotection occurs during tumorigenesis and aging upon telomere shortening or loss of the telomeric shelterin component TRF2. Deprotected telomeres undergo changes in chromatin structure and elicit a DNA damage response (DDR) that leads to cellular senescence. The telomeric long noncoding RNA TERRA has been implicated in modulating the structure and processing of deprotected telomeres. Here, we characterize the human TERRA transcriptome at normal and TRF2-depleted telomeres and demonstrate that TERRA upregulation is occurring upon depletion of TRF2 at all transcribed telomeres. TRF2 represses TERRA transcription through its homodimerization domain, which was previously shown to induce chromatin compaction and to prevent the early steps of DDR activation. We show that TERRA associates with SUV39H1 H3K9 histone methyltransferase, which promotes accumulation of H3K9me3 at damaged telomeres and end-to-end fusions. Altogether our data elucidate the TERRA landscape and defines critical roles for this RNA in the telomeric DNA damage response. PMID:25359189

  9. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Kuyper, James; Salomonson, Vicent; Barmes. William

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two nearly identical MODIS instruments are operating in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths covering from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Since launch, MODIS observations and data products have contributed significantly to studies of changes in the Earth system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. To maintain its on-orbit calibration and data product quality, MODIS was built with a comprehensive set of on-board calibrators, consisting of a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and an on-board blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). Both instruments have demonstrated good performance. The primary Level 1 B (LIB) data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for RSB and radiance for TEB This paper provides an overview of MODIS calibration methodologies, activities, lifetime on-orbit performance and challenging issues for each MODIS, the impact on LIB product quality, and lessons learned for future sensors such as the NPOESS VIIRS.

  10. Case study of climatic changes in Martian fluvial systems at Xanthe Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Akos

    2014-06-01

    An unnamed valley system was analyzed in Xanthe Terra south of Havel Vallis on Mars where three separate episodes of fluvial activity could be identified with different morphology, water source and erosional processes, inferring formation under different climatic conditions. The oldest scattered valleys (1. group) form interconnecting network and suggest areally distributed water source. Later two valley types formed from confined water source partly supported by possible subsurface water. The smaller upper reaches (2. group) with three separate segments and also a similar aged but areal washed terrain suggest contribution from shallow subsurface inflow. These valleys fed the main channel (3. group), which morphology (wide, theater shaped source, few tributaries, steep walls) is the most compatible with the subsurface sapping origin. While the first valley group formed in the Noachian, the other two, more confined groups are younger. Their crater density based age value is uncertain, and could be only 1200 million years. After these three fluvial episodes etch pitted, heavily eroded terrain formed possibly by ice sublimation driven collapse. More recently (60-200 million years ago) dunes covered the bottom of the valleys, and finally the youngest event took place when mass movements produced debris covered the valleys' slopes with sediments along their wall around 5-15 million years ago, suggesting wind activity finished earlier than the mass movements in the region. This small area represents the sequence of events probably appeared on global scale: the general cooling and drying environment of Mars. Comparing the longitudinal profiles here to other valleys in Xanthe Terra, convex shaped valley profiles are usually connected to steep terrains. The location of erosional base might play an important role in their formation that can be produced convex shapes where the erosional base descended topographically (by deep impact crater or deep outflow channel formation

  11. Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These maps are global false-color topographic views of Mars at different orientations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The maps are orthographic projections that contain over 200,000,000 points and about 5,000,000 altimetric crossovers. The spatial resolution is about 15 kilometers at the equator and less at higher latitudes. The vertical accuracy is less than 5 meters. The right hand image view features the Hellas impact basin (in purple, with red annulus of high standing material). The left hand features the Tharsis topographic rise (in red and white). Note also the subtle textures associated with resurfacing of the northern hemisphere lowlands in the vicinity of the Utopia impact basin. These data were compiled by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Team led by David Smith at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

  12. Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    VIKING PROJECT -- In 1976, NASA will land two automated scientific laboratories on the planet Mars. This pioneering effort to explore in detail the surface of another primary planet in our solar system will be identified by a name that exemplifies the spirit of historic exploration. To accomplish this goal, two spacecraft will be launched from the Kennedy Space Center within a month of another in mid-1975. These spacecraft, each including a lander and an orbiter, will hurtle nearly 460 million miles around the Sun before reaching the red planet. The descent will occur when Mars is about 225 million miles from Earth and nearly on the other side of the Sun. This requires a completely automated de-orbit and landing operation because, at that distance, two-way communication between Mars and Earth takes nearly 45 minutes. Surface science will then commence with principal scientific interest invested in biology, geology and meteorology.

  13. Cracky Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cracked, layered plains-forming material in the western part of Utopia Planitia, Mars. Investigators have speculated that ice might be -- or might once have been -- present in the ground, and changes in temperature and the amount of ice over time may have led to the formation of these cracks. But no one is certain just how these features formed.

    Location near: 45.0oN, 276.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  14. Automated classification of landforms on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bue, B. D.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2006-06-01

    We propose a numerical method for classification and characterization of landforms on Mars. The method provides an alternative to manual geomorphic mapping of the Martian surface. Digital elevation data is used to calculate several topographic attributes for each pixel in a landscape. Unsupervised classification, based on the self-organizing map technique, divides all pixels into mutually exclusive and exhaustive landform classes on the basis of similarity between attribute vectors. The results are displayed as a thematic map of landforms and statistics of attributes are used to assign semantic meaning to the classes. This method is used to produce a geomorphic map of the Terra Cimmeria region on Mars. We assess the quality of the automated classification and discuss differences between results of automated and manual mappings. Potential applications of our method, including crater counting, landscape feature search, and large scale quantitative comparisons of Martian surface morphology, are identified and evaluated.

  15. Terrestrial Radar Observations of Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, was launched on June 10, 2003, and is scheduled to land on the floor of Gusev Crater in January 2004. The close opposition of Mars in the summer of 2003 provided a final opportunity to observe the Gusev Crater landing site using Earth-based radar telescopes prior to the Rover's arrival. Similar observations of the Terra Meridiani site in 2001 demonstrated the capabilities of delay-Doppler radar interferometry in mapping the radar properties of planetary surfaces. The 2003 observation suite includes data from four nights in which the observation's sub-radar track was within five degrees of latitude of the planned landing site. High resolution, approximately five kilometers per pixel, radar imaging of the landing site indicates a site that will be of low risk to the rover and provides testable predictions of the local surface roughness that the rover will encounter.

  16. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  17. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  18. Mars 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-402, 25 June 2003

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment consists of 3 different cameras: a narrow angle imager that provides the black-and-white high resolution views (up to 1.4 meters per pixel) of Mars, and 2 wide angle cameras, observing in red and blue wavelengths, from which color views of the entire planet are assembled each day. The wide angle cameras provide a daily record of changes in martian weather and surface frost as the seasons progress. MGS MOC has obtained a record of martian weather spanning a little over 2 martian years since it began systematic observations in March 1999.

    The view of Mars shown here was assembled from MOC daily global images obtained on May 12, 2003. At that time, the northern hemisphere was in early autumn, and the southern hemisphere in early spring. At the left/center of this view are the four large Tharsis volcanoes: Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons. Stretching across the center of the globe is the 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) long Valles Marineris trough system. The seasonal south polar carbon dioxide frost cap is visible at the bottom of this view. A dust storm sweeps across the plains of northern Acidalia at the upper right. North is up, east is right, sunlight illuminates the planet from the left.

  19. Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Carr, M H; Garvin, J

    2001-07-12

    An international flotilla of spacecraft are to be sent to Mars over the next decade in an effort to understand the planet's geology and climate history, and to determine whether some form of life ever started there. At least two spacecraft will be sent at each launch opportunity, and at times up to four spacecraft may be operating simultaneously at the planet.

  20. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

  1. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs…

  2. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  3. Research and Scientific Publishing in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Manzurul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses current trends in scientific research and the publication of research results in Saudi Arabia. Areas discussed include fields of research; marketing of scholarly publications; publication of books, scholarly journals, conference papers, monographs, and research reports; local and foreign publishers serving researchers; leading Saudi…

  4. Information Policies in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains…

  5. Innovations in Industrial Training for Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    1980-01-01

    To develop a more diversified economic base in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs implemented the Development Plan for the Vocational Training and Manpower Division, which intends to train a large number of Saudis in employable trades. Methods include building modern training facilities, developing competency based learning…

  6. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  7. Gulfnet in Saudi Arabia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khulaifi, M.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Gulfnet Academic network, set in the context of development in Saudi Arabia and the establishment of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Goals and objectives of KACST are presented, Gulfnet members in the Gulf States are listed, and Gulfnet management, services, and facilities are discussed. (JKP)

  8. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  9. English Language Teaching Profile: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Saudi Arabia are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) English outside the education system; (4) materials support; (5) British support for the teaching of English; and (6) English syllabi at intermediate, secondary, and higher education levels.…

  10. Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwehdi, M. H.

    2005-09-01

    A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency

  11. Effect of MODIS Terra radiometric calibration improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue aerosol products: Validation and Terra/Aqua consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by ˜0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and ˜0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by ˜10% and ˜5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  12. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  13. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset <0.01. The analysis demonstrates both the efficacy of the new radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  14. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  15. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  16. Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

  17. Discovering Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge of Mars is the result of investigations conducted by a fleet of spacecraft starting with the Mariners in the mid-1960's. The 1971 Mariner 9 mission which looked at the entire planet instead of just the southern hemisphere, as was the case with the earlier missions, reveals huge volcanic mountains and discloses surface erosion and dried riverbeds. This pamphlet gives a chronology of the United States and Russian spacecraft that have examined Mars along with a short description of each mission. Photos of the Martian surface are included along with descriptions of the topography of the planet. The reverse side of the pamphlet contains a large photo of the Martian surface which clearly depicts the Vallis Marineris, a gigantic rift valley extending a distance equivalent to that from New York to Los Angeles.

  18. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  19. Thermal Performance of Capillary Pumped Loops Onboard Terra Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Butler, Charles D.; Swanson, Theodore; Thies, Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft is the flagship of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. It provides global data on the state of atmosphere, land and oceans, as well as their interactions with solar radiation and one another. Three Terra instruments utilize Capillary Pumped Heat Transport System (CPHTS) for temperature control: Each CPHTS, consisting of two capillary pumped loops (CPLs) and several heat pipes and electrical heaters, is designed for instrument heat loads ranging from 25W to 264W. The working fluid is ammonia. Since the launch of the Terra spacecraft, each CPHTS has been providing a stable interface temperature specified by the instrument under all modes of spacecraft and instrument operations. The ability to change the CPHTS operating temperature upon demand while in service has also extended the useful life of one instrument. This paper describes the design and on-orbit performance of the CPHTS thermal systems.

  20. Acidic Conditions During Open System Weathering on Late Noachian/Early Hesperian Mars? Newly Identified Outcrops of Alunite and Jarosite from Orbital CRISM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, Bethany; Dundar, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Sequences of Al-phyllosilicates atop Fe,Mg-phylloslicates occur in multiple regions of Mars, including Mawrth Vallis/northern Arabia Terra, Nili Fossae/Northeast Syrtis Major, Terra Sirenum/Eridania basin, northern Hellas, and portions of Valles Marineris. The sequences are exposed beneath unaltered capping materials with Early Hesperian surface ages, thus implying phyllosilicate formation occurred earlier. Because of the presence of clay minerals, the sequences are certainly a product of water interactions with rocks and sediments, but key questions remain about the environmental conditions implied. Are Al-phyllosilicates simply a result of alteration of a silicic precursor? Or do they represent the end product of substantial open system leaching of a basaltic protolith? Was open system leaching substantial because of high water throughput, long cumulative duration, acidity, or some combination? Each scenario leads to Al-phyllosilicate formation but with different accompanying mineral phases in response to pH, Eh, and chemical species concentrations in the fluids. Key to further progress in constraining the environmental conditions of alteration is more sophisticated spectral analyses to identify intermixed phases and isolate rare spectral classes within the Al phyllosilicate units.Here, we employ a newly developed, non-parametric Bayesian algorithm [1] for semi-automatic identification of rare spectral classes. We employ this algorithm on 139 CRISM images in areas with reported regional-scale occurrences of Al-phyllosilicates that were compiled from the literature [e.g. 2, 3]. Dozens of detections of the minerals alunite and jarosite were made with the algorithm and then verified by manual analysis. These sulfate hydroxides form only at low pHs, and thus their presence tightly constrains water chemistry. Crucial for understanding whether the alunite and jarosite deposits are contemporaneous with the Al phyllosilicates or later overprinting deposits is study of

  1. Dynamic Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-30

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows a channel system flowing to the southwest toward the huge Hellas impact basin. Click on the image for larger version The scarp at the edge of the North Polar layered deposits of Mars is the site of the most frequent frost avalanches seen by HiRISE. At this season, northern spring, frost avalanches are common and HiRISE monitors the scarp to learn more about the timing and frequency of the avalanches, and their relationship to the evolution of frost on the flat ground above and below the scarp. This picture managed to capture a small avalanche in progress, right in the color strip. See if you can spot it in the browse image, and then click on the cutout to see it at full resolution. The small white cloud in front of the brick red cliff is likely carbon dioxide frost dislodged from the layers above, caught in the act of cascading down the cliff. It is larger than it looks, more than 20 meters across, and (based on previous examples) it will likely kick up clouds of dust when it hits the ground. The avalanches tend to take place at a season when the North Polar region is warming, suggesting that the avalanches may be triggered by thermal expansion. The avalanches remind us, along with active sand dunes, dust devils, slope streaks and recurring slope lineae, that Mars is an active and dynamic planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19961

  2. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Volcanology and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the session, "Mars Volcanology and Tectonics" include:Martian Shield Volcanoes; Estimating the Rheology of Basaltic Lava Flows; A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow; Deflections in Lava Flow Directions Relative to Topography in the Tharsis Region: Indicators of Post-Flow Tectonic Motion; Fractal Variation with Changing Line Length: A Potential Problem for Planetary Lava Flow Identification; Burfellshraun:A Terrestrial Analogue to Recent Volcanism on Mars; Lava Domes of the Arcadia Region of Mars; Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints; Vent Geology of Low-Shield Volcanoes from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: Lessons for Mars and the Moon; Field and Geochemical Study of Table Legs Butte and Quaking Aspen Butte, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: An Analog to the Morphology of Small Shield Volcanoes on Mars; Variability in Morphology and Thermophysical Properties of Pitted Cones in Acidalia Planitia and Cydonia Mensae; A Volcano Composed of Light-colored Layered Deposits on the Floor of Valles Marineris; Analysis of Alba Patera Flows: A Comparison of Similarities and Differences Geomorphologic Studies of a Very Long Lava Flow in Tharsis, Mars; Radar Backscatter Characteristics of Basaltic Flow Fields: Results for Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii;and Preliminary Lava Tube-fed Flow Abundance Mapping on Olympus Mons.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Volcanology and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the session, "Mars Volcanology and Tectonics" include:Martian Shield Volcanoes; Estimating the Rheology of Basaltic Lava Flows; A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow; Deflections in Lava Flow Directions Relative to Topography in the Tharsis Region: Indicators of Post-Flow Tectonic Motion; Fractal Variation with Changing Line Length: A Potential Problem for Planetary Lava Flow Identification; Burfellshraun:A Terrestrial Analogue to Recent Volcanism on Mars; Lava Domes of the Arcadia Region of Mars; Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints; Vent Geology of Low-Shield Volcanoes from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: Lessons for Mars and the Moon; Field and Geochemical Study of Table Legs Butte and Quaking Aspen Butte, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: An Analog to the Morphology of Small Shield Volcanoes on Mars; Variability in Morphology and Thermophysical Properties of Pitted Cones in Acidalia Planitia and Cydonia Mensae; A Volcano Composed of Light-colored Layered Deposits on the Floor of Valles Marineris; Analysis of Alba Patera Flows: A Comparison of Similarities and Differences Geomorphologic Studies of a Very Long Lava Flow in Tharsis, Mars; Radar Backscatter Characteristics of Basaltic Flow Fields: Results for Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii;and Preliminary Lava Tube-fed Flow Abundance Mapping on Olympus Mons.

  5. Sol-Terra - AN Operational Space Weather Forecasting Model Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Lawrence, G.; Pidgeon, A.; Reid, S.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bogdanova, Y.; Byrne, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Jackson, D.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    The SOL-TERRA project is a collaboration between RHEA Tech, the Met Office, and RAL Space funded by the UK Space Agency. The goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to produce a Roadmap for a future coupled Sun-to-Earth operational space weather forecasting system covering domains from the Sun down to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere and neutral atmosphere. The first stage of SOL-TERRA is underway and involves reviewing current models that could potentially contribute to such a system. Within a given domain, the various space weather models will be assessed how they could contribute to such a coupled system. This will be done both by reviewing peer reviewed papers, and via direct input from the model developers to provide further insight. Once the models have been reviewed then the optimal set of models for use in support of forecast-based SWE modelling will be selected, and a Roadmap for the implementation of an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework will be prepared. The Roadmap will address the current modelling capability, knowledge gaps and further work required, and also the implementation and maintenance of the overall architecture and environment that the models will operate within. The SOL-TERRA project will engage with external stakeholders in order to ensure independently that the project remains on track to meet its original objectives. A group of key external stakeholders have been invited to provide their domain-specific expertise in reviewing the SOL-TERRA project at critical stages of Roadmap preparation; namely at the Mid-Term Review, and prior to submission of the Final Report. This stakeholder input will ensure that the SOL-TERRA Roadmap will be enhanced directly through the input of modellers and end-users. The overall goal of the SOL-TERRA project is to develop a Roadmap for an operational forecast-based SWE modelling framework with can be implemented within a larger subsequent activity. The SOL-TERRA project is supported within

  6. MARS15

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai

    2016-07-15

    MARS is a Monte Carlo code for inclusive and exclusive simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon, heavy-ion and low-energy neutron transport in accelerator, detector, spacecraft and shielding components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV. Recent developments in the MARS15 physical models of hadron, heavy-ion and lepton interactions with nuclei and atoms include a new nuclear cross section library, a model for soft pion production, the cascade-exciton model, the quark gluon string models, deuteron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus interaction models, detailed description of negative hadron and muon absorption and a unified treatment of muon, charged hadron and heavy-ion electromagnetic interactions with matter. New algorithms are implemented into the code and thoroughly benchmarked against experimental data. The code capabilities to simulate cascades and generate a variety of results in complex media have been also enhanced. Other changes in the current version concern the improved photo- and electro-production of hadrons and muons, improved algorithms for the 3-body decays, particle tracking in magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation by electrons and muons, significantly extended histograming capabilities and material description, and improved computational performance. In addition to direct energy deposition calculations, a new set of fluence-to-dose conversion factors for all particles including neutrino are built into the code. The code includes new modules for calculation of Displacement-per-Atom and nuclide inventory. The powerful ROOT geometry and visualization model implemented in MARS15 provides a large set of geometrical elements with a possibility of producing composite shapes and assemblies and their 3D visualization along with a possible import/export of geometry descriptions created by other codes (via the GDML format) and CAD systems (via the STEP format). The built-in MARS-MAD Beamline

  7. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations...of the Iraqi need for maximum production at high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion... Saudi Arabia in Brief Population (2009): 28,686,633 (includes 5,576,076 non- nationals ) Growth rate: 1.85% Area: 1,960,582 sq.km. (756,985

  8. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional...production at high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, USIP...U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 20 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  9. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves in eastern Saudi Arabia and subsequent private and public... national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, USIP, Special Report No. 157, January 2006, p...20 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) . . . . . . . . 21 Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization Program (PM

  10. Search for Chemically Bound Water in the Surface Layer of Mars Based on HEND/Mars Odyssey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    This study is emphasized on search for signatures of chemically bound water in surface layer of Mars based on data acquired by High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) which is part of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). Fluxes of epithermal (probe the upper 1-2 m) and fast (the upper 20-30 cm) neutrons, considered in this work, were measured since mid February till mid June 2002. First analysis of this data set with emphasis of chemically bound water was made. Early publications of the GRS results reported low neutron flux at high latitudes, interpreted as signature of ground water ice, and in two low latitude areas: Arabia and SW of Olympus Mons (SWOM), interpreted as 'geographic variations in the amount of chemically and/or physically bound H2O and or OH...'. It is clear that surface materials of Mars do contain chemically bound water, but its amounts are poorly known and its geographic distribution was not analyzed.

  11. NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite ... August 27, 2013 - NASA's Terra Spacecraft Eyes Smoke Plumes from Massive Rim Fire Near Yosemite project:  ...

  12. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  13. Tumors of the eye in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A; Cavender, J C

    1991-11-01

    The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.

  14. The Horn of Africa and Arabia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-17

    Issaq diaspora , particularly those in Saudi Arabia and Somali Union Congress, and Somali Democratic Alliance. Field the Gulf area. notes, July 1989...American University, 1981. Continuing Crisis. New York: Africana Publish- ing, 1979. Nelson, Harold D., ed. Somalia: A Country Study. Washington, DC: The...on Stability. Sudan. New York: Africana Publishing, 1981. 86 Wenner, Manfred. Modern Yemen, 1918-1966. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968. Woods

  15. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  16. Mars @ ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  17. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  18. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Phages Benczkowski14 and Katyusha

    PubMed Central

    Benczkowski, Matthew S.; Green, Daryn E.; Hwang, Melina; Kennedy, Bryan; Kocak, Bradley; Kruczek, Ellen; Lin, Leon; Moretti, Matthew L.; Onelangsy, Faith L.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Toner, Chelsea L.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Katyusha and Benczkowski14 are newly isolated phages that infect Gordonia terrae 3612. Both have siphoviral morphologies with isometric heads and long tails (500 nm). The genomes are 75,380 bp long and closely related, and the tape measure genes (9 kbp) are among the largest to be identified. PMID:27340062

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  20. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  1. ES8 Terra-FM2 Ed3

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-12

    ... Search and Order:  Earthdata Search   Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Related Data:  ... for Terra and Aqua; Edition2 for TRMM) are approved for science publications. SCAR-B Block:  ...

  2. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  3. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TERRA-KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of PCBs in soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions that have made it difficult to implement a cost-e...

  4. Assessing Terra Disposal Orbit Candidates from an Orbital Debris Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Andrew J.; Thompson, Roger C.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Terra satellite is reaching the end of its mission life. Because the satellite resides in the 705 km Earth Science Constellation, disposal strategies need to be considered to remove it from this densely populated operational orbit. Of critical importance was the need to examine the future potential risk to other satellite residents of the 705 km constellation due to an unexpected breakup event of the Terra satellite post-disposal. This study quantifies the comparative risk of debris impacts associated with the two leading candidate disposal orbits (701 km vs. 686 km) and characterizes the suitability of each orbit for the purpose of long-term spacecraft disposal. The increase in collision risk to any member of the 705 km Earth Science Constellation is very modest. The long-term, average, total risk (including the ambient background risk) due to a Terra breakup at a disposal of -19 km (i.e., 686 km) relative to the 705 km constellation is 9.7 × 10(exp -6) impacts/day versus 1.0 × 10(exp -5) impacts/day for a disposal of only -4 km (i.e., 701 km). For perspective, note that the nominal space background risk to the 705 km constellation is 9.2 × 10(exp -6) impacts/day which implies a very modest increase in risk (approximately 3% difference between the two cases) due to a Terra breakup in either disposal orbit.

  5. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  6. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  7. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  8. The Western Noachis Terra Chloride Deposits: An Improved Characterization of the Proposed Human Exploration Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. R.; Plaut, J. J.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    At the First Landing Site and Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars (Oct 27-30, 2015, Houston, TX), planetary scientists, students and members of the public proposed forty-seven sites that meet the engineering requirements for a human mission and would also allow astronauts to investigate important scientific questions while on the surface. The chloride deposits in western Noachis Terra at -37.2°N, 350.5°E were proposed as a potential exploration zone due to their proximity to craters containing glacier-like forms and imperfectly-formed concentric crater fill. The high astrobiological preservation potential of the chloride deposits exposed on the surface would allow astronauts to investigate the past habitability of a well-preserved Noachian fluvial system, while the subsurface ice features suggest astronauts would have relatively easy access to enough water to meet the requirements of NASA's current baseline mission architecture. Since the workshop, the proposed exploration zone has been further characterized using additional datasets, as well as new data collected by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as part of the exploration zone data acquisition effort organized by NASA's Human Landing Sites Study (HLS2) team. First, SHARAD radar data were used to constrain the subsurface structure of the imperfectly-formed concentric crater fill within the two large craters, which makes a more accurate assessment of the potential subsurface water ice resources possible. Second, newly acquired HiRISE images were used to better assess the traversability of the terrain between the habitation zone and the primary resource and science regions-of-interest (ROIs). And third, the exploration zone was shifted in order to place the central landing site closer to potential subsurface water ice resources. Although this would require crews to travel further to investigate the chloride deposits, it reduces the distance between the subsurface water ice

  9. Remnants of Lost Geology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-07

    In this NASA Mars Odyssey image of eastern Arabia Terra, remnants of a once vast layered terrain are evident as isolated buttes, mesas, and deeply-filled craters. The origin of the presumed sediments that created the layers is unknown, but those same sediments, now eroded, may be the source of the thick mantle of dust that covers much of Arabia Terra today. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04400

  10. Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1985-06-01

    Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from

  11. Extra-terra incognita: Martian maps in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Messeri, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Science and technology studies (STS) and critical cartography are both asking questions about the ontological fixity of maps and other scientific objects. This paper examines how a group of NASA computer scientists who call themselves The Mapmakers conceptualizes and creates maps in service of different commitments. The maps under construction are those of alien Mars, produced through partnerships that NASA has established with Google and Microsoft. With the goal of bringing an experience of Mars to as many people as possible, these maps influence how we imagine our neighbouring planet. This paper analyzes two attributes of the map, evident in both its representation and the attending cartographic practices: a sense of Mars as dynamic and a desire for a democratic experience of Mars in which up-to-date Mars data can be intuitively accessed not only by scientists but by lay users as well. Whereas a democratic Mars promises users the ability to decide how to interact with the map and understand Mars, dynamic Mars imposes a more singular sense of Mars as a target of continued robotic and maybe even human exploration. Because maps of Mars have a different (and arguably less complex) set of social and political commitments than those of Earth, they help us see how different goals contradict and complement each other in matters of exploration and state-craft relevant both to other worlds and our own.

  12. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

  13. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

  14. Mars exploration advances: Missions to Mars - Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, Fred R.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of Mars missions and related planning with attention given to four mission architectures in the light of significant limitations. Planned unpiloted missions are discussed including the Mars Orbital Mapping Mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return, the Mars Aeronomy Orbiter, and the Mars Environmental Survey. General features relevant to the missions are mentioned including launch opportunities, manned-mission phases, and propulsion options. The four mission architectures are set forth and are made up of: (1) the Mars-exploration infrastructures; (2) science emphasis for the moon and Mars; (3) the moon to stay and Mars exploration; and (4) space resource utilization. The possibility of robotic missions to the moon and Mars is touched upon and are concluded to be possible by the end of the century. The ramifications of a Mars base are discussed with specific reference to habitability and base activities, and the human missions are shown to require a heavy-lift launcher and either chemical/aerobrake or nuclear-thermal propulsion system.

  15. Geologic Map of MTM 35337, 40337, and 45337 Quadrangles, Deuteronilus Mensae Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Frank C.; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Deuteronilus Mensae, first defined as an albedo feature at lat 35.0 deg N., long 5.0 deg E., by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and International Astronomical Union (IAU) nomenclature, is a gradational zone along the dichotomy boundary in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. The boundary in this location includes the transition from the rugged cratered highlands of Arabia Terra to the northern lowland plains of Acidalia Planitia. Within Deuteronilus Mensae, polygonal mesas are prominent along with features diagnostic of Martian fretted terrain, including lobate debris aprons, lineated valley fill, and concentric crater fill. Lobate debris aprons, as well as the valley and crater fill deposits, are geomorphic indicators of ground ice, and their concentration in Deuteronilus Mensae is of great interest because of their potential association with Martian climate change. The paucity of impact craters on the surfaces of debris aprons and the presence of ice-cemented mantle material imply young (for example, Amazonian) surface ages that are consistent with recent climate change in this region of Mars. North of Deuteronilus Mensae are the northern lowlands, a potential depositional sink that may have had large standing bodies of water or an ocean in the past. The northern lowlands have elevations that are several kilometers below the ancient cratered highlands with significantly younger surface ages. The morphologic and topographic characteristics of the Deuteronilus Mensae region record a diverse geologic history, including significant modification of the ancient highland plateau and resurfacing of low-lying regions. Previous studies of this region have interpreted a complex array of geologic processes, including eolian, fluvial and glacial activity, coastal erosion, marine deposition, mass wasting, tectonic faulting, effusive volcanism, and hydrovolcanism. The origin and age of the Martian crustal dichotomy boundary are fundamental questions that remain unresolved at the

  16. Mapping Craters Depths in Terra Cimmeria, Mars: Implications for Spatial Distribution of Ground Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Urbach, E. R.

    2007-07-01

    Spatial distribution of ground ice is derived from maps of depth/diameter ratio obtained using 7845 craters in the T. Cimmeria region. The result supports models predictions, and indicates spatial variability of depth to ice in the equatorial zone.

  17. Characterization of Laterally Contiguous Phyllosilicate Deposits in West Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelos, K. D.; Maxwell, R. E.; Seelos, F. P.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Weitz, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    The widespread occurrence and characteristics associated with surface or near-surface Fe/Mg smectite deposits suggests a regional emplacement and/or alteration process active in the Noachian, consistent with other regional layered phyllosilicates.

  18. Geologic analysis of knob fields and sedimentary deposits in Ariadnes Colles, Terra Sirenum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, A.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Adeli, S.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Ariadnes Colles is a basin located in the southern highlands (173° E; 35° S) which displays varied geological features such as knob fields, water-related materials, and other landforms suggesting that Ariadnes may have hosted a lake during the Noachian Epoch. Here we present the preliminary results of a geomorphological, stratigraphical and mineralogical analysis of the region, which will provide better constraints on its geological history.

  19. Facies development of the Middle Miocene reefal limestone in northwest Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-kahtani, Khaled

    2017-04-01

    The Middle Miocene reefal limestone of Wadi Waqb Member (Jabal Kibrit Formation) in northwest Saudi Arabia is unconformably overlaying the Precambrian basement rocks and/or Early Miocene siliciclastics. On the basis of field observations, microfacies analyses and fossil content, particularly scleractinian corals, it composed of three depositional facies. These depositional facies are from base to top: 1) fore-reef facies, consists of hard, massive, marly coralline limestone with low diverse, small isolated corals heads, 2) reef-core facies, which consists of very hard, bioturbated coralline limestone with exclusively huge coral colonies of Porites and Tarbellastraea sp. and, 3) back reef facies, consists of sandy to pebbly massive, bioturbated limestone with very low diverse, scattered, small dendroid and massive heads of corals. The studied reefal limestone was deposited in fore-reef framework in an open marine environment with moderate to high energy conditions and changed upward to shallow marine facies with accumulation of skeletal grains by storms during regression. Key words: Facies development, Middle Miocene, Jabal Kibrit Formation, reefal limestone, Saudi Arabia.

  20. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  1. TERRA Promotes Telomere Shortening through Exonuclease 1–Mediated Resection of Chromosome Ends

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Lingner, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The long noncoding telomeric repeat containing RNA (TERRA) is expressed at chromosome ends. TERRA upregulation upon experimental manipulation or in ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) patients correlates with short telomeres. To study the mechanism of telomere length control by TERRA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped the transcriptional start site of TERRA at telomere 1L and inserted a doxycycline regulatable promoter upstream. Induction of TERRA transcription led to telomere shortening of 1L but not of other chromosome ends. TERRA interacts with the Exo1-inhibiting Ku70/80 complex, and deletion of EXO1 but not MRE11 fully suppressed the TERRA–mediated short telomere phenotype in presence and absence of telomerase. Thus TERRA transcription facilitates the 5′-3′ nuclease activity of Exo1 at chromosome ends, providing a means to regulate the telomere shortening rate. Thereby, telomere transcription can regulate cellular lifespan through modulation of chromosome end processing activities. PMID:22719262

  2. Spatiotemporal analysis with a genetically encoded fluorescent RNA probe reveals TERRA function around telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Toshimichi; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Shimada, Rintaro; Hattori, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Masatoshi; Fujiwara, Takahiro K.; Kusumi, Akihiro; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2016-01-01

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) controls the structure and length of telomeres through interactions with numerous telomere-binding proteins. However, little is known about the mechanism by which TERRA regulates the accessibility of the proteins to telomeres, mainly because of the lack of spatiotemporal information of TERRA and its-interacting proteins. We developed a fluorescent probe to visualize endogenous TERRA to investigate its dynamics in living cells. Single-particle fluorescence imaging revealed that TERRA accumulated in a telomere-neighboring region and trapped diffusive heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), thereby inhibiting hnRNPA1 localization to the telomere. These results suggest that TERRA regulates binding of hnRNPA1 to the telomere in a region surrounding the telomere, leading to a deeper understanding of the mechanism of TERRA function. PMID:27958374

  3. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  4. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M

    2015-05-01

    To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage.

  5. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Conclusion: Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage. PMID:25935177

  6. MarsSat: assured communication with Mars.

    PubMed

    Gangale, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The author developed the MarsSat concept during the 1990s. For this task, he designed a class of orbits to solve the problem of communicating with crews on Mars when the planet is in solar conjunction as seen from Earth, a planetary configuration that occurs near the midpoint of a conjunction class mission to Mars. This type of orbit minimizes the distance between Mars and the communications satellite; thus, minimizing the size, weight, and power requirements, while providing a simultaneous line-of-sight to both Earth and Mars. The MarsSat orbits are solar orbits that have the same period as Mars, but are inclined a few degrees out of the plane of the Mars orbit and also differ in eccentricity from the orbit of Mars. These differences cause a spacecraft in this orbit to rise North of Mars, then fall behind Mars, then drop South of Mars, and then pull ahead of Mars, by some desired distance in each case-typically about 20 million kilometers-in order to maintain an angular separation of a couple of degrees as seen from a point in the orbit of Earth on the opposite side of the Sun. A satellite in this type of orbit would relay communications between Earth and Mars during the period of up to several weeks, when direct communication is blocked by the Sun. These orbits are far superior for this purpose when compared to stationing a satellite at one of the Sun-Mars equilateral Lagrangian points, L(4) or L(5), for two reasons. First, L(4) and L(5) are 228 million kilometers from Mars, about 10 times the distance of a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits, and by virtue of the inverse-square law, all other things being equal, the signal strength received at L(4) or L(5) would be one percent of the signal strength received by a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits. Thus, a relay satellite stationed at L(4) or L(5) would have to be that much more powerful to receive data at the same rate, with concomitant increases in spacecraft size and weight. Second, a number of

  7. Well-Preserved Impact Ejecta and Impact Melt-Rich Deposits in Terra Sabaea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-12

    This image of a well-preserved unnamed elliptical crater in Terra Sabaea, is illustrative of the complexity of ejecta deposits forming as a by-product of the impact process that shapes much of the surface of Mars. Here we see a portion of the western ejecta deposits emanating from a 10-kilometer impact crater that occurs within the wall of a larger, 60-kilometer-wide crater. In the central part is a lobe-shaped portion of the ejecta blanket from the smaller crater. The crater is elliptical not because of an angled (oblique) impact, but because it occurred on the steep slopes of the wall of a larger crater. This caused it to be truncated along the slope and elongated perpendicular to the slope. As a result, any impact melt from the smaller crater would have preferentially deposited down slope and towards the floor of the larger crater (towards the west). Within this deposit, we can see fine-scale morphological features in the form of a dense network of small ridges and pits. These crater-related pitted materials are consistent with volatile-rich impact melt-bearing deposits seen in some of the best-preserved craters on Mars (e.g., Zumba, Zunil, etc.). These deposits formed immediately after the impact event, and their discernible presence relate to the preservation state of the crater. This image is an attempt to visualize the complex formation and emplacement history of these enigmatic deposits formed by this elliptical crater and to understand its degradation history. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA13078

  8. Evidence of mud volcanism rooted in gas hydrate-rich cryosphere linking surface and subsurface for the search for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Toffoli, Barbara; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Massironi, Matteo; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    We mapped around 6000 mounds in three different portions of the Martian surface on an average area of about 90.000 Km2 for each region. The study areas are located in Hellas basin, Utopia basin and a portion of the Northern Plains lying north of Arabia Terra, between Acidalia and Utopia Planitia. The aim of the study was to understand the nature of the observed features, particularly if they could be interpreted as mud volcanoes or not, and improve our knowledge about the Martian mound fields origin. The analysis of Context Camera (onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) images showed circular, elliptical and coalescent mounds with central and/or distal pits and flow features such as concentric annular lobes around the source pits and apron-like extensions. We produced DTMs and then high-to-diameter morphometric analysis on two groups of mounds located in Utopia and Hellas basins to enhance the geomorphological observations. We inferred, by means of cluster and fractal analyses, the thickness of the medium cracked by connected fractures and, consequently, the depths of reservoirs that fed the mounds. We found that the fields, which are seated at different latitudes, has been fed, at least partially, by reservoirs located at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone according to Clifford et al., 2010. This evidence produces a meaningful relationship between the clathrates distribution underneath the Martian surface and the occurrence of mound fields on the surface leading to the assumption that the involvement of water, ostensibly as a result of gas hydrate dissociation, plays a key role in the subsurface processes that potentially worked as triggers. These outcomes corroborate the hypothesis that the mapped mounds are actually mud volcanoes and make these structures outstanding targets for astrobiology and habitability studies. In fact, mud volcanoes, extruding material from depths that are still not affordable by our present-day instrumentations, could have sampled

  9. California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.G. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 7 to 83 billion bbl. The contrasts in field size distribution and in the total amount of oil present are explained by the dramatically different geology and geologic histories. California's surface geology is characterized by rare Precambrian, isolated Paleozoic, and widespread Mesozoic accreted terranes and intrusions, and by highly uplifted and depressed Tertiary sedimentary prisms bounded by widespread high-angle thrusting and strike-slip and normal faulting. Numerous families of medium to small anticlines and fault traps, commonly involving moderately dipping to overturned beds, have resulted from Tertiary tectonism, which segmented California dramatically. Saudi Arabia is characterized by a broad Precambrian shield area, flanked on the east by very long, gently dipping cuestas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, with an upper thin veneer of nearly flat Tertiary strata. Most structures involving the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are large, but gentle and unfaulted, representing a passive reaction of the sediments to underlying mild basement distortion and/or movement of Cambrian salt, all occurring while the arabian plate continued to subside and tip to the northeast. The contrasts between California and Saudi Arabia oil field and geology result from contrasting plate-tectonic settings and history.

  10. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  11. TerraSAR-X for Oceanography- Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S.; Horstmann, J.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Roth, A.; Eineder, M.

    2004-06-01

    TerraSAR-X is a new generation, high resolution radar satellite to be launched at the end of 2005. The objective of the mission is the setup of an operational spaceborne X-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in order to produce remote sensing products for commercial and scientific use. TerraSAR-X is the scientific and technological continuation of the highly successful Space Shuttle missions Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X- SAR) in 1994 (Evans and Plaut, 1996) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 (Werner, 2000). After an in-orbit commissioning period of approximately 5 month, in which the instrument will be calibrated and the system performance will be verified, TerraSAR-X will be fully operational for an active lifetime of 5 years.The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the ASTRIUM GmbH have agreed on an innovative co- operation scheme for the implementation of Earth observation satellites by realizing Germany's first Earth observation space project based on public-private partnership with considerable contributions from industry.The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main objectives:• to provide the scientific community with high-quality, multi-mode X-band SAR-data forscientific research and applications• to support the establishment of a commercial EO-market; and• to develop a sustainable EO-service business inEurope, based on TerraSAR-X derivedinformation products.The broad spectrum of scientific applications, include: Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental- and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography. The scientific potential of TerraSAR-X is based on a combination of unprecedented features of the SAR instrument, which have never before been operational in space (Roth et al., 2002, Suess et al., 2002, Mittermayer et al., 2003). • High geometric and radiometric resolution with an experimental very high resolution ( 1 m) in 300 MHz mode• Single-, Dual- and Full

  12. TERRA: efficient video mark-up and analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doig, P. A.; Hickman, D.; Nottage, G.; Page, S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of the TERRA(TM) (Timeline Editing for Real-time Review and Analysis) application by Waterfall Solutions Ltd. (WS), which is a high-throughput video analytics tool designed to be highly flexible to user requirements. One of the known pitfalls associated with video analytics is the lack of sufficient user interaction within existing systems, often leading to system unreliability due to an unacceptably high level of false alarms. Therefore, instead of aiming to produce a fully automated system, TERRA(TM) emphasises the importance of having a human user in the loop, and consequently concentrates on providing information in the most intuitive and efficient a manner possible.

  13. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  14. Styles of deformation in Ishtar Terra and their implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, William M.; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Grimm, Robert E.; Hansen, Vicki L.; Roberts, Kari M.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Styles of deformation in Ishtar Terra are examined on the basis of imaging by the Magellan radar between the start of the mission and the start of the first superior conjunction hiatus. Ishtar Terra appears to have characteristics of both plume uplifts and convergent belts, and exhibits a great variety of tectonic and volcanic activity, with large variations within distances of only a few hundred kilometers. The most prominent terrain types are the volcanic plains of Lakshmi and the mountain belts of Maxwell, Freyja, and Danu. Ishtar demonstrates three general properties of Venus. Erosional degradation is absent, leading to the preservation of patterns resulting from past activity. Many surface features are the responses of a competent layer less than 10 km thick to flows of 100 km or broader scale. These broader scale flows are controlled mainly by heterogeneities in the mantle.

  15. Eastern Egypt, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    STS031-79-015 (24-29 April 1990) --- The 330-plus nautical mile orbital altitude of the Space Shuttle Discovery allowed for this unique high oblique 70mm Hasselblad frame. Egypt is in the foreground, with the Nile River and Lake Nasser readily identifiable. Cairo and Alexandria are visible. The Mediterranean Sea is on the horizon in upper left. The Red Sea is in the center. Other areas seen include Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel; the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez.

  16. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    PubMed

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  17. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  18. Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

  19. Mars Observer Lecture: Mars Orbit Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R. (Personal Name)

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer mission spacecraft was primarily designed for exploring Mars and the Martian environment. The Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992. The spacecraft was lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21, 1993 when the spacecraft began its maneuvering sequence for Martian orbital insertion. This videotape shows a lecture by Suzanne R. Dodd, the Mission Planning Team Chief for the Mars Observer Project. Ms Dodd begins with a brief overview of the mission and the timeline from the launch to orbital insertion. Ms Dodd then reviews slides showing the trajectory of the spacecraft on its trip to Mars. Slides of the spacecraft being constructed are also shown. She then discusses the Mars orbit insertion and the events that will occur to move the spacecraft from the capture orbit into a mapping orbit. During the trip to Mars, scientists at JPL had devised a new strategy, called Power In that would allow for an earlier insertion into the mapping orbit. The talk summarizes this strategy, showing on a slide the planned transition orbits. There are shots of the Martian moon, Phobos, taken from the Viking spacecraft, as Ms Dodd explains that the trajectory will allow the orbiter to make new observations of that moon. She also explains the required steps to prepare for mapping after the spacecraft has achieved the mapping orbit around Mars. The lecture ends with a picture of Mars from the Observer on its approach to the planet.

  20. Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

  1. Terra MODIS Band 27 Electronic Crosstalk Effect and Its Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the primary instruments in the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December, 1999 on-board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, covering a wavelength range from 0.4 micron to 14.4 micron. MODIS band 27 (6.72 micron) is a water vapor band, which is designed to be insensitive to Earth surface features. In recent Earth View (EV) images of Terra band 27, surface feature contamination is clearly seen and striping has become very pronounced. In this paper, it is shown that band 27 is impacted by electronic crosstalk from bands 28-30. An algorithm using a linear approximation is developed to correct the crosstalk effect. The crosstalk coefficients are derived from Terra MODIS lunar observations. They show that the crosstalk is strongly detector dependent and the crosstalk pattern has changed dramatically since launch. The crosstalk contributions are positive to the instrument response of band 27 early in the mission but became negative and much larger in magnitude at later stages of the mission for most detectors of the band. The algorithm is applied to both Black Body (BB) calibration and MODIS L1B products. With the crosstalk effect removed, the calibration coefficients of Terra MODIS band 27 derived from the BB show that the detector differences become smaller. With the algorithm applied to MODIS L1B products, the Earth surface features are significantly removed and the striping is substantially reduced in the images of the band. The approach developed in this report for removal of the electronic crosstalk effect can be applied to other MODIS bands if similar crosstalk behaviors occur.

  2. Eastern Ishtar Terra: Tectonic evolution derived from recognized features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses have recognized several styles and orientations of compressional deformation, crustal convergence, and crustal thickening in Eastern Ishtar Terra. An east to west sense of crustal convergence through small scale folding, thrusting, and buckling is reflected in the high topography and ridge-and-valley morphology of Maxwell Montes and the adjacent portion of Fortuna Tessera. This east to west convergence was accompanied by up to 1000 km of lateral motion and large scale strike-slip faulting within two converging shear zones which has resulted in the present morphology of Maxwell Montes. A more northeast to southwest sense of convergence through large scale buckling and imbrication is reflected in large, northwest-trending scarps along the entire northern boundary of Ishtar Terra, with up to 2 km of relief present at many of the scarps. It was previously suggested that both styles of compression have occurred at the expense of pre-existing tessera regions which have then been overprinted by the latest convergence event. The difference in style is attributed mostly to differences in the properties of the crust converging with the tessera blocks. If one, presumably thick, tessera block converges with another tessera region, then the widespread, distributed style of deformation occurs, as observed in western Fortuna Tessera. However, if relatively thin crust (such as suggested for the North Polar Plains converges with thicker tessera regions, then localized deformation occurs, as reflected in the scarps along Northern Ishtar Terra. The purpose is to identify the types of features observed in Eastern Ishtar Terra. Their potential temporal and spatial relationships, is described, possible origins for them is suggested, and how the interpretation of some of these features has led to the multiple-style tectonic evolution model described is shown.

  3. Genome Sequences of Gordonia terrae Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kaitlyn C.; Arora, Charu; Bortz, Michael E.; Burnet, George; Conover, David H.; D’Incau, Gina M.; Ghobrial, Jonathan A.; Jonas, Audrey L.; Migdal, Emily J.; Rote, Nicole L.; German, Brian A.; McDonnell, Jill E.; Mezghani, Nadia; Schafer, Claire E.; Thompson, Paige K.; Ulbrich, Megan C.; Yu, Victor J.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages Phinally and Vivi2 were isolated from soil from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, using host Gordonia terrae 3612. The Phinally and Vivi2 genomes are 59,265 bp and 59,337 bp, respectively, and share sequence similarity with each other and with GTE6. Fewer than 25% of the 87 to 89 putative genes have predictable functions. PMID:27540050

  4. Inter-Comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V. V.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been operating on-board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites since their launches in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Each MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with center wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micrometers and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) from 3.7 to 14.4 micrometers. The absolute radiometric accuracy requirements (1 sigma) at the typical spectral radiance levels are plus or minus 2% for the RSB for the RSB reflectance factors and plus or minus 5% for the RSB radiance products. With few exceptions, the TEB requirements are plus or minus 1%. The sensor's on-orbit radiometric calibration is performed by the on-board calibrators, including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the RSB and a V-groove flat panel blackbody (BB) for the TEB. In addition, the Moon has been extensively used by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to support their on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper presents MODIS lunar calibration methodology and inter-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS in the VIS/NIR spectral regions. Current results from lunar observations show that the calibration difference between the two sensors is less than plus or minus 1%. Also discussed in this paper are the approaches and results of inter-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS in the TEB using closely matched thermal infrared (TIR) channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 11 and 12 micrometers.

  5. Genesis and fluid source in Arabia crater mounds: mapping, fractal analysis, and impact simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Mazzarini, F.; Rossi, A.; Lucchetti, A.; Pondrelli, M.; Marinangeli, L.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.; Massironi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Arabia Terra is dominated by heavily cratered terrains, and some peculiar landforms can be found mostly in craters interior. With high-resolution images from HiRISE (25 cm/px) and CTX (6 m/px) cameras pitted cones, mounds and knobs can be easily recognized. Those mounds are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid. It is commonly hypothesized that Arabia Terra is an area of past fluid activity, being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation. In this work we investigate the presence, origin and timing of their formation as well as the the depth of the mounds fluid source. The spatial distribution of monogenic eruptive structures within volcanic areas on Earth has been linked to fracture systems that allowed an efficient hydraulic connection between surface and crustal or subcrustal magma reservoirs. Self-similarity in vent distribution is described by a power law distribution with fractal exponent D and defined over a range of lengths comprised between a lower limit (lower cutoff, Lco) and an upper limit (upper cutoff, Uco). On Earth, volcanic vents as well as mud volcanoes have shown that the Uco of their fractal distribution scales with the depth of pressurized fluid reservoirs. The same approach has been this applied to mounds mapped at Firsoff and Crommelin craters. 431 mounds were mapped on Firsoff Crater's floor, and 160 on Crommelin Crater's floor. The reslulting Uco for both craters are similar giving a source depth of 2.3 ×0.3 km from Firsoff Crater's ground floor and 2.6 ×0.5 km from Crommelin's floor. Hence it is possible to hypothesize a common regional-scale pressurized fluid level at 2.5 km of depth from craters floor. Morphogic and stratigraphical analyses of the high-resolution imagery and topography of those mounds allowed us to discern from actual mud volcano candidates and stratigraphic erosional remnants. We also studied the craters formation by simulating the impact with the hydrocode. We used iSALE shock code

  6. Geologic map of the Lada Terra quadrangle (V-56), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides a geological map of Lada Terra quadrangle (V–56), a portion of the southern hemisphere of Venus that extends from lat 50° S. to 70° S. and from long 0° E. to 60° E. V–56 is bordered by Kaiwan Fluctus (V–44) and Agnesi (V–45) quadrangles in the north and by Mylitta Fluctus (V–61), Fredegonde (V–57), and Hurston (V–62) quadrangles in the west, east, and south, respectively. The geological map of V–56 quadrangle reveals evidence for tectonic, volcanic, and impact processes in Lada Terra in the form of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, and volcanic plains. In addition, the map also shows relative age relations such as overlapping or cross-cutting relations between the mapped geologic units. The geology observed within this quadrangle addresses (1) how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts and (2) how tesserae, regional plains, and impact craters, which are also significant geological units observed in Lada Terra quadrangle, were formed.

  7. Global Color Views of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    About 1000 Viking Orbiter red- and violet-filter images have been processed to provide global color coverage of Mars at a scale of 1 km/pixel. Individual image frames acquired during a single spacecraft revolution were first processed through radiometric calibration, cosmetic cleanup, geometric control, reprojection, and mosaicing. We have produced a total of 57 'single-rev' mosaics. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the Mars Digital Image Mosaic, a black-and-white base map with a scale of 231 m/pixel. We selected a subset of single-rev mosaics that provide the best global coverage (least atmospheric obscuration and seasonal frost); photometric normalization was applied to remove atmospheric effects and normalize the variations in illumination and viewing angles. Finally, these normalized mosaics were combined into global mosaics. Global coverage is about 98% complete in the red-filter mosaic and 95% complete in the violet-filter mosaic. Gaps were filled by interpolation. A green-filter image was synthesized from an average of the red and violet filter data to complete a 3-color set. The Viking Orbiters acquired actual green-filter images for only about half of the Martian surface. The final mosaic has been reprojected into several map projections. The orthographic view shown here is centered at 20 degrees latitude and 60 degrees longitude. The orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope. The color balance selected for these images was designed to be close to natural color for the bright reddish regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, but the data have been 'stretched' such that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less reddish that their natural appearance. This stretching allows us to better see the color and brightness variations on Mars, which are related to the composition or physical structure of the surface materials, which include volcanic lava flows, wind- and water-deposited sedimentary

  8. Can we expect habitable niches for cyanobacteria on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Lorek, Andreas; Koncz, Alexander; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Leya, Thomas; Brown, Sarah; Cockell, Charles

    2013-04-01

    The most resistant cyanobacteria can be found in tropic deserts and in polar and alpine habitats. The reason for their resistance can be explained by their occurrence in intensely irradiated, very dry and/or cold environments which are supposed to be as close as possible similar to Martian surface conditions. A systematically approach comparing measurements on photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria in relation to measured environmental parameters obtained in Mars analog field sites with data collected from space exposed samples or during Mars simulation experiments will show differences and common results after analyzing the investigated organisms. Some of the investigated species are foreseen to be exposed during the next ESA-space-exposure experiment BIOMEX either directly to real space conditions on space exposure platforms like EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station or to Mars simulation conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. Some of the species were still exposed to both of the extreme environmental conditions and some of the results will be presented and might serve for future investigations as references. We will emphasize that in parallel monitoring of environmental parameters on Mars analog field sites was performed as well as partly in space and in the simulation chambers. This experimental combination might help to get a better impression about the influence of each of the tested parameters on metabolic activity of the tested cyanobacteria in complete different planetary environments comparing characterized habitats on our home planet Earth with those we might expect according to recently observed data on Mars. The outcome of this work could be relevant to classify e.g. Mars as a habitable planet by a new combination of different experimental and biological approaches and to evaluate and discuss the likelihood of terra forming Mars in the far future.

  9. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Fawzia; El Hazmi, Malak M

    2010-01-01

    Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

  10. Mars2030 - AustroMars Science Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groemer, G.

    2007-10-01

    The AustroMars project culminated in a simulated 2-week sojourn on the Red Planet which took place at the Mars Desert Research Station in southern Utah/USA in April 2006. This proceeding is the direct result from a science workshop which was held at the University of Salzburg, Austria bringing together scientists and engineers involved in the suite of experiments of AustroMars.

  11. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today. The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8S, 342.5W. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s. A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallete of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to each gray level. This is only a crude approximation of

  12. Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.; Science Team

    2002-10-01

    This presentation started with a historical perspective of the astronomical discovery of Mars and followed by an overview of previous missions to Mars by the United States and the Soviet Union. Recently launched missions, such as Nozomi, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey were addressed in more detailed, as well as a few other missions soon to be launched. Among these, Mars Express is particularly relevant as the first European mission towards the red planet, and the talk concentrated on it, including both the Mars Express orbiter spacecraft and the Beagle-2 lander to be launched in 2003.

  13. Mars scouts: an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars program institutes the Mars Scout Missions in order to address science goals in the program not otherwise covered in the baseline Mars plan. Mars Scout Missions will be Principle-Investigator (PI) led science missions. Analogous to the Discovery Program, PI led investigations optimize the use of limited resources to accomplish the best focused science and allow the flexibility to quickly respond to discoveries at Mars. Scout missions also require unique investments in technology and reliance upon Mars-based infrastructure such as telecom relay orbiters.

  14. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  15. Volatile-rich Crater Interior Deposits in the Polar Regions of Mars: Evidence for Ice Cap Advance and Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Head, James W.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Many craters on Mars are partially filled by distinctive material emplaced by post-impact processes. This crater fill material is an interior mound which is generally separated from the walls of the crater by a trough that may be continuous along the crater circumference (i.e. a ring-shaped trough), or which may only partially contact the crater walls (i.e. a crescent-shaped trough). The fill deposit is frequently offset from the crater center and may be asymmetric in plan view. Populations of such craters include those in the circum-south polar cap region, in Arabia Terra, associated with the Medusae Fossae Formation, and in the northern lowlands proximal to the north polar cap. We focus on those craters in circumpolar regions and assess their relationship to polar cap advance and retreat, especially the possibility that fill material represents remnants of a formerly larger contiguous cap. Volatile-rich deposits have the property of being modifiable by the local stability of the solid volatile, which is governed by local energy balance. Here we test the hypothesis that asymmetries in volatile fill shape, profile, and center-location within a crater result from asymmetries in local energy balance within the crater, due mainly to variation of solar insolation and radiative effects of the crater walls over the crater interior. Model profiles of crater fill are compared with MOLA topographic profiles to assess this hypothesis. If asymmetry in morphology and location of crater fill are consistent with radiative-dominated asymmetries in energy budget within the crater, then 1) the volatile-rich composition of the fill is supported (this process should not be effective at shaping volcanic or sedimentary deposits), and 2) the dominant factor determining the observed shape of volatile-rich crater fill is the local radiative energy budget (and erosive processes such as eolian deflation are secondary or unnecessary). We also use a geographic and energy model approach to

  16. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  17. Mission Applications of a HIAD for the Mars Southern Highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winski, Richard; Bose, Dave; Komar, David R.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries of evidence of a flowing liquid in craters throughout the Mars Southern Highlands, like Terra Sirenum, have spurred interest in sending science missions to those locations; however, these locations are at elevations that are much higher (0 to +4 km MOLA) than any previous landing site (-1 to -4 km MOLA). New technologies may be needed to achieve a landing at these sites with significant payload mass to the surface. A promising technology is the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD); a number of designs have been advanced but the stacked torus has been recently successfully flight tested in the IRVE-2 and IRVE-3 projects through the NASA Langley Research Center. This paper will focus on a variety of mission applications of the stacked torus type attached HIAD to the Mars southern highlands.

  18. Mars Meteorolgical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring and ultimately establishing a permanent presence on the surface of Mars will necessitate an understanding the weather conditions and the ability to forecast its dynamic behavior. The meteorology of Mars will need to be developed. This abstract puts forth a concept for a Mars Meteorological Network that will be used to investigate the Mars atmosphere behavior, explore the surface environment, and prepare for operational activities. It is proposed that the long term and the dynamic nature of the lower atmosphere and surface of Mars be observed with a distributed global array of simple automated surface nodes. The data would be ingested into the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and other research tools for analyses to gain a better understanding of the atmospheric conditions on Mars.

  19. Mars - Water Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  20. MAVEN's Trajectory to Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This movie shows the cruise trajectory of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, which was launched on Nov. 18, 2013. It will arrive at Mars on Sept. 21, 2014, to explore th...

  1. Possibilities of Terraforming Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, M. K.

    2007-07-01

    Diminished internally produced energy of early Mars would have resulted in cold mantle, causing gradual submersion of surface water with dissolved gases. Therefore, to terraform or revive Mars, it is necessary to reactivate its diminished internally produced energy.

  2. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  3. Rotorcrafts for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaram, J.; Tokumaru, P. T.

    2014-06-01

    Rotorcraft mobility provides a number of useful capabilities to potential Mars missions. We present some recent results relating to the design and test of Mars rotorcraft mobility elements, and aspects of rotorcraft system and mission design.

  4. Radiation Measurements on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-09

    Micrograys are unit of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. The vertical axis is in micrograys per day. The RAD instrument on NASA Curiosity Mars rover monitors the natural radiation environment at the surface of Mars.

  5. Managing dental caries in children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Ziad D

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes oral health among children in Saudi Arabia, the dental health system in the country, and some possible solutions and recommendations to improve the oral health status. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for

  7. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  8. Mars Symposium NASM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-13

    Dr. John Grant, seated right, moderates a discussion with Dr. Jack Mustard, from Brown University, and Dr. Steve Squyres, from Cornell University, seated left, during a Mars Program Update, Thursday, Jan. 13, 2011, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Prominent scientists discussed evidence of water on Mars, current Program status, including the 7th Anniversary of the Mars rovers and the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory mission and previewed exciting discoveries to come. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. True Colors of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's color calibration target, also known as the MarsDial. The target's mirror and the shadows cast on it by the Sun help scientists determine the degree to which dusty martian skies alter the panoramic camera's perception of color. By adjusting for this effect, Mars can be seen in all its true colors.

  10. Mars Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Marc Kaufman, space news writer, National Geographic and The Washington Post, and author of the new National Geographic book “Mars Up Close”, kicks off a panel discussion of Mars experts involved in current Mars exploration, Tuesday, August 5, 2014, at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington. The panelist shared what we’ve learned from Curiosity and the other Mars rovers surveying the red planet. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Results From the Mars Odyssey THEMIS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard Mars Odyssey began studying the surface and atmosphere of Mars in February 2002 using thermal infrared (IR) multi-spectral imaging between 6.5 and 15 μm, and visible/near-IR images from 450 to 850 nm. Regional-scale infrared mapping shows that Mars has both regional and local geologic units delineated by their thermophysical properties. In Meridiani Planum these units imply a complex history involving changes in the nature of volcanic units, the environment of deposition of sedimentary units, and/or the degree of lithification or cementation of initially unconsolidated units. Mars has km-scale exposures of bedrock, and rocky surfaces are commonly observed on slopes and scarps, demonstrating that the production or exposure rate of rock locally exceeds the rate of rock burial or breakdown. In places, thermally distinct ejecta deposits with a wide range of thermophysical properties are observed around craters of varying sizes. This variation in the preservation of the infrared signature of crater ejecta may be associated with crater age. Where large fields of sand dunes occur, the dunes are typically coarser-grained than the interdune surfaces, suggesting that finer-grained material is accumulating where active sand motion may be limited. Surfaces known to be mantled by air-fall dust, such as the Tharsis and Arabia provinces, also appear completely mantled at THEMIS 100-m per pixel resolution. THEMIS multi-spectral infrared observations show significant potential for compositional mapping at 100-m scales, as demonstrated by the identification of olivine-rich basaltic units on the floor of Ganges Chasma. Polar observations have confirmed the presence of CO2 slab ice and the presence of H2O exposed at the surface of the south polar summer cap. The visible imager also has obtained information on the color properties of the surface and of atmospheric aerosols at the highest spatial resolution yet obtained from Mars

  12. Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    ice.

    The data were captured on June 28, 2001, during the early part of the arctic summer, when sea ice becomes thinner and begins to move depending upon localized currents and winds. In winter the entire region is locked with several meters of nearly motionless sea ice, which acts as a thermodynamic barrier to the loss of heat from the comparatively warm ocean to the colder atmosphere. Summer melting of sea ice can be observed at the two large, dark regions of open water; one is present in the Jones Sound (near the top to the left of center), and another appears in the Wellington Channel (left-hand edge). A large crack caused by tidal heaving has broken the ice cover over the Parry Channel (lower right-hand corner). A substantial ice cap permanently occupies the easternmost third of the island (upper right). Surface features such as dendritic meltwater channels incised into the island's surface are apparent. The Haughton-Mars project site is located slightly to the left and above image center, in an area which appears with relatively little surface ice, near the island's inner 'elbow.'

    The images were acquired during Terra orbit 8132 and cover an area of about 334 kilometers x 229 kilometers. They utilize data from blocks 27 to 31 within World Reference System-2 path 42.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-30

    Oil Company [CASOC, the forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi ...Assistance to Saudi Arabia , FY2002-FY2009 ....................................................... 15 Table 3. U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports...New York University Press, 2000. Saudi Arabia in Brief Population (2009): 28,686,633 (includes 5,576,076 non- nationals ) Growth rate: 1.85%

  14. Rediscovery of Acanthobrama hadiyahensis (Cyprinidae) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hamidan, N; Aloufi, A

    2014-04-01

    This study documents the rediscovery of Acanthobrama hadiyahensis in Saudi Arabia and the first report since it was described in 1983. One female and one juvenile were collected from Qusaiba'a Dam, in the Al-Thamad area of Khaybar City. Threats facing this species are the same as those facing all other freshwater fishes in Arabia, mainly habitat loss and damming. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Computer-generated global map of valley networks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Stepinski, T. F.

    2009-11-01

    The presence of valley networks (VN) on Mars suggests that early Mars was warmer and wetter than present. However, detailed geomorphic analyses of individual networks have not led to a consensus regarding their origin. An additional line of evidence can be provided by the global pattern of dissection on Mars, but the currently available global map of VN, compiled from Viking images, is incomplete and outdated. We created an updated map of VN by using a computer algorithm that parses topographic data and recognizes valleys by their morphologic signature. This computer-generated map was visually inspected and edited to produce the final updated map of VN. The new map shows an increase in total VN length by a factor of 2.3. A global map of dissection density, D, derived from the new VN map, shows that the most highly dissected region forms a belt located between the equator and mid-southern latitudes. The most prominent regions of high values of D are the northern Terra Cimmeria and the Margaritifer Terra where D reaches the value of 0.12 km-1 over extended areas. The average value of D is 0.062 km-1, only 2.6 times lower than the terrestrial value of D as measured in the same fashion. These relatively high values of dissection density over extensive regions of the planet point toward precipitation-fed runoff erosion as the primary mechanism of valley formation. Assuming a warm and wet early Mars, peculiarity of the global pattern of dissection is interpreted in the terms of climate controlling factors influenced by the topographic dichotomy.

  16. JPL and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassani, J. R.; Reid, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the NASA program for Mars exploration is discussed. The scientific objectives for the study of Mars are outlined. Plans for the combined Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby-Cassini mission to study the evolution of the organic molecules that are the precursors to life are examined in detail. Options for missions to Mars are considered.

  17. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  18. Mars Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Ken Edgett, principal investigator, MAHLI Camera, Mars Exploration Program, discusses what we’ve learned from Curiosity and the other Mars rovers during a “Mars Up Close” panel discussion, Tuesday, August 5, 2014, at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Mars Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    Dr. Jim Green, NASA‘s Planetary Science Division Director and Head of Mars Program, discusses what we’ve learned from Curiosity and the other Mars rovers during a “Mars Up Close” panel discussion, Tuesday, August 5, 2014, at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Mars Up Close

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    John Grant, geologist and long-term planner, Curiosity Mars Science Laboratory, discusses what we’ve learned from Curiosity and the other Mars rovers during a “Mars Up Close” panel discussion, Tuesday, August 5, 2014, at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Mars: 2010 - 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Mars Exploration program for the current decade and beyond. The potential items for procurements for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) are discussed, as well as future technology investments to enable to continued development of exploration of Mars by rovers and orbiters that are planned and envisioned for future missions.

  2. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  3. Mars Express, Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-22

    The European Space Agency Mars Express spacecraft is depicted in orbit around Mars in this artist concept illustration. The spacecraft was launched June 2, 2003, from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on a journey to arrive at Mars in December 2003. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04802

  4. Rotorcraft as Mars Scouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.; Aiken, E. W.; Gulick, V.; Mancinelli, R.; Briggs, G. A.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for the robotic exploration of Mars is detailed in this paper: the use of small, ultralightweight, autonomous rotary-wing aerial platforms. Missions based on robotic rotorcraft could make excellent candidates for NASA Mars Scout program. The paper details the work to date and future planning required for the development of such 'Mars rotorcraft.'

  5. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Hydrology, Drainage, and Valley Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.

  8. Processing of TerraSAR-X payload data: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breit, H.; Balss, U.; Bamler, R.; Fritz, T.; Eineder, M.

    2007-10-01

    TerraSAR-X is Germany's new radar remote sensing flagship. It carries an advanced high-resolution X-band SAR instrument. The key element of the system is the active phased array antenna nominally operated with a bandwidth of 100 MHz or 150 MHz and an experimental 300 MHz capability. The instrument's flexibility with respect to electronic beam steering and pulse-to-pulse polarization switching allows the acquisition of SAR data in Stripmap, Spotlight and ScanSAR imaging configurations in different polarization modes for a wide range of incidence angles. The mission is implemented in the framework of a public-private partnership between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and EADS Astrium GmbH Germany and will provide high resolution SAR data products for commercial use and scientific exploitation. Processing of the payload data will be performed at DLR's Payload Ground Segment (PGS) for TerraSAR-X. The central part of PGS is the TerraSAR Multi-Mode SAR Processor (TMSP) focusing the SAR data in a unified way for the different imaging configurations. A wide range of processing options spanning from phase preserving complex products in slant range geometry to orthorectified terrain corrected intensity images lead to a comprehensive collection of SAR product types and variants. During the 5 months lasting commissioning phase the complete processing chain will be properly tuned and adjusted. The TMSP algorithms have to be configured, e.g. thresholds for calibration pulse analysis, estimation window sizes for SAR data analysis, parameterization of estimation algorithms. Also the configuration of product variants with respect to resolution and radiometric quality will be checked and refined. This paper shortly reviews the different imaging configurations and product variants and gives a report on the SAR processor checkout activities and presents the first results.

  9. Electronic crosstalk in Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junqiang; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Menghua

    2015-09-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a legacy Earth remote sensing instrument in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The first MODIS instrument was launched in December 1999 on board the Terra spacecraft. MODIS has 36 bands, among which bands 20-25 and bands 27-36 are thermal emissive bands covering a wavelength range from 3.7μm to 14.2μm. It has been found that there are severe contaminations in Terra bands 27-30 (6.7 μm - 9.73 μm) due to crosstalk of signals among themselves. The crosstalk effect induces strong striping artifacts in the Earth View (EV) images and causes large long-term drifts in the EV brightness temperature (BT) in these bands. An algorithm using a linear approximation derived from on-orbit lunar observations has been developed to correct the crosstalk effect for them. It was demonstrated that the crosstalk correction can substantially reduce the striping noise in the EV images and significantly remove the long-term drifts in the EV BT in the Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) water vapor channels (bands 27-28). In this paper, the crosstalk correction algorithm previously developed is applied to correct the crosstalk effect in the remaining LWIR bands 29 and 30. The crosstalk correction successfully reduces the striping artifact in the EV images and removes long-term drifts in the EV BT in bands 29-30 as was done similarly for bands 27-28. The crosstalk correction algorithm can thus substantially improve both the image quality and the radiometric accuracy of the Level 1B (L1B) products of the LWIR PV bands, bands 27-30. From this study it is also understood that other Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands are contaminated by the crosstalk effect and that the algorithm can be applied to these bands for crosstalk correction.

  10. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  11. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  12. The Paleozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    McGillivray, J.G.; Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent exploratory drilling in central Saudi Arabia indicates that all the geological elements of a major petroleum basin are present in this province. Several Paleozoic siliciclastic sequences which were deposited along the stable Arabian margin of Gondwanaland constitute excellent reservoirs. The identified reservoir targets include the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation, Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian glaciogenic clastics of the Sarah and Zarqa formations, and both fluvial and shallow marine sandstones of the Permian-Carboniferous Unayzah Formation. The source rock is a widespread organic-rich shale which was deposited during the regional deglaciation in the earliest Silurian. Migration occurred vertically along faults and/or updip from the regional Qusaiba shale subcrop through the reservoirs. Interbedded upper Permian shales and evaporites form the basal sequence of a major carbonate transgression and provide a capping seal. The traps are broad, low-relief, fault-generated structures which developed primarily during the Triassic.

  13. Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huraib, Fahad S.

    The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely by KACST. The objectives, management structure, and program organization of SOLEARS are outlined, and attention is focused on urban, rural/agricultural, and industrial applications as well as resource development activities and accomplishments. Solar-hydrogen projects pursued together with Germany are reviewed, and their objectives, program management, and technical plans are covered. Domestic programs dealing with photovoltaic-powered lightning and hot-water systems are summarized.

  14. Terra Bella: Change Detection for a Dynamic World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohl, K.

    2016-12-01

    At Terra Bella, we're a Google company pioneering the search for patterns of change in the physical world to help address global economic, environmental, and humanitarian challenges. As our constellation of imaging satellite grows over the coming years, we will have increasing ability to keep a pulse on the trends that impact life on Earth. I'll showcase use cases from agriculture to construction change detection and illustrate how high-res imagery can be used effectively in concert with other datasets.

  15. Variations in effective compensation depth across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bills, Bruce G.

    1989-01-01

    Topography and gravity data obtained by Pioneer Venus Orbiter have been used to estimate an effective depth of Airy compensation for each of 75 orbital arcs that provide fairly uniform areal coverage of Aphrodite Terra. A general increase in compensation depth is noted to the east, with the most rapid change occurring near 135 deg. Five distinctive regional patterns, four well defined peaks, and one interval of widely scattered and poorly constrained depths are found to be superimposed on this larger trend. It is noted that the maxima in compensation depth correlate well with regional topographic highs.

  16. Mars Symposium NASM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-13

    Dr. Mary Voytek, NASA Astrobiology Program Manager, second from right, talks during panel discussion as Dr. Jennifer Elgenbrode, from Goddard Space Flight Center, left, Dr. John Grant and Dr. Michael Meyer, NASA Mars lead scientist, right look on during a Mars Program Update where prominent scientists discussed evidence of water on Mars, current Program status, including the 7th Anniversary of the Mars rovers and the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory mission and previewing exciting discoveries to come, Thursday, Jan. 13, 2011, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  17. Mars Symposium NASM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-13

    Dr. Steve Squyres, from Cornell University, left, talks during a panel discussion on the Mars Program, Thursday, Jan. 13, 2011, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington as Dr. Jack Mustard, from Brown University and Dr. John Grant, moderator, right, look on. Prominent scientists and the head of the Mars Exploration Program gathered at the Smithsonian to discuss evidence of water on Mars; current Program status, including the 7th Anniversary of the Mars rovers and the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory mission also giving previews of the exciting discoveries to come. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. Destination Mars Grand Opening

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-18

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, left and Erisa Hines of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, speak to members of the news media during a preview of the new Destination: Mars experience at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Destination: Mars gives guests an opportunity to “visit” several sites on Mars using real imagery from NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover. Based on OnSight, a tool created by JPL, the experience brings guests together with a holographic version of Aldrin and Curiosity rover driver Hines as they are guided to Mars using Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset. Photo credit: NASA/Charles Babir

  19. Destination Mars Grand Opening

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-18

    Kudo Tsunoda of Microsoft, speaks to members of the news media during a preview of the new Destination: Mars experience at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Destination: Mars gives guests an opportunity to “visit” several sites on Mars using real imagery from NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover. Based on OnSight, a tool created by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the experience brings guests together with a holographic version of Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin as they are guided to Mars using Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset. Photo credit: NASA/Charles Babir

  20. Destination Mars Grand Opening

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-18

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, left, and Kudo Tsunoda of Microsoft, speak to members of the news media during a preview of the new Destination: Mars experience at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Destination: Mars gives guests an opportunity to “visit” several sites on Mars using real imagery from NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover. Based on OnSight, a tool created by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, the experience brings guests together with a holographic version of Aldrin as they are guided to Mars using Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset. Photo credit: NASA/Charles Babir